• Turmoil in China after TienAnMen massacre... • D~Day !... • Robert Kennedy dies... • Patrick Henry dies... • 2nd day of 6~Day War... • Les juifs persecutés en Espagne... • Indian army massacres Sikhs... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Orwell's 1984... • Thomas Mann is born... • BenefitsCheckUp... • SEC... • 1st movie drive~in... • Battle of Belleau Wood... • 58¢ theft could cost taxpayers $300'000... • 1st museum... • First US President to ride a train...
a 06 June:
6666 Day of the Super-Beast?
2012 Transit of Venus (between Earth and Sun) from about 22:10 UT (05 Jun) to 04:50 UT, the first one since 08 June 2004. The next one will be on 11 December 2117.
2006 Day of the Beast? (666)
2005 The President of Bolivia, Carlos Diego Mesa Gisbert [12 Aug 1953~], resigns for the same reason that, on 07 March 2005, he offered his resignation (rejected by Congress the next day), and that, on 17 October 2003, his predecessor Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada [01 Jul 1930~] resigned and fled the country, resulting in Mesa, Vice-President at the time, becoming President: massive popular demonstrations demanding the nationalization of Bolivia's vast natural gas reserves. An 18 July 2004 referendum did little to settle the matter. The public is equally opposed to Mesa's constitutionally designated successors Vice-President (and president of the Senate) Hormando Vaca Díez [30 Apr 1949~] and Mario Cossío Cortez [01 May 1960~], president of Congress. So they too resign and, on 09 June 2005, Congress elects as interim President Eduardo Rodríguez Veltzé [02 Marc 1956~], the chief justice of the Supreme Court.
2003 Representatives of five of the main Palestinian terrorist-resistance organizations — Hamas, the Islamic Jihad, Fatah, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) and the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) — meet in Gaza City. They denounce what US-imposed Palestinian Premier Mahmmoud Abbas said (that he will put a stop to their terrorism) and didn't say (refugees' right of return, etc.) when meeting in Aqaba on 04 June with his Israeli counterpart war-criminal Ariel Sharon and US usurper-President “Dubya” Bush. The terrorist organizations vow to pursue their “resistance” against the Israeli occupation as a legitimate right for the Palestinians.
2002 Wireless telephone stocks crash.
Shares of wireless telephone companies plunge after AirGate PCS Inc. (PCSA) cut its subscriber growth forecast for the current quarter. AirGate shares fall from the previous close of $8.40 to and intraday low of $2.67 and close at $2.75 on the NASDAQ. The shares had started trading at $26.81 on 27 September 1999, reached $112.25 on 03 April 2000, and traded at $58.20 as recently as 26 November 2001. Today is their all-time low. [PCSA 3-year price chart >]
AirGate is a provider of wireless Personal Communications Services exclusively licensed to use the Sprint PCS brand name in 21 markets located in the southeastern US.
AirGate said late the previous day that it expects to add between 22'000 and 27'000 net new subscribers in its fiscal third quarter ending on 30 June 2002, instead of the 35'000 to 40'000 it forecast earlier. It blamed a greater-than-expected decline in new customers after it instituted a deposit requirement for Clear Pay, a plan with a spending limit designed for customers with poor credit. AirGate also warned that it may fail to meet minimum customer requirements under a senior credit agreement.
Following the news, brokerage firms lowered they investment ratings for PCSA: J.P. Morgan and Bank of America (Buy to Mkt Perform),
Raymond James (Strong Buy to Mkt Perform), Robert W. Baird (Mkt Outperform to Mkt Perform), Thomas Weisel (Buy to Underperform), Credit Lyonnais (Add to Reduce), Morgan Stanley (Equal Weight to Underweight), Merrill Lynch (Near Term Neutral to NT Reduce/Sell), Legg Mason (Hold to Sell).
Late Thursday, credit rating agency Standard & Poor's threatened to cut AirGate's "B-minus" credit rating, its sixth highest "junk" grade.
Some brokerages also cut their ratings on other Sprint PCS affiliates, including Alamosa Holdings Inc. and UbiquiTel Inc., due to concerns that they may be affected by Clear Pay as well. Sprint PCS dictates pricing plans for services, including Clear Pay. When Clear Pay was first rolled out last year, it required no deposit, but Sprint PCS affiliates began requiring deposits this year after the plan started attracting a disproportionate number of customers with bad credit.
On the New York Stock Exchange the stock of Alamosa Holdings Inc. (APS) is the top percentage loser. It drops from the previous close of $3.65 to an intraday low of $1.93 and closes at $2.49. It started trading on 15 March 1999 at $6.00, reached an all-time high of $39.88 on 27 March 2000, traded at $20.00 on 16 August 2001. Today's low is its all-time low. The stock had just been downgraded from Buy to LT Buy by JP Morgan, and from Market Outperform to Market Perform by Robert W. Baird. Alamosa Holdings is a provider of wireless personal communications services and a network operator of Sprint PCS, with the exclusive right to provide services under the Sprint PCS brand name. It spends more money than it earns. [APS 3-year price chart >]
Shares of US Unwired Inc. (UNWR) closed off $1.05, at $3.90. UbiquiTel Inc. (UPCS) closed off 48 cents, at 91 cents on NASDAQ. Both hit all-time lows earlier in the day. Shares of Sprint PCS, the nation's No. 4 wireless operator, closed at $7.99, off $1.79, even though it requires no deposits for Clear Pay and should not see similar declines in new customers with poor credit histories.
Sprint PCS' parent, Sprint Corp. (FON), fell $1.43, to close at $15.15. Investors are becoming convinced that the business model for Sprint PCS affiliates is not working.
Other wireless stocks were also hurt. Shares of AT&T Wireless Services Inc. (AWE) hit an all-time low of $7.25 before closing off 58 cents, at $7.40 on the New York Stock Exchange. Shares of Nextel Communications Inc. (NXTL) fell 46 cents, to close at $3.95, and shares of Triton PCS Holdings Inc. (TPC) fell $1.91, to close at $8.20.
The Philadelphia wireless telecommunications index (YLS) fell 6.3%. It has fallen 67% in the first 5 months of 2002 as investors have abandoned wireless stocks, spurred by fears of a slowdown in growth and bad news in the broader telecommunications sector.
2001 For the first time in history, the majority in the US Senate changes without an election. With 50 Republicans and 50 Democrats, the Republicans had the majority by the tie-breaking vote of the Republican Vice-President. But this day the switch of Vermont Senator James Jeffords from Republican to Independent becomes effective, giving the Democrats a 50-49 majority.
2001 Manhattan's Jewish Museum discovers that one of the more than 50 pre-1921 paintings by Chagall (07 Jul 1887 28 Mar 1985)on temporary exhibition has been stolen. The 1914 painting, 20x25cm, is Study for 'Over Vitebsk (Chagall's hometown, now in Belarus), valued at $1 million. It shows an old man wearing a cap, carrying a walking stick and beggar's sack, and floating in the sky above the village. A typewritten, one-page letter claiming responsibility for the theft, postmarked in the Bronx on 12 June 2001, says that the painting will be returned when peace has been achieved between Israel and Palestine. On 23 January 2002 the US postal service in Kansas opens an undeliverable parcel and finds inside a painting believed to be the stolen Chagall.
2000 Unilever agrees to buy Bestfoods for $20.3 billion in a deal creating the world's biggest food company.
1999: 58¢ theft may cost taxpayers hundreds of thousands
It is not the crime of the century when a man allegedly steal 58 cents from a car in rural New Jersey, but his trial and incarceration could end up costing taxpayers hundreds of thousands of dollars.
In 2001, over protests from a taxpayers' advocacy group and civil libertarians, prosecutors would press for a prison sentence of between five and 10 years for a drifter accused of stealing the money in Greenwich, New Jersey, in 1999. In drifter Michael Monroe's defense, his attorney said he slid his hand through a slightly open window of the car to give more air to a Rottweiler dog that had been left inside by its owner. It had already cost taxpayers $16'000 to keep Monroe in prison before his trial started on 26 March 2001 in Warren County Superior Court, local officials said.
"That's a waste of taxpayers' money for a crime that wasn't life-threatening," said Sam Perelli, state chairman of United Taxpayers of New Jersey. "For 58 cents it seems kind of crazy to prosecute him and use this kind of massive expenditure to incarcerate this man."
If he receives the maximum prison sentence, local officials said the tab for his confinement would be about $270'000. "Ten years is a long time to put a man in prison for a burglary that only got him 58 cents," said Deborah Jacobs, executive director of the New Jersey chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union.
Prosecutors alleged Monroe, 50, stole the money by sliding his hand through a slightly open window of the car while it was parked in a supermarket lot. Car owner David Laman said he left the window open to let in air for his dog. When Laman returned to the lot, he said he saw Monroe in the front seat. Monroe then got out and drove away in his own car.
1996 The US Senate narrowly rejected a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution as outgoing Majority Leader Bob Dole and the Democrats clashed over deficit reduction.
1996 A family of four becomes the first persons to leave the Freemen ranch in Montana since April.
1995 The Constitutional Court of South Africa abolishes the death penalty.
1993 En España el Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) gana las elecciones legislativas por cuarta vez consecutiva, pero pierde la mayoría absoluta. Importante avance del Partido Popular (PP).
1991 NATO issued a statement saying it would not accept any "coercion or intimidation" against the emerging democracies of Eastern Europe.
|1989 Violent repression
continues in China two days after the bloody clearing of
Tienanmen Square. ^top^
China Seen on the Verge of Civil War Protests Continue in the Provinces
BEIJING - China teetered this morning on the edge of civil war, with troops presumed loyal to hard-line President Yang Shangkun in control of central Beijing but positioned defensively at strategic points in apparent anticipation of attack by rival forces. Troops and armored vehicles were reported moving toward Beijing from the east, according to Western diplomats. A military attache in the British colony of Hong Kong, reached by telephone this morning, said that infantry units of the air force landed at the Nanyuan military airport south of the capital Monday night and engaged in skirmishes with other military units at or near the airport.
Other small-scale duels broke out between rival troops Monday, according to Western witnesses, only about one mile west of Tian An Men Square.
At about 19:00 Monday, tanks accompanied by armored personnel carriers and truckloads of troops fanned out to points along the Second Ring Road that loops around the main part of the city.
About 20 tanks continued to stand guard this morning at the Jianguomen bridge on the eastern side of the city, about half facing east in defensive positions. The others faced north, south and west to control access to the strategically important bridge, which crosses the Second Ring Road.
About 100 military vehicles, including armored personnel carriers and troop trucks, were abandoned by soldiers on the west side of the city during the predawn hours Monday and later set afire by residents. Crowds around the charred vehicles reported that the soldiers who had left them and taken refuge at a nearby museum compound had said they were unwilling to fire on unarmed crowds.
Closer to the city center, shooting broke out between two groups of troops near the Minzu Hotel, a couple of kilometers west of Tian An Men Square.
Western diplomats said that later in the day they saw two armored personnel carriers engage in a machine-gun duel at the same location, sending bullets through fifth-floor windows of the tourist hotel.
Throughout many parts of the city, citizens erected barricades of buses, trucks, metal-and-concrete street dividers and vegetable market stalls. Citizens stood guard at intersections, many of which were virtually impassable.
The lack of transportation and an eerie tension on the streets kept most workers at home away from their jobs Monday and today. Most stores remained closed and there was worry that food shortages may soon crop up. Relatively few Beijing residents keep stores of food on hand because of a lack of refrigerators. Panic buying of food supplies began to break out. "We have dried noodles, but that is about all. And we're almost out of cooking oil," complained a homemaker standing in a long line at a vegetable stand near the Temple of the Sun park.
In the old neighborhoods near Tien An Men Square, soldiers were seen Monday running into alleyways and shooting at fleeing residents. One witness said that a teen-age girl was shot in the chest near Tian An Men. Rifle shots could be heard from the direction of the square in the evening, and a building was set afire on Xidan street and Changan Avenue to the west of the huge central open space.
Reports from other areas of China on Monday indicated that the situation was chaotic in many other cities outside Beijing. Posters in Shanghai carried the message "The Blood Has Been Shed," referring to the weekend violence in Beijing. Protesters blocked traffic virtually throughout the city, an official at the US Consulate said. The Shanghai municipal government warned that it would take "strong measures" unless the streets were cleared. The situation in Shanghai further deteriorated in the evening, with authorities warning that they were about to move against the throngs of residents in the streets.
In Chengdu in Sichuan province, a diplomat reported that cars of Chinese officials were being overturned.
In Hangzhou and Wuhan, protesters sat on rail lines, blocking trains to Shanghai and a main north-south line.
According to reports, demonstrations of varying scale have been held in Tianjin, Qingdao, Nanjing, Xian, Changsha and Canton. Worker and shopkeeper strikes are brewing in some cities.
| 1985 Authorities in Brazil exhume a body later identified
as the remains of Dr. Josef Mengele, the notorious "Angel of Death" of the
1982 30'000 Israeli troops invade southern Lebanon to drive out 1982, Israeli forces invaded Lebanon to drive oun Palestine Liberation Organization guerrillas (The Israelis withdrew in June 1985.)
1980 For the second time in a week, US nuclear forces go on red alert following a computer error warning of a Soviet attack.
1978 California voters overwhelmingly approve Proposition 13, a primary ballot initiative which cuts California property taxes 57%
1977 Supreme Court tossed out automatic death penalty laws.
1977 Joseph Lason is installed as Bishop of Biloxi, Mississippi, becoming the first US Black Roman Catholic bishop consecrated since the 19th century.
1975 Provisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam established
1969 El Gobierno español acuerda el cierre total de la frontera con Gibraltar.
Aparece el enlace europeo de las televisiones de ocho países occidentales,
bajo los auspicios de Eurovisión.
1942 Japanese navy retreats, ending Battle of Midway
1942 Nazis burn village of Lidice Bohemia, as reprisal of killing Heydrich.
1940 Rupture du front de la Somme Raid isolé du Farman 224 "Jules Verne" sur Berlin
1940 Avec une impressionnante offensive militaire, le 10 mai 1940, l’armée allemande, avec ses vagues d’avions, son déferlement de blindés et sa ruée d’infanterie, avait fini par vaincre la résistance tardive des généraux français : c’est la débâcle française. Le 10 juin, la Wehrmacht défilait sur les Champs-Elysées [photo >]. La France était occupée ! L’image reste aujourd’hui encore insoutenable pour les Français.
1938 El pintor español Ignacio Zuloaga y Zabaleta obtiene el premio de honor en la Exposición de Venecia.
1936 Aviation gasoline first produced commercially, Paulsboro NJ
1932 Gasoline tax
The first gasoline tax levied by Congress was enacted on this day as a part of the Revenue Act of 1932. The act mandated a series of excise taxes on a wide variety of consumer goods. Congress placed a tax of one cent per gallon of gasoline and other motor fuel sold.
1911 Nicaragua signs treaty turning over customs to US (not ratified)
1896 George Samuelson leaves NY harbor to row across the Atlantic.
1874 Harper's Weekly features a cartoon about the decimation of the bison in the US West.
1869 Se promulga en España una nueva Constitución.
1864 Engagement at Lake Chicot (Dutch Bayou), Arkansas
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1862 Battle of Memphis the city is surrendered
1854 Se funda en Estados Unidos el Partido Republicano, que se declara contrario a la esclavitud.
1813 US invasion of Canada halted at Stoney Creek (Ont)
1808 José Bonaparte, hermano de Napoleón, es proclamado rey de España, en Bayona.
1801 The war between Spain and Portugal, known as the War of the Oranges, ends with the Treaty of Badajoz being signed.
1794 (18 prairial an II) BERNARD, fils, graveur, domicilié à Salins, canton d'Arbois (Jura), est coondamné à mort par contumace, comme fabricateur de faux assignats, par le tribunal criminel du département du Gard.
1794 (18 prairial an II) LECLER Victoire, veuve Labatty, 34 ans, née à Compiègne, domiciliée à Vitry-sur-Marne, est coondamnée à mort par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme conspiratrice; il a été sursis à son exécution, s'étant déclarée enceinte; elle fut transférée à la maison dé l'Evêché, d'où elle a été mise en liberté après le 9 thermidor.
1660 the Peace of Copenhagen is signed, ending the war between Sweden and Denmark.
1622 Gregory XV publishes the bull 'Inscrutabili Divinae,' which reminded the Church of its mission to the newly discovered native populations in the recently discovered Americas.
1523 Gustavus I becomes king of Sweden (Swedish National Day)
1513 Swiss papal forces defeated the French at the Battle of Novara in Italy during the War of the Holy League.
2005 Some 40 persons by a landmine detonated by their bus near village Badarmude, Nepal. 72 persons are wounded. The mine is probably one of the Maoist rebels.
2004 Simon Cumbers, 36, an Irish cameraman for the BBC, shot as he was filming in the al-Suwaydi suburb of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. BBC security correspondent Frank Gardner, 42, who was with him, is critically wounded, but survives.
2003 Hayden Fish, 7 months, in Las Vegas, Nevada, from being baked the previous day in the back seat of his family's van where his father, Centennial High School teacher David Fish, forgot him for eight hours, instead of dropping him off at day care. The infant's temperature was 43ºC when he was finally taken to a hospital. David Fish would not be charged with any crime, alledgedly because of a gap in Nevada laws that leaves unpunished unintentional neglect of a child, even if it results in its death.
2002 Erez Rund, 18, Israeli, a few hours after being hit at 16:20 by a Kalashnikov shot from the direction of the Palestinian village of Sinjil, as he was riding in a car from the enclave settlement of Eli to his home settlement of Ofra.
2002 Osama Shabit, 19, Palestinian, by Israeli artillery fire in the east of Gaza City.
2002 Muhammad Abu Amra, 23, Palestinian from Deir Albalah, of head wound sustained towards the end of May 2002 from machinegun fire from an Israeli tank, stationed at Abu Holey Passage.
2002 Moja Lemsip, 29 [photo >], in the morning, of complications from an abdominal hernia, at Central Washington University's Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute. Moja (= first it Swahili) was born in captivity, on 18 November 1972, at the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates (LEMSIP) in Tuxedo NY. She was raised by Drs. Beatrix and R. Allen Gardner. Moja joined Washoe, Loulis, and the rest of the wards of Roger and Deborah Fouts at the University of Oklahoma in 1979, and accompanied them to CWU in 1980. Free-living chimpanzee life expectancy can reach into the late 40s. In captivity chimps can live to be more than 60 years old, though most die between 10 and 15 years of age. Moja was the first chimpanzee of second sign language project, and is the first chimp to die at CHCI, a sanctuary for adult chimpanzees who communicate with humans and each other using American Sign Language. where she is survived by Washoe Pan Satyrus, Loulis Yerkes , Dar es Salaam, and Tatu Oklahoma (Tatu signed HURT and CRY to her human friends and Dar has been signing CRY as well. Washoe has seemed very introspective and sat looking into the night enclosure area for a long time).The mission of CHCI is to protect and care for these chimpanzees, educate the public on the endangered status of wild chimps, help improve the lives of all captive chimpanzees through ongoing research and serve as a humane research facility for students. CHCI chimpcam (M-F 09:00-12:00 and 13:00-15:30 Sa 09:00-12:00 Su 12:00-15:30 Pacific Time)
1995 Ollie Brown, 3, Jennifer Brewer, 6, and their mother Valarie Brewer, shot, in Dallas. Toronto Patterson, 17 at the time of the murders (in which he denied participating), their cousin, would be convicted in November 1995 and executed on 28 August 2002.
1991 Sylvia Porter, 77, economist/author
1990 Aurora de Albornoz, escritora española.
1984 Jorge Guillén, poeta español.
Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, Sikh leader, hundreds of armed followers, hundreds
of peaceful Sikhs, over 100 Indian soldiers, as Indian Army
storms the Golden
As part of Operation Blue Star, a massive offensive undertaken by India against militant Sikh nationalists, the Indian army storms the Golden Temple in Amritsar, killing an estimated one thousand Sikhs.
In 1982, Sikh militants had begun a terrorism campaign intended to pressure the Indian government to create an autonomous Sikh republic in the state of Punjab. Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi responded with force, and in June 1984, she ordered the largest counter-terrorism military action ever taken by a democratic government. On 06 June, Indian forces launched a major assault against the Golden Temple, the Sikh religion’s holiest shrine and the center of the independence movement.
Hundreds of armed militants under Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale had holed-up in the temple to escape the Indian army occupying Amritsar, but they were no match for the Indian artillery, tank, and troop attack. Bhindranwale and his followers were killed, over one hundred Indian troops lost their lives, and scores of non-belligerent Sikhs were massacred in the fighting. Over the next few months, government suppression of the Sikhs continued, and thousands of suspected nationalists were arrested or killed. On 31 October 1984, as reprisal for the attack on the Golden Temple, Indira Gandhi was shot to death while walking in the garden of her New Delhi home by Sikh members of her security guard.
In a bloody climax to two years of fighting between the Indian government and Sikh separatists, Indian army troops fight their way into the besieged Golden Temple compound in Amritsar the holiest shrine of Sikhism and kill at least 500 Sikh rebels. More than 100 Indian soldiers and scores of nonbelligerent Sikhs also perished in the ferocious gun and artillery battle, which was launched in the early morning hours of 06 June. The army also attacked Sikh guerrillas besieged in three dozen other temples and religious shrines throughout the state of Punjab. Indian officials hailed the operation as a success and said it "broke the back" of the Sikh terrorist movement. The Sikh religion, which was founded in the late 15th century by Guru Nanak, combines elements of Hinduism and Islam, the two major religions of India. The religion is centered on the Indian state of Punjab in northern India, where Sikhs comprise a majority and speak Punjabi. In the 1970s, agricultural advances made Punjab one of India's most prosperous states, and Sikh leaders began calling for greater autonomy from the central government. This movement was largely peaceful until 1982, when the Sikh fundamentalist Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his followers launched a separatist campaign in Punjab. Employing terrorism and assassination, Bhindranwale and his guerrillas killed scores of political opponents and Hindu civilians in the name of establishing an autonomous Sikh Khalistan, or "Land of the Pure." Most Sikhs did not support Bhindranwale's violent campaign, in which the extremists also assassinated several Sikhs who spoke out against the creation of Khalistan. To appease the Sikhs, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi nominated Zail Singh to be the first Sikh president of India in 1982, a significant choice because the Sikhs comprise a small percentage of India's overall population. Most Sikhs distrusted Singh, however, because as Indian head of state he generally supported Gandhi's policies. Meanwhile, the separatists occupied the Golden Temple and other Sikh holy sites and turned them into armed bases. The Golden Temple, known as the Harimandir in India, was built in 1604 by Guru Arjun. It was destroyed several times by Afghan invaders and rebuilt in the early 19th century in marble and copper overlaid with gold foil. The temple occupies a small island in the center of a pool. There are a number of other important buildings in the 29-hectare temple compound, including the Akal Takht, which is the repository for Sikhism's Holy Book of scriptures and the headquarters of the religion.
To suppress the separatist revolt, which had claimed more than 400 Hindu and Sikh lives and virtually shut down Punjab, Prime Minister Gandhi ordered Indian troops to seize control of the Sikh bases by force in June 1984. On 01 June, army soldiers surrounded the Golden Temple and exchanged gunfire with the rebels, who were heavily armed and commanded by a high-ranking army defector. The Sikhs refused to surrender, and in the early morning of 06 June army forces launched an assault on the temple compound. By daylight, the Sikhs were defeated. Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, the rebel leader, perished in the attack, allegedly by his own hand. The Indian government announced that 492 Sikh militants were killed, but the Sikhs put the number at more than 1000. More than 100 army soldiers were killed and several hundred wounded. More than 1500 Sikhs were arrested in the operation. The Golden Temple itself suffered only minor damage, but the Akal Takht, a scene of heavy fighting, was heavily damaged. In the aftermath of the bloody confrontation, Sikhs rioted across India, and more people were killed. Some 1000 Sikh soldiers in the Indian army mutinied, but these defectors were suppressed, and rebel leaders still at large were captured or killed.
On 31 October Indira Gandhi was shot to death in her garden by two Sikh members of her own bodyguard. This act only led to further violence, and thousands of Sikhs were massacred by angry Hindus in Delhi before Gandhi's son and successor, Rajiv Gandhi, called out the army to end the orgy of violence. Punjab's political status remains a divisive issue in India, and disorder and violence has persisted in the state.
| 1981 At least 800 persons in the world's worst rail disaster,
seven coaches of an overcrowded passenger train were blown off the tracks
into the River Kosi, in Bihar, India.|
1977 Stefan Bergman, Jewish Polish US mathematician born on 05 May 1895.
1976 J. Paul Getty, 83, of heart failure, in London, multi-billionaire (remember, a billion dollars isn't worth what it used to be. he said in 1957) oil magnate, president and majority owner of Getty Oil Company, owner of controling interest in some 200 other companies, born on 15 December 1892 (In building a large fortune, it pays to be born at the right time. If I had been born earlier or later, I would have missed the great business opportunities that existed in World War I and later.). Five divorces. Author of History of the Oil Business of George Franklin Getty and J. Paul Getty, 1903-39 The Joys of Collecting (1965), and Europe in the Eighteenth Century (1949).
1972: 427 in explosion at world's largest coal mine (Wankie, Rhodesia)
1972 Abraham Adrian Albert, Chicago mathematician born on 09 November 1905.
1962 Yves Klein, French Conceptual painter, sculptor, performance artist, and writer, born on 28 April 1928. MORE ON KLEIN AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1961 Dr Carl Gustav Jung, Swiss psychatrist born on 26 July 1875..
1943 Guido Fubini, Jewish Italian mathematician born on 19 January 1879, son of a mathematics teacher. He took refuge in the US in 1939.
1928 Luigi Bianchi, Italian mathematician born on 18 January 1856. He made important contributions to differential geometry. He discovered all the geometries of Riemann that allow a continuous group of transformations. His work on non-Euclidean geometries was used by Einstein in his general theory of relativity. Author of Lectures on differential geometry (1894), Lectures on the theory of groups of substitutions (1900), Lectures on the theory of continuous groups (1918), Lectures on the theory of functions of a complex variable (1901), Lectures on the theory of algebraic numbers (1923).
1914 Gabriel Joseph Marie Augustin Férier, French artist born on 27 September 1847.
1882 Some 100'000 are drowned by a cyclone in Arabian Sea (Bombay, India).
1862 General Turner Ashby, killed near Harrisonburg, VA
1861 Camilo Benso conte di Cavour, político italiano.
1846 Adèle Romany, French artist born on 07 December 1769.
1813 Alexandre Théodore Brongniart, French architect who drew up the plans of the Palais de la Bourse.
1704 Andrea Scacciati, Italian artist born in 1642. — more with link to an image.
1678 Pieter Janszoon van Asch, Dutch painter born in 1603. — more with links to images.
1676 Jan Olis, Dutch artist born in 1610.
1217 Enrique I, rey de Castilla.
1134 Saint Norbert [1080–], born into high nobility at Kanten Germany he became a priest but led a dissolute life until one day he was thrown from his horse frightened by a lightning strike at its feet. This led to his conversion. In 1220 he founded the Premonstratensian Order, in the town Prémontré, France, across the Rhine from Kanten. He faced great odds as there was much indifference and even heresy in his day, especially regarding the Eucharist. He had a strong devotion to the Blessed Sacrament, and relied totally on God to accomplish the task of revitalization. He later became archbishop of Magdeburg in central Germany, where he faced a population that was half pagan and half Christian. He was canonized by pope Gregory XIII [07 Jan 1502 – 10 Apr 1585] in 1582. —(070606)
1944 Rene Rivkin, Australian who would grow up to be a crooked stockbroker.
1943 Richard Errett Smalley, US chemist and physicist who died on 28 October 2005. He shared (with Harold W. Kroto [07 Oct 1939~] and Robert F. Curl Jr. [23 Aug 1933~]) the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovering a new spherical form of carbon molecule.
1935 Tensing Gyatso, Dalai Lama (Nobel Peace Prize winner: Tibetan spiritual leader)
1934 Albert II, roi des Belges.
1925 José María Rodríguez Méndez, dramaturgo español.
1907 Odoardo Focherini, Italian who saved many Jews from the Nazis. He had married Maria Marchesi in 1930; their had seven children were born from 1931 to 1943. In 1934 he became an agent of Società Assicurazione Cattolica di Verona. In 1939 he started working for the newspaper L'Avvenire d'Italia. In 1942 during WW2 while Italy was under the dictatorship of Mussolini collaborating with the occupying German Nazis, Raimondo Manzini, the director of the newspaper asked him to help some wounded Polish Jews that had come to Italy on a Red Cross train, and had been sent to Bologna by Cardinal Pietro Boetto S.J. [19 May 1871 – 31 Jan 1946], Archbishop of Genoa. After 08 September 1943, Focherini began an intense campaign in favor of Jews. Aided by Father Dante Sala [08 May 1905–], pastor of the church of S. Martino Spino (Modena), Focherini organized a network to expatriate Jews to Switzerland and thus saved the lives of at least 105 persons. On 11 March 1944, Focherini visited Enrico Donati at Ramazzini Hospital in Carpi to plan the latter's escape to Switzerland using the network. After the visit, Focherini was arrested that very day. He had just one interrogation, and was accused of writing a letter in which he stated that he was helping Jews “not for money, but out of pure Christian charity.” On 13 March 1944 he was locked up in the S. Giovanni del Monte prison in Bologna. From there he was sent on 05 July 1944 to the concentration camp of Fossoli, near Carpi, transfered on 04 August 1944 to the concentration camp of Gries near Bolzano and on 07 September 1944 to the concentration camp of Flossenbürg, in eastern Bavaria, and finally to one of its 74 satellite campst, Hersbruck, where he died on 24 (27?) December 1944 from septicemia resulting from an untreated leg wound. Because of his network, which lasted two years, the Union of Jewish Communities in Italy awarded him a golden medal in 1955. Yad Vashem proclaimed him Righteous Among the Nations in 1969. His cause for canonization began in 1996. Pope Benedict XVI commemorated the 100th anniversary of the birth of Focherini with a message which said that Focherini is “an unforgettable model of a virtuous Christian husband whose example continues to speak to the Church today," and mentioned "the luminous message and the courageous witness to the Gospel of a generous layman who, imitating Christ, gave himself unceasingly for the salvation of his brethren.” —(070608)
1906 Max August Zorn, mathematician who died on 09 March 1993. He is best known for Zorn's Lemma, equivalent to the Axiom of Choice .
1903 Aram Khachaturian Tiflis Georgia, Russia, musician/composer notably of the ballet Gayane which includes the "Sabre Dance" (Spartacus)
1901 Sukarno Java, leader of the Indonesian independence movement and the country's first president from 1949-65.
1897 (or any year until 1900) Ismaël Gonzalez de La Serna, Spanish artist who died on 20 November 1968.
1896 Henri-Victor Wolvens, Belgian artist who died on 31 January 1977.
1896 Robert Sheriff playwright (Journey's End)
1890 Dorothy Heyward NYC, playwright (Porgy)
1886 Paul Dudley White, US heart specialist who died on 31 October 1973. —(070608).
1884 Gino Rossi, Italian painter, draftsman, and printmaker, who died on 16 (01?) December 1947.
1882 Electric iron patented by Henry W. Seely, NYC
1857 Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov, Russian mathematician who died on 03 November 1918.
1849 Emilie Preyer, German still-life painter who died on 23 September 1930.
1844 Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) founded in London
1799 (26 April Julian) Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin, Russian poet, novelist, dramatist, and short-story writer; he has often been considered his country's greatest poet and the founder of modern Russian literature. He died on 10 February (29 January Julian) 1837. PUSHKIN ONLINE (English translations): 9 sample poems 24 poems (Bilingual Russian - English) Yevgeny Onegin (Russian) Eugene Onegin
1756 John Trumbull, son of colonial Connecticut governor, US painter specialized in Historical Subjects. (US War of Independence), who died on 10 November 1843. MORE ON TRUMBULL AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1755 Nathan Hale gets the life that he will regret is only one to lose for his country, as the British, without a trial, hang the US patriot and War of Independence military officer on 22 September 1776, the day after he was captured.
1702 Joseph Francis (Corneille François) Nollekens, “Old Nollekens” Flemish English painter, specialized in conversation pieces and genre scenes, who died on 21 January 1748. — more
1436 Johann Müller “Regiomontanus”, German Catholic priest, mathematician, astronomer, translator, publisher, who died on 08 July 1476. In January 1472 he made observations of a comet which would be called Halley's Comet 210 years later. He observed eclipses of the Moon, a total eclipses on 03 September 1457 and on 22 June 1461, a partial eclipse on 03 July 1460. Author of De triangulis omnimodis (1464) — Scipta — Kalendarium — De Reformatione Kalendarii.