a 10 June:
2002 Annular eclipse of the sun of 23 to 67 seconds (depending on location), visible as such in a strip about 13 to 60 km wide across mostly open ocean of the North Pacific beginning at 20:53 UT (it is sunrise of 11 June, local time) along the north coast of Sulawesi and ending at sunset (11 June 01:34 UT) 30 km south of Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico, in villages such as Ipala, Gargantillo, San José, in most of which it is obscured by rain clouds. In a much wider area it is seen a a partial eclipse. [For this and other eclipses of sun or moon, see http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/eclipse.html] [DO NOT LOOK DIRECTLY AT A SUN ECLIPSE, EVEN WITH ORDINARY SUNGLASSES] [How to view safely]
2002 An AP news story, states: The 2000 U.S. census found 50,454 Americans aged 100 or older. This is less than one percent of the nation's total population of 281.4 million. Duh! 0.0179% (or 1 in 5577) is less than 1% all right. Just as the average 12-year-old US boy is less than 1% as tall as Mount Everest (measured from sea level), or the average giraffe is not as tall as the Washington Monument, or the average US male adult weighs less than 1% of the weight of a Boeing 747-200 airliner fully loaded, less than 1% of which's speed is the top speed of the average turtle .
1985 Coca Cola announces they'd bring back their 99-year-old formula
1982 Israeli troops reach outskirts of Beirut.
1981 In Frascati, Italy, 6-year-old Alfredo Rampi, 6, falls down an artesian well; efforts to rescue him would prove futile.
1980 Mandela's writings from prison
After South African police slaughtered over sixty peaceful demonstrators at Sharpeville in 1960, Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress stepped up their protests against apartheid. In 1964, Mandela was jailed for life, but his writings, smuggled from prison and made public on this, continued to spark others.
In South Africa, the African National Congress (ANC) makes public a statement by Nelson Mandela, the long imprisoned leader of the anti-apartheid movement. The message, smuggled out of Robben Island prison under great risk, read,
"UNITE! MOBILISE! FIGHT ON! BETWEEN THE ANVIL OF UNITED MASS ACTION AND THE HAMMER OF THE ARMED STRUGGLE WE SHALL CRUSH APARTHEID!"
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, born on 18 July 1918, was the son of the chief of the Xhosa-speaking Tembu people. Instead of succeeding his father as chief, Mandela went to university and became a lawyer. In 1944, he joined the ANC, a black political organization dedicated to winning rights for the black majority in white-ruled South Africa. In 1948, the racist National Party came to power, and apartheid--South Africa's institutionalized system of white supremacy and racial segregation--became official government policy. With the loss of black rights under apartheid, black enrollment in the ANC rapidly grew. Mandela became one of the ANC's leaders and in 1952 was made deputy national president of the ANC. He organized nonviolent strikes, boycotts, marches, and other acts of civil disobedience. After the massacre of peaceful black demonstrators at Sharpeville in 1960, Nelson helped organize a paramilitary branch of the ANC to engage in acts of sabotage against the white minority government. He was tried for and acquitted of treason in 1961 but in 1962 was arrested again for illegally leaving the country. Convicted and sentenced to five years at Robben Island Prison, he was put on trial again in 1963 with seven other ANC members who were arrested at Rivonia in possession of a store of weapons. Charged with sabotage, treason, and violent conspiracy, Mandela admitted to many of the charges against him and eloquently defended his militant activities during the trial.
On 12 June 1964, he was sentenced to life imprisonment. Mandela spent the first 18 of his 27 years in jail at the brutal Robben Island Prison. He was confined to a small cell without a bed or plumbing and was forced to do hard labor in a quarry. Once a year, he was allowed to meet with a visitor for 30 minutes, and once every six months he could write and receive a letter. At first, he was only allowed to exchange letters with his family, and these letters were read and censored by prison officials. Later he was allowed to write to friends and associates, but any writing of a political nature was forbidden. With the help of fellow prisoners and his visitors, Mandela smuggled out statements and letters to spark the continuing anti-apartheid movement. A 500-page autobiography, manually miniaturized into 50 pages, was smuggled out by a departing prisoner in 1976. The original manuscript of the autobiography, buried in a garden, was discovered by the prison warden soon after. As punishment, Mandela and three others lost their study rights for four years.
Through it all, Mandela's resolve remained unbroken, and he led a movement of civil disobedience at the prison that coerced South African officials into drastically improving conditions on Robben Island. In 1982, he was moved to Pollsmoor Prison on the mainland, and in 1988 to a cottage, where he lived under house arrest. In 1989, F.W. de Klerk became South African president and set about dismantling apartheid. De Klerk lifted the ban on the ANC, suspended executions, and on 11 February 1990, ordered the release of Nelson Mandela after 27 years as a political prisoner. Mandela subsequently led the ANC in its negotiations with the minority government for an end to apartheid and the establishment of a multiracial government. In 1993, Mandela and de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. On April 26, 1994, more than 22 million South Africans turned out to cast ballots in the country's first-ever multiracial parliamentary elections. An overwhelming majority chose Mandela and the ANC to lead the country, and a "national unity" coalition was formed with de Klerk's National Party and the Zulus' Inkatha Freedom Party. On 10 May, Mandela was sworn in as the first black president of South Africa. As president, Mandela established the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate human rights violations under apartheid and introduced numerous initiatives designed to improve the living standards of South Africa's black population. In 1996, he presided over the enactment of a new South African constitution. Mandela retired from politics in June 1999 at the age of 80. He was succeeded as president by Thabo Mbeki of the ANC.
| 1979 Pope John Paul II visits Poland
1977 James Earl Ray, the convicted assassin of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr., escapes from Brushy Mountain State Prison in Tennessee with six others; he would be recaptured on 13 June.
1977 Apple Computer ships its first Apple II
1975 Rockefeller panel reports on 300'000 illegal CIA files on Americans
| 1964 In US Senate Southern filibuster on civil rights
bill ends; cloture invoked
1957 John Diefenbaker [18 Sep 1895 – 16 Aug 1979] (C) is elected PM of Canada.
1957 Harold MacMillan [10 Feb 1894 – 29 Dec 1986] becomes British PM
1943 FDR signs withholding tax bill into law (this is W-2 Day!)
1943 FDR becomes first US pres to visit a foreign country during wartime.
1936 The first telecast via coaxial cable is sent from Radio City to the Empire State Building. A patent for coaxial cable had been assigned to AT&T in 1931.
1916 Great Arab Revolt begin.
1898 US Marines land in Cuba, at Guantanamo, during Spanish-American War.
1881 Lev Nikolayevich graf Tolstoy,
53, goes on a pilgrimage disguised as a peasant.
Count Leo Tolstoy sets off on a pilgrimage to a monastery disguised as a peasant. Tolstoy had already produced his two greatest masterpieces War and Peace (1865-1869) and Anna Karenina (1875-1877). The Russian nobleman was engaged in a spiritual struggle and felt torn between his responsibility as a wealthy landlord to improve the lot of the people, and his desire to give up his property and wander the land as an ascetic. He had started giving away his possessions and declared that the public owned his works, but his wife, Sofya, worried about the financial stability of the couple's 13 children, gained control of the copyrights for all his work published before 1880.
Born on 28 August 1828, Tolstoy lost his parents as a child. He inherited a large estate and was raised by relatives. He began studies at Kazan University at age 16 but was disappointed in the quality of education and returned to his estate in 1847 without a degree. He proceeded to live a wild and dissolute life in Moscow and St. Petersburg for the next four years. In 1851, he joined the army and fought in the Crimean war.
He wrote about his wartime experiences in the successful Sebastapol Sketches, published in 1855. He also wrote several other autobiographical works while in the army. In 1857, Tolstoy visited Europe and became interested in education. He started a school for peasant children on his estate and studied progressive educational techniques.
On 23 September 1862, he married Sophie Andreyevna Behrs, a teenager. The next year, he published his first successful novel, The Cossacks. Tolstoy and his wife proceeded to have 13 children over the next 17 years. Tolstoy was constantly engaged in a spiritual struggle between his responsibilities as a wealthy landlord and his desire to renounce his property altogether.
Some of his inner turmoil appeared in his great masterpieces War and Peace (1865-1869) and Anna Karenina (1875-1877). Later in his life, he tried to give away the rights to his works, but his wife gained control of the copyrights for all his work published before 1880. Tolstoy became increasingly radical, embraced anarchism, was excommunicated from the Russian Orthodox Church, and constantly quarreled with his wife. In 1910, he fled his home secretly with his youngest daughter and his doctor, but caught pneumonia and died at a remote railway station a few days later, on 20 November 1910.
— Né le 09 septembre (Grégorien) 1828 dans une riche et noble famille russe, il se préoccupe du sort des paysans pauvres. Apres avoir participé à la Guerre de Crimée (1854-1856), il abandonne famille et richesse pour vivre avec les paysans. Son roman le plus célèbre est Guerre et Paix. Il meurt dans une petite gare de la plaine russe. A 72 ans, atteint de pneumonie et las de tout, il s'est enfui dix jours plus tot de son domaine d'Iasnaya Poliana, seulement accompagne d'une fille et de son médecin.
— War and Peace (1865-1869) contains three kinds of material--a historical account of the Napoleonic wars, the biographies of fictional characters, and a set of essays about the philosophy of history.
The work's historical portions narrate the campaign of 1805 leading to Napoleon's victory at the Battle of Austerlitz, a period of peace, and Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812. Tolstoy portrays Napoleon as an ineffective, egomaniacal buffoon, Tsar Alexander I as a phrasemaker obsessed with how historians will describe him, and the Russian general Mikhail Kutuzov as a patient old man who understands the limitations of human will and planning. Particularly noteworthy are the novel's battle scenes, which show combat as sheer chaos.
Among the book's fictional characters, the reader's attention is first focused on Prince Andrey Bolkonsky, a proud man who has come to despise everything fake, shallow, or merely conventional. He joins the army to achieve glory. Badly wounded at Austerlitz, he comes to see glory and Napoleon as no less petty than the salons of St. Petersburg. Prince Andrey repeatedly discovers the emptiness of the activities to which he has devoted himself. Tolstoy's description of his death in 1812 is usually regarded as one of the most effective scenes in Russian literature.
The novel's other hero, the bumbling and sincere Pierre Bezukhov, oscillates between belief in some philosophical system promising to resolve all questions and a relativism so total as to leave him in apathetic despair. He at last discovers the Tolstoyan truth that wisdom is to be found not in systems but in the ordinary processes of daily life, especially in his marriage to the novel's most memorable heroine, Natasha. When the book stops Pierre seems to be forgetting this lesson in his enthusiasm for a new utopian plan.
The book's truly wise characters are not its intellectuals but a simple, decent soldier, Natasha's brother Nikolay, and a generous pious woman, Andrey's sister Marya. Their marriage symbolizes the novel's central prosaic values.
The essays in War and Peace, which begin in the second half of the book, satirize all attempts to formulate general laws of history and reject the ill-considered assumptions supporting all historical narratives. In Tolstoy's view, history, like battle, is essentially the product of contingency, has no direction, and fits no pattern. The causes of historical events are infinitely varied and forever unknowable, and so historical writing, which claims to explain the past, necessarily falsifies it. According to Tolstoy's essays, history is made by the sum total of an infinite number of small decisions taken by ordinary people, whose actions are too unremarkable to be documented. Therefore Tolstoy's novel gives its readers countless examples of small incidents that each exert a tiny influence--which is one reason that War and Peace is so long.
In Anna Karenina (1875-77) Tolstoy applied these ideas to family life. The novel's first sentence, which indicates its concern with the domestic, is perhaps Tolstoy's most famous: "All happy families resemble each other; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way." Anna Karenina interweaves the stories of three families, the Oblonskys, the Karenins, and the Levins. The novel begins at the Oblonskys, where the long-suffering wife Dolly has discovered the infidelity of her genial and sybaritic husband Stiva. In her kindness, care for her family, and concern for everyday life, Dolly stands as the novel's moral compass. By contrast, Stiva, though never wishing ill, wastes resources, neglects his family, and regards pleasure as the purpose of life. The figure of Stiva is perhaps designed to suggest that evil, no less than good, ultimately derives from the small moral choices human beings make moment by moment. Stiva's sister Anna begins the novel as the faithful wife of the stiff, unromantic, but otherwise decent government minister Aleksey Karenin and the mother of a young boy, Seryozha. But Anna, who imagines herself the heroine of a romantic novel, allows herself to fall in love with an officer, Aleksey Vronsky. Schooling herself to see only the worst in her husband, she eventually leaves him and her son to live with Vronsky. Throughout the novel, Tolstoy indicates that the romantic idea of love, which most people identify with love itself, is entirely incompatible with the superior kind of love, the intimate love of good families. As the novel progresses, Anna, who suffers pangs of conscience for abandoning her husband and child, develops a habit of lying to herself until she reaches a state of near madness and total separation from reality. She at last commits suicide by throwing herself under a train. The realization that she may have been thinking about life incorrectly comes to her only when she is lying on the track, and it is too late to save herself. The third story concerns Dolly's sister Kitty, who first imagines she loves Vronsky but then recognizes that real love is the intimate feeling she has for her family's old friend, Konstantin Levin. Their story focuses on courtship, marriage, and the ordinary incidents of family life, which, in spite of many difficulties, shape real happiness and a meaningful existence. Throughout the novel, Levin is tormented by philosophical questions about the meaning of life in the face of death. Although these questions are never answered, they vanish when Levin begins to live correctly by devoting himself to his family and to daily work. Like his creator Tolstoy, Levin regards the systems of intellectuals as spurious and as incapable of embracing life's complexity.
Upon completing Anna Karenina, Tolstoy fell into a profound state of existential despair, which he describes in his Ispoved (1884; A Confession).
The Kreutzer Sonata (1891) is a dark novella about a man who murders his wife.
Smert Ivana Ilicha (written 1886; The Death of Ivan Ilych) is a novella describing a man's gradual realization that he is dying and that his life has been wasted on trivialities.
Otets Sergy (written 1898; Father Sergius), which may be taken as Tolstoy's self-critique, tells the story of a proud man who wants to become a saint but discovers that sainthood cannot be consciously sought. Regarded as a great holy man, Sergius comes to realize that his reputation is groundless; warned by a dream, he escapes incognito to seek out a simple and decent woman whom he had known as a child. At last he learns that not he but she is the saint, that sainthood cannot be achieved by imitating a model, and that true saints are ordinary people unaware of their own prosaic goodness. This story therefore seems to criticize the ideas Tolstoy espoused after his conversion from the perspective of his earlier great novels.
In 1899 Tolstoy published his third long novel, Voskreseniye (Resurrection). The novel's hero, the idle aristocrat Dmitry Nekhlyudov, finds himself on a jury where he recognizes the defendant, the prostitute Katyusha Maslova, as a woman whom he once had seduced, thus precipitating her life of crime. After she is condemned to imprisonment in Siberia, he decides to follow her and, if she will agree, to marry her. In the novel's most remarkable exchange, she reproaches him for his hypocrisy: once you got your pleasure from me, and now you want to get your salvation from me, she tells him. She refuses to marry him, but, as the novel ends, Nekhlyudov achieves spiritual awakening when he at last understands Tolstoyan truths, especially the futility of judging others. The novel's most celebrated sections satirize the church and the justice system, but the work is generally regarded as markedly inferior to War and Peace and Anna Karenina.
The novella Hadji Murad (1904) is a brilliant narrative about the Caucasus.
Po-russki: Anna Karenina. Roman v vos'mi chastyakh
TOLSTOY ONLINE (in English translations):
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1861 Engagement at Big Bethel, Virginia
1854 Eventually to become the first African-American Roman Catholic bishop, James Augustine Healy, 24, is ordained a priest in Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris.
1854 Georg F.B. Reiman proposes that space is curved
1848 first telegraph link between NYC and Chicago
1846 Robert Thomson obtains an English patent on a rubber tire
1809 first US steamboat to a make an ocean voyage leaves NY for Phila
1801 The state of Tripoli declares war on the United States for refusing to pay tribute for the safe passage of US merchant vessels through the Mediterranean..
1776 Continental Congress appoints a committee to write a Decl of Ind
1772 Burning of the Gasp‚e, British revenue cutter, by Rhode Islanders
1752 Ben Franklin's kite is struck by lightning-what a shock!
1721 (29 May Julian) South Carolina is incorporated as a British royal colony
1610 first Dutch settlers arrive (from NJ), to colonize Manhattan Island
2006 Stacy Lemmens [14 Dec 1998–]; and Nathalie Mahy [09 Aug 1995]; stepsisters, abducted in Liège, Belgium, during a late night street party and murdered, by convicted child rapist Abdallah Ait Oud according to the police. — (060628)
2006 Saudi Arabians Mani Shaman Turki al-Habardi Al-Utaybi and Yassar Talal Al-Zahrani, 21; and Yemeni Ali Abdullah Ahmed, 28; suicide by hanging themselves with nooses made from sheets and clothing, early in the day, in their separate individual cells at the US prison for alleged “enemy combatants” in the US base at Guantanamo, Cuba. Al-Utaybi had been recommended for transfer to the custody of an unnamed country, but he may not have been informed about the recommendation. Ahmed was a mid- to high-level al-Qaida operative. He had been hostile to the guard force and was a hunger striker from late 2005 to May at Guantanamo. Al-Zahrani was suspected of involvement in a prison uprising in Mazar-e-Sharif, Afghanistan, which resulted in the death of CIA officer Johnny Michael Spann [–25 Nov 2001]. None of the three had been formally charged. _ Comment by the commander of the Guantanamo base, Rear Admiral Harry Harris, : “They have no regard for life, neither ours nor their own. I believe this was not an act of desperation, but an act of asymmetrical warfare waged against us.” — (060612)
2004 Somra Horo, 22; Polush Horo, 25; Suman Horo, 30; Fagu Pahan, 30; and Amrush Pahan, 60; ambushed and murdered in Karra, Bihar, India. It is believed that they were dacoits who looted trains and raped women, and were killed in revenge for their alleged complicity in the rape of four girls on board the Jharsuguda-Hatia passenger train on 06 June 2004.
2003 Hammoda Farag Abd Rabbu, 19, Mohammad Fayez Saleh Abd Rabbu, 22 , and Mariam Ragab Ebrahim Abd Rabbu, 16, innocent Palestinians, by missiles from Israeli Apache helicopters fred in the east of Gaza City, which miss the Ezz el-Dine al-Qassam Brigades militants who had just fired some ineffective rockets at an Israeli neighborhood. 32 Palestinians are injured.
2003 John Semple Galbraith, Scottish-born (10 November 1916) US historian of 19th-century Great Britain. Author of The Reluctant Empire (1963), The Hudson Bay's Company as an Imperial Factor (1957), The Establishment of Canadian Diplomatic Status at Washington (1951), Crown and Charter (1974), The Little Emperor (1976). — Not to be confused with economist John Kenneth Galbraith [15 Oct 1908~]
2003 Bernard Arthur Owen Williams, of cancer, British philosopher of morality and history, born on 21 September 1929. Author of Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy (1985), Shame and Necessity (1993), Truth and Truthfulness (2002)
2002 Father Philip Schuster, 85, Brother Damian Larson, 64, and Lloyd Robert Jeffress, 71, who at about 08:40 fires at random an AK-47 and a sawed-off 22-caliber rifle in the halls near the business offices of the Benedictine Conception Abbey, Missouri, and then kills himself. Father Schuster [< top photo] was a greeter at the monastery's front door; Brother Larson [< 2nd photo] a groundskeeper. Both had been at the Abbey for more than 30 years. Rev. Kenneth Reichert, 68, an assistant to abbot Gregory Polan, is shot in the stomach, and Father Norbert Schappler, 73, is also wounded.
2002 John Joseph Gotti [20 Jan 1990 photo >], of throat cancer, while serving a life sentence for 6 murders and racketeering, having been convicted on 02 April 1992, after a three acquittals that won him the nickname Teflon Don. Born on 27 October 1940, Gotti started a life of crime early. He served several short prison sentences. Gotti became boss of the Gambino crime family after ordering the 15 November 1985 murder of its previous boss, Big Paul Castellano, and had a highly publicized flamboyant life style. [Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act RICO]
2002 Ahmad Abed Rabbo Musleh, 28, as Israeli snipers stationed at the Beit Hanoon passage in Gaza shoot at a group of Palestinian workers returning home from their work in the industrial area north to the passage, severely wounding Musleh in the head, he dies soon afterwards in the hospital.
2000 Hafez al-Assad, 69, president (dictator)
of Syria, of heart failure.
Emil Lahoud, president of Syria's puppet state Lebanon, said he was on the phone with Assad as he died: "The last phrase he told me was that our fate is to build for our children an assuring future and it is our duty to make sure they inherit better than what we inherited. Then there was a sudden silence and the line broke off."
Assad was born on 06 October 1930, the oldest son of a peasant family from the minority 'Alawite Muslim sect. As a student, he became an activist against the French who jointly controlled his country with Britain until 1944. He joined the Syrian wing of the Ba'th Party in 1946. In 1952, he entered the Syrian Military Academy, and subsequently the Air Force Academy. Graduating in 1955 as a combat pilot at the top of his class, he rose through the ranks rapidly and, by 1957, became a squadron commander.
While exiled to Egypt (1959–1961) during Syria's short-lived union with Egypt in the United Arab Republic, Assad and other military officers formed a committee to resurrect the fortunes of the Syrian Ba'th Party. After the Ba'thists took power in 1963, Assad became commander of the air force. In 1966, after taking part in a coup that overthrew the civilian leadership of the party and sent its founders into exile, he became minister of defense. During Assad's ministry Syria lost the Golan Heights to Israel in the Six-Day War (05 Jun 1967 – 10 Jun 1967), dealing Assad a blow that shaped much of his future political career. Assad then engaged in a protracted power struggle with Salah al-Jadid, chief of staff of the armed forces, Assad's political mentor, and effective ruler of Syria, until finally in November 1970 Assad seized control in a bloodless coup, arresting Jadid and other members of the government. He became prime minister and in 1971 was elected president. Assad started to liberalize the country, removing restrictions on foreign travel and foreign trade, lifting some restraints on the press, and bringing some of the political opposition into the government. But those reforms were short-lived. As opposition activists gained strength, he clamped down.
Assad set about building up the Syrian military with Soviet aid and gaining the loyalty of the Syrian populace with public works funded by Arab donors and international lending institutions. Political dissenters were eliminated by arrest, torture, and execution, and when the Muslim Brotherhood mounted a rebellion in Hamah in 1982, Assad ruthlessly suppressed it at a cost of some 20'000 lives and the near-destruction of the city. In foreign affairs Assad tried to establish Syria as a leader of the Arab world. A new alliance with Egypt culminated in a surprise attack on Israel in October 1973, but Egypt's unexpected cessation of hostilities exposed Syria to military defeat and earned Egypt's president, Anwar el-Sadat, Assad's enduring resentment. In 1976, with Lebanon racked by a bloody civil war, Assad dispatched several divisions to that country and secured their permanent presence there as part of a peacekeeping force sponsored by the Arab League. After Israel's invasion and occupation of southern Lebanon in 1982–1985, Assad was able to reassert control of the country, eventually compelling Lebanese Christians to accept constitutional changes granting Muslims equal representation in the government. Assad also apparently aided radical Palestinian and Muslim terrorist groups based in Lebanon and Syria.
Assad's rivalry with the Iraqi wing of the Ba'th Party underlay his long-standing enmity toward the Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein [28 Apr 1937~]. Assad supported Iran in its war against Iraq (22 Sep 1980 – 20 Aug 1988), and he readily joined the US-led alliance against Iraq in the Persian Gulf War (17 Jan 1991 - 28 Feb 1991). This cooperation resulted in more cordial relations with Western governments, which previously had condemned his sponsoring of terrorism. Assad sought to establish peaceful relations with Israel in the mid-1990s, but his repeated call for the return of the Golan Heights stalled the talks. In 1998 he cultivated closer ties with Iraq in light of Israel's growing strategic partnership with Turkey.
Assad has committed severe human rights abuses, including political assassinations, torture and the murder of at least 5000 members of the Islamic opposition group Muslim Brotherhood (in the city of Hamah, beginning on 02 February 1982) . He has also sponsored terrorist activities overseas, from attacks on European offices of Jordan’s air carrier, to the assassination of Lebanese President-elect Bashir Gemayel [10 Nov 1947 – 14 Sep 1982], a brutal puppet of Israel. Assad was linked to suicide bombers who killed 241 US Marines and 58 French soldiers in two separate attacks in Beirut on 23 October 1983. He survived several reported coup attempts, including a 1984 effort by his ambitious brother Rifaat. Assad maintained a vast army of secret police and informers. His government jailed thousands of political prisoners without trial during his rule, according to human rights groups. He was a vegetarian who abstained from alcohol, but rumors about ill health had dogged him since a heart attack in 1983.
Hafez would be succeeded by his son Bashar al-Assad [11 Sep 1965~], a British-educated ophthalmologist with no political experience, regardless of the Syrian constitution which provides for a vice president to take the post (presumably first vice president: Abdul-Halim Khaddam rather than second vice president Zuheir Masharqa) and for the president to be at least 40 (until this day of Assad's death, when parliament lowers the limit to 34, Bashar's age).
Bashar al-Assad's elder brother, Basil, had been groomed as heir until his death in a 1994 car crash. Hafez Assad had three other sons and a daughter. He married an 'Alawite woman from a prominent clan.
| 1998 Ocho zapatistas y 2 policías, al ser atacado por
el Ejército Mexicano y la Seguridad Pública Estatal el "Municipio Autónomo
San Juan de la Libertad" (San Juan el Bosque, Chiapas, México)..
1942 173 innocent men and boys massacred by the Gestapo in Lidice, in occupied dismembered Czechoslovakia, in retaliation for the killing of Reinhard Heydrich “the Hangman” [07 Mar 1904 – 04 Jun 1942], the Nazi overseer of Bohemia and Moravia.
1941 Marcus Garvey, 52, in London England, charismatic Jamaican-born US Black leader, born on 17 August 1887, who organized the first important US black nationalist movement (1919–1926), based in New York City's Harlem.
1932 Violet Sharpe, suicide by swallowing poison. She was a waitress in the home of Mrs. Lindbergh's mother, Mrs. Dwight Morrow, and had been under investigation by the authorities in connection with the 01 March 1932 Lindbergh baby kidnapping. She was about to be questioned again. However, her movements on the night of 01 March 1932 had been carefully checked and it was soon definitely ascertained that she had no connection with the abduction.
1924 Giacomo Matteotti Italian socialist deputy, born on 22 May 1885, is assassinated by fascists.
1903 Antonio Luigi Gaudenzio Giuseppe Cremona, Lombard mathematician, Italian Senator from 1879, born on 07 December 1830. He was the originator of graphical statics, the study of forces in equilibrium, using graphical methods. He wrote papers on geometrical transformations, projective geometry and on graphical solutions. Author of Le figure reciproche della statica grafica (1872), Elementi di geometria proiettiva (1873), Elementi di calcolo grafico (1874). He dies on the 25th anniversary of the death of his brother Tranquillo Cremona.
1878 Tranquillo Cremona, Lombard painter born on 10 April 1837. Brother of mathematician Luigi Cremona [above]. — more
1868 King Michael III, born on 16 September 1823, of the Obrenovic dynasty of Serbia (rivals of the Karadjordjevic dynasty), shot as he walks in a park outside Belgrade. The crime would never be solved.
1836 André-Marie Ampère, 60, French mathematical physicist born on 20 January 1775. He made contributions to the theory of Electricity and magnetism, which became fundamental for further 19th century developments.
1818 Heinrich Rieter, Swiss artist born on 15 September 1751.
à mort par la Révolution: ^top^
STORKENFELD Jean, chef des compaguons de Jéhu, par le tribunal criminel de Haute-Loire.
1794 (22 prairial an II):
GAUBAU Pierre Félix, fils aîné, clerc de notaire, avoué au tribunal du district de la Réole, né à la Réole, domicilié à Bordeaux (Gironde), par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux, comme contre-révolutionnaire, pour avoir dit qu'il rougirait de se dire français s'il était en pays ennemi, que la révolution ne tiendrait pas, et que les puissances étrangères mettraient les français à la raison.
LACROIX Louis Jacques, ex curé, domicilié à St Maurice, (Mayenne et Loire), comme réfractaire à la loi, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
HOUDON Julien, tisserand, domicilié à Nuillé-sur-Ouette (Mayenne), par la commission révolutionnaire séante à Laval, comme brigand de la Vendée.
NIATEL Michel, domicilié à Nuillé-sur-Ouette (Mayenne), par la commission révolutionnaire de Laval.
Domiciliés à Libremont, département des Vosges, par le tribunal criminel dudit département:
... comme prêtres réfractaires à la loi:
DIDELOT Nicolas Antoine, ex vicaire RIVAT Joseph, ex curé de Varennes
... comme receleuses de prêtres réfractaires:
DURUPT Jeanne Marie PETITJEAN Anne Françoise
Domiciliés à Montpellier, département de l'Hérault, par le tribunal criminel dudit département, en matière de faux assignats:
... comme fabricateur: CARRE Michel, fils, perruquier, comme fabricateur.
... comme distributeurs: CARRE Jean Claude, père, perruquier ALTABESS Jean, perruquier FANTOU Pierre, cuisinier
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
HARDY Auguste Antoine, préposé aux subsistances militaire, 64 ans, né et domicilié à Dunkerque (Nord), comme ayant commis des malversations dans les fournitures.
ROBERT Pierre, charron, 37 ans, natif de St Georges-sur-Cher, domicilié à Paris, comme ayant persisté à remettre en usage pour le service de la république, des roues défectueuses, refusées par l’administration, en les substituant aux chariots d’un autre fournisseur dont il enleva celles qui avaient été reconnues bonnes et acceptées.
... comme conspirateurs:
LARUE Jean Paul, 33 ans, ex avoué, juge du tribunal du district de Tarascon, domicilié à Foix, même département, né à Pamiers (Ariège), comme complice d'une conspiration dans la commune de Pamiers, à l'effet de se faire porter aux places par le peuple.
GALLERAND Pierre Michel, conducteur de Bœufs, 27 ans, né et domicilié à Orléans (Loiret), ... et pour avoir commis des malversations dans les fournitures faites à la République.
COURIEULT Charles, marchand de vin, 27 ans, né et domicilié à Blanville (Calvados)..
... domiciliés à Cosne, département de la Nièvre, comme complices d'une conspiration dans la commune de Cosne, contre le Peuple, tendante à ébranler la fidélité des citoyens envers la nation, à dissoudre les sociétés propulaires:
LA FAYE Edme Etienne, 37 ans, homme de loi, accusateur public, près de tribunal du district de Cosne, né à la Charité (Nièvre).
LECLERC Pierre, 46 ans, ci-devant notaire, commissaire national prés le tribunal du district de Cosne.
MEIGNAN André Etienne, (dit Champromain), juge de paix du canton de Cosne, 48 ans, né à Druget (Yonne).
PERCOT Charles, 40 ans, officier de santé, né Cosne, ... et traitant les patriotes de scélérats de gredins à guillotiner, les accusant de ne faire des taxes révolutionnaires sur les riches que pour s’en approprier le montant en disant qu’ils étaient des tyrans qui voulaient ruiner les riches.
PIRENT Antoine, 50 ans, natif de Clermont-Ferrand (Puy-de-Dôme), président du district de Cosne, ... en traitant les patriotes de scélérats, gredins à guillotiner, les accusant de ne faire des taxes révolutionnaires sur les riches, que pour s'en approprier le montant, et disant qu'il étaient des tyrans, qui voulaient ruiner les riches.
BLOT Charles, 33 ans, né à Montfort, conducteur de bœufs, ... et pour fournitures infidèles.
CACADIER Pierre François, 51 ans, né à Pot-de-Fe (Cher), marchand de tabac, et greffier du juge de paix,.
CHAUMOROT (ou CHOMOROT) Gilbert, 30 ans, né à Cosne, maître de poste.
GOY Philippe Etienne, ancien vice-président du district de Cosnes, chef de la légion de la garde nationale, 30 ans, né à Donzy.
1953 John Edwards, US senator from North Carolina since 1999, candidate since 2003 for the 2004 Democratic nomination for US President.
1925 The United Church of Canada is formed, uniting both the Methodist and Presbyterian denominations of Canada. The merger also took in 3000 independent Canadian Congregational churches.
1921 Prince Philip Mountbatten, Greece, Duke of Edinburgh, Mr. Elizabeth II
1904 John Greenlees “ Jack” Semple, Northern Ireland mathematician who died on 23 October 1985. He worked on various aspects of geometry, in particular on Cremona transformations and on extending results of Severi [13 Apr 1879 – 08 Dec 1961].
1895 Immanuel Velikovsky, Belarus-born US writer who died on 17 November 1979. After examining legends of the ancient Jews and other eastern Mediterranean peoples, he concluded that some tales described actual occurrences and were not mere myths or allegories. In the United States from 1939, he expanded the geographic scope of his study of ancient documents. In his first book, Worlds in Collision (1950), he hypothesized that in historical times an electromagnetic derangement of the solar system caused Venus and Mars to approach the Earth closely, disturbing its rotation, axis inclination, and magnetic field. His later works are Ages in Chaos (1952), revising the chronology of the pre-Christian Middle East; Earth in Upheaval (1955), adducing geologic and paleontological evidence supporting his belief that catastrophes have overwhelmed the Earth; Oedipus and Akhnaton (1960), linking Egyptian history with Greek mythology; and Peoples of the Sea (1977), identifying Ramses III with Nectanebo, pharaohs otherwise dated 800 years apart.
1887 Vladimir Ivanovich Smirnov, Russian mathematician who died on 11 February 1974.
1880 André Derain, French Fauvist painter and sculptor who died on 10 September 1954. MORE ON DERAIN AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1878 Tranquillo Cremona, Lombard painter born on 10 April 1837 — more
1861 Pierre Maurice Marie Duhem, French mathematical physicist who died on 14 September 1916..
1859 James Guthrie, British painter who died in 1930. MORE ON GUTHRIE AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1857 Ed Henry Potthast, US Impressionist painter who died on 10 March 1927. MORE ON POTTHAST AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1853 Claude Thomas Stanfield Moore, British artist who died on 02 April 1901.
1845 Jean Joseph Benjamin-Constant, French painter who died on 26 May 1902, constantly interested in Orientalism. MORE ON CONSTANT AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1816 Johann Georg Rosenhain, Prussian mathematician and revolutionary who died on 14 May 1887.
1805 Victor Baltard, architecte français qui mourut le 13 janvier 1874, fils de l'architecte et dessinateur Louis-Pierre Baltard [1764 – 22 Jan 1846]. Reprenant les idées d’Hector Horeau [1801-1872], il édifia en fer et fonte, selon la volonté de Napoléon III, les Halles centrales de Paris dont la construction commencée en 1851 fut terminée en 1857. Il a également construit en 1861 l’église St-Augustin, 46 boulevard Malesherbes, où il a su utiliser la contrainte d'un terrain triangulaire ingrat. Son plan ingénieux organise l'église en une large nef bordée de chapelles qui s'élargissent progressivement. Elles aboutissent au chœur surmonté de la grande coupole qui lui donne sa silhouette caractéristique. L'utilisation du fer permit d'élever la grande coupole à 50 m. La pierre qui couvre l'armature de métal ne sert pas à soutenir l'édifice mais seulement à la décoration. L'intérieur est caractérisé par l'utilisation décorative de la structure métallique, ce qui était très moderne. Par exemple, la voûte de la nef repose sur des arcs en métal ciselé apparents. Les autres éléments de décoration sont romans, gothiques, Renaissance et néo-byzantins, mélanges typiques de l'éclectisme de la fin du 19è siècle.
1798 Frederick Richard Lee, English painter who died on 04 June 1879. — links to images.
1787 George Henry Harlow, British painter who died on 04 February 1819. MORE ON HARLOW AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1557 Leandro dal Ponte Bassano, Italian Mannerist painter who died on 15 April 1622. MORE ON BASSANO AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
0940 Mohammad Abu'l-Wafa al-Buzjani, Persian mathematician and astronomer who died on 15 July 998.