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Events, deaths, births, of JUN 12
[For events of Jun 11  Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699 Jun 221700s Jun 231800s Jun 241900~2099 Jun 25]
• Mandela condemned to life in prison... • “Mr. Gorbachev tear down this wall!”... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Anne Frank is born...
^  On a 12 June:
car on school roof

(Monday) In Nassau county, Long Island NY, a deep pink Honda Accord car (just the shell, no engine) covered with green question marks is seen on the roof of the main entrance to Plainview-Old Bethpage J.F.K. High School. — (060614)
NEXM price chart 2003 Nexmed (NEXM), a developer of transdermal treatments based on its NexACT drug delivery technology, announces favorable results from its studies of Alprox-TD cream treatment for erectile dysfunction. On the NASDAQ 5.5 million of the 29.6 million NEXM shares are traded, surging from their previous close of $2.60 to an intraday high of $4.55 and closing at $4.45. They had traded as low as $0.35 as recently as 20 November 2002 and as high as $22.25 on 28 February 2000. They had started trading on 26 October 1998, at $1.38. [5~year price chart >]
2002 The stock of Alamosa Holdings (APS) falls from the previous day's close of $1.92 to an intraday low of $1.05 and closes at $1.10. It had already fallen on 06 June 2002 from the previous close of $3.65 to an intraday low of $1.95.
2002 Upon a $35-a-share cash buyout offer from a Mexican company, the stock of Puerto Rico Cement (PRN) rises from the previous close of $22.20 to an intraday high of $35.10 (also it's 52-week high) and closes at $34.77. It had traded as low as $16.70 during the past 52 weeks.
2002 Christopher Watt, 15, goes into an Ottawa sewer on a dare and finds himself trapped. His friends call police and, after rescuers (breathing from air tanks) in inflatable boats search for five hours in the maze of sewers, he is found in a 3-meter diameter pipe, flowing with one meter of foul sewage.

Arm transplant recipient^ 2000 Baby gets arm transplant from her dead twin.
      Una niña malaisia de sólo mes y medio de edad, Chong Lih Ying, ha recibido el implante del brazo y mano de su hermana gemela, fallecida en el parto el 21 de abril. La microcirugía ha permitido esta operación, realizada en el Hospital Selayang de Kuala Lumpur. [photo: Las enfermeras miran a la pequeña Chong Lih Ying que se recupera del trasplante del brazo >]. La hermana gemela idéntica de Chong sufría una fuerte deformación cerebral y murió al nada más nacer. En todo el mundo, tan sólo se habían realizado seis trasplantes de manos o brazos, pero todos en adultos.
2000 The US Supreme Court, in a unanimous ruling, said patients cannot use a federal law to sue HMOs for giving doctors a financial incentive to cut treatment costs.
1998 A jury in Hattiesburg, Mississippi, convicts 17-year-old Luke Woodham of killing two students and wounding seven others at Pearl High School.
1996 US Senate Republicans overwhelmingly choose Trent Lott to succeed Bob Dole as majority leader.
^ 1996 Communication Decency Act is blocked
      A panel of federal judges issue a preliminary injunction blocking the Communications Decency Act, part of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. The law included a section making it a crime to transmit indecent material to minors on the Internet. The judges say that the act places "profoundly repugnant" restrictions on free speech, violating First Amendment rights. The panel argue that the Internet should have the same free speech protections as other media. Later that summer, the Supreme Court would strike down the Communications Decency Act.
1995 Letonia, Estonia y Lituania se convierten en Estados asociados a la Unión Europea.
1994 Austria vota en un referéndum a favor de su ingreso en la Unión Europea.
1992 Inauguración en Río de Janeiro de la Cumbre de la Tierra, en la que se adoptaron una serie de medidas para frenar el deterioro del medio ambiente del planeta.
1991 Primeras elecciones presidenciales en Rusia y rotunda victoria de Boris Nikolaievich Yeltsin, que obtiene el 60% de los votos. El Partido del Congreso, ganador sin mayoría absoluta en las elecciones legislativas en la India. — Russians go to the polls and elect Boris N. Yeltsin president of their republic.
1991 The Mount Pinatubo volcano in the Philippines begins erupting.
^ 1991 CERN seminar on WWW
      CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva, holds a seminar about the World Wide Web, a new hypertext system designed by British computer scientists Tim Berners-Lee during a fellowship at CERN. In May, Berners-Lee had presented the architecture for the World Wide Web to a CERN committee and released a version of the Web on CERN's computers.
      Berners-Lee had been developing the system, which allowed Internet documents to "link" to each other easily, since 1989. By 1990, he had created the basic parameters of the World Wide Web, which were posted on the Internet in the summer of 1991. Berners-Lee continued to develop the Web through 1993, working with feedback from Internet users. By late 1991 and early 1992, the Web was widely discussed, and in early 1993, when Marc Andreessen and other graduate students at the University of Illinois released the Mosaic browser (Netscape's precursor), the Web rapidly became a popular communications medium.
^ 1990 Réunion conjointe des conseils municipaux de Berlin-Ouest et Berlin-Est
A Berlin, le 9 novembre 1989, le Mur s’ouvre à la suite d’une décision du Conseil des ministres de la R.D.A. Le 22 décembre suivant, la porte de Brandebourg, symbole de l’unité de la ville, est ouverte par les autorités est-allemandes. Les premières élections communales libres ont lieu le 6 mai 1990. Les conseils municipaux des deux parties de la ville se réunissent pour la première fois, ensemble. Le lendemain, on commence la démolition du Mur dans la tristement célèbre Bernauer-Strasse. Le 1er juillet suivant, le deutsche Mark (DM) est introduit dans la partie Est. Le traité d’union entre les deux Allemagnes est signé le 31 août dans le palais du Kronprinz (Est). Les quatre Alliés et les représentants des deux Allemagnes signent, à Moscou, le 12 septembre 1990 le traité supprimant les droits particuliers des Alliés à Berlin (traité des deux + quatre). La ville devient entièrement allemande. À 0 heure dans la nuit du 3 octobre 1990, la R.D.A. et donc Berlin-Est font leur entrée dans la République fédérale, permettant au Parlement pan-allemand de se réunir, pour la première fois, le lendemain, au Reichstag.
1990 El Parlamento de la URSS aprueba la Ley de Prensa y otros medios de comunicación, la primera que garantiza la libertad de prensa y los derechos de los periodistas en ese país.
^ 1987 Reagan challenges Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall
      In one of his most famous Cold War speeches, President Ronald Reagan challenges Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall. Two years later, deliriously happy East and West Germans did break down the infamous barrier between East and West Berlin. Reagan's challenge came during a visit to West Berlin. With the Berlin Wall as a backdrop, Reagan declared, "There is one sign the Soviets can make that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of freedom and peace." He then called upon his Soviet counterpart: "Secretary General Gorbachev, if you seek peace--if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe--if you seek liberalization: come here, to this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall." Addressing the West Berlin crowd, Reagan observed, "Standing before the Brandenburg Gate, every man is a German, separated from his fellow men. Every man is a Berliner, forced to look upon a scar." Reagan then went on to ask Gorbachev to undertake serious arms reduction talks with the United States.
      Most listeners at the time viewed Reagan's speech as a dramatic appeal to Gorbachev to renew negotiations on nuclear arms reductions. It was also a reminder that despite the Soviet leader's public statements about a new relationship with the West, the United States wanted to see action taken to improve the Cold War tensions. Just eight months before, a summit between Reagan and Gorbachev had ended unsatisfactorily, with both sides charging the other with bad faith in talks aimed at reducing nuclear arsenals. Reagan, who had formed a personal closeness to Gorbachev during their previous meetings, obviously wanted to move those negotiations forward.
      December 1987, the two met once again and signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, which eliminated an entire class of nuclear missiles from Europe.
1987 Jean Bedel Bokassa, emperador centroafricano, condenado a muerte por asesinato múltiple, detención ilegal, secuestro y malversación de fondos públicos.
1986 P W Botha declares South African national emergency
1985 Nouveau Traité Européen marquant l’entrée de l’Espagne et du Portugal dans la Communauté Européenne. —
España se adhiere a la Comunidad Económica Europea, a la Organización Europea para la Investigación de Energía Nuclear y a la Comunidad Europea del Carbón y el Acero.
1985 The US House of Representatives approves $27 million in aid to the Nicaraguan Contras.
Gossamer Albatross plane ^
The Gossamer Albatross, designed by Paul MacCready, 53, is pedaled and piloted by 62-kg Bryan Allen, 26, a bicyclist and hang-glider enthusiast, from near Folkestone, Kent, on the coast of Engand, to Cape Gris-Nez, on the French coast, a distance of 37 km, in 2 h 49 min. (speed: 13 km/h).
      This flight wins the £100'000 Kremer Prize for the first man-propelled flight across the English Channel. The plane has a wingspan of 28.6 m, weighs 32 kg, and is constructed of Mylar, polystyrene, and carbon-fibre rods.
     Allen had taken a previous MacCready design, the Gossamer Condor, on 23 August 1977, along a 1.85 km figure-8 course to win another Kremer Prize of £50'000.
     MacCready would go on to design a solar-powered plane, the Solar Challenger, which would fly a km course across the English Channel on 07 July 1981.
1978 David Berkowitz sentenced in NY Supreme Court to 25 yrs to life for each of the six "Son of Sam" .44-caliber killings that had terrified New Yorkers.
^ 1975 Indira Gandhi is convicted of election fraud
      Indira Gandhi, the prime minister of India, was found guilty of electoral corruption during her successful 1971 campaign. Despite calls for her resignation, Gandhi refused to give up India’s top office, and later declared martial law in the country when public demonstrations threatened to topple her administration.
      Indira Gandhi, who was the only child of Jawahaelrl Nehru, the first prime minister of the Republic of India, became a national political figure in 1955 when she was elected to the executive body of the Congress party. In 1959 she served as president of the party, and in 1964 she held a top position in Lal Bahadur Shastri's ruling government. When Shastri died suddenly in 1966, Gandhi succeeded him as prime minister.
      India's first female head of state presided over a period of civil arrest in India during the 1970s, and in 1975 declared martial law when a conviction for an infraction in the 1971 election threatened her rule. In 1977, she called a general election, and she was defeated. However, in 1980 she made a spectacular comeback and formed a new majority government. In 1982, she decided to move vigorously against the problem of Sikh nationalists in the Indian state of Punjab, ordering a rapid suppression of Sikh insurgents. On 31 October 1984, as reprisal for the government’s killing of thousands of Sikh nationalists, Indira Gandhi was shot to death by Sikh members of her security guard while walking in the garden of her New Delhi home.
^ 1972 Demoted general testifies.
      Gen. John D. Lavelle, former four-star general and US Air Force commander in Southeast Asia, testifies before the House Armed Services Committee. He had been relieved of his post in March and later demoted after it was determined that he had repeatedly ordered unauthorized bombings of military targets in North Vietnam. Court-martial charges were brought against him by his subordinates but were dropped by the Air Force because the "interests of discipline" had already been served. Lavelle became the first four-star general in modern US history to be demoted on retirement, although he continued to receive full general's retirement pay of $27'000 per year.
1970 El Rey Hussein de Jordania hace concesiones a los fedayines, cesando las hostilidades con los palestinos.
1967 Race riot in Cincinnati Ohio (300 arrested)
1967 The US Supreme Court unanimously rules that states cannot ban interracial marriages.
1967 Israel wins 6 day war
^ 1965 South Vietnamese premier resigns
      Mounting Roman Catholic opposition to South Vietnamese Premier Phan Huy Quat's government leads him to resign. The next day a military triumvirate headed by Army General Nguyen Van Thieu took over and expanded to a 10-man National Leadership Committee on June 14. The Committee decreed the death penalty for Viet Cong terrorists, corrupt officials, speculators, and black marketeers. The Catholics approved of Quat's resignation and warned the military against favoring the Buddhists, who asked for an appointment of civilians to the new cabinet.
^ 1964 Mandela sentenced to life imprisonment
      Following his convictions on four charges of sabotage, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, the leader of the opposition to the South African government’s racist policies of apartheid, is sentenced to life in prison. Mandela would spend the first eighteen of his twenty-seven years in jail at the brutal Robben Island Prison. Confined to a small cell without a bed or plumbing, he was forced to do hard labor in a quarry. He could write and receive a letter once every six months, and once a year he was allowed to meet with a visitor for thirty minutes. However, Mandela’s resolve remained unbroken, and, while remaining the symbolic leader of the anti-apartheid movement, he led a movement of civil disobedience at the prison that coerced South African officials into drastically improving conditions on Robben Island.
      In 1944, Mandela, a lawyer, had joined the African National Congress (ANC), the oldest black political organization in South Africa, where he became a leader of Johannesburg's youth wing of the party. In 1952, he became deputy national president of the ANC, advocating nonviolent resistance to apartheid—South Africa’s institutionalized system of white supremacy and racial segregation.
      However, after a massacre of peaceful black demonstrators at Sharpeville in 1960, Nelson helped organize a paramilitary branch of the ANC to engage in guerrilla warfare against the white minority government. In 1961, he was arrested for treason, and, although acquitted, he was arrested again in 1962 for illegally leaving the country. Convicted and sentenced to five years at Robben Island Prison, he was put on trial again in 1964 on charges of sabotage. In June of 1964, he was convicted along with seven other ANC leaders at the end of the Rivonia Trial.
      Sentenced to life in prison, he became a powerful symbol of the South African and international movement to end apartheid. In 1989, F. W. de Klerk became South African president, and set about dismantling apartheid. De Klerk lifted the ban on the ANC, suspended executions, and on February 11, 1990, ordered the release of Nelson Mandela after twenty-seven years in prison. Mandela subsequently led the ANC in its negotiations with the minority government for an end to apartheid and the establishment of a multiracial government. In 1993, Mandela and de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, and in 1994, the ANC won an electoral majority in the country’s first free elections, electing Mandela as the South African president.
1960 Es canonizado el nuevo santo español Juan de Ribera.
1953 Corvette1952 The First American Sports Car       ^top^
      Maurice Olley, Chevrolet’s Chief Engineer, completes his chassis, code-named "Opel," which will eventually become the chassis for the 1953 Corvette.
      The Opel project had been initiated after Harley Earls’ General Motors (GM) design division created models and drawings for a new GM sports car. During testing, a prototype fiberglass car accidentally rolled during testing, with the car’s fiberglass roof remaining structurally intact, leading GM engineers to consider for the first time building an all fiberglass body for one of their cars.
      As project Opel moved forward, the new sports car took shape as a rear-engined, all fiberglass sportscar, the first in America. In July of 1952, the Corvette got its name after an extensive search through an English dictionary: A corvette was a small-sized, speedy warship of the British Royal Navy.
      In January of 1953 the Corvette was exhibited as a "dreamcar" at the Motorama Car Show in New York City. The first Corvette, a white convertible with red interior, drove off the assembly line on June 30, 1953. That year the car was produced in limited numbers, but full-scale production began the following year following Ford’s release of the T-Bird at the New York Auto Show in February.
      The small-car competition from Ford prompted Chevrolet officials to continue Corvette production, in spite of some misgivings due to lagging sales. In 1954 the Corvette was a failure, with some 3500 cars sold and another 1200 left unsold at year’s end. Chevy engineer Zora Arkus-Duntov, initially brought on to develop the Corvette’s performance, urged his superiors not to admit defeat on the project and to instead create a separate department to oversee the development of the car.
      From this point forward Arkus-Duntov made turning the Corvette into a legitimate sports car his a personal challenge. He overhauled the engine and drive-shaft, and over the next two years minor adjustments were made to the car’s body and styling. By 1955, the Corvette, equipped with new suspension and a 195 horsepower engine, was tested in disguise at the Pike’s Peak Hill Climb, where it shattered the stock car record with Arkus-Duntov behind the wheel. In February of 1956 Arkus-Duntov drove a modified Corvette V-8 to a two-way stock car record of 240 km/h at the Daytona Raceway. While the Corvette would not surpass the T-Bird in sales during the 1950s, it would fulfill GM’s initial expectation in becoming the first American sports car.
1948 Ginebra, designada sede de la OIT (Organizacion Internacional del Trabajo) y de la primera conferencia mundial de la salud.
1943II Guerra Mundial: Los aliados ocupan las islas italianas de Pantelaria y Lampedusa.
1942 US bombers strike the oil refineries of Ploesti, Rumania for the first time.The US 93rd Bomb Group saw action over Western Europe, North Africa, Italy and Rumania.
1940 Retraite française derrière la Marne -- Les Allemands occupent Reims -- Le gouvernement français se replie près de Tours (Cangé) -- Weygand ordonne le repli général des armées
^ 1940 Surrenders, and Paris an open city
      54'000 British and French troops surrender to German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel at St. Valery-en-Caux, on the northern Channel border, as the Germans continue their gains in France. Even after the evacuation of Dunkirk by the British Expeditionary Force, tens of thousands of British and Allied troops remain in France. Overwhelmed by the German invaders, over 3000 Allied troops attempted to escape by sea but are stopped by German artillery fire. Surrender was the order of the day; among those taken prisoner were 12 Allied generals.
      But all was not lost, as Britain refused to leave France to German occupation. Prime Minister Winston Churchill had already ordered more British troops back into France, and British bombers were also attacking German lines of communication. British and Allied troops were still active in other parts of France--some 50 British fighters and 70 bombers were moving on German forces.
      But despite the British reinforcements and encouragement (Churchill flew to France himself to encourage the French leaders), General Maxime Weygand ordered the French military governor of Paris to ensure that the French capital remained an open city--that is, there was to be no armed resistance to the Germans. In short, he was pushing for an armistice, in effect, capitulation. The enemy would be allowed to pass through unchallenged. Weygand addressed his cabinet with his assessment of the situation: "A cessation of hostilities is compulsory." He bitterly blamed Britain for France's defeat, unwilling to take responsibility for his own inept strategies and failed offensives. Paris was poised for occupation.
1937 Eight of Stalin's generals are sentenced to death during purges in the Soviet Union.
1935 Chaco War ends between Bolivia and Paraguay
1934 Black-McKeller Bill passes causes Bill Boeing empire to break up into Boeing United Aircraft [Technologies] and United Air Lines
1933 Estados Unidos adopta las primeras medidas antiproteccionistas.
1931 Gangster Al Capone and 68 of his henchmen are indicted for violating Prohibition laws.
1926 Brazil quits the League of Nations in protest over plans to admit Germany. Joseph Avenol, secretary-general of the League of Nations, sold out the organization he had sworn to uphold.
1923 Harry Houdini frees himself from a straitjacket while suspended upside down, 40 feet (12 m) above the ground in NYC
1921 President Warren Harding urges every young man to attend military training camp.
1920 Republicans nominate Warren G. Harding for president and Calvin Coolidge for vice president.
1920 Farmer Labor Party organized (Chicago)
^ 1918 First bombing raid by US aircraft
      During World War I, the first bombing raid ever conducted by US pilots is carried out by six aircraft of the US Army’s Ninety-sixth Aero Squadron. The unit leaves the Allied airbase at Amanty, France, and flies to a railroad junction about sixty km into enemy territory, where they drop about eighty bombs.
      The first American air force, appropriately named the first US First Aero Squadron, was organized in 1914 after the outbreak of World War I. On 19 March 1917, members of the squadron flew their first combat mission in support of the seven thousand US troops who had invaded Mexico to capture Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa. Despite numerous mechanical and navigational problems, the American flyers flew hundreds of scouting missions for US Brigadier General John J. Pershing, and gained important experience that would later be used by the pilots over the battlefields of Europe.
      On 08 April 1918, one year after the US entrance into World War I, the US First Aero Squadron was assigned to the Western Front for the first time on observation duty. Six days later, the American pilots engaged in their first aerial dogfight with enemy aircraft. In a battle fought almost directly over the Allied Squadron Aerodome at Toul, France, US pilots Douglas Campbell and Alan Winslow succeeded in shooting down two German two-seaters. By the end of May, Campbell had shot down five enemy aircraft, making him the first US airman to qualify as an "ace" in World War I.
     Earlier in the war an audacious British air attack on a Zeppelin base in northern Germany caught the Germans with their defenses down
1917 US Secret Service extends protection of president to his family
1917 El Rey Constantino de Grecia abdica en su hijo Alejandro, por presión aliada.
1914 The first edition of A.T. Robertson's monumental 'Grammar of the Greek New Testament' is released. Its 1400+ pages make it the largest systematic analysis of the original New Testament language ever published.
1906 Los Reyes de Noruega son coronados en la catedral Nidaros de Trondheim.
1903 Asciende al trono de Serbia Pedro I, de la familia de los Karajorgevich, tras el asesinato de los reyes de este país.
1901 Cuba agrees to become a US protectorate by accepting the Platt Amendment. American plans to take the heights outside Santiago de Cuba went awry almost from the onset.
1901 El físico francés Antoine Henri Becquerel hace una demostración sobre radiactividad en la Academia de Ciencias de París.
1900 German Navy Law calls for massive increase in sea power
Philippine nationalists declares independence from Spain, but fall under US control
^ 1898 Indépendance (momentanée) des Philippines.
      En 1896, ses plans ayant été découverts par les Espagnols, Bonifacio, leader révolutionnaire Philippin, lançe l’appel à l’insurrection générale pour renverser, comme à Cuba, la domination coloniale espagnole. La révolution gagne rapidement plusieurs provinces, et l’exécution de José Rizal [19 Jun 1861 – 30 Dec 1896], un autre leader, par les Espagnols à Manille ne fait qu’enflammer encore les esprits. Si l’insurrection fait des progrès, des rivalités divisent déjà ses rangs. Un leader, Emilio Aguinaldo [23 Mar 1869 – 06 Feb 1964], fait arrêter et exécuter Bonifacio (10 May 1897), et installe un gouvernement révolutionnaire à Biaknabato. Cependant, les Espagnols, par une stratégie plus subtile, obtiennent des succès dans la pacification. Ils offrirent aux insurgés, s’ils cessaient la lutte et remettaient leurs armes, une forte indemnité et une amnistie. Aguinaldo accepte (15 dec. 1897) et se retire avec ses cadres à Hong Kong. La paix semble revenir. Mais les Espagnols ne tinrent pas leurs promesses, et l’agitation reprend dès avril 1898.
      C’est à ce moment que les États-Unis déclarent la guerre à l’Espagne à propos de Cuba. Le 01 May, l’escadre américaine détruisit la flotte espagnole dans la baie de Manille. Aguinaldo, dupé par les promesses américaines, ordonne alors aux Philippins de reprendre la lutte contre le pouvoir colonial, et il constitue un gouvernement philippin. Le 12 juin 1898, il proclame l’indépendance des Philippines " sous la protection de la puissante et généreuse nation nord-américaine ". Les insurgés s’étaient rendus maîtres de la plus grande partie de Luçon et assiégeaient Manille, ce qui permit aux Américains de débarquer à proximité de la capitale, puis, le 13 Aug 1898, de s’en emparer sans le concours des Philippins. Madrid demande la paix. Après deux mois de négociations, les États-Unis concluent avec l’Espagne le traité de Paris (10 dec. 1898) et se font céder les Philippines moyennant 20 millions de dollars. Pendant plusieurs décennies, les Américains vont littéralement coloniser les Philippines. Par des méthodes musclées et coercitives presque dignes des nazis.
1897 Possibly most severe quake in history strikes Assam India. Shock waves felt over an area size of Europe. Negligible death toll (not negligible for those who die and their loved ones!)
1886 La expedición Cervera-Quiroga, organizada por la Sociedad Geográfica Comercial Española, levanta acta de la toma de posesión, en nombre de España, de Río de Oro, actual Sáhara Occidental.
^ 1876 Journalist headed for Little Big Horn files dispatch
      Marcus Kellogg, a journalist traveling with 7th Cavalry of Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer [05 Dec 1839 – 25 Jun 1876], files one of his last dispatches before being killed at the Battle of the Little Big Horn (25 Jun 1876). A native of Ontario, Canada, Kellogg migrated with his family to New York in 1835. As a young man he mastered the art of the telegraph and went to work for the Pacific Telegraphy Company in Wisconsin. Sometime during the Civil War, Kellogg abandoned his career in telegraphy in favor of becoming a newspaperman. In 1873, he moved west to the frontier town of Bismarck in Dakota Territory and became the assistant editor of The Bismarck Tribune. A chance event in the winter of 1876 began Kellogg's unexpected path toward the Little Big Horn. While returning from a trip to the East, Kellogg was on the same train as George Custer and his wife, Elizabeth. Custer was on his way to Fort Abraham Lincoln, near Bismarck, where he was going to lead the 7th Cavalry in a planned assault on several bands of Indians who had refused to be confined to reservations.
      After an unusually heavy winter storm, the train became snowbound. Kellogg improvised a crude telegraph key, connected it to the wires running alongside the track, and sent a message ahead to the fort asking for help. Custer's brother, Tom, arrived soon after with a sleigh to rescue them. Ever since his days as a Civil War hero, Custer had enjoyed being lionized in the nation's newspapers. Now, as he prepared for what he hoped would be his greatest victory ever, Custer wanted to make sure his glorious deeds would be adequately covered in the press. Initially, Custer had planned to take his old friend Clement Lounsberry, who was Kellogg's employer at the Tribune, with him into the field with the 7th Cavalry. At the last minute, Kellogg was picked to go instead-perhaps because Custer had been impressed by his resourcefulness with a telegraph key.
      When Custer led his soldiers out of Fort Abraham Lincoln and headed west for Montana on 31 May, Kellogg rode with him. During the next few weeks, Kellogg filed three dispatches from the field to The Bismarck Tribune, which in turn passed the stories on to the New York Herald. (Leaving nothing to chance, Custer himself also sent three anonymous reports on his progress to the Herald.) Kellogg's first dispatches, dated 31 May and 12 June, recorded the progress of the expedition westward. His final report, dated 21 June, came from the army's camp along the Rosebud River in southern Montana, not far from the Little Big Horn River. "We leave the Rosebud tomorrow," Kellogg wrote, "and by the time this reaches you we will have met and fought the red devils, with what result remains to be seen." The results, of course, were disastrous. Four days later, Sioux and Cheyenne warriors wiped out Custer and his men along the Little Big Horn River. Kellogg was the only journalist to witness the final moments of Custer's 7th Cavalry. Had he been able to file a story he surely would have become a national celebrity. Unfortunately, Kellogg did not live to tell the tale and died alongside Custer's soldiers.
      On 06 July 1876, The Bismarck Tribune printed a special extra edition with a top headline reading: "Massacred: Gen. Custer and 261 Men the Victims." Further down in the column, in substantially smaller type, a sub-headline reported: "The Bismarck Tribune's Special Correspondent Slain." The article went on to report, "The body of Kellogg alone remained unstripped of its clothing, and was not mutilated." The reporter speculated that this might have been a result of the Indian's "respect [for] this humble shover of the lead pencil." That the Sioux and Cheyenne respected Kellogg for his journalistic skills is highly doubtful. However, his spectacular death in one of the most notorious events in the nation's history did make him something of an honored martyr among newspapermen. The New York Herald later erected a monument to the fallen journalist over the supposed site of his grave on the Little Big Horn battlefield.
1872 Inauguración del primer ferrocarril en Japón.
1867 Austro-Hungarian Empire forms.
1864 Battle of Trevilian Station, Virginia concludes.
1864 Army of the Potomac begins crossing the James River at Wilcox's Landing and Windmill Point, Virginia: after suffering a devastating defeat on 03 June, Union General Ulysses S. Grant pulls his troops from their positions at Cold Harbor, Virginia, and moves south.
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues.
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues.
^ 1862 Ride around McClellan
      Confederate General J. E. B. Stuart [06 Feb 1833 – 12 May 1864] begins his ride around the Army of the Potomac, outside of Richmond, Virginia, during the Peninsular campaign, after being sent on a reconnaissance of Union positions by Robert E. Lee [19 Jan 1807 – 12 Oct 1870]. Four days later, Stuart had circled the entire Yankee force, 105'000 strong, and provided Lee with crucial information. General George McClellan [03 Dec 1826 – 29 Oct 1885] spent the spring of 1862 preparing the Union army for a campaign against Richmond up the James Peninsula. By late May, McClellan had inched up the James with relatively light fighting. But after Joseph Johnston [03 Feb 1807 – 21 Mar 1891] was wounded at the Battle of Seven Pines on 31 May 1862, Robert E. Lee assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia. In the next month, Lee began to show the gambling spirit that eventually earned him a reputation as one of history's greatest generals.
      Lee dispatched Stuart, his dashing cavalry leader, and 1200 troopers to investigate the position of McClellan's right flank. Stuart soon discovered that McClellan's right flank did not have any natural topographic features to protect it, so he continued to ride around the rest of the army in a bold display that exceeded Lee's orders. His troopers took prisoners and harassed Federal supply lines. They rode 160 km, pursued by Union cavalry that was commanded, coincidentally, by Stuart's father-in-law, Philip St. George Cooke. The Confederate cavalry was far superior to their Yankee counterparts, and the expedition became legendary when Stuart arrived back to Richmond on 15 June. The information provided to Lee helped the Confederates begin an attack that eventually drove McClellan from Richmond's doorstep.
1861 The US Civil War is considered to begin as Rebel troops fire upon the Federal troops stationed at Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina, until the Federal troops surrender. In fact, Southerners had fired on and driven off US Army reinforcements on their way to Fort Sumter in January 1861. The fort was guarded by sixty-eight soldiers commanded by Major Robert Anderson, a regular army officer from Kentucky. The Confederate officer was Brigadier General P.G.T. Beauregard [28 May 1818 – 20 Feb 1893]. A few years earlier, at West Point, he had been Anderson's student, and Anderson thought very highly of Beauregard's military knowledge; he later appointed him as his assistant. On 10 April 1861, the Union garrison in the fort was told to surrender by Beauregard. This demand was refused and on 12 April 1861, Confederate batteries open fire which lasts for 36 hours. The open fire command is given by civilian Edmund Ruffin [05 Jan 1794 – 18 Jun 1865], a pioneer of scientific farming from Virginia who had long favored secession, and who would commit suicide soon after the Rebels' defeat. The Union returns fire but it is ineffective. On 13 April 1861, the fort is evacuated after surrendering. There are no casualties until after the surrender, when two Union soldiers are killed, and two others wounded by an inadvertant gunpowder explosion during a salute that occurred during the evacuation. Charleston residents along what is now known as "The Battery" or "Battery Park", sit on balconies and drink salutes to the start of the hostilities.
1849 Gas mask patented by Lewis P. Haslett, Louisville, Ky
1839 First baseball game played in the US
1838 Territory of Iowa organized
1812 Napoleon Bonaparte and his French army invade Russia. Although he reached Moscow his retreat proved costly after he was defeated by “General Winter” and the Russians' scorched earth strategy.
1792 George Vancouver discovers site of Vancouver, BC
1787 US law passes providing a senator must be at least 30 years old
1776 Virginia's colonial legislature becomes the first to adopt a Bill of Rights.
1775 First naval battle of American Revolution — Unity (Am) captures Margaretta (Br)
1726 Le duc de Bourbon est disgracié. Louis XV fait de celui qui fut, des années plus tôt, son précepteur et qui a soixante-seize ans, le cardinal André Hercule de Fleury, son Premier ministre. Saint-Simon le juge “l'homme le plus superbe au-dedans et le plus implacable”.
1701 Act of Settlement gives English crown to Sophia, Princess of Hanover
1665 English rename New Amsterdam, New York, after Dutch pull out
1442 Alfonso V of Aragon is crowned King of Naples.
1099 Crusade leaders visit the Mount of Olives where they meet a hermit who urges them to assault Jerusalem.
< 11 Jun 13 Jun >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 12 June:

2006 Charla Mack, stabbed by wealthy pawn shop owner Darren Roy Mack [31 Jan 1961~], her estranged husband, in his Reno, Nevada, home. He was enraged by their contentious divorce and bitter battle over the custody of their 8-year-old daughter (granted to Darren's mother, Joan Mack). A few hours later, Family Court Judge Chuck Weller, 53, standing near the window of his third-floor office, is wounded in the chest by a sniper shot, probably fired by Darren, who is bitter at him, and who flees. He is arrested on 22 January 2006 in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. — (060623)
2006 Chakufwa Thom Chihana, 67, after failed operation on a brain tumor. He was a Malawi trade union leader and pro-democracy politician (leader of the Alliance FOR Democracy) who had opposed the eccentric and murderous 1964-1994 dictatorship of Hastings Kamuzu Banda [“14 May 1898” – 25 Nov 1997], leading the movement that forced the by then senile Banda to hold Malawi's first multi-party elections on 17 May 1994, which ended Banda's “presidency for life”. Chihana had been tortured and imprisoned without trial for 6 years during the 1970s. — (060618)
2006 Moni Moshe Paz, man 54; Suzi Lilach, 27; Lior Elbaleh, 30; Cpl. Alon Sorek, 19; and Meital Cohen, woman 26; passengers in the first car of the Ben-Gurion Airport to Haifa express commuter train which, at 12:10 (09:10 UT), collides with a stalled Isuzu pickup truck driven by veterinarian Dr. Yonatan Va'adia (who gets out just in time and is unhurt), at Beit Yehoshua junction near Netanya, Israel. Some 80 persons are injured. — (060618)
2004 Kenneth Scroggs, a US citizen, shot in the back by al-Qaeda terrorists, as he parked his car at his home in the al-Malaz suburb of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He worked for Advanced Electronics Co, which manufactures military and commercial electronic products.
2004 Bassam Salih Kubba, 60, after being shot as he was on his way to his job as one of the deputy foreign ministers in Iraq's puppet transitional government. A Sunni, with a Master's degree in international relations from St. John's University in New York, he was Iraq's most senior career diplomat, who had served as acting chief of the Iraqi mission to the United Nations and as ambassador to China. The little known anti-India group Al-Nasireen says that it did it.
2004 Four worshippers during midday prayers at a mosque in Dhammar province, Saudi Arabia; and Abdel Fattah Saleh, who randomly fired an automatic rifle, fled to his home, where he was killed fighting off the policemen trying to arrest him. Six worshippers were wounded.
2004 A girl, 6; another tourist, and two cooks of the Poornima restaurant in the holiday resort town Pahalgam, Indian-occupied Kashmir, at 16:30 (11:00 UT) when a grenade is thrown into the restaurant and causes a cooking gas canister to explode.
2004 Rameshwar Agrawal, 72, by hanging himself from the ceiling of his home in Ratlam, India. He was the founder of the Madhya Pradesh Youth Congress and MP Congress Sevadal.
2003 Tzipora Levy, 70, of Jerusalem, from injuries suffered the previous day in the suicide bombing of a bus in Jerusalem, which that day caused 17 deaths including that of the suicide bomber.
2003 Avner Maimon, 35, Israeli merchant shot near the village Yabed, in the northern West Bank. Police had warned him that they had information that he was a target for assassination.
2003 Ibrahim Abu Srour; Yasser Taha, his wife Fatima Taha, 25, their daughter Asnan Taha, 2, and three other Palestinians, by 4 missiles fired from Israeli helicopters at their car driving in the Sheik Radwan neighborhood of Gaza City. One more missile is fired at arriving rescuers. More than 40 of them and bystanders are injured. Taha and Srour were Hamas militants.
2002 Some 300 persons in floods and mudslides caused by the heaviest rains on record in arid western China. Some 300'000 are left homeless. The area affected is from Xinjiang to Sichuan to Hubei. with the worst in Shaanxi.
2002 Raymond Damelio, 49, Sara Sprung, 88, and her husband Larry Sprung, 86, in their sleep, each shot once behind the ear at close range by Steven Santos, 20, on probation for burglaries in Maryland, with a .380-caliber handgun, at about 06:00. Santos had spent the night on the street corners of the Avenue of the Americas in New York's lower east side, smoking marijuana laced with a narcotic, possibly cocaine. In building G of the 8-six-story-building 247-unit Amalgamated Dwellings co-op complex at 504 Grand Street (which has a buzzer-controlled front door, security cameras and is patrolled by guard except from 05:00 to 08:00) Santos sees an open window next to a fire escape, which he climbs, shoots Damelio, drinks whisky, watches sex videotapes, burglarizes the apartment, goes by the fire escape to the apartment directly downstairs. At that point he is seen by a resident who phones 911 at 06:22, but by the time the police arrive, Santos has already gone after killing the Sprungs, cramming Mr. Sprung's own blank check in Sprung's mouth, stripping Mrs. Sprung's body, abusing it sexually, and burglarizing their apartment. More than an hour later, police see Santos running away and arrest him.
2002 (approximate date) 11 undocumented Mexican immigrants, from thirst, heat, suffocation, and/or starvation, inside an empty grain hopper rail car sealed and locked from the outside, somewhere between where they had boarded it near Brownsville, Texas, and Oklahoma, where it stayed in storage until 10 October 2002. Then it was taken to Denison, Iowa, where a worker at a grain elevator opened it on 13 October 2002 and found the decomposed and dessicated remains.
2001 Naseem Nasser Agha, 18, Palestinian, of wounds from four Israeli bullets while demonstrating in solidarity with Bir Ziet university students protesting the closure and the road blocks placed by Israel on Palestinian roads to prevent Palestinians from travel, work, education and normal life.
2001 Zhang Shengfan, 38, from Chinese police beatings while under arrest since 09 June in Shuangcheng, Heilongjiang province. Zhang was a laid-off factory worker, walked with a cane, a Falun Gong follower. This brings the body count to 224 Falun Gong followers who died in police custody since China started a crackdown on the group in July 1999. Rules published 10 June 2001 allow courts to try followers who spread information about Falun Gong on charges of subversion, separatism and leaking state secrets - all crimes punishable by death.
1997 Bulat Shalvovich Okudzhava, poeta, novelista y cantautor ruso.
1994 Nicole Brown Simpson, Ronald Goldman, slashed to death outside her Los Angeles home. (O.J. Simpson would be acquitted of the killings in a criminal trial, but held liable in a later civil action.)
1980 Egon Sharpe Pearson, English mathematical statistician born on 11 August 1895.
1972 Saul David Alinsky, 63, radical writer (John L Lewis)
^ 1963 Medgar Evers, civil rights leader, assassinated
      In the driveway outside his home in Jackson, Mississippi, Black US civil rights leader Medgar Evers, holding an armful of "Jim Crow Must Go" T-shirts, is shot in the back by White supremacist Byron de la Beckwith, 42.
      Evers was born in Mississippi on 02 July 1925. During World War II, he volunteered for the US Army and participated in the Normandy invasion, and in 1952 joined the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). As a field worker for the NAACP, Evers traveled through his home state encouraging poor Blacks to register to vote and recruiting them into the Black US civil rights movement. He was instrumental in getting witnesses and evidence for the Emmitt Till murder case, which brought national attention to the desperate plight of Blacks in the US South.
      After a funeral in Jackson, Evers was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia and President John F. Kennedy and many other leaders publicly condemned the killing. The first trial of chief suspect Byron de la Beckwith ended with a deadlock by an all-white jury, sparking numerous protests. When a second all-white jury also failed to reach a decision, de la Beckwith was set free.
     In 1989, Medgar's widow, Myrlie Evers-Williams [17 Mar 1933~], national chairwoman of the NAACP, asked then-Hinds County Assistant District Attorney Bobby DeLaughter to reopen the case. DeLaughter and his officers came across new evidence, including negatives of photos of the crime scene and new witnesses who testified Beckwith had bragged to them about "beating the system." In 1994, at Beckwith's final trial, eight of the 12 jurors were Black. He was convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison, and the Mississippi Supreme Court upheld the decision in 1997. Beckwith would die in prison at age 80, on 21 January 2001.
1954 Betty Butler, Black, executed in the electric chair in Ohio.
1951 Louis Auguste Mathieu Legrand, French painter, printmaker, and draftsman, born on 23 September 1863. — more with links to images.
1945 Boris Grigorievich Galerkin, Belarussian engineer and mathematician born on 04 March 1871.
1937:: 8 Soviet army leaders, executed after been subjected to a secret purge trial, as Stalin's Great Terror continues
1928 Salvador Díaz Mirón, poeta y político mejicano.
^ 1912 Frédéric Passy, Parisian economist and advocate of international arbitration, born on 20 May 1822. He was cowinner, with Jean-Henri Dunant [08 May 1828 – 30 Oct 1910], of the first Nobel Prize for Peace in 1901.
      After serving as auditor for the French Council of State (1846–1849), Passy devoted himself to writing, lecturing, and organizing on behalf of various economic reforms and philanthropies. An ardent free trader,he belonged to the 19th-century liberal tradition of the British economists Richard Cobden and John Bright, whom he knew personally.
      Passy's work for peace began during the Crimean War (1853–1856). His plea for peace in the periodical Le Temps (1867) helped to avert war between France and Prussia over Luxembourg. In the same year he founded the International League for Peace, later known as the French Society for International Arbitration. After the Franco-German War (1870–1871) he proposed independence and permanent neutrality for Alsace-Lorraine. As a member of the French Chamber of Deputies (from 1881), he successfully urged arbitration of a dispute between France and The Netherlands concerning the French Guiana-Surinam boundary. He assisted in founding the Inter-Parliamentary Union (1888) and remained active in the peace movement for the rest of his long life.
1900 Jean-Frédéric Frenet, Périgueux French mathematician, astronomer, meteorologist, born on 07 February 1816.
1875 Julian Castro, militar y político venezolano.
1853 Merry-Joseph Blondel, French painter born on 25 July 1781.MORE ON BLONDEL AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
^ 1820 Lallemand, étudiant tué au cours d'une émeute.
      La loi du 12 juin 1820 dite de " double vote ", qui permet aux contribuables les plus imposés de voter deux fois, interdit à l'opposition d'avoir le moindre espoir d'une majorité à la chambre, un jour ou l'autre. Cette nouvelle disposition du régime ultra du roi Charles X provoque des émeutes dans Paris, au cours desquelles un étudiant du nom de Lallemand est tué.
1795 Johann-Christian Brand, Austrian painter born on 06 March 1722. — more with link to an image.
1795 Aleksey Petrovich Antropov, Russian painter born on 14 March 1716. — MORE ON ANTROPOV AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
^ Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
1794 (24 prairial an II):
ROULY André, domicilié à Douay (Nord), comme brigand du département du Nord, par la commission militaire d’Avesnes.
BROUILLARD François Denys, libraire et relieur, domicilié à Orguigny, canton d'Epernay (Marne), comme conspirateur, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Seine.
Domiciliés dans le département de la Gironde, par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux:
ARROUCH Guillaume Delile, marin, 38 ans, né et domicilié à Bordeaux, pour avoir le 17 juin, à la représentation de la pièce, la Vie Est un Songe, crié “Vive le roi!”.
      ... comme contre-révolutionnaires:
COMMARQUE Mathias, 75 ans, né à Bazas ex noble, domicilié à Santerre.
DELILLE Guillaume (dit Arouche), marin, domicilié à Bordeaux.
HOUSSET Michel, aîné, boulanger, 38 ans, né et domicilié à Bordeaux, ... et ayant fréquenté les deux frères Long, dit Patience, ferblantiers à Bordeaux.
LONG Guillaume (dit Patience), 38 ans, et LONG Jean Pierre (dit Patience), fils aîné, 30 ans, ferblantiers, 30 ans, nés et domiciliés à Bordeaux, ... aristocrates enragés, et ayant poussé la fureur jusqu'à maltraiter les enfants, qui ne voulaient pas se dire aristocrates.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire séant à Arras:
HERREAU Hugues Antoine, 24 ans, né à Cassel (Allier), capitaine au 90° régiment d'infanterie, guillotiné.
      ... domiciliés à Aire (Pas-de-Calais):
BODIN Antoine, coutelier, 41 ans, comme ayant dit qu'il avait assez de couteaux pour égorger les patriotes, qu'il ne donnerait le fil qu'aux sabres des aristocrates, et qu'il conservait une tonne de bierre pour les émigrés, lors de leur rentrée en France.
CARON de CAPELLE Jacques Louis, 49 ans, né à Aire, marchand, époux de Ducatelet Isabelle.
DUPONT-d'HALWYN Charles Joseph, 78 ans, né à Aire, comme ayant coopéré à l'émigration de ses enfants; guillotiné.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
BAUDONNET Jean Pierre, 28 ans, ex-curé de Beufon, né et domicilié à Rheims (Marne), comme convaincu d'être ennemi du peuple, en entretenant des intelligences avec les Anglois à Toulon, en conservant des cocardes blanches, en chantant des chansons contre-révolutionnaire, et en manifestant des sentiments fanatiques.
BOUILLARD F.D., 57 ans, né à Orchilly, près Châtillon-sur-Marne, libraire et relieur à Epernay, comme convaincu d'être ennemi du Peuple en manifestant des sentiments fanatiques, en outrageant les patriotes et en avilissant la représentation nationale.
LANGLOIS Marie Jeanne, domestique, 22 ans, native de Faverolles, domicilié à St Nom-de-Levy (Seine et Oise), comme fanatique et pour avoir dit que le jour de la Pentecôte, il y aurait de très grands événements.
NOEL Charles, chirurgien, 61 ans, né et domicilié à Roye (Somme), comme ennemi du peuple en tenant à Lagny, des propos tendants au rétablissement de la royauté.
TURPEAUX Louis, sous-chef de l'administration de la marine, 40 ans, natif de Rochefort (Charente Inférieure), domicilié à Port-la-Montagne (Var), comme convaincu d'avoir entretenu des intelligences avec les Anglais, et d'avoir participé à la trahison de Toulon.
      ... comme conspirateurs:
BARON Charles, vigneron, 30 ans, natif de Dagnery, canton de Châlons (Marne), y demeurant.
CHABAULT Pierre, 26 ans, né et domicilié à Rambouillet (Seine et Oise).
COUSIN Etienne Hippolite, 30 ans, né à Bonneval, gendarme, ex garde du ci-devant roi, domicilié à Dourdan (Seine et Oise).
GEOFFROY Jean Baptiste, 29 ans, natif de Lezay, cultivateur, ci-devant percepteur des impositions, commandant de la garde nationale, à Petit-le-Visey (Vienne), ... et pour avoir escroqué les deniers de la République.
HUSSON Pierre Alexandre Augustin, 20 ans, matelot, né à Arras domicilié à Passy (Seine)..
IGNARD Jacques, grenadier au bataillon de la Côte-d'Or, 38 ans, né à Pierrefitte, domicilié à Langres (Haute Marne).
LAMARRE Hildevat, 34 ans, natif de Vienne, dans la ci-devant Beauvoisis, ex garde de chasse à Romainville près de Paris, domicilié à Bailly (Seine et Oise).
MARINOT Jean Baptiste, menuisier et canonnier, 51 ans, né et domicilié à Châtillon-sur-Seine (Côte-d'Or), ... contre la liberté du peuple, en disant que la Convention étaient tous des coquins, incapables de gérer dans leurs fonctions, est qu'il chiait sur eux.
MOREAU Antoine, soldat vétéran au 87ème régiment, 63 ans, né à Liége, domicilié à Etain, département du Nord, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, ... en tenant des propos tendants à l'Avilissement de la représentation nationale.
BARDY Benoit, 41 ans, natif de Mont-Marly, en la ci-devant Auvergne, marchand d'almanachs, domicilié à Paris, ... pour avoir cherché à anéantir la république, en provoquant au rétablissement de la royauté.
CURTEL Jean Baptiste, 40 ans, natif de Clery (Mont Blanc), domicilié à Paris.
RICHARD Julien Honoré, 58 ans, bourrelier, né et domicilié à Paris, ... et ayant consigné dans un écrit, les mots suivant " nous ne reconnaissons en détestant les lois, que l’amour des vertus, et l’empire d’un roi, et non pas de huit cents ".
BLANCHARD Nicolas, prêtre, domicilié à Virau, canton de Langres (Haute Marne), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
MONESTIER Jean Antoine, voiturier, domicilié à Laval (Lozère), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
1687 Jurian van Streek, Dutch artist born in 1632.
1661 Jacob-Willemszoon Delff II, Dutch artist born on 24 May 1619.
1612 Aert (or Aertsen) Pieterszoon, Dutch artist born in 1550.
1577 Orazio Samachini, Italian painter born on 20 December 1532. — more
1550 Cristóbal de Castillejo, poeta español.
0816 Saint Leo III, Pope
< 11 Jun 13 Jun >
^  Births which occurred on a 12 June:

Gemini2005 Gemini Bluetear, in Glide, Oregon, cat with two faces [photo >] whose human is Lee Bluetear.

1964 Otto Hahn, primer navío europeo de propulsión nuclear
, es botado en Kiel (RFA).

1952 420th kitten (record) born to cat named Dusty, Bonham, TX.

1947 Juan Madrid, escritor español.

1942 Bert Sakmann, investigador alemán, Premio Nobel de Medicina en 1991.

Anne newborn with mom^ 1929 Annelies Marie Frank, in Frankfurt, Germany.
      She is the second daughter of Otto and Edith (Hollander) Frank, both from respected German-Jewish families.
     In the summer of 1933, Otto Frank left Frankfurt for Amsterdam to set up a branch of his brother's company called the Dutch Opekta Company. Less than a year later, Edith, Anne (four years old), and her sister Margot, joined Otto in Amsterdam. In May 1940 the Germans invaded the Netherlands. Anne continued to attend the local Montessori school, but after summer recess in 1941, she was not allowed to attend school with non-Jews.
      The Nazi administration began issuing anti-Jewish decrees. In May 1942, all Jews aged six and older were required to wear a yellow Star of David on their clothes. All Jews had to register their businesses and, later, surrender them to non-Jews. Fortunately, Otto Frank, in anticipation of this decree, had already turned his business over to his non-Jewish partners Victor Kuler and Johannes Kleiman. Mass arrests of Jews and mandatory service in German work camps were becoming routine. Fearful for their lives, the Frank family began to prepare to go into hiding. They already had a place in mind - an annex of rooms above Otto Frank's office.
     People on the office staff in the Dutch Opekta Company had agreed to help them. Besides Kugler and Kleiman, there were Miep and Jan Gies, Bep Voskuijl, and Bep's father - all considered to be trustworthy. These friends and employees not only agreed to keep the business operating in their employer's absence; they agreed to risk their lives to help the Frank family survive. Mr. Frank also made arrangements for his business partners, Hermann van Pels, along with his wife, Auguste, and their son, Peter, to share the hideaway.
     While these preparations were secretly under way, Anne celebrated her thirteenth birthday on 12 June 1942, when she received a diary as a present. On 05 July 1942, her sister, Margot, received a call-up notice to be deported to a Nazi "work camp." Even through the hiding place was not yet ready, the Frank family hurriedly packed their belongings and left notes implying that they had left the country. On the evening of 06 July, they moved into their hiding place. A week later, on 13 July, the van Pels family joined the Franks. On 16 November 1942, the seven residents of the Secret Annex were joined by its eighth and final resident, Fritz Pfeffer.
     For two years the Franks were part of an extended family in the Annex, sharing a confined space and living under constant dread of detection and arrest by the Nazis and their Dutch collaborators.
     At approximately 10:00, 04 August 1944, the Frank family's greatest fear came true. A Nazi policeman and several Dutch collaborators appeared at the hideout, having received an anonymous phone call about Jews hiding there, and charged straight for the bookcase leading to the Secret Annex. Karl Joseph Silberbauer, an Austrian Nazi, forced the residents to turn over all valuables. When he found out that Otto Frank had been a lieutenant in the German Army during World War I, he was a little less hostile. The residents were taken from the house, forced into a covered truck, taken to the Central Office for Jewish Emigration, and then to Weteringschans Prison. Two of the helpers, Victor Kugler and Johannes Kleiman, were also imprisoned for their role in hiding the family. Miep Gies and Bep Voskuijl were not arrested, although Miep was brought in for questioning by the police.
      On 08 August 1944, after a brief stay in Weteringschans Prison, the residents of the Secret Annex were moved to Westerbork transit camp. They remained there for nearly a month, until 03 September, when they were transported to the Auschwitz death camp in Poland. It was the last Auschwitz-bound transport ever to leave Westerbork.
     In October 1944, Anne and Margot were transported from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany. Thousands died from planned starvation and epidemics at Bergen-Belsen. Anne and Margot, already debilitated, contracted typhus and grew even sicker. Anne, fifteen years old, and Margot, nineteen years old, died in February and March, 1945.
     Otto Frank was the only resident of the annex to survive the Holocaust. He found it difficult to settle permanently in Amsterdam with its constant reminders of his lost family. He and his second wife, Elfried Geiringer, also an Auschwitz survivor, moved to Basel, Switzerland, in 1953. Otto Frank died on August 19, 1980, at the age of ninety-one.
      Friends in Amsterdam had searched the rooms of the hideout and found Anne's diary. Mr. Frank published it diary in 1947 as The Diary of a Young Girl. The book has been translated into some 50 languages. Precocious in style and insight, it traces her emotional growth amid adversity and records her assertion that "In spite of everything I still believe that people are really good at heart."
1924 , 43rd VP (1981-1989) who became in 1989 the 1st Vice President since Van Buren [05 Dec 1782 – 24 Jul 1862] to take office as elected President, 41st Pres (1989-1993) and
^ 1924 George Herbert Walker Bush, US politician and businessman who was vice president of the United States (1981–1989) and the 41st president of the United States (1989–1993), the 1st US Vice President since Van Buren [05 Dec 1782 – 24 Jul 1862] to take office as elected President. On 20 January 2001 G.H.W. Bush became the second US president whose son becomes president.
      Bush was the son of Prescott Sheldon Bush, an investment banker and US senator from Connecticut, and Dorothy Walker Bush, scion of a prominent St. Louis, Missouri, family. (Her father established the amateur golf competition known as the Walker Cup.) The young Bush grew up in Greenwich, Connecticut, and attended private schools there and in Andover, Massachusetts. Upon graduation from Phillips Academy, Andover, he joined the US Naval Reserve. He served from 1942 to 1944 as a torpedo bomber pilot on aircraft carriers in the Pacific during World War II, flying some 58 combat missions; he was shot down by the Japanese in 1944. For his service he won the Distinguished Flying Cross. In January 1945 he married Barbara Pierce [08 Jun 1925~].
      Following the family tradition, Bush attended Yale University, graduating in 1948. His membership in the Skull and Bones secret society there later became an issue that his critics used as evidence of elitism. Rejecting a position in his father's firm, he moved with his young family to Texas and became a salesman of oil-field supplies. He cofounded the Bush-Overbey Oil Development Company (1951), the Zapata Petroleum Corporation (1953), and the Zapata Off-Shore Company (1954).
      In 1959 he became active in the Republican Party in Houston, and after losing a campaign for the US Senate to Democrat Ralph Yarborough in 1964, Bush was elected in 1966 to a safely Republican seat in the US House of Representatives. He gave up the seat in 1970 to run again for the Senate. He was defeated again, this time by Democrat Lloyd Bentsen, Jr. Shortly after his defeat, Bush was appointed by President Richard M. Nixon [09 Jan 1913 – 22 Apr 1994] to serve as US ambassador to the United Nations (1971–1972). In 1973, as the Watergate Scandal was erupting, Bush became chairman of the Republican National Committee. In this post, he stood by President Nixon until August 1974, when he joined a growing chorus of voices calling on the president to resign (which he did on 09 Aug 1974).
      Later that year, President Gerald R. Ford [14 Jul 1913~], who had nominated Nelson Rockefeller [08 Jul 1908 – 26 Jan 1979]as his vice president, named a disappointed Bush chief of the US Liaison Office in Peking (Beijing)—which was then the senior US representative in China, because relations between the two countries did not permit the exchange of ambassadors. He served in this capacity until he was asked to head the Central Intelligence Agency in 1976. As CIA director, Bush took steps to ensure that the agency's activities did not exceed congressional authorization. When Jimmy Carter [01 Oct 1924] took office in 1977, Bush resigned and returned to Texas, where in 1979 he announced his candidacy for president.
      After declaring correctly and prophetically that his opponent, the more deceptive and conservative Ronald W. Reagan [06 Feb 1911 – 05 Jun 2004], would have to practice “voodoo economics” (what would become known as reaganomics) in order to increase federal revenue by lowering taxes, Bush abandoned his campaign for the Republican Party's presidential nomination in May 1980 and threw his support behind Reagan, who then chose Bush as his running mate. The Reagan-Bush ticket defeated the Democratic ticket of Jimmy Carter and Walter Mondale [05 Jan 1928~] by a wide margin in the 1980 presidential election. Bush won Reagan's loyalty, and the two were reelected in 1984 for a second term in an even greater landslide than that of 1980 (and went on practicing voodoo economics)..
      As vice president, Bush traveled more almost two million kilometers at taxpayers' expense as the administration's representative. When asked about his involvement in the Iran-Contra Affair, in which the Reagan administration, in violation of congressional edict, used funds from the illegal sale of arms to Iran to fund Contra rebels fighting the Marxist government of Nicaragua, Bush claimed that he was “out of the loop,” though he did admit knowing about the arms sale to Iran. In 1987 he published an autobiography, Looking Forward (written with Victor Gold [1929~]).
      An early and leading candidate for the Republican Party's nomination for the presidency in 1988, he secured the nomination and, together with his running mate, the bumbling Dan Quayle [04 Feb 1947~], defeated the Democratic candidate, Michael Dukakis [03 Nov 1933~], winning 54% of the popular vote to Dukakis's 46%. Although Bush had called for “a kinder, and gentler, nation” in his speech accepting the nomination, his campaign was negative, at one point criticizing Dukakis with a phrase, “card-carrying member of the American Civil Liberties Union”, reminiscent of that used by Senator Joe McCarthy. Bush also won supporters with his pledge to continue the Reagan economic program, repeatedly stating: “Read my lips, no new taxes!”
     Upon assuming office, Bush made a number of notable senior staff appointments, among them that of General Colin Powell [05 Apr 1937~] to chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff. His other important policy makers included James Baker as secretary of state and William Bennett as director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy. In the course of his presidency, he also nominated two Supreme Court justices, David H. Souter [17 Sep 1939] (to replace the retiring William J. Brennan [25 Apr 1906 – 24 Jul 1997]) and the more controversial Clarence Thomas [23 Jun 1948] (to replace Thurgood Marshall [02 Jul 1908 – 24 Jan 1993]).
      From the outset of his presidency, however, Bush demonstrated far more interest in foreign than domestic policy. In December 1989 he ordered a military invasion of Panama in order to topple that country's leader, General Manuel Antonio Noriega [11 Feb 1938~], who, though at one time of service to the US government, had become notorious for his brutality and his involvement in the drug trade. The invasion, which lasted four days, resulted in hundreds of deaths, mostlyof Panamanians, and the operation was denounced by both the Organization of American States and the UN General Assembly.
      Bush's presidency coincided with world events of large proportion, including the collapse of communism in eastern Europe and the Soviet Union and the reunification of Germany. In November 1990 Bush met with Soviet leader Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev [02 Mar 1931~] in Paris and signed a mutual nonaggression pact, a symbolic conclusion to the Cold War. They signed treaties sharply reducing the number of weapons that the two superpowers had stockpiled over the decades of Cold War hostility.
      In August 1990, Iraq invaded and occupied Kuwait. Bush led a worldwide UN-approved embargo against Iraq to force its withdrawal and sent a US military contingent to Saudi Arabia to counteract Iraqi pressure and intimidation. Perhaps his most significant diplomatic achievement was the skillful construction of a coalition of western European and Arab states against Iraq. Over the objections of those who favored restraint, Bush increased the US military presence in the Persian Gulf region to about 500'000 troops within a few months. When Iraq failed to withdraw from Kuwait, he authorized a US-led air offensive that began on 16 January 1991. The ensuing Persian Gulf War culminated in an Allied ground offensive in late February that decimated Iraq's armies and restored Kuwait's independence, but failed to topple the brutal dictator of Iraq, Saddam Hussein [28 Apr 1937~], or even to give reliable support to his opponents.
      On the strength of his victory over Iraq and his competent leadership in foreign affairs, Bush's approval rating soared to about 90%. This popularity soon waned, however, as an economic recession that began in late 1990 persisted into 1992. Throughout this period, Bush showed much less initiative in domestic affairs, though he initially worked with Congress in efforts to reduce the federal government's continuing large budget deficits. A moderate conservative, he made no drastic departures from Reagan's policies, except in taxes. In 1990, in a move that earned him the enmity of his conservative supporters and the distrust of many voters who had backed him in 1988, he reneged on his “read my lips” pledge and raised taxes in an attempt to cope with the soaring budget deficit.
      Bush's policy reversal on taxation and his inability to turn around the economy, his failure to put across what he called “the vision thing” to the US public, ultimately proved his downfall. Bush ran a lackluster campaign for reelection in 1992. He faced a fierce early challenge from Patrick Buchanan [02 Nov 1938~] in the Republican primary and then lost votes in the general election to third-party candidate Ross Perot [27 Jun 1930~]. Meanwhile, Bush's Democratic opponent, William Clinton [19 Aug 1946~] of Arkansas, hammered away at the issue of the deteriorating economy. In the oft-repeated words of Clinton strategist James Carville [25 oct 1944~], the key issue of the day was “the economy, stupid!” Bush, the first vice president since Martin Van Buren [05 Dec 1782 – 24 Jul 1862] in 1836 to succeed directly to the presidency via an election rather than the death of the incumbent, lost to Clinton by a popular vote of 37.4% to Clinton's 43%; Perot got 19% of the vote.
      In his last weeks in office, Bush ordered a US military-led mission to feed the starving citizens of war-torn Somalia, thereby placing US marines in the crossfire of warring factions and inadvertently causing the deaths of 18 soldiers. Equally as controversial was his pardoning of six Reagan administration officials charged with illegal actions associated with the Iran-Contra Affair.
      Bush and his wife Barbara returned to Houston on the day of Clinton's inauguration and had little formal involvement with the Republican Party thereafter. His son Jeb Bush [11 Feb 1953~] was elected governor of Florida in 1998 (and re-elected in 2002). Another son, George W. “Dubya“ Bush [06 Jul 1946~], governor of Texas (elected in 1994 and re-elected in 1998), ran for president in 2000, and with the help of fraud in Jeb Bush's Florida, won by 1 vote in the Supreme Court, though in the popular vote nationwide he was hundreds of thousands of votes behind the Democratic candidate, Vice President Al Gore. By this usurpation Dubya became the second son of a US president to become president; the first was (without fraud), in 1824, John Quincy Adams [11 Jul 1767 – 23 Feb 1848], son of John Adams [30 Oct 1735 – 04 Jul 1826].
1919 Ahmed Addallah, político comorano, presidente de su país en 1975.
^ 1915 David Rockefeller, US banker and philanthropist.
      The youngest of five children sired by the imperious oil baron John D. Rockefeller [08 Jul 1839 – 23 May 1937], David ably continued the family tradition of acquiring vast sums of money. Before the dawn of 1941, David had racked up degrees from Harvard, the London of School Economics and the University of Chicago. Following a stint in World War II, David Rockefeller started working at the Chase National Bank, which was chaired by his uncle, Winthrop W. Aldrich [02 Nov 1885 – 25 Feb 1974]. David enjoyed a fast rise through the ranks at Chase and was named the bank's vice president in 1952. A few years after his promotion, Rockefeller helped engineer the merger between Chase and the Bank of Manhattan Company. But, befit his name and background, Rockefeller didn't stall as the second in command of the newly formed banking conglomerate: By 1969, he was tabbed to serve as both the chairman of the board and CEO of the Chase Manhattan Bank. A well-traveled expert in international finance, Rockefeller's reign at Chase lasted until the dawn of the 1980s. His Memoirs were first published on 15 October 2002.
—     David Rockefeller is the youngest child of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., one of the richest men in the United States, and the great patron of modern art Abby Aldrich Rockefeller [26 Oct 1874 – 05 Apr 1948]. He graduated from Harvard College in the depths of the Depression, when the capitalist order, which his grandfather had helped to create, was under relentless attack. He studied at the London School of Economics and the University of Chicago, where he earned a Ph.D. He worked briefly for New York City’s flamboyant mayor Fiorello La Guardia before enlisting in the US Army in 1942. His service as an intelligence officer in North Africa and France brought him into contact with many of the individuals who would soon dominate European politics and gave him a unique perspective on the events and personalities that eventuated in the “twilight struggle” of the Cold War. Rockefeller joined the Chase bank in 1946 as an assistant manager in the Foreign Department and rose through the ranks to become chairman of the board and chief executive officer. During that time, he struggled constantly to modernize and internationalize the bank’s operations, often against a conservative and risk-averse corporate culture.
      During his life, David Rockefeller has: • come to know world leaders ranging from Zhou Enlai to Mikhail Gorbachev, Anwar Sadat to Ariel Sharon, General Augusto Pinochet to Saddam Hussein •worked with every US president since Dwight Eisenhower, at times serving as an unofficial emissary on high-level missions •traveled to more than one hundred countries, logging approximately five million miles while circling the globe dozens of times
      Throughout his life David Rockefeller has been passionately interested in the welfare of the world around him, particularly in the city of New York. He has been involved with Rockefeller Center, the Museum of Modern Art, the Rockefeller University, the redevelopment of the Wall Street area and the building of the World Trade Center, and many other projects.
1910 Juan Velasco Alvarado, militar y político peruano.
1897 Anthony Eden Earl of Avon (C), British PM (1955-1957) He helped establish the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).
1890 Egon Schiele, Austrian expressionist painter, draftsman, printmaker who died on 31 October 1918. — MORE ON SCHIELE AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1888 Zygmunt Janiszewski, Polish mathematician who died on 03 January 1920.
1858 Henry Scott Tuke, British painter who died on 30 March 1929. — MORE ON TUKE AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
^ 1915 James Baird Weaver, US politician who died on 06 February 1912. He leaned toward agrarian radicalism; he twice ran unsuccessfully for the US presidency, as the Greenback-Labor candidate (1880) and as the Populist candidate (1892).
      Admitted to the bar in 1856, Weaver practiced law in Bloomfield, Iowa, and entered politics, changing affiliation successively from Democrat to Free-Soiler to Republican. He served with distinction in the Civil War (12 Apr 1861 – 26 Apr 1865), enlisting as a private in the Union army and rising through the ranks until he was mustered out with the rank of brevet brigadier general. After the war he antagonized Iowa Republican leaders by his reformist temperament, his Methodist-inspired Prohibitionism, criticism of the railroads, and advocacy of easy money. Deprived of the Republican nomination for Congress (1874) and for governor (1875), Weaver gradually moved into the Greenback-Labor Party, which advocated the continued wide circulation of paper money. As a Greenbacker he served six years in the US House of Representatives (1879–1881, 1885–1889), though he was defeated for that office in 1882 as well as for the presidency in 1880.
      In the 1880s Weaver played a leading role in the evolution of the People's Party, which had succeeded the Farmers' Alliances as the main advocate of soft money after the Greenback-Labor Party had dissolved. He was the party's natural choice for president in 1892, when his patriarchal appearance and commanding presence helped himwin more than 1'000'000 popular and 22 electoral votes. But Republican incumbent Benjamin Harrison [20 Aug 1833 – 13 Mar 1901] got 145 electoral votes, and Democrat Grover Cleveland [18 Mar 1837 – 24 Jun 1894] made a come-back with 257 electoral votes.
      In 1896 Weaver exerted his influence to give the Populist presidential nomination to William Jennings Bryan [19 Mar 1860 – 26 Jul 1925], the Democratic candidate. The Populist merger with the Democrats spelled the effective dissolution of the Populist Party and the waning of Weaver's political career. He served as a small-town Iowa mayor and local historian in his later years.
1827 Johanna Heusser (Spyri), Swiss writer who died on 07 July 1901. Her story for children, Heidi (1880-1881, 2 vols.), is known all over the world. Her psychological insight into the child mind, her humor, and her ability to enter into childish joys and sorrows give attraction and lasting value to her books, which include also Ein Blatt auf Vronys Grab (1870), Heimatlos (1881), Gritli (1882).
1819 Charles Kingsley: Il fut pasteur anglican, il enseignera à Cambridge (Angleterre). Mais la littérature l'attire. Il en profite (avec Westward HO) pour exposer ses vues sur le "Socialisme chrétien " dont il est l'un des promoteurs. Épris de justice sociale, il se rangera parmi les " chrétiens musclés ".
1806 John A. Roebling, in Muehlhausen, Prussia. He would grow up to be the civil engineer who designed the Brooklyn Bridge, which spans the East River to connect Manhattan with Brooklyn. For nearly a decade after it opened on 24 May 1883, the bridge, with a main span of 486 meters, was the longest suspension bridge in the world. Steel wire cable, invented and manufactured by Roebling, made the structure possible.
1742 Jurriaan Andriessen, Dutch painter who died on 31 July 1819. — more
1677 Jean Ravoux, French artist who died in 1734.
1634 il cavaliere Giuseppe Recco, Neapolitan still-life painter who died on 29 May 1695. — MORE ON RECCO AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1580 Adriaen Stalbemt, Flemish painter and etcher who died on 21 September 1662. — MORE ON STALBEMT AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images. — (060611)
1577 Habakuk “Paul” Guldin, mathematician born of Swiss Protestant parents of Jewish descent, who became a Jesuit at age 20, changing his name to Paul. He discovered Guldin's Theorem: If a plane figure is rotated about an axis in its plane then the volume of the solid body formed is equal to the product of the area with the distance traveled by the center of gravity.
Holidays Finland : Helsinki Day (1550) / Phillipines : Independence Day (1898) / Turk and Cacios Island: Constitution Day

Religious Observances Buddhist-Bhutan : Buddha's Ascension / Christian : Bl Guy of Cortona / RC : SS Basilides, Cyrinus, Nabor, Nazarius, martyrs / RC : St John of San Facondo, confessor / Santos León, Cirino, Nabor, Nazario, Antonina y Basílides. San Juan de Sahagún.
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Thoughts for the day:
“Death and taxes may always be with us, But at least death doesn't get any worse.”
“The pen is mightier than the queen.”
— {in other words: the female of the cob is mightier than the female of the tom. Still not clear? OK then: the mother of the cygnet is mightier than the mother of the kitten. A swan is stronger than a cat.}
updated Tuesday 12-Jun-2007 0:31 UT
Principal updates:
v.6.53 Friday 23-Jun-2006 15:36 UT
v.5.50 Sunday 19-Jun-2005 14:46 UT
Sunday 13-Jun-2004 16:57 UT

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