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• Battle of Midway ends... • Black dragged to death... • Chinese bloodbath trickles on... • Gauguin is born... • Communists force Czech President's resignation... • Taboo words are OK... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Meredith shot... • Gandhi starts civil disobedience... • Black in seat for Whites arrested... • Chief Seattle dies... • Computer pioneer dies... • Japanese invade Aleutians... • 44 battalions requested for Vietnam... • $64'000 Question... • Erdrich is born...• Microsoft ordered split...
^  On a 07 June:
2002 The stock of Tyco International (TYC) falls to a six year low $9.45 intraday from its previous close of $14.66 and closes at $10.10. — 04 June details on earlier drop and causes.
2002 Leges Danorum de immigratione: Parlamentum Danorum leges pertulit, quibus immigratio coerceretur. Numerus peregrinorum in Daniam venientium temperabitur et condiciones, quibus asylum petentibus venia commorandi conceditur, fient difficiliores. Licentia perpetuo in Dania manendi peregrino non dabitur, antequam septem annos ibi habitaverit. Antea haec licentia post triennium data est. Neque peregrinus plenam cautionem socialem nisi septennio in Dania transacto habere poterit. Ius familiam coniungendi tantum homines minime viginti quattuor annorum habebunt. Illud ius antea nullo modo circumscribebatur. Propositum est impedire, ne peregrini fictis matrimoniis concives suos nomine familiarium in Daniam inducant.
2001 Parliamentary elections in the UK. Labour wins, so Tony Blair continues as Prime Minister.
2001 NetZero and Juno Online Services, the two biggest providers of free Internet access in the US, announce that they will merge towards the end of 2001, as United Online, with. 7 million subscribers, second behind America Online, which has 29 million subscribers, and ahead of Microsoft's MSN with its 5 million subscribers.
Menem leaves court 7 June 2001^ 2001 Former Argentine President is arrested.
     Carlos Menem is put under house arrest as part of an investigation into illegal arms sales. Menem is ordered held by federal judge Jorge Urso probing accusations that the former president headed an "illicit organization" that funneled arms to Croatia and Ecuador in 1991 and 1995, despite international arms embargoes on both nations.
[photo: Menem, accompanied by his Chilean wife Cecilia Bolocco leaves court for house arrest >]
     Investigators have alleged that Menem and his aides organized the sale of 6500 tons of weapons. The weapons were officially destined for Panama and Venezuela but ended up in Croatia and Ecuador respectively. During that period, Argentina was bound by international agreements that enforced arms embargoes on Croatia and Ecuador. Ecuador and Peru waged a brief border war in the 1990s, and the embargo against Croatia stemmed from fighting in the former Yugoslavia.
      Menem, 70, will be under house arrest during any prosecution. If charged and convicted, he could face a sentence of three to 10 years house arrest. Under Argentine law, people 70 years or older cannot be put in prison.
      The court had no immediate confirmation of the detention, but it was also widely reported by local media. Menem has insisted the sales were done "absolutely legally" and that he was the victim of "political persecution." "I am very calm. Can't you see that?" Menem said earlier Thursday as hundreds of supporters crowded around him outside the federal courthouse, where he arrived to testify before Federal Judge Jorge Urso. "I trust in justice," said Menem, who wore a stylish brown suit and gold tie and was flanked by his new bride,
      Urso's probe has led to the recent detention of three other former Menem advisers. On 6 June 2001 a retired former army chief who served under Menem's government was detained. General Martin Balza, the highest-ranking army officer during most of Menem's presidency, was accused of being an organizer of a ring that conspired to secretly sell arms to Croatia and Ecuador.
      In May 2001 Antonio Erman Gonzalez, a former defense minister under Menem, was detained in connection with the case. Former presidential aide Emir Yoma, the brother of Menem's ex-wife Zulema Yoma, was detained on 7 April 2001 on charges of complicity in the alleged arms ring.
      Menem, who served two consecutive terms that ended in December 1999, closed out his presidency amid accusations of corruption in his administration. The former president, who married the 36-year-old former Miss Universe Cecilia Bolocco of Chile. on 26 May 2001, is best remembered for repairing a broken economy he inherited upon taking office in 1989. During his presidency, Menem managed to transform the economy with free-market reforms that included toppling trade barriers and selling off hundreds of state companies while stabilizing the currency. He also reopened ties with Britain after the two countries had gone to war over the Falkland Islands and reinforced democracy by defusing the destabilizing grievances of the military. He tamed inflation that had been as high as 200% a month and brought on years of economic growth. His government calmed the volatile currency by pegging it to the dollar. Since leaving office, Menem has served as leader of his Peronist Party and talked openly about his desire to run for the presidency again in 2003.
     Carlos Saúl Menem Akil was born on 02 July 1930 in Anillaco, Argentina, and educated at Córdoba University. The son of Syrian immigrants, he was raised as a Sunni Muslim. He converted to Roman Catholicism in his youth and became politically active while still a student. In 1955 he founded the Juventud Peronista, a Peronist youth group. He was briefly jailed the next year for his role in an attempt to restore the ousted dictator [next link is broken] Juan Perón to power. In 1956 Menem became legal adviser to the Confederación General del Trabajo (General Confederation of Labor), a trade union group and a major Perón supporter. Menem ran for the seat of deputy of his native La Rioja Province in 1962, but a military coup aborted the election. He was elected provincial president of the Peronist Party in 1963. In 1973, after Perón's return to power, Menem was elected governor of the La Rioja Province.
     On 24 March 1976 a military coup led by general Jorge Rafael Videla ousted Argentine [next link is broken] Isabel de Perón, the dictator's widow and successor. Menem was jailed and not not released until 1981. He was reelected governor of La Rioja Province in 1983 and 1987. In 1989 he was elected president of Argentina in the first transfer of power in Argentina from one constitutionally elected party to another since 1928.
      A flamboyant figure, Menem described his political philosophy, Peronism, as nationalist, populist, humanist, socialist, and Christian. He worked to reform the structure of the state, privatize business, achieve a free market, and restore connections with the United Kingdom. In 1992 Menem ordered that all secret files pertaining to Nazis in Argentina after World War II (1939-1945) be opened to the public. His success in bringing inflation and the economy of Argentina under control helped him win a second term as president in 1995. Menem was constitutionally barred from running for a third consecutive term in 1999, and was on 10 December 1999 succeeded by Fernando de la Ruá Bruno (born on 15 September 1937), who had won the 24 October 1999 election..
     Carlos Saúl Menem is a politician and lawyer who in 1989 became the first Peronist to be elected president of Argentina since Juan Perón in 1973. He led the country for 10 years (1989–99). Menem, the son of Syrian immigrants, was raised a Muslim. His political aspirations, however, led him to convert to Roman Catholicism, the official religion of Argentina. He joined the Peronist (Partido Justicialista) movement in 1956 and was briefly imprisoned that year after participating in a revolt aimed at restoring Juan Perón (who had been ousted from power) to the presidency. After obtaining a law degree from the National University of Córdoba in 1958, Menem began a career as a trade union lawyer in the northwestern city of La Rioja. He was elected governor of La Rioja province in 1973 but was expelled from office in 1976 by the military junta that had overthrown the government of Isabel Perón. After regaining the governorship in 1983, Menem expanded the size of government, gave favourable tax breaks to businesses, and pursued other policies typical of the Peronist movement. His support base among Peronists grew, and in May 1989, amid the worst economic crisis in the country's history, he was elected president of Argentina. High inflation forced Menem to abandon his party orthodoxy in favour of a fiscally conservative, market-oriented economic policy. With the aid of many non-Peronist cabinet members, he succeeded in stabilizing the economy. Menem cultivated a flamboyant image and enjoyed great national popularity despite sharp criticism for pardoning convicted human-rights violators connected with the period of military rule (1976–83). Reelected president in 1995, Menem sought to improve relations with Great Britain. His 1998 trip marked the first time an Argentine leader had visited Britain since the Falkland Islands War (1982). Menem and British Prime Minister Tony Blair agreed to promote bilateral trade and investment. Barred constitutionally from running for a third consecutive term, Menem was succeeded by Fernando de la Rúa of the Alliance party in December 1999.
     Carlos Saúl Menem Akil est né à Anillaco, petit village de la province de La Rioja, au nord-ouest de l'Argentine, d’une famille musulmane d’immigrants syriens (les Muni’im), chassée de chez elle par l’oppression turque. Carlos Menem will grow up to be a politician and lawyer, converting to Catholicism, and, in 1989, the first Peronist to be elected president of Argentina since Juan Perón in 1973. He was reelected in 1995. He was in office from 890708 to 991210.
      Arborant cheveux longs et patillas, ces larges favoris qui lui mangent le visage, il obtient à vingt et un ans son diplôme d’avocat. He joined the Peronist (Partido Justicialista) movement in 1956 and was briefly imprisoned that year after participating in a revolt aimed at restoring Juan Perón (who had been ousted from power) to the presidency. Menem est élu pour la première fois, en 1973, gouverneur de La Rioja. Il subit, à partir de 1976, les foudres des militaires et passe cinq ans sans procès dans les geôles de la dictature. Renouant avec la liberté et un style de vie tapageur -- sa participation à des courses automobiles et ses conquêtes féminines défraient plusieurs fois la chronique -- Carlos Menem est réélu gouverneur de sa province en 1983, puis en 1987. Sous les apparences d’un séducteur frivole, le dirigeant péroniste sait parler à ses administrés et se poser en défenseur de l’"autre Argentine" face à l’arrogance des porteños, les habitants de la capitale.
      Durant la campagne électorale pour la présidence, il ne s’est pas vraiment attaché à dissiper les équivoques. Sillonnant le pays au volant de sa "Menem-mobile", il répétait à l’envi son slogan ("Suivez-moi") -- sans préciser où -- et appelait à une mystérieuse "révolution productive". Beaucoup redoutaient l’avènement d’un "caudillo" démagogue, masquant le flou de son programme de propos populistes. Menem a fait montre d’habileté politique dans le traitement des dossiers, de constance dans ses choix, et il a su s’entourer de gestionnaires compétents. Mais dans les dernières années de sa présidence, ses différents avec la justice (divorce) et le blanchiment de narco-dollars ternirent considérablement son image.
2000 After two years of litigation, Microsoft is ordered to split in two by US District Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson who says that Microsoft has "proved untrustworthy in the past." Microsoft plans to appeal.
1999 The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory announces the discovery of elements 116 and 118, which it would retract on 27 July 2001. On 15 July 2002, news media would report that one of a 15-member team, physicist Victor Ninov, had falsified results and was fired late in 2001.
1996 Burma's military rulers pass a new law effectively muzzling Aung San Suu Kyi's opposition party
1996 The Clinton White House acknowledged it had obtained the FBI files of House Speaker Newt Gingrich's press secretary, former Bush chief of staff James A. Baker III and other appointees from Republican administrations, calling it "an innocent bureaucratic mistake."
1995 Comienza en Belfast la Conferencia Internacional de Paz y Reconciliación del Ulster.
1995 Interactive Networks cuts interactive television tests
      Interactive Networks, a pioneer in interactive television, lays off 80 percent of its staff and suspends tests on this day in 1995. The company had allowed five thousand test subjects to compete in television game shows like Jeopardy and Wheel of Fortune. The company, formed in 1988, spent about $130 million developing its interactive devices but failed to find much consumer interest.
1994 President Clinton addresses the French National Assembly, challenging his generation of Allied leaders to strive for greater European unity or face "the grim alternative" of violence like that rending Bosnia.
^ 1993 Digital TV box agreement
      Apple Computer, IBM, Motorola, and other companies agree to work together to develop set-top boxes for delivering interactive and multimedia services. Cable, computer, and Internet companies began to converge in the mid-1990s to create set-top converters to broadcast digital and interactive television. Intel and Microsoft had agreed to work together, and Time Warner had also launched an experimental cable venture.
1991 The US government reported the nation's unemployment rate had worsened to a four-year high of 6.9% in May, up 0.3% from April.
1990 the Warsaw Pact formally abandoned its role as guardian of Kremlin power in eastern Europe and committed itself to radical democratic change. — El Pacto de Varsovia da los primeros pasos hacia su disolución de hecho, al aceptar la transformación de su carácter, funciones y actividades, según acuerdan los jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de los siete países miembros en Moscú.
1988 Bangladesh, the world's third largest Muslim nation, made Islam its state religion as riot police went on alert to prevent protests against the law.
1982 In Chad, Hissène (Hissein) Habré-Abeche, leader of the FAN (Forces Armées du Nord), becomes dictator, overthrowing by a coup Goukouni Weddeye, president of the GUNT (Gouvernement d'Unité Nationale de Transition). Habré would re-institute the one-party (UNIR = Union Nationale pour l'Indépendance et la Révolution) system, and the state police DDS (Département de Documentation et Sécurité). He would impose a bloody repression of opponents, resulting in some 40'000 deaths. Habré would be overthrown on 01 December 1990 by a coup led by Colonel Idriss Deby, head of a coalition of armed rebellions united within the MSP (Mouvement de Salut Patriotique), who would return Chad to a multi-party system.
1982 President Reagan meets Pope John Paul II and Queen Elizabeth
1981 Sent by Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, F-16 planes bomb and destroy the 40 megawatt Osirak research reactor at the Tuwaitha nuclear center near Baghdad, Iraq, which is suspected of being intended for weapons production. The unanimous UN Security Council Resolution 487 (19 June 1981) would censure Israel. — (060608)
^ 1972 McGovern continues to campaign against the Vietnam War
      Senator George McGovern (D-South Dakota) announces at a news conference that he would go "anywhere in the world" to negotiate an end to the war and a return of US troops and POWs. McGovern, who had swept the Democratic Party spring primaries, was one of the earliest and most vocal opponents of American policy in Vietnam and he made the war one of the central issues of the campaign. To many American voters, McGovern's call for an immediate end to the war was tantamount to unconditional surrender. Incumbent Richard Nixon, who had campaigned on pursuing "peace with honor" in Vietnam decisively defeated McGovern when it became known that his envoy, Henry Kissinger, was close to negotiating a settlement with the North Vietnamese in peace talks.
^ 1971 Taboo words protected under the First Amendment (caution! Does NOT necessarily apply to children at home or in school)
       The Supreme Court overturns the conviction of Paul Cohen for disturbing the peace. Cohen, who wore a jacket that read "Fuck the Draft" as he entered a courtroom on April 26, 1968, had been charged with violating a California law that made it illegal to "use any vulgar, profane, or indecent language within the presence or hearing of women or children, in a loud and boisterous manner." Cohen actually took off the jacket and folded it over his arm once inside the courthouse. However, a police officer in the building had seen it and sent the presiding judge a note suggesting that Cohen be held in contempt of court. When the judge declined, the officer arrested Cohen as he left the courtroom. Cohen was convicted and sentenced to 30 days in jail.
      He described the jacket as his way of informing the public of the depth of his feelings against the Vietnam War and the draft. On appeal, and by a narrow vote of 5-4, the Supreme Court held that Cohen's jacket was protected by the First Amendment, despite the argument that it was so inflammatory that it "was certainly reasonably foreseeable that such conduct might cause others to rise up to commit a violent act against [Cohen] or attempt to forcibly remove his jacket." The majority of the justices rejected this notion. They noted that when people go out in public they occasionally see and hear things that they don't like. Justice Hugo Black, usually a stalwart defender of the First Amendment, was one of the dissenting judges, claiming that Cohen's act of wearing the jacket wasn't speech at all, but conduct that could be punished. However, according to the final decision, "those in the Los Angeles courthouse could effectively avoid further bombardment of their sensibilities simply by averting their eyes."
1968 Sirhan Sirhan is indicted for Bobby Kennedy assassination
1967 Israel captures Wailing Wall in East Jerusalem
1966 James Meredith is shot       ^top^
      James H. Meredith, who in 1962 became the first African American to attend the University of Mississippi, is shot by a sniper while on a lone civil rights march through the South. Known as the "March Against Fear," Meredith had been walking from Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi, in an attempt to encourage voter registration by Southern African Americans.
      A former serviceman in the US Air Force, Meredith applied to the University of Mississippi in 1962, was accepted, but then had his admission revoked when the registrar learned of his race. A federal court ordered "Ole Miss" to admit him, but when he went to register on September 20, 1962, he found the entrance to the office blocked by Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett. On September 28, the governor was found guilty of civil contempt and was ordered to cease his interference with desegregation at the university or face arrest and a fine of $10'000 a day.
      On September 30, Meredith was escorted onto the Ole Miss campus by US Marshals, setting off riots that resulted in the deaths of two students. The next day, Meredith returned and began classes. The next year, he graduated with a degree in government. Three years later, Meredith returned to the public eye when he began his March Against Fear.
      On June 7, two days into the march, he was sent to a hospital by a sniper’s bullet. However, other civil rights leaders, such as Martin Luther King, Jr., and Stokely Carmichael, arrived to continue the march without him. It was during the March Against Fear that Carmichael, who was leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, first spoke publicly of "Black Power," which was his concept of militant African-American nationalism. James Meredith later recovered and rejoined the march he had originated, and on June 26, the marchers successfully reached their goal, Jackson, Mississippi.
1965 Westmoreland requests 44 battalions for Vietnam       ^top^
      General Westmoreland requests a total of 35 battalions of combat troops, with another nine in reserve. This gave rise to the "44 battalion" debate within the Johnson administration, a discussion of how many US combat troops to commit to the war. Westmoreland felt that the South Vietnamese could not defeat the communists alone and he wanted US combat troops to go on the offensive against the enemy. His plan was to secure the coastlines, block infiltration of North Vietnamese troops into the south, and then wage a war of attrition with "search and destroy" missions into the countryside, using helicopters for rapid deployment and evacuation. Westmoreland had some supporters in the Johnson administration, but others of the president's advisers did not support Westmoreland's request for more troops, because they disagreed with what would be a fundamental change in the US role in Vietnam. In the end, Johnson acquiesced to Westmoreland's request; eventually there would be over 500,000 US troops in South Vietnam.
1955 first President to appear on color TV (Eisenhower)
1953 first color network telecast in compatible color, Boston, Mass
1948 the Communists complete their takeover of Czechoslovakia with the resignation of President Eduard Benes. 1948, the Communists completed their takeover of Czechoslovakia with the resignation of President Eduard Benes. 1948, President Edvard Benes of Czechoslovakia resigned, rather than sign a new constitution which legalized the country as a communist state
^ 1948 Czechoslovakian president Benes resigns
      Edvard Benes resigns as president of Czechoslovakia rather than sign a new constitution that would make his nation into a Communist state. His resignation removed the last remnant of democratic government in Czechoslovakia and cleared the way for a communist-controlled regime. Benes, a popular national figure in Czechoslovakia, had been elected "president for life" in 1946. Almost immediately, however, he faced a challenge from the Communist Party, which pushed for him to adopt a pro-Soviet foreign policy and communist economic practices. Throughout 1946 and 1947, the Communist Party grew in strength, helped by the economic and political turmoil left over from the recently ended war and also by ham-handed US policies that threatened the Benes regime with economic sanctions if it did not purge the communist elements from Czechoslovakia. In February 1948, the communists staged a political coup, and pushed opposition parties from the government. The communists allowed Benes to remain in power, however, perhaps with the belief that his stature and popularity would be of use to them in their consolidation of power. In May 1948, the communist-controlled Parliament produced a new constitution patently designed to serve the interests of the Communist Party.
      For Benes, this was apparently the last straw. On 07 June 1948, he issues a letter of resignation. In it, he cited poor health as the primary reason for his decision, but the conclusion of the letter strongly suggested his disgust with the proposed constitution. He expressed his "wish that the Republic be spared all disaster and that they can live and work together in tolerance, love and forgiveness. Let them grant freedom to others and enjoy freedom themselves." Shortly after Benes' resignation, the communist premier, Klement Gottwald, took over as president. In the West, Benes' resignation was accepted as the regrettable but inevitable climax of communist machinations in Czechoslovakia. Both the United States and Great Britain expressed their remorse at the passing of the Benes regime and strongly condemned the tactics of the Communist Party. Beyond military intervention, which was never even considered, there was nothing either nation could do to change the situation. The Communist Party dominated Czechoslovakia until the so-called "Velvet Revolution" of 1989 brought about a restoration of democratic government.
1947 Las Cortes españolas aprueban por unanimidad la Ley de Sucesión en la Jefatura del Estado, con la que España quedaba configurada como una monarquía católica y Franco se presentaba como un regente vitalicio con facultad para designar al sucesor a la Corona.
1944 Segunda Guerra Mundial. El rey Leopoldo III de Bélgica es hecho prisionero por los alemanes.
^ 1942 Battle of Midway ends
      1600 kilometers northwest of Honolulu, the island of Midway became a target for Admiral Yamamoto's Japanese fleet. As with Pearl Harbor, Yamamoto planned a surprise assault, but this time US naval intelligence had decoded Japanese messages and the United States was prepared. The battle ends on 07 June 1942, reversing the tide against the previously invincible Japanese navy. Homewer the USS Yorktown sinks near Midway Island
    The Battle of Midway--one of the most decisive US victories in its war against Japan--comes to an end. In the four-day sea and air battle, the outnumbered US Pacific Fleet succeeded in destroying four Japanese aircraft carriers with the loss of only one of its own, the Yorktown, thus reversing the tide against the previously invincible Japanese navy. In six months of offensives, the Japanese had triumphed in lands throughout the Pacific, including Malaysia, Singapore, the Dutch East Indies, the Philippines, and numerous island groups. The United States, however, was a growing threat, and Japanese Admiral Isoruku Yamamoto sought to destroy the US Pacific Fleet before it was large enough to outmatch his own. A thousand miles northwest of Honolulu, the strategic island of Midway became the focus of his scheme to smash US resistance to Japan's imperial designs. Yamamoto's plan consisted of a feint toward Alaska followed by an invasion of Midway by a Japanese strike force. When the US Pacific Fleet arrived at Midway to respond to the invasion, it would be destroyed by the superior Japanese fleet waiting unseen to the west. If successful, the plan would eliminate the US Pacific Fleet and provide a forward outpost from which the Japanese could eliminate any future American threat in the Central Pacific. Unfortunately for the Japanese, US intelligence broke the Japanese naval code, and the Americans anticipated the surprise attack. Three heavy aircraft carriers of the US Pacific Fleet were mustered to challenge the four heavy Japanese carriers steaming toward Midway. In early June, US command correctly recognized a Japanese movement against Alaska's Aleutian Islands as a diversionary tactic and kept its forces massed around Midway.
      On 03 June, the Japanese occupation force was spotted steaming toward the island, and B-17 Flying Fortresses were sent out from Midway to bomb the strike force but failed to inflict damage. Early in the morning on 04 June, a PBY Catalina flying boat torpedoed a Japanese tanker transport, striking the first blow of the Battle of Midway. Later that morning, an advance Japanese squadron numbering more than 100 bombers and Zero fighters took off from the Japanese carriers to bomb Midway. Twenty-six Wildcat fighters were sent up to intercept the Japanese force and suffered heavy losses in their heroic defense of Midway's air base. Soon after, bombers and torpedo planes based on Midway took off to attack the Japanese carriers but failed to inflict serious damage. The first phase of the battle was over by 07:00. In the meantime, 300 km to the northeast, two US attack fleets caught the Japanese force entirely by surprise. Beginning around 09:30, torpedo bombers from the three US carriers descended on the Japanese carriers. Although nearly wiped out, they drew off enemy fighters, and US dive bombers penetrated, catching the Japanese carriers while their decks were cluttered with aircraft and fuel. The dive-bombers quickly destroyed three of the heavy Japanese carriers and one heavy cruiser. The only Japanese carrier that initially escaped destruction, the Hiryu, loosed all its aircraft against the US task force and managed to seriously damage the US carrier Yorktown, forcing its abandonment. At about 17:00, dive-bombers from the US carrier Enterprise returned the favor, mortally damaging the Hiryu. It was scuttled the next morning. Admiral Isoruku Yamamoto still had numerous warships at his command, but without his carriers and aircraft he was forced to abandon his Midway invasion plans and begin a westward retreat.
      On 05 June, a US task force pursued his fleet, but bad weather saved it from further destruction. On 06 June, the skies cleared, and US aircraft resumed their assault, sinking a cruiser and damaging several other warships. After the planes returned to their carriers, the US forces broke off from the pursuit. Meanwhile, a Japanese submarine torpedoed and fatally wounded the Yorktown, which was in the process of being salvaged. It finally rolled over and sank at dawn on 07 June, bringing an end to the battle. At the Battle of Midway, Japan lost four carriers, a cruiser, and 292 aircraft, and suffered some 2500 casualties. The US lost the Yorktown, the destroyer USS Hammann, 145 aircraft, and suffered 307 casualties. Japan's losses in the hobbled its naval might--bringing Japanese and American sea power to approximate parity--and marked the turning point in the Pacific theater of World War II. In August 1942, the great US counteroffensive began at Guadalcanal and did not cease until Japan's surrender three years later.
1939 Un decreto prohibe la huelga en España y se constituyen comisiones de empresarios y trabajadores para reducir sus diferencias.
^ 1939 British king visits the United States
      King George VI becomes the first British monarch in history to visit the United States when he and his wife, Elizabeth, cross the Canadian-US border to Niagara Falls, New York. The royal couple subsequently visited New York City and Washington, D.C., where they attempted to rally US support for the Allied cause, and on 12 June, returned to Canada, where they embarked on their voyage home.
      George, who studied at Dartmouth Naval College and saw service during World War I, ascended to the throne after his elder brother, King Edward VIII, abdicated on 11 December 1936. Edward, the first English monarch to voluntarily relinquish the throne, agreed to give up his title in the face of widespread criticism of his desire to marry Wallis Warfield Simpson, an American divorcee. On 12 May 1937, at London’s Westminster Abbey, George VI and his consort, Lady Elizabeth, were crowned king and queen of Great Britain.
      In 1939, George became the first British monarch to visit Canada and the United States, and during World War II, he worked to keep up British morale by visiting bombed areas, inspecting war plants, and touring combat zones. In addition, George and Elizabeth, and their two daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret, remained in bomb-damaged Buckingham Palace during the war, and made a number of important morale-boosting radio broadcasts, for which George overcame a speech impediment. After the war, the royal family made a state visit and tour of South Africa, but a planned tour of Australia and New Zealand had to be postponed indefinitely when the king fell ill in 1949. Despite his illness, George continued to perform state duties until his death in 1952. He was succeeded by his first-born daughter, who was crowned Queen Elizabeth II on 02 June 1953.
1929 The sovereign state of Vatican City comes into existence as copies of the Lateran Treaty are exchanged in Rome. The Papal States had ceased to exist in 1870.
1929 El Plan Young, sobre pago de indemnizaciones de guerra por parte de Alemania a los aliados, suscita grandes protestas entre los cascos de acero y los nacionalsocialistas alemanes.
1924 George Leigh-Mallory disappears 775' from Everest's summit
1921 Francia ratifica los tratados de Trianon y Saint Germain.
1912 St Pius X encyclical On the Indians of South America.
1906 Dimite el Gobierno de España. El Rey renueva su confianza en Segismundo Moret.
1905 Norway dissolves union with Sweden (in effect since 1814) — El Parlamento del hasta entonces Reino Unido de Suecia y Noruega vota la separación en dos países.
1898 Social Democracy of America party holds first national convention.
1896 G Harpo and F Samuelson leave NY to row the Atlantic (takes 54 days)
1887 Monotype type-casting machine patented by Tolbert Lanston, Washington DC
^ 1893 Gandhi’s first act of civil disobedience
      In an event that would later have dramatic repercussions for the people of India, Mohandas Gandhi [02 Oct 1869 – 30 Jan 1948], a young Indian lawyer working in South Africa, refuses to comply with racial segregation rules on a South African train and is forcibly ejected at Pietermaritzburg.
      Born in India and educated in England, Gandhi traveled to South Africa in early 1893 to practice law under a one-year contract. However, after observing South Africa’s institutionalized discrimination against the British colony’s Indian population, he initiated a campaign of civil disobedience on 07 June, 1893. It would not end for twenty-one years.
      In 1914, Gandhi, who was by then a successful lawyer and leader of South Africa’s Indian community, secured an agreement from the South African government that promised the alleviation of anti-Indian discrimination. In the next year, he returned to India where he became an important figure in the movement for Indian independence. Increasingly in the international spotlight, Gandhi gave up Western ways to lead a life of abstinence and spirituality and began an effective campaign of civil disobedience against Britain’s oppressive rule. Always nonviolent, he asserted the unity of all people under one God and preached Christian and Muslim ethics along with his Hindu teachings.
      The British authorities jailed him several times, but his following was so great that his threats to fast until death usually forced his release. After World War II, he was a leading figure in the negotiations that led to Indian independence in 1947. Although hailing the granting of Indian independence as the "noblest act of the British nation," he was distressed by the religious partition of the former Mogul Empire into India and Pakistan.
      When violence broke out between Hindus and Muslims in India in 1948, he resorted to fasts and visits to the troubled areas in an effort to end India’s religious strife. On 30 January 1948, he was on one such prayer vigil in New Delhi when he was fatally shot by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu extremist who objected to Gandhi’s tolerance for the Muslims. Known as Mahatma, or "the great soul," during his lifetime, Gandhi employed methods of nonviolent civil disobedience which influenced leaders of civil rights movements around the world, such as Martin Luther King, Jr. [15 Jan 1929 – 04 Apr 1968], of the United States.
^ 1892 Mr. Plessy sits in a "Whites Only" railroad car
     Colored shoemaker Homer Plessy [17 Mar 1862 – 01 Mar 1925] is jailed for sitting in the "White" car of the East Louisiana Railroad.
      Plessy was only one-eighths Black and seven-eighths White, but under Louisiana law, he was considered Black and therefore required to sit in the "Colored" car. Plessy went to court and argued, in Homer Adolph Plessy v. The State of Louisiana, that the Separate Car Act violated the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution. The judge at the trial was John Howard Ferguson, a lawyer from Massachusetts who had previously declared the Separate Car Act "unconstitutional on trains that traveled through several states" . In Plessy's case, however, he decided that the state could choose to regulate railroad companies that operated only within Louisiana. He found Plessy guilty of refusing to leave the white car.
      Plessy appealed to the Supreme Court of Louisiana, which upheld Ferguson's decision. In 1896, the Supreme Court of the United States heard Plessy vs. Ferguson and found Plessy guilty once again. Speaking for a seven-person majority, Justice Henry Brown wrote: "That [the Separate Car Act] does not conflict with the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery...is too clear for argument...A statute which implies merely a legal distinction between the white and colored races -- a distinction which is founded in the color of the two races, and which must always exist so long as white men are distinguished from the other race by color -- has no tendency to destroy the legal equality of the two races...The object of the Fourteenth Amendment was undoubtedly to enforce the absolute equality of the two races before the law, but in the nature of things it could not have been intended to abolish distinctions based upon color, or to enforce social, as distinguished from political equality, or a commingling of the two races upon terms unsatisfactory to either."
      The lone dissenter, Justice John Harlan, showed incredible foresight when he wrote "Our Constitution is color-blind, and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens. In respect of civil rights, all citizens are equal before the law...In my opinion, the judgment this day rendered will, in time, prove to be quite as pernicious as the decision made by this tribunal in the Dred Scott case...The present decision, it may well be apprehended, will not only stimulate aggressions, more or less brutal and irritating, upon the admitted rights of colored citizens, but will encourage the belief that it is possible, by means of state enactments, to defeat the beneficient purposes which the people of the United States had in view when they adopted the recent amendments of the Constitution."
      Over time, the words of Justice Harlan rang true. The Plessy decision set the precedent that "separate" facilities for blacks and whites were constitutional as long as they were "equal." The "separate but equal" doctrine was quickly extended to cover many areas of public life, such as restaurants, theaters, restrooms, and public schools. Not until 1954, in the equally important Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision, would the "separate but equal" doctrine be struck down.
1866 Irish Fenians raid Pigeon Hill, Québec
1864 Abe Lincoln renominated for President by Republican Party's convention in Baltimore.
1863 Battle of Milliken's Bend, Louisiana
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1863 Mexico City captured by French troops
1839 Hawaiian Declaration of Rights is signed
1795 (19 prairial an III) BLONDY Pierre André Thomas, compagnon serrurier, domicilié à Paris, est condamné à une année de déportation par la conseil militaire, comme convaincu d'avoir voulu forcer le tambour à battre la générale, et d'être entré dans le sein de la Convention dans la révolte des 3 et 4 prairial.
1795 (19 prairial an III) GUYOT Claude Françoise Humbert,omiciliée à Paris est condamnée à la déportation par le conseil militaire séant à Paris, comme convaincue d'avoir approuvé l'assassinat du Représentant Ferraut, d'avoir dit que tous les députés étaient des gueux, par ces faits avoir pris part à la révolte qui a éclaté le 2 et 3 prairial an 3.
1795 (19 prairial an III) GUYOT Lemmé Etienne, cordonnier, domicilié à Paris est condamné à la déportation par le conseil militaire séant à Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir excité des troubles à la porte des boulangers, et d'avoir terrasse des feuillants après l'assassinat du Représentant Ferraut, "l'on a bien fait de les mettre à la raison, ce sont des gueux" .

1793 DUBOIS Adrien, domicilié à Vertuzey, département de la Meuse, est condamné à la déportation par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
1776 Richard Henry Lee of Virginia proposed to the Continental Congress a resolution calling for a Declaration of Independence.
1775 United Colonies change name to United States
1769 Frontiersman Daniel Boone first sees the forests and woodlands of present-day Kentucky. The Kentucky Historical Society celebrates June 7 as "Boone Day." Read The Adventures of Colonel Daniel Boon, Formerly A Hunter online.
1769, frontiersman Daniel Boone first began to explore the present-day Bluegrass State.
1654 Louis XIV is crowned King of France in Rheims. — Sacre de Louis XIV à Reims.
1640 Se produce en Barcelona un levantamiento popular, protagonizado por los aldeanos o segadors, conocido como Corpus de Sangre, contra el virrey de Cataluña y ministro de Felipe IV, Conde de Santa Coloma (Dalmacio de Queralt).
1614 2nd parliment of King James I, disolves passing no legislation
1494 España y Portugal firman el Tratado de Tordesillas, acuerdo por el que se establecían las zonas de jurisdicción de ambos reinos en el Atlántico, a 370 leguas al oeste de las Azores. Fue ratificado por los Reyes Católicos el 02 julio y por Juan II de Portugal el 05 septiembre de 1494.
1099 The armies of the First Crusade (1096-99) reach the walls of Jerusalem.
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< 06 Jun 08 Jun >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 07 June:

2006 Eight terrorists including Abd al-Rahman and Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, born on 20 October 1966 in Zarqa, Iraq, most notorious Sunni terrorist chieftain, killed at 18:15 (14:15 UT) by a targeted bombing by the US air force. Rahman was his “spiritual adviser”. —(060608)
2005 Capt. Phillip T. Esposito, 30, and 1st Lt. Louis E. Allen, 34, murdered at a forward US army operating base in Iraq by Staff Sgt. Alberto Martinez, 37. —(070105)
2003 Police officers James Crump, Arnold Strickland, and dispatcher Ace Mealer, alone in the Fayette, Alabama, police station, with Devin Moore, whom they were booking at 05:30 (09:30 UT) for auto theft. Moore grabs a gun, shoots the three, flees in a police car, which he abandons across the state line in Mississippi, where he is arrested at 09:00, 20 km east of the Alabama border.
Martin and Gracia Burnham2003 Roosevelt Bonds, 51, beaten with a size 12 high heeled shoe by his 100-kg ex-girlfriend Anna Rhinehart, 40, sitting on his chest, after he punched her in the mouth knocking out her two front teeth during an argument started when she finds him at 03:00 in a New York City restaurant.
2002 Ediborah Yap, Martin Burnham, 42, and four Abu Sayyaf bandits who were holding them hostage, in a rescue attack by hundreds of Filipino elite soldiers, near Siraway, Zamboanga del Norte, southern Philippines. Among the wounded is Gracia Burnham (born 17 Jan 1959), Martin's wife, with a gunshot wound all the way through her right thigh. The Burnhams [04 Jan 2001 photo >], New Tribes Mission missionaries from Wichita, Kansas, in the Philippines for ten years, were kidnapped on 27 May 2001, at the Dos Palmas Island Resort at Honda Bay off the island of Palawan, where they were celebrating their 18th wedding anniversary. Yap, a Filipino nurse, was kidnapped days later when the Abu Sayyaf, with the Burnhams in tow, raided a hospital in the southern town of Lamitan to seize hospital staff and medicine to treat their wounded. The guerrillas kidnapped 18 other persons along with the Burnhams, including 17 Filipinos and Corona, California, resident Guillermo Sobero. Sobero was beheaded by the guerrillas in June 2001. Some of the other hostages were murdered too, but most were freed. By November 2001 only the Burnhams and Yap remained hostages. The Abu Sayyaf fighters are thought to number only 60 or so from an original force of 1000 after a year of army offensives. The group started out fighting to carve a Muslim state out of the southern Philippines, but it has degenerated into a kidnap-for-ransom business.
2002 Takayuki Niimi, 32, soon after being punched in the face several times and then, when he fell over, stabbed in the head with an umbrella by acquaintance Ryuji Sakamoto, 32, enraged by Niimi's long-time rudeness in failing to use an honorific suffix, such as “san”, when speaking to him, in Sakuragi, Japan. Both men were unemployed.
2002:: 67 persons on a bus crowded with Afghan families returning home after years in Pakistani refugee camps, which plunges into the Kabul River, near Sarobi, 25 km east of Kabul.
click for the big picture2001 Royal Bengal tiger, shot at the Royal Chitaun National Park, 150 km south of Katmandu, Nepal, after killing five people between 31 May and 06 June in neighboring villages. There are some 5000 Royal Bengal tigers in the world. India has about 3000, Bangladesh has some 300, Nepal has some 150. [click image for more on R.B. tigers >]
1999 Francisco “Paco” Stanley, 57, and Jorge Gil, gunned down on Mexico City's beltway. Stanley era un abogado formado en la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), la principal del país, y tenía especialidades en sicología, mercadotecnia y publicidad Ex profesor de enseñánza secundaria, se inició en la locución radial en 1969 y durante la década de 1980 incursionó en la televisión para convertirse en uno de sus más populares animadores. emisión Gil era un periodista que aparecía con Stanley en la emisión "Una tras Otra". There would follow a protracted prosecution which would destroy the reputation of chief prosecutor Samuel del Villar and end on 25 January 2001 with the acquittals of Stanley's on-screen sidekick, Mario Rodriguez Bezares, and an aspiring actress on his program, Paola Durante. Both had been charged with setting up Stanley for the streetside killing. Also acquitted would be alleged drug lord Luis Amezcua, to whom prosecutors claimed the slain comedian had owed money for drug buys.
^ 1998 James Byrd Jr., 49, Black, is chained to a pickup truck and dragged to his death in Jasper, Texas, a crime that shocks the world.
      Three men, Lawrence Russell Brewer Jr., 31, John William "Bill" King, 23, and Shawn Allen Berry, 23, chained him to the back of a pickup truck and dragged him three miles down the road. Byrd was black; his three killers -- whose guilt was never really in doubt -- were white.
     Byrd, a black Jasper resident born on 02 May 1949, got so drunk at a party that his friends and relatives refused to drive him home. So he walked. When three white men, Berry, Brewer and King, offered him a ride in Berry's primer-gray pickup, he apparently jumped right in. What happened next is hazy, but the four men didn't go home. Instead, they started swilling beer together and smoking cigarettes.
      Eventually, some combination of Berry, Brewer and King tired of the camaraderie and decided to chain their newfound companion by his ankles to the back of their pickup and drag him down a county road. Finally, Byrd's head hit a culvert and split, along with one arm, from the rest of his body. Brewer, Berry and King unchained the body and left it outside the gates of a local graveyard, then went their separate ways. Byrd's buttocks and heels were ground down almost to the bone. He was alive and probably conscious until his head hit the culvert. His last moments couldn't have been anything short of excruciating. Berry later said that he was a horrified bystander, not an active participant. He said that the other men threatened him, saying "the same thing can happen to a nigger lover."
     Brewer and King both had racist tattoos and open ties with a white supremacist group. While they were in jail in Jasper County, Brewer sent King a note proudly boasting that after Byrd's death, "we are bigger stars, or should I say hero of the day, than we ever expected." King first (25 February 1999), and then Brewer (September 1999) were tried and sentenced to death. Berry, who did not have the same racist antecedents as the other two, was sentenced to life in prison (parole possible after 40 years)(18 November 1999).
1997 Amos Tutuola, escritor nigeriano.
^ 1989 Still a few more persons killed in the Chinese anti-democracy repression. http://www.cnd.org/June4th/1989.06-07.hz8.html
"Quiet Day, Only Two People Shot" -- Foreigners Scramble to Leave China
     
Swept by alarms, reverberating with the crump of distant artillery fire throughout the night, Beijing looked scarred and battle-worn Wednesday morning 890607 as rival armies appeared to be wrestling for control of the city.
      But it seems optimism must find some outlet in these desperate days. "We had a quiet day. Only two people shot that I know of, at least in this neighborhood," one man said. He was standing next to his bicycle at the intersection of Dong Dan and Chang An Avenues.
      Chang An, the Avenue of Eternal Peace, has been crunched up and deeply furrowed by the treads of tanks, armored cars and trucks, which come and go in thunderous convoys, heading east to the city's outskirts at night and returning in the morning.
      Thousands of soldiers, many firing long bursts wildly in the air, moved out of Tiananmen on Wednesday morning. While the convoy rolled east, other troops were reported approaching the city centre from the south, giving rise to the theory that a rotation of forces was taking place.
      Many Beijing residents say they want troops loyal to the reformists in the Communist Party leadership to confront units which led the bloody Tiananmen assault.
      Many people are leaving the city for safer places. Long processions of people carrying cloth bags and belongings tied up in blankets can be seen heading for the Beijing railroad station, and train whistles blow through the gray mornings, unnaturally loud in this unaccustomed silence.
      Water supplies are beginning to fail sporadically in high buildings in the city. Long lines are forming at the few shops and vegetable stalls still open. Food is twice as expensive as usual.
      Governments and business firms around the world scrambled Tuesday to get foreign nationals out of China as fears grew that the country could be plunged into civil war. Some governments chartered special planes for a mass evacuation reminiscent of the alarm that swept the foreign community in Iran during the 1979 Islamic revolution. At least three special charter flights were sent to Beijing on Tuesday, and others were expected. Most major Western countries, fearing the worst, told their nationals to get out of China as quickly as possible. Some big US corporations already have begun pulling their staffs out of China. Hundreds of anxious foreigners jammed airline offices and swamped embassy switchboards with telephone calls seeking advice. Some 2000 frantic foreigners crowded into Beijing's airport to await the first plane out, terrified by the weekend carnage and the presence of tanks near their apartment compounds.
      In Shanghai, angry crowds set fire to a train Tuesday night after it roared into Shanghai's rail station, killing six student protesters manning a barricade near the tracks. Six other people were injured by the train, which was unable to stop in time. Shanghai Radio said that the irate crowds set fire to the train engine and that 21 railway security officials were beaten and injured when they tried to put out the blaze.
      Thousands of Hong Kong residents donned black armbands and observed a one-day general strike in the British colony on Wednesday to mourn the victims of the Beijing bloodshed.
      An Italian businessman returning to Hong Kong from the central city of Chengdu said he saw a girl bayonetted to death on Sunday morning. The businessman, who asked not to be identified because he might have to return to China, said he saw from the window of his office soldiers arrive in a truck, fire teargas and advance with fixed bayonets, shooting as they went. "I saw with my own eyes a girl, 15 to 16 years old, with a bayonet inside," said the businessman, holding both hands to his stomach. He said the girl was about 20 meters away from him at the time. The soldier then bayonetted her twice more in the chest and left the body on the street.
      A British businessman returning from the same city said: "Chengdu is burning. It is seriously out of control." On Monday night he and another foreigner were in the Jinjiang Hotel when it was attacked by a mob and a small fire was started. About 45 foreigners moved to the private quarters of the US consulate in a wing of the hotel on the second floor. British engineer Rob Casey, 47, who also took shelter in the consulate, said the rioters were hooligans and unemployed troublemakers, not students.
1983: 170 personas en un naufragio, en el Volga, al chocar el barco en que viajaban con un puente ferroviario.
1980 Henry Valentine Miller, US writer, born in 1891, whose autobiographical novels had a liberating influence on mid-20th century literature.
1980 Philip Guston, Canadian US Abstract Expressionist painter born in 1913. — MORE ON GUSTON AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1970 Manuel Gómez-Moreno, historiador y arqueólogo español.
1968 José Pardines Azcay, guardia civil, en el el primer asesinato de ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna), en Villabona (Guipuzcoa).
1967 Dorothy Parker, author-critic famed for her caustic wit, in New York.
1966 Jean Arp, Alsacian Dadaist~Surrealist poet, artist, sculptor born on 16 September 1886. — links to images.
1962 Claude Piegts, vendeur, né 1934, et sergent Albert Dovecar, né 1937, fusillés pour participation à l'Organisation de l'Armée Secrète.
^ 1954 Alan Turing, English mathematician and computer science pioneer.
      Turing was born on 23 June 1954. At age twenty-four, he suggested a theoretical calculating device that could carry out step-by-step mathematical operations based on a program. The "Turing Machine" became the theoretical model for work on digital computers in the 1940s. Turing also laid the groundwork for the field of artificial intelligence, arguing that computers would one day think like humans. He devised a test to measure this capacity, called the "Turing test."
     Turing was arrested for violation of British homosexuality statutes in 1952 when he reported to the police details of a homosexual affair. He had gone to the police because he had been threatened with blackmail. He was tried as a homosexual on 31 March 1952, offering no defence other than that he saw no wrong in his actions. Found guilty he was given the alternatives of prison or oestrogen injections for a year. He accepted the latter.
      Although he was completely open about his sexuality, he had a further unhappiness which he was forbidden to talk about due to the Official Secrets Act. The decoding operation at Bletchley Park became the basis for the new decoding and intelligence work at GCHQ. With the cold war this became an important operation and Turing continued to work for GCHQ, although his Manchester colleagues were totally unaware of this. After his conviction, his security clearance was withdrawn. Worse than that, security officers were now extremely worried that someone with complete knowledge of the work going on at GCHQ was now labeled a security risk. He had many foreign colleagues, as any academic would, but the police began to investigate his foreign visitors. A holiday which Turing took in Greece in 1953 caused consternation among the security officers.
      Turing died of potassium cyanide poisoning while conducting electrolysis experiments. The cyanide was found on a half eaten apple beside him. An inquest concluded that it was self-administered but his mother always maintained that it was an accident.
^ 1942 Some soldiers killed in Japanese landing in Aleutians
      During World War II, Japanese forces capture Kiska and Attu in Alaska’s Aleutian island chain. The Aleutians, a chain of rugged, volcanic islands curving west from the tip of the Alaska Peninsula to Russia, became part of the United States in 1867 with the purchase of Alaska from Russia. With the outbreak of World War II, a US naval base was established at Dutch Harbor in the Aleutians, but on 03 June 1942, the base was devastated by a Japanese bombing raid. The Japanese attack on the Aleutians was actually organized to divert US forces from the major Japanese offensive at Midway, a far more strategic island in the Central Pacific.
      However, US intelligence had broken the Japanese codes, and rightly recognized the attack in the Alaskan Islands as merely a diversionary tactic. US forces massed at Midway, where they defeated the Japanese--stopped from even landing on the Midway Islands.
     This left the Aleutians easy prey to the Japanese, who killed 25 US soldiers upon landing in Attu, then proceeded to relocate and intern the inhabitants, as well as those at Kiska.
     In the spring of 1943, after one year of Japanese occupation, US forces prepared for a counterattack from bases on Adak and Amchitka. On May 11, two US amphibious divisions stormed onto Attu. Japanese resistance was stiff, and the island did not fall firmly into US control until 30 May. In addition to battle casualties, hundreds of US soldiers became very ill or died from the extreme cold encountered during the campaign.
      In August, after intensive US bombardments, the Japanese evacuated Kiska, and the liberation the Aleutians was complete. The reconquest of the islands secured the US northern flank in the Pacific and freed US forces to join in Allied offensives underway elsewhere in the Pacific Ocean.
1942 Jean Dunand, Swiss Art Deco dsculptor, metalworker, painter, and designer born on 20 March (May?) 1877. Not to be confused with the founder of the Red Cross, Jean-Henri Dunant [08 May 1828 – 30 Oct 1910]. — more with links to images.
1935 May Carey, hanged in Virginia.
1912 Albert Welti, Swiss painter and engraver born on 18 February 1862. — more with links to images.
1909 Fritz Overbeck, German artist born on 15 September 1869
1907 Edward John Routh, Quebec-born (20 January 1831) English mathematician. Author of A Treatise on Dynamics of Rigid Bodies (1860), A Treatise on Analytic Statistics (1891), A Treatise on Dynamics of a Particle (1898).
^ 1866 Chief Seattle dies near the city named for him
      Thirteen years after US settlers founded the city named for him, Chief Seattle dies in a nearby village of his people. Born sometime around 1790, Seattle (Seathl) was a chief of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes who lived around the Pacific Coast bay that is today called Puget Sound. He was the son of a Suquamish father and a Duwamish mother, a lineage that allowed him to gain influence in both tribes. By the early 1850s, small bands of Euro-Americans had begun establishing villages along the banks of Puget Sound. Chief Seattle apparently welcomed his new neighbors and seems to have treated them with kindness. In 1853, several settlers moved to a site on Elliott Bay to establish a permanent town--since Chief Seattle had proved so friendly and welcoming, the settlers named their tiny new settlement in his honor. The Euro-American settlers picked the site because of the luxuriant forest on the bluff behind the new village. The Gold Rush in California had created a booming market for timber, and soon most of the villagers were at work cutting the trees and "skidding" them down a long chute to a newly constructed sawmill. The chute became known as "skid road," and in time, it became the main street in Seattle, though it kept its original name. When the Seattle business district later moved north, the area became a haven for drunks and derelicts. Consequently, "skid road" or "skid row" became lingo for the dilapidated area of any town. Not all the Puget Sound Indians, however, were as friendly toward the white settlers as Chief Seattle. War broke out in 1855, and Indians from the White River Valley south of Seattle attacked the village. Although he believed the whites would eventually drive his people to extinction, Chief Seattle argued that resistance would merely anger the settlers and hasten the Indians' demise. By 1856, many of the hostile Indians had concluded that Chief Seattle was right and made peace. Rather than fight, Seattle tried to learn white ways. Jesuit missionaries introduced him to Catholicism, and he became a devout believer. He observed morning and evening prayers throughout the rest of his life. The people of the new city of Seattle also paid some respect to the chief's traditional religion. The Suquamish believed the mention of a dead man's name disturbs his eternal rest. To provide Chief Seattle with a pre-payment for the difficulties he would face in the afterlife, the people of Seattle levied a small tax on themselves to use the chief's name. He died in 1866 at the approximate age of 77.
1862 William Mumford, hanged in New Orleans for destroying the US flag, first US citizen hanged for treason
1847 Adolph Göpel, German mathematician born on 29 September 1812.
1843 Georges Michel, French painter born on 12 January 1763. MORE ON MICHEL AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
^ Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
1794 (19 prairial an II):
DUSEVEL Pierre Philippe Joseph, 64 ans, né à Bouque Maison, cultivateur à Divion, guillotiné à Arras
MARSY Jean Baptiste, 51 ans, né à Laventie, vivandier, attaché aux armée, époux de Routier Thérèse, guillotiné à Arras
GAUCHERAN Junior, propriétaire, domicilié à Bédouin (Vaucluse), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
LASSALE Joseph Augustin, ex noble, et lieutenant de vaisseau, département des Hautes-Pyrénées, par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme émigré.
SEGUIN Jean, chapelier, 26 ans, né et domicilié à Ste-Bazeille (Lot et Garonne), comme calomniateur, par la commission militaire de Bordeaux.
Domiciliés dans le département de la Mayenne, par le commission révolutionnaire séante à Laval, comme brigands de la Vendée:
HAMELIN Pierre, tisserand, domicilié à Monjean — JAMIN Etienne, tisserand, domicilié à Montigné — ROBIN Louis, laboureur, domicilié à Montsurs
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
LARGET Joseph Simon, employé à l'administration des domaines nationaux, 31 ans, né à Orgelay (Jura), domicilié à Paris, comme conspirateur et assassin de Jarry, et l'un des plus grand prôneurs de la faction de la Gironde.
LECOCQ Louis, 30 ans, potier de terre, né à Balancourt (Seine et Oise), domicilié à Paris, comme conspirateur, ayant désigné les députés de la Montagne comme scélérats, et dit que Marat et Robespierre étaient de ce nombre, que l'on était heureux d'être délivré du premier, que c'était un coquin de moins; et en déchirant l'acte constitutionnel, en disant : " voilà qui est bon pour allumer le feu".
LECOINTRE Pierre, volontaire au 9ème régiment d'artillerie légère, 18 ans, né et domicilié à St Joint (Seine Inférieure), comme conspirateur, ayant dit qu'il avait été fait prisonnier lors de la trahison de Dumourier avec 160 mille hommes que la République avait perdus dans cette affaire, ajoutant que l'armée du Nord avait demandé le rétablissement de la religion; que l'on pourrait tuer et assassiner les membres des sociétés populaires à la tribune, et qu'il n'en serait rien du tout.
THEZUT Guillaume, 38 ans, ex-noble, né et domicilié à Aumont (Saône et Loire), comme conspirateur ayant crié: vive le roi, et ayant dit à deux membres du comité de surveillance de Jouy qui étaient présents à ce propos, qu'il se f……. d'eux
DOMONT P. M. 36 ans, né à Louvancour (Somme), commis au bureau des travaux publics, domicilié à Paris, comme complice d'un complot qui a existé contre la liberté du Peuple au 10 août 1792.
      ... comme contre-révolutionnaires:
RAYER Antoine, cultivateur, 34 ans, né aux Granges, domicilié à Boissy (Seine et Marne), ...et complice de l’assassinat du nommé Jarry Officier de santé à Boissy-sur-Marne.
LECINCQUE Henry, 50 ans, commis aux ventes, né à Nancy, département de la Seine [sic], ...et comme assassin de Jarry.
BACHELIER Pierre Louis, 44 ans, cultivateur, né à Doux, domicilié à Boissy, canton de Rosay (Seine et Marne).
DUMONT Pierre Nicolas, commis au bureau des travaux publics, domicilié à Paris.
            ... domiciliés dans le département des Ardennes:
BOURGEOIS Jean Baptiste Antoine, 34 ans, né et domicilié à Mézière (Meurthe), administrateur du département des Ardennes.
GROMAIRE Jean Sulpice, administrateur du département des Ardennes, domicilié à Chery.
                   ... et nés dans le département des Ardennes:
LEGRAND Jean, 45 ans, né à Gounelmont, administrateur du département des Ardennes, domicilié à Bouvesmont, ... de complicité avec Lafayette.
LEMAIRE Jean Jacques, 66 ans, né à Ste Menehould, cultivateur, domicilié à Champigneul, ... de complicité avec Lafayette.
BLAY Jean Baptiste, 29 ans, né à Vernancourt, administration du département des Ardennes, domicilié à Vadelincourt, canton de Sedan.
BOUCHER Nicolas Pierre, 45 ans, notaire et administrateur du département des Ardennes, né et domicilié à Bar-sur-Bezency canton de Grandpré.
DESHAYES Etienne, 43 ans, procureur général du département des Ardennes, né et domicilié à Rhetel.
DESSAULLY Henry, 43 ans, né à Bieerne ex noble, cultivateur et membre du département , domicilié à Montlaurent.
GERARD Claude Gabriel, ex administrateur du département des Ardennes, 34 ans, né et domicilier à Mouzou.
GERARD Claude Jean Baptiste, administrateur du département des Ardennes, 49 ans, né à Mouzon, domicilié à Sedan.
1793:
Conducteurs d'une recrue de volontaires, domiciliés à Limoges (Haute Vienne), par le tribunal criminel du département de l'Yonne, comme contre-révolutionnaires.:
DUVILLARD LéonardSAUVAGE Bernard
1667 Thomas Dirk de Keyser, Dutch Baroque era painter born in 1596. — MORE ON DE KEYSER AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1631 Mumtax Mahal wife of Shah Jahan of India, her tomb (Taj Mahal)
1329 Robert Bruce, 53, leader of the Scots.
0555 Vigilius, Pope
 
< 06 Jun 08 Jun >
^  Births which occurred on a 07 June:

1965 Damien Hirst, English artist. — more with links to images. —(060612)
^ 1955 The $64'000 Question
      CBS unveils The $64'000 Question, which will fast become the model for a small army of money-minded quiz shows. Hosted by Hal March, The $64'000 Question was founded on the simple but alluring premise of doling out fiscal rewards to contestants who were able to answer a series of quiz questions. Contestants who racked up correct answers raked in piles of money, until they reached the magic $64'000 plateau.
      Originally pegged as a summer fill-in, The $64,000 Question took the postwar public by storm, as millions of viewers tuned in to watch their fellow Americans become rich and famous. The show made a star out of Joyce Brothers, a psychologist who plied her knowledge of boxing into an enduring spot on the talk show circuit, and handed a hefty $192,000 to eleven-year-old Robert Storm.
      However, despite minting celebrities and spawning spin-offs and competitors, The $64'000 Question's run at the top of the television kingdom lasted only until 1958. That same year the FCC discovered that a number of the quiz shows were in fact fixed and that certain contestants were handed answers to questions in advance of the show. The ensuing scandal prompted the television networks to drop The $64'000 Question and the rest of the once-mighty fleet of quiz shows.
^ 1954 Louise Erdrich, award-winning novelist, in Little Falls, Minnesota.
      Erdrich's Native American heritage became a dominant theme in her novels, which explored the lives of American Indian families. Her grandfather was tribal chairman for the Turtle Mountain Reservation in North Dakota, and Erdrich was raised in the nearby town of Wahpeton, where her parents taught at a boarding school for Native American children run by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
      Erdrich took a B.A. at Dartmouth College, where she met her future husband, Michael Dorris, who was also part Native American, descended from Modoc Indians from Kentucky. She earned her master's degree at Johns Hopkins. At various times, she worked as a field hand, a highway construction worker, a waitress, a lifeguard, and the editor of a paper for Native Americans in Boston. She and Dorris married and adopted three children. They later had three of their own as well, and struggled to support their growing family until Erdrich won the prestigious Nelson Algren fiction prize in 1982, with an award of $5000.
      The award-winning story grew into her first novel, Love Medicine (1984), which won the National Book Critics Circle Award. Erdrich's subsequent books, including The Beet Queen (1986), Tracks (1988), The Bingo Palace (1994), and Tales of Burning Love (1996), were critical and popular successes. Meanwhile, Dorris' writing was also winning awards and gaining recognition. The pair, who dedicated all their books to each other, seemed the perfect literary couple until Dorris committed suicide in 1997. Dorris was about to be indicted for sexually and physically abusing their children.
      Erdrich had secretly been separated from Dorris for more than a year at the time of his death. Her 1998 novel, The Antelope Wife, features a deteriorating marriage and a husband who slides into drunkenness and self-pity before shooting himself. In the book's dedication, she was careful to make it clear that the subject matter was not based on Dorris' life. It read, "This book was written before the death of my husband."
1952 Orhan Pamuk, Turkish writer who would have the courage to admit to the truth of the Armenian Genocide (1915-1917). For this he would be persecuted and the Turkish government would publicize its contempt for human rights by charging him with the crime of “insulting Turkish identity“ and putting him on trial. Among his novels are: Cevdet Bey ve Ogullari (Cevdet Bey and His Sons) — Sessiz Ev (The House of Silence) (1988) — Benim Adim Kirmizi (My Name is Red) — Beyaz Kale (The White Castle) — The Black Book (Kara Kitap) — Yeni Hayat (The New Life) — Kar (Snow). He also wrote Istanbul: Memories and the City. — his web site — (051217)
1947 Eric Wieschaus, biólogo suizo nacionalizado estadounidense.
1917 Gwendolyn Brooks, US poet (The Bean Eaters)
1909 Peter Wallace Rodino Jr. who was a Democratic US Congressman from New Jersey from 1949 to 1989. He was the chairman of the House Judiciary Committee during President Richard Nixon's impeachment proceedings. He died on 07 May 2005.
1899 Elizabeth Bowen Dublin, novelist (The Death of the Heart)
1896 Robert Mulliken US chemist and physicist who died on 31 October 1986. He received the 1966 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for “fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules.” — (051217)
1889 Rodolphe-Théophile Bosshard, Swiss artist who died in 1960.
1869 Samuel John Lamorna Birch, British artist who died on 07 January 1955.
1868 Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Scottish Art Nouveau architect, designer, and painter, who died on 10 December 1928. — MORE ON MACKINTOSH AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1863 Edward Burr Van Vleck, US mathematician who died on 02 June 1943. Almost all Van Vleck's research papers were in the fields of function theory and differential equations.
1860 Malaseka, The Indian Wife of the White Hunter, by Mrs Ann Stevens, becomes the first US "dime novel" published.
1848 Eugène-Henri-Paul Gauguin, one of the leading French painters of the Post-Impressionist period, who died on 08 May 1903. MORE ON GAUGUIN AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1819 Edwin Hayes, Irish painter who died on 07 November 1904. — more with links to images
1778 George Bryan "Beau" Brummel London England, English dandy
1770 Earl of Liverpool (C) British PM (1812-1827)
1724 (infant baptism) Franz Anton Maulbertsch, Austrian painter who died on 07 August 1796. — MORE ON MAULBERTSCH AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1502 Pope Gregory XIII, he introduced Gregorian calendar in 1582
 
Holidays Chad : National Day

Religious Observances Christian : Bl Marie-Thérèse de Soubiran / Luth: Seattle, Chief of the Duwamish / Santos Cándido, Roberto, Jeremías y Abencio.
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Thoughts for the day: “Pale ink beats a good memory.”
“A good memory beats any ink when it comes to keeping secrets.”
“To organize and retrieve information, a good computer memory beats any ink.”

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