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Events, deaths, births, of JUN 05
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ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY    ART “4” JUN 05    wikipedia
• Adam Smith is born... • Bloodbath spreads in Beijing... • D~Day tomorrow... • Robert Kennedy fatally shot... • March Against Fear... • Marshall Plan... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Uncle Tom's Cabin... • UN peacekeapers massacred... • Keynes is born... • Battle of Piedmont... • Hound Dog... • US Secretary of Defense testifies on Vietnam... • Discoverer of Klondike gold dies... • Profumo resigns... • Removable car top... • Difference Engine's supporter...
LNUX price chart^  On a 05 June:

2003
Following Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer's 04 June memo to employees commenting that there is serious competion from Linux free software, 33 million of the 55 million shares of VA Software Corp. (LNUX), which makes such software, are traded on the NASDAQ, rising from their previous close of $1.50 to an intraday high of $2.74 and closing at $2.16. They had traded as low as $0.82 as recently as 17 April 2003 and $0.55 on 25 July 2002. and as high as $61.25 on 04 September 2000 and $242.88 on 13 December 1999. [3~year price chart >]
click for 20 photos of Elizabeth
2002 Elizabeth Ann Smart, 14 [< photo], is abducted by a gunman shortly after 01:00, from the bedroom she shares with her sister Mary Katherine, 9, in the wealthy home of mortgage broker Edward Smart, at about 1500 E. Kristianna Circle (420 North) in the Federal Heights neighborhood of Salt Lake City. The other siblings are Charles, 17, Andrew, 12, Edward, 7, and William, 3. [photo: Elizabeth Smart in December 2000 >] (on this same day, in San Diego, the trial of David Westerfield, 50, begins, for the adbduction from her bedroom and 02 February 2002 murder of Danielle van Dam, 7, whose body was discovered on 27 February 2002.) Elizabeth Smart was born on 03 November 1987. A highly publicized search for her would go on for nine months. Richard Albert Ricci, 48, a handyman who had worked in the Smart home, would be considered a potential witness or suspect, though he denied knowing anything; he would be arrested for an unrelated parole violation, suffer a brain hemorrhage in jail on 27 August 2002, and die on 30 August 2002. In October 2002, Mary Katherine would tell her father that she now thinks that the abductor may have been “Emmanuel”. On 12 March 2003 Elizabeth Smart would be found alive and well, in the Salt Lake City of Sandy, 25 km from her home, accompanied by “Emmanuel” Brian David Mitchell, 49 [ photo below, right] (a drifter who had done 5 hours of work at the Smarts's home in November 2001 and who believes that he is a prophet who needs to preach to the homeless; he has no source of income other than handouts) and by Wanda Eileen Barzee, 57, Mitchell's wife. All three wear wigs and dark glasses, Elizabeth and Wanda are veiled..
Mitchell in 1998
2002 Civil servant Hidenori Iinuma's decomposed body is found in a discarded freezer. He had been reported missing in 1997 by his wife Akemi Iinuma, now 40, who is arrested on 06 June 2002 on suspicion of murder.

2002 Ngo Hoang Thao, 45, is sentenced to death (by firing squad) by the People's Court of Thai Binh province, Vietnam, for serving rat-poison-laced pork and tomatoes to his parents in December 2001 after a series of conflicts with them. The couple died immediately after eating.

2000 In Honiara, six armed rebels from the Malaita Eagle Force capture Prime Minister Bartholemew Ulufa'alu of the Solomons early in the morning and hold him hostage

1998 Etiopía y Eritrea inician una guerra abierta por los desacuerdos fronterizos.

1991 Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev delivered his delayed Nobel Peace lecture in Oslo, warning that Western failure to heed his call for economic aid could dash hopes for a peaceful new world order
1991 El pleno del Senado español aprueba el proyecto de ley por el que se crea el Consejo Económico y Social, órgano consultivo en materia socioeconómica y laboral.

1989 El filólogo Joan Corominas es galardonado con el Premio Nacional de las Letras, por sus investigaciones sobre las lenguas catalana y castellana.

1986 El Gobierno estadounidense autoriza la venta de una droga producida por la ingeniería genética para combatir la leucemia, llamada interferon.
1984 Indira Gandhi orders attack on Sikh's holiest site (Golden Temple)
1982 España ingresa en la OTAN.
1981 Center of Disease Control reports of a pneumonia affecting homosexuals (AIDS)
1981 Ronald Reagan decide la fabricación en Estados Unidos de la bomba de neutrones o bomba limpia.

1977 first personal computer, the Apple II, goes on sale
1977 Coup in Seychelles (National Day) — Golpe de Estado en las Seychelles: el presidente Mancham es depuesto y el primer ministro asume el poder y establece un sistema socialista de partido único.
1975 Egypt reopens the Suez Canal to international shipping, on the 8th anniversary of the start of the 1967 6~Day War, because of which it had been closed since June 1967.
1973 Gordon Sinclair forgets Lafayette.
     Canadian radio commentator Gordon Sinclair (1900~06~03 — 1984) delivers an editorial “The Americans” praising the United States, calling it "the most generous and possibly the least appreciated people on all the earth." and saying: "I can name you 5000 times when the Americans raced to the help of other people in trouble. Can you name me even one time when someone else raced to the Americans in trouble?” [Listen to the original audio]
     — Yes, I can. It was the time when the someone's name was Lafayette.
— Books by Gordon Sinclair: Footloose in India — Cannibal Quest — Loose Among the Devils — Khyber Caravan — Bright Paths to Adventure (1950) — Signpost to Adventure (1952) — Will the Real Gordon Sinclair Please Stand Up? (1966) — Will the Real Gordon Sinclair Please Sit Down? (1975).
^ 1972 Laird testifies on Vietnam before Congress
      Testifying before a joint Congressional Appropriations Committee, Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird says the increase in US military activity in Vietnam could add up to $5 billion to the 1973 fiscal budget, doubling the annual cost of the war. This increased US activity was in response to the North Vietnamese Nguyen Hue Offensive, also called the Easter Offensive, which had been launched on 31 March. This offensive was a massive invasion by North Vietnamese forces designed to strike the blow that would win them the war. The attacking force included 14 infantry divisions and 26 separate regiments, with more than 120'000 soldiers and approximately 1200 tanks and other armored vehicles. The main North Vietnamese objectives were Quang Tri in the north, Kontum in the Central Highlands, and An Loc farther to the south. In response, President Richard Nixon had ordered massive support for the South Vietnamese defenders and their US advisers. The number of US Air Force fighter-bombers in Southeast Asia was tripled, and B-52s were quadrupled. Nixon ordered additional ships to join the 7th Fleet, sending the aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk from the Philippines to join the carriers already off the coast of Vietnam in providing air support.
^ 1968 Robert F. Kennedy fatally shot
      At 00:50 PST, Senator Robert F. Kennedy, a presidential candidate, has just completed a speech celebrating his victory in the California Primary. As star athletes Rafer Johnson and Roosevelt Grier accompany Kennedy out a rear exit of the Ambassador Hotel, Palestinian Sirhan Bishara Sirhan stepped forward with a rolled up campaign poster, hiding his .22 revolver. He is only 30 cm away when he fires several shots at Kennedy. Five others are wounded. Wrestling Sirhan to the ground, Grier and Johnson take his gun away before anyone else is shot. Grier was distraught afterward and blamed himself for allowing Kennedy to be shot. Sirhan confessed to the crime at his trial and received a death sentence on 24 April 1969. However, since the Supreme Court invalidated all death penalty sentences in 1972, Sirhan will spend the rest of his life in prison. He has never provided a clear explanation for why he targeted Bobby Kennedy. Hubert Humphrey ended up running for the Democrats in 1968 and lost by a small margin to Nixon. ,
     Kennedy, critically wounded, is rushed to the hospital where he fights for his life for the next thirty-two hours. On the morning of 06 June he died, and two days later was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, the final resting place of his assassinated older brother, President John F. Kennedy.
      Robert Kennedy, a legal counsel for various Senate subcommittees during the 1950s, served as the manager of his brother’s successful presidential campaign in 1960. Appointed attorney general by President Kennedy, he proved a vigorous member of the cabinet, zealously prosecuting cases relating to civil rights while closely advising the president on various domestic and foreign issues.
      After Kennedy’s assassination in 1963, he joined President Lyndon B. Johnson’s administration, but resigned in 1964 to run successfully in New York for a Senate seat. Known in Congress as an advocate of social reform and defender of the rights of minorities, he also voiced criticism of the war in Vietnam.
      Senator Robert Kennedy (D-New York) was a leading critic of the Johnson administration's policy in Vietnam. Kennedy had initially been a supporter of the Johnson administration's Vietnam War policy, but he became increasingly critical after President Lyndon B. Johnson approved the resumed bombing of North Vietnam in early 1966. Kennedy had declared his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination in March 1968 after Senator Eugene McCarthy's surprisingly strong showing in the New Hampshire primary. When Johnson announced that he would not run for his party's nomination, Kennedy became the front-runner. On the day of his death, he had just defeated McCarthy in the California primary.
      In 1968, he was urged by many of his supporters to run for president as an anti-war and socially progressive Democratic. Hesitant until he saw positive primary returns for fellow anti-war candidate Eugene McCarthy, he announced his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination on 16 March 1968.
      Fifteen days later, President Johnson announced that he would not seek reelection, and Vice President Hubert Humphrey became the key Democratic hopeful, with McCarthy and Kennedy trailing closely behind. However, Kennedy conducted an energetic campaign, and on 04 June 1968, he won a major victory in the California primary. In the early hours of the next morning, he gave a victory speech to his supporters in the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, and then, while making his way to a press conference by a side exit, he was fatally wounded by Palestinian Sirhan Sirhan. Sirhan was arrested at the scene, indicted for first degree murder, convicted, and, on 23 April 1969, sentenced to die. However, his death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in 1972 when the California Supreme Court abolished the death penalty.
      Although Sirhan’s motives were not entirely clear, the 05 June attack did come on the first anniversary of the Israeli invasion of his homeland in the Six-Day War, and he may have been retaliating against America’s historic support of Israel. Others have alleged that Sirhan was part of a larger assassination conspiracy, reportedly brought on by Kennedy’s promise to end the Vietnam War if elected president. These conspiracists cite forensic evidence and witness testimony that they say proves the existence of additional shooters who were not detained.
^ 1967 The Six-Day War begins
      Responding to the Egyptian reoccupation of Gaza and the closure of the Gulf of Aqaba to Israeli shipping, Israel launches simultaneous military offensives against Egypt and Syria. Jordan subsequently entered the fray, and so did Iraq and Lebanon. But the Arab coalition was no match for Israel’s well-supplied and famously proficient armed forces.
      In six days, Israel occupied the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt, the Golan Heights of Syria, and the West Bank and Arab sector of East Jerusalem, both previously under Jordanian rule.
      The so-called Six-Day War gave Israel control of territory three times its original size, and Jerusalem was unified under Jewish rule, despite a UN resolution calling for the preservation of the holy city’s Arab sector.
      Arab leaders, forced to accept a UN cease-fire, met at Khartoum in the Sudan in August to discuss the future of Israel in the Middle East. They decided upon a policy of no peace, no negotiations, and no recognition of Israel, and also made plans to zealously defend the rights of Palestinian Arabs in the territories occupied by Israel.
^ 1966 Meredith starts his March Against Fear
      James H. Meredith, who in 1962 became the first African American to attend the University of Mississippi, starts his lone "March Against Fear," in Memphis, Tennessee, bound for Jackson, Mississippi, in an attempt to encourage voter registration by Southern African Americans.
      A former serviceman in the US Air Force, Meredith applied to the University of Mississippi in 1962, was accepted, but then had his admission revoked when the registrar learned of his race. A federal court ordered "Ole Miss" to admit him, but when he went to register on 20 September 1962, he found the entrance to the office blocked by Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett. On 28 September the governor was found guilty of civil contempt and was ordered to cease his interference with desegregation at the university or face arrest and a fine of $10'000 a day.
      On 30 September Meredith was escorted onto the Ole Miss campus by US Marshals, setting off riots that resulted in the deaths of two students. The next day, Meredith returned and began classes. The next year, he graduated with a degree in government. Three years later, Meredith returned to the public eye when he began his March Against Fear.
      On 07 June, two days into the march, he was sent to a hospital by a sniper’s bullet. However, other civil rights leaders, such as Martin Luther King, Jr., and Stokely Carmichael, arrived to continue the march without him. It was during the March Against Fear that Carmichael, who was leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, first spoke publicly of "Black Power," which was his concept of militant African-American nationalism. James Meredith later recovered and rejoined the march he had originated, and, on 26 June, the marchers successfully reached their goal, Jackson, Mississippi.
1965 Se aprueba la Constitución de Honduras.
1964 El Papa Pablo VI levanta los castigos eclesiásticos para aquellos cristianos que deseen la incineración después de muertos.
1963 El ayatollah Ruhola Jomeini es arrestado por las autoridades iraníes. En Teherán se producen graves disturbios y el Sha y su familia abandonan la capital.
^ 1963 British Secretary of War resigns in sex scandal.
      British Secretary of War John Profumo resigns his post following revelations that he had lied to the House of Commons about his sexual affair with Christine Keeler, an alleged prostitute. At the time of the affair, Keeler was also involved with Yevgeny "Eugene" Ivanov, a Soviet naval attaché who some suspected was a spy. Although Profumo assured the government that he had not compromised national security in any way, the scandal threatened to topple Prime Minister Harold Macmillan's government. Age 48 in 1963, John Dennis Profumo was appointed secretary of war by Macmillan in 1960. As war minister, he was in charge of overseeing the British army. The post was a junior cabinet position, but Profumo looked a good candidate for future promotion. He was married to Valerie Hobson, a retired movie actress, and the Profumos were very much at the center of "swinging '60s" society in the early 1960s.
      One night in July 1961, John Profumo was at the Cliveden estate of Lord "Bill" Astor when he was first introduced to 19-year-old Christine Keeler. She was frolicking naked by the Cliveden pool. Keeler was at Cliveden as a guest of Dr. Stephen Ward, a society osteopath and part-time portraitist who rented a cottage at the estate from his friend Lord Astor. Keeler was working as a showgirl at a London nightclub when she first met Dr. Ward. Ward took her under his wing, and they lived together in his London flat but were not lovers. He encouraged her to pursue sexual relationships with his high-class friends, and on one or more occasions Keeler apparently accepted money in exchange for sex. Ward introduced her to his friend Ivanov, and she began a sexual relationship with the Soviet diplomat. Several weeks after meeting Profumo at Cliveden, she also began an affair with the war minister. There is no evidence that either of these men paid her for sex, but Profumo once gave Keeler some money to buy her mother a birthday present. After an intense few months, Profumo ended his affair with Keeler before the end of 1961. His indiscretions might never have come to public attention were it not for an incident involving Keeler that occurred in early 1963. Johnny Edgecombe, a West Indian marijuana dealer, was arrested for shooting up the exterior of Ward's London flat after Keeler, his ex-lover, refused to let him in. The press gave considerable coverage to the incident and subsequent trial, and rumors were soon abounding about Keeler's earlier relationship with Profumo.
      When Keeler confirmed reports of her affair with Profumo, and admitted a concurrent relationship with Ivanov, what had been cocktail-party gossip grew into a scandal with serious security connotations. On 21 March 1963, Colonel George Wigg, a Labour MP for Dudley, raised the issue in the House of Commons, inviting the member of government in question to affirm or deny the rumors of his improprieties. Wigg forced Profumo's hand, not, he claimed, to embarrass the Conservative government but because the Ivanov connection was a matter of national security. Behind closed doors, however, British intelligence had already concluded that Profumo had not compromised national security in any way and found little evidence implicating Ivanov as a spy. Nevertheless, Wigg had raised the issue, and Profumo had no choice but to stand up before Parliament on 22 March and make a statement. He vehemently denied the charges, saying "there was no impropriety whatsoever in my acquaintanceship with Miss Keeler." To drive home his point, he continued, "I shall not hesitate to issue writs for libel and slander if scandalous allegations are made or repeated outside the House." Profumo's convincing denial defused the scandal for several weeks, but in May Dr. Stephen Ward went on trial in London on charges of prostituting Keeler and other young women. In the highly sensationalized trial, Keeler testified under oath about her relationship with Profumo. Ward also wrote Harold Wilson, leader of the Labour opposition in Parliament, and affirmed that Profumo had lied to the House of Commons.
      On 04 June, Profumo returned from a holiday in Italy with his wife and confessed to Conservative leaders that Miss Keeler had been his mistress and that his 22 March statement to the Commons was untrue. On 05 June, he resigned as war minister. Prime Minister Macmillan was widely criticized for his handling of the Profumo scandal. In the press and in Parliament, Macmillan was condemned as being old, out-of-touch, and incompetent. In October, he resigned under pressure from his own government. He was replaced by Conservative Alec Douglas-Home, but in the general election in 1964 the Conservatives were swept from power by Harold Wilson's Labour Party. Dr. Stephen Ward fell into a coma after attempting suicide by an overdose of pills. In his absence, he was found guilty of living off the immoral earnings of prostitution and died shortly after without regaining consciousness. Christine Keeler was convicted of perjury in a related trial and began a prison sentence in December 1963. John Profumo left politics after his resignation and dedicated himself to philanthropy in the East End of London. For his charitable work, Queen Elizabeth II named him a Commander of the British Empire, one of Britain's highest honors, in 1975.
1960 John XXIII published his motu proprio, 'Superno Dei Nutu,' which created the necessary committees and organizational structure for the upcoming Vatican II Ecumenical Council (1962-65).
^ 1956 Elvis creates uproar
      Elvis introduces his new single, "Hound Dog," on The Milton Berle Show. Elvis scandalized the audience with his suggestive hip gyrations. In the media frenzy that followed, other show hosts, including Ed Sullivan, denounced his performance. Sullivan swore he would never invite Presley on his own show, but that autumn he booked Elvis for three shows. Presley had been recording since 1954. While working at a Memphis electrical shop, the 18-year-old Presley dropped by a Memphis recording studio on a lunch break and paid $4 to record two songs for his mother's birthday. The office assistant at Sun Records, where he made the recording, was so impressed that she brought the record to studio executive Sam Phillips, who signed him in 1954. His first recording, "That's All Right," hit No. 4 on the country-western charts in Memphis. Elvis soon began performing regularly on radio programs and made his television debut on a Memphis show in March 1955. That September, he had his first No. 1 country record--a rendition of Junior Parker's "Mystery Train." RCA purchased Presley's contract, and he made his first RCA recordings in Nashville in 1956, including "I Got a Woman," "Heartbreak Hotel," and "I Was the One."
      On 28 January 1956, television audiences met Presley on the variety program Stage Show. He appeared on several more programs before filming his first movie, Love Me Tender (1956), which took just three days to earn back its $1 million cost. All of Presley's singles that year went gold. Elvis' controversial dancing, with his trademark hip gyrations, upset parents but delighted teenage girls. During an appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1956, cameras showed him only from the waist up. Elvis received his draft notice in December 1957 but took a deferment to finish filming his fourth movie, King Creole. Before his military induction, he recorded enough material so that the stream of Elvis hits was uninterrupted during his tour of duty. He continued to dominate the charts through the mid-'60s and made more than 20 movies. Elvis stopped performing live in 1961 but made a comeback in the late '60s, becoming a Las Vegas fixture and releasing several top singles, including "In the Ghetto" and "Suspicious Minds" in 1969. As his popularity continued to skyrocket, the "King of Rock and Roll" reportedly turned to drugs. His final live performance was on 25 June 1977, and on 16 August 1977, the day of his next scheduled concert, his girlfriend found him dead in a bathroom at Graceland, the Memphis mansion he built and named after his mother. Congestive heart failure was cited as the cause of death, but prescription drug abuse was suspected as a contributing factor. He was buried at Graceland. Nine years after his death, he was one of the first 10 people inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. During his life, he had scored 94 gold singles and more than 40 gold LPs.
You ain't nothin' but a hound dog cryin' all the time.
You ain't nothin' but a hound dog cryin' all the time
Well, you ain't never caught a rabbit and you ain't no friend of mine.
When they said you was high classed, well, that was just a lie.
When they said you was high classed, well, that was just a lie.
You ain't never caught a rabbit and you ain't no friend of mine.
1953 Denmark adopts a new constitution
1950 US Supreme Court undermines legal foundations of segregation
1948 Con el respaldo de las tropas francesas, se constituye en Vietnam un Gobierno presidido por Nguyen Xuan, primer paso para la independencia del país con la ayuda del ex emperador Bao Dai.
^ 1947 Marshall proposes his Plan.
      During a commencement speech at Harvard University, US Secretary of State George C. Marshall outlined his proposal to provide massive US aid to postwar Europe, warning that devastated countries such as France and Germany "must have substantial additional help or face economic, social, and political deterioration of a very grave character." US President Harry S. Truman, who dubbed the proposal the "Marshall Plan," put Marshall at the head of the committee that designed the foreign assistance package and presented it to Congress. In addition to working closely with congressional members, Secretary of State Marshall also toured the country to promote the bill and encourage its passage. After a lengthy debate, Congress passed the Foreign Assistance Act, and on April 3, 1948, President Truman signed it into law. Between 1948 and 1951, the Marshall Plan channeled over $13 billion in aid to Europe, sparking economic recovery in Western and Northern Europe and saving the US economy from a postwar recession by providing a greater market for American goods. However, because the USSR prevented countries like Poland and Czechoslovakia from participating, the Marshall Plan also contributed to the raising of the "Iron Curtain" between Eastern and Western Europe.
     In one of the most significant speeches of the Cold War, Secretary of State George C. Marshall calls on the United States to assist in the economic recovery of postwar Europe. His speech provided the impetus for the so-called Marshall Plan, under which the United States sent billions of dollars to Western Europe to rebuild the war-torn countries. In 1946 and into 1947, economic disaster loomed for Western Europe. World War II had done immense damage, and the crippled economies of Great Britain and France could not reinvigorate the region's economic activity. Germany, once the industrial dynamo of Western Europe, lay in ruins. Unemployment, homelessness, and even starvation were commonplace. For the United States, the situation was of special concern on two counts. First, the economic chaos of Western Europe was providing a prime breeding ground for the growth of communism. Second, the US economy, which was quickly returning to a civilian state after several years of war, needed the markets of Western Europe in order to sustain itself.
      On 05 June 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall, speaking at Harvard University, outlined the dire situation in Western Europe and pleaded for US assistance to the nations of that region. "The truth of the matter," the secretary claimed, "is that Europe's requirements for the next three or four years of foreign food and other essential products--principally from America--are so much greater than her present ability to pay that she must have substantial additional help or face economic, social, and political deterioration of a very grave character." Marshall declared, "Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos." In a thinly veiled reference to the communist threat, he promised "governments, political parties, or groups which seek to perpetuate human misery in order to profit therefrom politically or otherwise will encounter the opposition of the United States." In March 1948, the United States Congress passed the Economic Cooperation Act (more popularly known as the Marshall Plan), which set aside $4 billion in aid for Western Europe. By the time the program ended nearly four years later, the United States had provided over $12 billion for European economic recovery. British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin likened the Marshall Plan to a "lifeline to sinking men."
1945 At the end of World War II, the Allied Control Commission takes control of Germany, dividing it into four occupation zones, one each for USA, UK, USSR, France
1945 Se forma consejo de guerra en Burgos contra Manuel Hedilla, sucesor de José Antonio Primo de Rivera en la jefatura de Falange y que se opuso al decreto de unificación con los tradicionalistas.
1944 Allies prepare for D-Day       ^top^
      More than 1000 British bombers drop 5000 tons of bombs on German gun batteries placed at the Normandy assault area, while 3000 Allied ships cross the English Channel in preparation for the invasion of Normandy-D-Day. The day of the invasion of occupied France had been postponed repeatedly since May, mostly because of bad weather and the enormous tactical obstacles involved. Finally, despite less than ideal weather conditions--or perhaps because of them--General Eisenhower decides on 05 June to set the next day as D-Day, the launch of the largest amphibious operation in history.
      Ike knows that the Germans would be expecting postponements beyond the sixth, precisely because weather conditions are still poor. Among those Germans confident that an Allied invasion could not be pulled off on the sixth is Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, who is still debating tactics with Field Marshal Karl Rundstedt. Runstedt is convinced that the Allies will come in at the narrowest point of the Channel, between Calais and Dieppe; Rommel, following Hitler's intuition, believes it would be Normandy. Rommel's greatest fear is that German air inferiority would prevent an adequate defense on the ground; it is his plan to meet the Allies on the coast-before the Allies have a chance to come ashore.
      Rommel began constructing underwater obstacles and minefields, and set off for Germany to demand from Hitler personally more panzer divisions in the area. Bad weather and an order to conserve fuel grounded much of the German air force on 05 June; consequently, its reconnaissance flights were spotty. That night, more than 1000 British bombers unleashed a massive assault on German gun batteries on the coast. At the same time, an Allied armada headed for the Normandy beaches in Operation Neptune, an attempt to capture the port at Cherbourg. But that was not all.
      In order to deceive the Germans, phony operations were run; dummy parachutists and radar-jamming devices were dropped into strategically key areas so as to make German radar screens believe there was an Allied convoy already on the move. One dummy parachute drop succeeded in drawing an entire German infantry regiment away from its position just 10 km from the actual Normandy landing beaches. All this effort is to scatter the German defenses and make way for Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy.
1943 ENIAC contract signed
      The US Army contracted with the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School to develop an electronic computer. The contract granted the Moore School $61'700 for the next six months. The computer, later known as ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) would take more than three years to build: Although the machine was developed to speed the calculation of firing tables for artillery, the computer was not finished until shortly after World War II.
1940 first synthetic rubber tire exhibited Akron Oh
1940 Battle of France begins in WW II
1940 Les Allemands attaquent sur la Somme et sur l'Aisne -- De Gaulle est nommé sous-secrétaire d'Etat à la Défense
1937 Primer ensayo de comunicación regular aérea entre el Viejo y el Nuevo Continente por el Atlántico Norte, entre Foynes (Irlanda) y Terranova (Canadá), por medio de hidroaviones.
1933 US goes off gold standard
1917 10 million US men begin registering for draft in WW I
1916 La Cámara francesa acuerda que se adelanten los relojes una hora, como medida de ahorro de energía.
1914 Mongolia Exterior obtiene la autonomía.
1912 US marines invade Cuba (3nd time)
1883 Inauguración del Orient-Express, primer ferrocarril en el que fueron utilizados coches-cama.
1876 Bananas become popular in US, at Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia.
1873 Under pressure from the British, the sultan of Zanzibar signs a treaty abolishing slavery.
1864 Battle at Piedmont, Virginia
1863 Francia, Inglaterra y Rusia firman en Londres el protocolo que les acredita como potencias protectoras de Grecia.
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1862 Union forces arrive at Fort Pillow, a key stronghold on the Mississippi River, to find that the Confederates have already evacuated the day before.
1855 Anti-foreign anti-Roman Catholic Know-Nothing Party's first convention
1849 Danish National Day-Denmark becomes a constitutional monarchy
click for portrait and more1833 Difference Engine finds young supporter       ^top^
       Augusta Ada Byron, the beautiful teenage daughter of the poet Lord Byron, born on 10 December 1815, attends a party at the home of Charles Babbage, a well-known mathematician whose frequent salons draws luminaries like Darwin, Longfellow, and Dickens. Babbage is hard at work on a calculating machine he calls the "Difference Engine."
[click on image for portraits and MORE ABOUT ADA >]
      Ada, a mathematical prodigy, became fascinated by the machine and quickly befriended Babbage. She and Babbage kept up a lively correspondence about the machine for many years, even after her 1935 marriage to the Earl of Lovelace. Ada helped spread the ideas behind the Difference Engine by publishing scientific papers describing the machine. These papers were published anonymously--women in nineteenth-century England rarely published under their own names. She died at age thirty-six, on 27 November 1852.
     The ADA computer programming language was named after her.
click for full painting1806 Batavian Republic becomes the Kingdom of Holland
1794 US Congress passes the Neutrality Act, which prohibits US citizens from serving in foreign armed forces
1793 THIBAUDIER Alphonse, (dit Gravignon), domicilié à Paris, est condamné à mort par contumace par le tribunal criminel du département de la Seine, comme fabricateur de faux assignats.
1783 Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier make the first sustained, manned flight when their balloon, "un globe aérostatique," rises an estimated 500 meters and flies 2500 meters in 10 minutes, at Annonay, France.
1661 Isaac Newton admitted as a student to Trinity College, Cambridge
1625 Rendición de la ciudad de Breda (Países Bajos), acto que fue inmortalizado por Velázquez en el cuadro Las Lanzas. [click on detail for full painting >]
--8239 -BC- presumed origin of Mayan Era of Creation.
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 05 June:

2005 Robert Milne
, 49, a software engineer from Edinburgh, Scotland, collapses and dies 400 meters short of the top of the 8850-meter peak of Mount Everest.
Reagan^ 2004 Ronald Wilson Reagan, mediocre movie actor, born on 06 February 1911, whose biggest role came as the 40th President of the United States (1981-1989). [03 Jul 1996 photo >]
      Reagan was the second child of John Edward (“Jack”) Reagan, a struggling shoe salesman, and Nelle Wilson Reagan. Reagan's nickname, “Dutch,” derived from his father's habit of referring to his infant son as his “fat little Dutchman.” After several years of moving from town to town—made necessary in part because of Jack Reagan's alcoholism, which made it difficult for him to hold a job—the family settled in Dixon, Illinois, in 1920. Despite their near poverty and his father's drinking problem, Reagan later recalled his childhood in Dixon as the happiest period of his life. At Eureka College in Eureka, Illinois, Reagan played American football and was active in the drama society but earned only passing grades. A popular student, he was elected class president in his senior year. Graduating in 1932 with a bachelor's degree in economics and sociology, he decided to enter radio broadcasting. He landed a job as a sportscaster at station WOC in Davenport, Iowa, by delivering entirely from memory an exciting play-by-play description of a Eureka College football game. Later he moved to station WHO in Des Moines, where, as sportscaster “Dutch Reagan,” he became popular throughout the state for his broadcasts of Chicago Cubs baseball games. Because the station could not afford to send him to Wrigley Field in Chicago, Reagan was forced to improvise a running account of the games based on sketchy details delivered over a teletype machine.
      In 1937 Reagan followed the Cubs to their spring training camp in southern California, a trip he undertook partly in order to try his hand at movie acting. After a successful screen test at Warner Brothers, he was soon typecast in a series of mostly B movies as a sincere, wholesome, easygoing, “good guy.” (As many observers have noted, the characters that Reagan portrayed in the movies were remarkably like Reagan himself.) During the next 27 years he appeared in more than 50 films, notably including Knute Rockne, All American (1940), Kings Row (1942), and The Hasty Heart (1950). In 1938, while filming Brother Rat, Reagan became engaged to his costar Jane Wyman, and the couple married in Hollywood two years later. They had a daughter, Maureen [1941 – Aug 2001] and adopted a son, Michael, a few days after his birth in 1945. Their marriage ended in divorce in 1948. Reagan was the only president to have been divorced. Commissioned a cavalry officer at the outbreak of World War II, Reagan was assigned to an army film unit based in Los Angeles, where he spent the rest of the war making training films. Although he never left the country and never saw combat, he and Wyman cooperated with Warner Brothers's efforts to portray him as a real soldier to the public, and in newsreels and magazine photos he acted out scenes of “going off to war” and “coming home on leave.” After leaving Hollywood, Reagan became known for occasionally telling stories about his past, including stories about his happiness at “coming back from the war”, that were actually based on fictional episodes in movies. Such lapses suggest that he lacked a basic interest in the truth and that he had trouble distinguishing between reality and fantasy.
      Reagan had absorbed the liberal Democratic opinions of his father and became a great admirer of Franklin Roosevelt after his election in 1932. Reagan's father eventually found work as an administrator in a New Deal office established in the Dixon area, a fact that Reagan continued to appreciate even after his political opinion of Roosevelt had dramatically changed.
      From 1947 to 1952 Reagan served as president of the union of movie actors, the Screen Actors Guild. Much to the disgust of union members, he testified as a friendly witness before the House Un-American Activities Committee and cooperated in the blacklisting of actors, directors, and writers suspected of leftist sympathies. Although still a Democrat at the time (he campaigned for Harry Truman in the presidential election of 1948), Reagan's political opinions were gradually growing more conservative. After initially supporting Democratic senatorial candidate Helen Douglas in 1950 he switched his allegiance to Republican Richard Nixon [09 Jan 1913 – 22 Apr 1994] midway through the campaign. He supported Republican Dwight Eisenhower [14 Oct 1890 – 28 Mar 1969] in the presidential elections of 1952 and 1956, and in 1960 he delivered 200 speeches in support of Nixon's campaign for president against Democrat John F. Kennedy [29 May 1917 – 22 Nov 1963]. He officially changed his party affiliation to Republican in 1962.
      Reagan met Nancy Davis [06 Jul 1921~], a relatively unknown actress, at a dinner party in 1949. They married on 04 Mar 1952; actor William Holden was best man. The Reagans appeared together in the war movie Hell Cats of the Navy in 1957. Nancy Reagan's reactionary political views encouraged her husband's further betrayal of the ideals he had received from his father.
      After his acting career began to decline in the 1950s, Reagan became the host of a television drama series, General Electric Theater, as well as spokesman for the General Electric Company. In the latter capacity he toured GE plants around the country, delivering speeches with a generally conservative, pro-business message. Eventually, however, his speeches became too controversial, and he was fired as both spokesman and television host in 1962.
      Reagan campaigned actively for Nixon in his run for governor of California in 1962 and supported the presidential candidacy of conservative Republican Barry Goldwater in 1964, serving as cochairman of California Republicans for Goldwater. In the last week of the campaign he delivered a 30-minute, nationally televised address, “A Time for Choosing,” that The Washington Post described as “the most successful political debut since William Jennings Bryan electrified the 1896 Democratic convention with his ‘Cross of Gold' speech.” Reagan's speech, which resulted in $1 million in campaign contributions for Republican candidates (the most attributable to any political speech in history), catapulted him onto the national political stage and made him an instant hero of the Republican right.
      Reagan announced his candidacy for governor of California in 1966. The incumbent, Democrat Edmund G. (“Pat”) Brown (who had defeated Nixon's challenge in 1962), ridiculed Reagan's lack of experience, declaring that while he (Brown) had been serving the public, Reagan was making Bedtime for Bonzo, a 1951 movie in which Reagan starred with a chimpanzee. But Reagan turned this apparent liability into an asset by portraying himself as an ordinary citizen who was fed up with a state government that had become inefficient and unaccountable (he made a monkey out of Brown). The public also reacted well to Reagan's personality, in particular to his apparent genuineness, affability, and self-deprecating sense of humor. (When asked by a reporter how he would perform in office, Reagan replied, “I don't know. I've never played a governor.”) Reagan won the election by nearly one million votes. During his two terms as governor (1966–1974), Reagan erased a substantial budget deficit inherited from the Brown administration (through the largest tax increase in the history of any state to that time) and instituted reforms in the state's welfare programs. As some observers have noted, Reagan's administrative style as governor was essentially the same as the one he would later adopt as president: he left most of the day-to-day business of government to assistants and department heads, preferring to focus on larger issues of policy and vision. Reagan followed a rigid schedule, which his aides would prepare and type up for him daily.
      Reagan made a halfhearted bid for the Republican presidential nomination in 1968 as a favorite-son candidate, finishing third behind Nixon and former New York governor Nelson Rockefeller [08 Jul 1908 – 26 Jan 1979]. During his remaining years as governor he made plans for a more serious run for the presidency, expecting that his chance would come in 1976, at the anticipated end of Nixon's second term. But Nixon's resignation in 1974 put Vice President Gerald Ford [14 Jul 1913~] in the Oval Office. Unwilling to wait another eight years, Reagan challenged Ford with a blistering critique of his policies and appointments but lost the nomination by 60 votes.
     Reagan dominated the Republican primary elections in 1980. Although his strongest opponent, George H. W. Bush [12 Jun 1924~], won an upset victory in the Iowa caucuses, Reagan bounced back after a memorable performance in a debate with other Republican candidates in Nashua, New Hampshire. When the moderator tried to turn off Reagan's microphone, he responded with an angry line he remembered from a Spencer Tracy movie: “I paid for this microphone!” Reagan went on to win New Hampshire and most of the other major primaries and entered the convention with a commanding lead; he won the nomination on the first ballot with 1939 votes to 37 for John Anderson and 13 for Bush, who had withdrawn from the contest before the vote. After some tense and ultimately fruitless negotiations with representatives of Ford, Reagan chose Bush as his running mate, and the two men campaigned against Democratic incumbents Jimmy Carter [01 Oct 1924~] and Walter Mondale [05 Jan 1928~] on a platform promising the incompatible (which Bush had earlier called “voodoo economics” and would become known as reaganomics): steep tax cuts, increased defense spending, a balanced budget; and what is not decided (though it can be influenced) by a President: a constitutional amendment to ban abortion.
      Carter began the campaign in a vulnerable position. Inflation had increased from 6% to more than 12% per annum since his first year in office, and unemployment and interest rates were also high. An even more important factor than the economy, however, was Carter's apparent inability to resolve the Iran hostage crisis, which had continued for almost a year at the time of the election. On 04 November 1979, a mob of Iranian students stormed the US embassy in Tehran, Iran, and took the diplomatic staff there hostage. In April 1980, after months of fruitless negotiations with students and officials of Iran's revolutionary government (which had sanctioned the takeover), Carter ordered a military rescue operation, which failed dramatically. The hostage crisis contributed to a general public perception of the Carter administration as weak and indecisive, and the failed rescue mission reinforced Reagan's charge that the Democrats had allowed the country's military to deteriorate badly. In their only debate of the campaign, Reagan memorably reminded his national television audience of the country's economic problems by asking, “Are you better off now than you were four years ago?” Carter, for his part, tried to make the most of Reagan's image among some of the electorate as an extremist and a warmonger, charging that as president Reagan would eliminate cherished social programs and threaten world peace. Reagan's smiling response to such charges—“There you go again” (a line he had practiced in preparation for the debate)—did not directly address the point, but it did convey a disarming image of sincerity, self-confidence, and friendliness, which most voters found appealing. On election day Reagan defeated Carter and John Anderson (who ran as an independent) with 51% of the popular vote to Carter's 41% and Anderson's 7%; the vote in the electoral college was 483 to Carter's 49.
      Reagan's presidency began on a dramatic note when, at a luncheon after the inaugural ceremony, he announced that Iran had agreed to release the remaining American hostages. The timing of Iran's decision led to suspicions that the Reagan campaign had made a secret deal with the Iranians to prevent the Carter administration from unveiling a so-called “October surprise”, the release of the hostages in October 1980, before election day.
      On 30 March 1981, a deranged drifter, John W. Hinckley, Jr., fired six shots from a .22 caliber revolver at Reagan as he left a Washington DC hotel. One of the bullets entered Reagan's chest, puncturing a lung and lodging one inch from his heart; another critically wounded Press Secretary James Brady. Rushed to George Washington University Hospital for emergency surgery, Reagan joked with doctors as he was being wheeled into the operating room: “I hope you're all Republicans.” After his release 12 days later, Reagan made a series of carefully staged public appearances designed to give the impression that he was recovering quickly, though in fact he remained seriously weakened for months and his workload was sharply curtailed.
      In August 1981, 13'000 members of the national union of air traffic controllers, the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO), one of the few unions to endorse Reagan in the 1980 election, walked off their jobs, demanding higher pay and better working conditions. As federal employees, the PATCO members were forbidden by law to strike, and Reagan, on the advice of Transportation Secretary Drew Lewis, refused to negotiate and gave them 48 hours to return to work. Most of the striking controllers ignored the ultimatum and were promptly fired. The firings caused delays and reductions in air traffic.
     Following the so-called “supply-side” economic program he propounded in his campaign, Reagan proposed massive tax cuts, 30% reductions in both individual and corporate income taxes over a three-year period, which he believed would stimulate the economy and eventually increase revenues from taxes as income levels grew. At the same time, he proposed large increases in military expenditures ($1.5 trillion over a five-year period) and significant cuts in “discretionary” spending on social-welfare programs such as education, food stamps, low-income housing, school lunches for poor children, Medicaid (the major program of health insurance for the poor), and Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). In 1981 Congress passed most of the president's budget proposals, though the tax cut was scaled back slightly, to 25%.
      The results were mixed. A severe recession in 1982 pushed the nation's unemployment rate to nearly 11%, the highest it had been since the Great Depression. Bankruptcies and farm foreclosures reached record levels. The country's trade deficit increased from $25 billion in 1980 to $111 billion in 1984. In addition, the huge increases in military spending, combined with insufficient cuts in other programs, produced massive budget deficits, the largest in the country's history; by the end of Reagan's second term the deficits would contribute to a tripling of the national debt, to more than $2.5 trillion. In order to address the deficit problem, Reagan backed away from strict supply-side theories to support a $98.3 billion tax increase in 1982. By early 1983 the economy had begun to recover, and by the end of that year unemployment and inflation were significantly reduced and remained relatively low in later years. Economic growth continued through the remainder of Reagan's presidency. But the tax cuts and the fruits of economic growth benefited mainly the wealthy, and the gap between rich and poor had grown wider.
      In keeping with his aim of reducing the role of government in the country's economic life, Reagan cut the budgets of many government departments and relaxed or ignored the enforcement of laws and regulations administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Interior, the Department of Transportation, and the Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice, among other agencies. After the administration and Congress reduced regulations governing the savings and loan industry in the early 1980s, many savings institutions expanded recklessly through the decade and eventually collapsed,requiring bailouts by the federal government that cost taxpayers some $500 billion.
      During his tenure in office Reagan appointed more than half the federal judiciary and three new justices of the Supreme Court: El Paso native Sandra Day O'Connor [26 Mar 1930~], the first woman appointed to the Supreme Court, Anthony Kennedy [23 Jul 1936~], and Antonin Scalia [11 Mar 1936~]. He also elevated William Rehnquist [01 Oct 1924~] to chief justice in 1986 upon the retirement of Warren Burger [17 Sep 1907 – 25 Jun 1995].
      When Reagan entered office in 1980 he believed that the United States had grown weak militarily and had lost the respect it once commanded in world affairs. Aiming to restore the country to a position of moral as well as military preeminence in the world, he called for massive increases in the defense budget to expand and modernize the military and urged a more aggressive approach to combating communism and related forms of leftist totalitarianism.
     Reagan's militant anticommunism, combined with his penchant for harsh anti-Soviet rhetoric, was one of many factors that contributed to a worsening of relations with the Soviet Union in the first years of his presidency. At his first press conference as president, Reagan audaciously questioned the legitimacy of the Soviet government; two years later, in a memorable speech in Florida, he denounced the Soviet Union as “an evil empire” and “the focus of evil in the modern world.” The Soviets responded by saying that Reagan's remarks showed that his administration “can think only in terms of confrontation and bellicose, lunatic anticommunism.” The behavior of the Soviet Union itself also strained relations, especially in December 1981, when the communist government of Poland, under intense pressure from Moscow, imposed martial law on the country to suppress the independent labor movement Solidarity; and in September 1983, when the Soviets shot down a Korean airliner en route from Alaska to Seoul as it strayed over strategically sensitive territory on Sakhalin Island. All 269 persons aboard were killed, including 61 from the US. Reagan's massive military spending program, the largest in US peacetime history, was undoubtedly another factor.
      A significant component of Reagan's military buildup was his 1983 proposal for a space-based missile defense system that would use lasers and other as yet undeveloped killing technologies to destroy incoming Soviet nuclear missiles well before they could reach their targets in the United States. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), dubbed “Star Wars” after the popular science-fiction movie of the late 1970s, was denounced by the Soviets, including Gorbachev, as a dangerous escalation of the arms race, a position also taken by many critics at home. Meanwhile, others argued that the project was technologically impossible and potentially a “black hole” in the country's defense budget. Although Reagan never abandoned his support for SDI, it was eventually reconceived as a much smaller and more conventional defensive system than the one he originally proposed.
      US-Soviet relations improved considerably during Reagan's second term, not least because Reagan softened his anticommunist rhetoric and adopted a more encouraging tone toward the changes then taking place in the Soviet Union. At a dramatic summit meeting in Reykjavík, Iceland, in October 1986, Gorbachev proposed a 50% reduction in the nuclear arsenals of each side, and for a time it seemed as though a historic agreement would be reached. Although the summit ended in failure owing to differences over SDI, it was followed up in December 1987 by a treaty eliminating intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) on European soil. The INF Treaty was the first arms-control pact to require an actual reduction in nuclear arsenals rather than merely restricting their proliferation.
      Following the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in June 1982, Reagan dispatched 800 marines to join an international force to oversee the evacuation of Palestinian guerrillas from West Beirut, then surrounded by Israeli troops. After Israel withdrew its troops from the Beirut area in September 1983, the marine contingent remained, along with forces from Italy, France, and Britain, to protect the fragile Lebanese government, thereby identifying itself with one of the factions in the country's long and bloody civil war, which had begun in 1975. On the morning of 23 October 1983, a suicide bomber drove a truck laden with explosives into the marine compound at the Beirut airport, killing 241 marines and wounding 100 others. Although later investigations blamed the marine chain of command for poor security at the base and “serious errors in judgment,” Reagan decided to accept full blame for the tragedy himself, saying that the marine commanders had “suffered enough.” Reagan withdrew the marines from Lebanon in February 1984.
      In the Caribbean island nation of Grenada, Prime Minister Maurice Bishop was deposed and executed in a bloody coup by radical elements of his leftist New Jewel Movement. Less than a week later, and only one day after the bombing of the marine compound in Lebanon, Reagan ordered an invasion, which he justified as necessary to prevent the country from becoming a dangerous Soviet outpost and to protect American students at the medical school there. Joined by a contingent of troops from neighboring Caribbean countries, US forces quickly subdued elements of the Grenadan army and a small number of Cuban soldiers and construction workers. It seemed that the administration had staged the invasion to divert public attention from the bombing in Lebanon.
      In January 1986 Reagan announced the imposition of economic sanctions on Libya and froze the country's assets in the United States, charging the Libyan government of General Muammar al-Qaddafi [1942~] with sponsoring acts of international terrorism, including the December 1985 attacks on offices of the Israeli airline El Al in Rome and Vienna. In March 1986 a US Navy task force conducted “freedom of navigation” exercises in the Gulf of Sidra, beyond the self-proclaimed territorial boundary Libya called the “Line of Death.” Libya fired antiaircraft missiles at US warplanes, and the United States responded with attacks on Libyan ships and missile installations. Then, on 05 April 1986, two persons, including a US serviceman, were killed by a bomb explosion in a discotheque in West Berlin. Blaming Libya, the United States carried out retaliatory bombing raids on “terrorist-related targets” in Libya on 14 and 15 April 1986, including an attack on Qaddafi's residential compound in Tripoli which killed his 15-month-old adopted daughter and more than 40 other persons (Qaddafi on 06 Jun 2004: “I express my profound regrets over Reagan's death before he appeared before justice to be held to account for his ugly crime in 1986 against Libyan children.”).
      In keeping with Reagan's belief that the United States should do more to prevent the spread of communism, his administration expanded military and economic assistance to friendly Third World governments battling leftist insurgencies, and he actively supported guerrilla movements and other opposition forces in countries with leftist governments. This policy, which became known as the Reagan Doctrine, was applied with particular zeal in Latin America. During the 1980s the United States supported military-dominated governments in El Salvador in a bloody civil war with the Frente Farabundo Martí de Liberación Nacional (FMLN), providing the country with some $4 billion in military and economic aid and helping to organize and train elite units of the Salvadoran army.
      In Nicaragua, following the overthrow of the Somoza dictatorship by the Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (FSLN) in 1979, the Sandinista government strengthened its ties to Cuba and other countries of the socialist bloc, a move that the Reagan administration regarded as a threat to the national security of the United States. In 1981 Reagan authorized $20 million to recruit and train a band of anti-Sandinista guerrillas, many of whom were former supporters of Somoza, to overthrow the Sandinista government. Numbering about 15'000 by the mid-1980s, the “Contras,” as they came to be called, were never a serious military threat to the Sandinistas, though they did cause millions of dollars in damage to the Nicaraguan economy through their attacks on farms and cooperatives, infrastructure, and other civilian targets. Using its influence in international lending agencies such as the World Bank, the United States was able to block most Nicaraguan loan requests from 1982, and in 1985 the administration declared a trade embargo. These measures, combined with Contra attacks and the Sandinista's own mismanagement, effectively undermined the Nicaraguan economy by the end of the 1980s.
     At the time of the presidential election of 1984, Reagan was at the height of his popularity. Using slogans such as “It's morning in America” and “America is back,” his reelection campaign emphasized the country's economic prosperity and its renewed leadership role in world affairs. On election day Reagan and Bush easily defeated their Democratic opponents, Walter Mondale and Geraldine Ferraro [26 Aug 1935~], by 59% to 41% of the popular vote; in the electoral college Reagan received 525 votes to Mondale's 49, the largest number of electoral votes of any candidate in history. With most of the country behind him, Reagan's prospects in his second term appeared bright. Only two years later, however, he would become embroiled in the worst scandal of his political career, one that would cost him much popular and party support and significantly impair his ability to lead the country.
      In early November 1985, at the suggestion of the head of the National Security Council (NSC), William (“Bud”) McFarlane, Reagan authorized a secret initiative to sell antitank and antiaircraft missiles to Iran in exchange for that country's help in securing the release of US citizens held hostage by terrorist groups in Lebanon. The initiative directly contradicted the administration's publicly stated policy of refusing to negotiate with terrorists or to aid countries, such as Iran, that supported international terrorism. News of the arms-for-hostages deal, first made public in November 1986 (only one month after Reagan ordered raids on Libya in retaliation for its alleged involvement in the Berlin bombing), proved intensely embarrassing to the president. Even more damaging, however, was the announcement later that month by Attorney General Edwin Meese that a portion of the $48 million earned from the sales had been diverted to a secret fund to purchase weapons and supplies for the Contras in Nicaragua. The diversion was undertaken by an obscure NSC aide, US Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North, with the approval of McFarlane's successor at the NSC, Rear Admiral John Poindexter. North, as it was later revealed, had also engaged in private fund-raising for the Contras. These activities constituted a violation of a law passed by Congress in 1984 (the second Boland Amendment) that forbade direct or indirect US military aid to the Contra insurgency.
      In response to the crisis, by this time known as the Iran-Contra Affair, Reagan fired both North and Poindexter and appointed a special commission, headed by former senator John Tower of Texas (the Tower Commission), to investigate the matter. An independent counsel, Judge Lawrence Walsh, was also appointed, and the House and Senate began joint hearings to examine both the arms sales and the military assistance to the Contras. As a result of Walsh's investigations, North and Poindexter were convicted on charges of obstructing justice and related offenses, but their convictions were overturned on appeal, on the ground that testimony given at their trials had been influenced by information they had supplied to Congress under a limited grant of immunity. Reagan accepted responsibility for the arms-for-hostages deal but denied any knowledge of the diversion. Although no evidence came to light to indicate that he was more deeply involved, many in Congress and the public remained skeptical. Nevertheless, most of the public eventually appeared willing to forgive him for whatever they thought he had done, and his popularity, which had dropped dramatically during the first months of the crisis, gradually recovered.
      In the presidential election of 1988 Reagan campaigned actively for the Republican nominee, Vice President Bush. In large part because of Reagan's continued popularity, Bush defeated Democratic candidate Michael Dukakis [03 Nov 1933~] by 54% to 46% in the popular vote; the vote in the electoral college was 426 to 40. Reagan retired to his home in Los Angeles, where he wrote his autobiography, An American Life (1990). In a 06 November 1994 letter to the people of the US, Reagan courageously disclosed that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, a degenerative brain disorder. To alert observers, Reagan's declining health had been evident for many years. Mindful of her husband's diminished capacity, Nancy Reagan occasionally would screen him from the press by intercepting reporters' questions and then whispering an appropriate response in his ear. Reagan's health problems made public appearances difficult for the former president and he soon faded away.
[see also The New York Times obituary]
2004 Martin Heemeyer, 52, in Granby, Ohio, soon after midnight, in a D-5 Caterpillar bulldozer he armor-plated with a layer of concrete between two plates of 12mm-steel, at which police had been shooting and dropping explosives down the exhaust, after he began, at 15:00 the previous day, to damage these buildings (plus vehicles, utility poles, and trees): the Mountain Park Concrete plant, Liberty Savings Bank, the town hall and library, the Sky-Hi News office, Maple Street Builders, Mountain Parks Electric, Xcel Energy, Kopy Kat Graphics & Printing, the home of the late Mayor L.R. "Dick" Thompson, and Gambles General Hardware store where it stopped in the rubble of a warehouse at 16:40. Heemeyer was armed with a .50-caliber gun, but seems to have been careful not to hurt anybody. Heemeyer was angry after the April 2002 dismissal of his lawsuit opposing a 2000 city council decision that allowed the concrete plant to be built near his muffler shop (which he sold in the fall of 2002). Heemeyer had also paid a $2500 fine for not having a septic tank and for having junk cars at his business. The police finally used a blowtorch at 02:00 to open up the bulldozer cab.
2002 Israelis Sgt. Dotan Reisel, 22, Corp. Liron Avitan, 19, Sgt. Violetta Hizgayev, 19, Staff Sgt. Eliran Buskila, 21, Corp. Vladimir Morari, 19, Staff Sgt. Zvika Gelberd, 20, Staff Sgt. Gennadi Issakov, 20, Corp. Dennis Bleuman, 20, Zion Agmon, 50, all 9 from Hadera; Corp. Avraham Barzilai, 19; Sgt. Sariel Katz, 21; Sgt. Yigal Nedipur, 21; Staff Sgt. David Stanislavsky, 23, all 4 from Netanya; Sgt. Sivan Wiener, 19, from Holon; Adi Dahan, 17, from Afula; Shimon Timsit, 35, from Tel-Aviv; Eliyahu Timsit, 32, from Sderot; and Hamze Samudi, Palestinian driver of a suicide car bomb which explodes next to a bus near Megiddo junction, Israel, at about 07:15. 13 of the dead are Israeli soldiers, as are most of the 38 injured. The bus is completely destroyed and nothing recognizable remains of the attacking car other than an engine block. The Egged 830 bus had left Tel Aviv at 05:50 bound for Tiberias, and was traveling from Afula to Hadera. The Jerusalem Brigades, the military wing of Islamic Jihad, announces that it is its doing, to mark the 35th anniversary of the start of Six-Day War, in which Israel captured the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and that the “martyr” driving the car was from Jenin. A few hours later the Israelis attack Jenin with tanks and machine-gun fire from helicopters, and call it “a routine operation”.
^ 1993: 24 UN peacekeepers massacred in Somalia
      In the Somalian capital of Mogadishu, twenty-four Pakistani UN peacekeepers are ambushed and massacred while inspecting a weapons storage site. The attack occurs in the southern portion of the city, which is under the control of Somali warlord General Mohammed Aidid. The next day, the UN Security Council issues an emergency resolution tacitly calling for the arrest of Aidid, and US and UN forces began an extensive search for the elusive strongman.
      In late 1992, civil war, clan-based fighting, and the worst African drought of the century created famine conditions that threatened one-fourth of Somalia’s population with starvation. In August, the UN began a peacekeeping mission to the country to assure the distribution of food and medical aid. On 04 December, with deteriorating security and the UN troops unable to control Somalia’s warring factions, US President George H. W. Bush [12 Jun 1924~] ordered 25'000 US soldiers into Somalia. Although he promised the troops involved that the humanitarian mission was not an open-ended commitment, "Operation Restore Hope" remained unresolved when Bill Clinton took over the presidency on 20 January 1993.
      Like his predecessor, Clinton was anxious to bring the US troops home, and in May the mission was formally handed back to the UN By June, only 4200 US soldiers remained. However, on 05 June the Pakistani peacekeepers are massacred by Aidid, and US forces escalate their attacks on Aidid's strongholds, resulting in increased US casualties. On 26 August, four hundred elite US soldiers from Delta Force and the US Rangers arrived on a mission to bolster the US force in Somalia and capture Aidid. Two months later, on 03 Octoberand 04 October, eighteen of these soldiers were killed and eighty-four wounded during a disastrous assault on Mogadishu’s Olympia Hotel in search of Aidid. The bloody battle, which lasted seventeen hours, was the most violent US combat firefight since Vietnam. Three days later, with Aidid still at large, President Clinton cut his losses and ordered a total US withdrawal. On 25 March 1994, the last US troops left Somalia.
^ 1989 More people killed by troops in Beijing, even after Tienanmen Square has been bloodily cleared of demonstrators during the last two days.
Troops Rampage Through Beijing -- Beijing Citizens Show Courage Beyond Belief http://www.cnd.org/June4th/1989.06-05.hz8.html
BEIJING - Machine-gun and small arms fire ripped through the heart of the capital last night and early this morning as security forces continued to savagely suppress China's short-lived Freedom Spring. Hundreds of tanks and armored vehicles clattered through the streets, firing long bursts from turret-mounted machine guns. At times the fire was directed at crowds of protesters still milling at intersections.
      The Chinese official media proclaimed that the military had won a "glorious victory" over "scoundrels and rebellious elements." The government pledged to act "mercilessly" to "crush turmoil." Merciless is almost too mild a word to describe the military rampage.
      In an assault witnessed by a reporter last night, soldiers firing AK-47 assault rifles charged a small knot of demonstrators on a major avenue. The protesters quickly dispersed. The soldiers then abruptly turned down a narrow market lane, shooting indiscriminately as shoppers screamed and scrambled for cover. A young woman was killed, shot in the throat while carrying a basket of apricots. Several other people were seriously wounded. The soldiers made no attempt to assist the wounded.
      Sections of the capital resembled a war zone, with dozens of buses burning at major intersections. Helicopters droned continuously overhead. Changan Avenue was strewn with rubble, smashed bicycles and overturned military trucks. Three soldiers were reported killed, two of them crushed by their own tanks.
      Tiananmen Square was cordoned off by at least 75 tanks and thousands of troops. Smoke rose as soldiers apparently set fire to the tents and lean-tos that had sheltered the youthful protesters. Soldiers positioned around the square fired upon four Western journalists who approached on foot in daylight.
      In at least seven major cities across China, crowds marched to protest the Beijing massacre. The cities included Shanghai, Changsha, Dalian and Shenyang. Troops did not intervene to stop the marches in the provincial cities.
      Meanwhile, the remaining Tiananmen protesters were barricaded in the campus of Beijing University and the adjacent People's University, where they had driven a captured armored personnel carrier. Students could be seen firing the vehicle's machine gun into the air. Memorial vigils were held on the sprawling campus.
      Early Monday morning 05 June 1989, tanks roared up and down Changan Avenue, crushing hastily constructed barricades of food carts, bicycles and scraps of wood and metal. As the army trucks and tanks raced by, small knots of people cursed them, shaking their fists.
      "Why don't you go home," shouted a pedicab driver. "You don't belong here with your guns pointed at us." No sooner had the man spoken than one grinning soldier aimed his AK-47 rifle over the head of the driver and his passenger and fired several bursts. Both hit the ground, causing the soldier to roar with laughter. "Pigs!" yelled the driver.
      Gunfire rocked the city's embassy section at about 13:00 as troops moved north past the compound housing the American ambassador's residence and the press and cultural section of the US Embassy. "They're shooting right outside my office!" US Embassy spokesman Andy Koss suddenly shouted in the midst of an early afternoon telephone interview. "They're army trucks. They're heading north on the road next to my office. Oh goddam it! It's unbelievable. They've got guns ready, they're shooting up into the air."
      A column of 10 tanks and 10 armored personnel carriers that headed east out of Tian An Men Square around noon was stopped by a single man who stood in front of the lead tank, according to a Western witness. He climbed up on the tank, talked with someone inside, then climbed down and walked away alive.
      Late Monday morning, a crowd stood surrounding soldiers at the Jianguomen Bridge, where some people have been shot to death. Beginning around 1 p.m., gunfire was heard near the bridge. It was not immediately known whether people were injured or killed, but shortly after 1:30 p.m., an army truck was set on fire on the main highway near the bridge, and ammunition on the truck could be heard exploding. A witness said the truck had broken down and been left behind when a convoy of about 100 vehicles passed by. Someone took a crowbar, forced open the gas tank and dropped in the burning stuffing from a captured helmet. Protesters then moved on to at least seven other nearby abandoned army trucks and methodically set them on fire.
      About 30 tanks and 15 truckloads of soldiers took up fighting positions facing east along the Changan Avenue at the major Jianguomenwai intersection, and explosions and small-arms fire were heard later, witnesses said.
      One Western diplomat described seeing a solitary man crouching behind a bush laboriously making a Molotov cocktail in the early hours of Monday as an army convoy passed yards away from him. He finally made a direct hit on a tank.
      According to Chinese witnesses, a mob in southwest Beijing lynched an army officer and left his corpse hanging from a bridge. There have also been cases of students sheltering captured soldiers from the wrath of other citizens.
      But mainly the hatred of troops has brought a solidarity. "There has never been a unity among Beijing people as there is now," said one old man.
      "We cannot cry any more. It is too evil for tears," said a young woman shortly after troops shot two people dead near her home. "We can only fight and try to tell the world."      "Blood must be repaid with blood," read one slogan daubed on a wall on Monday. A diplomat commented: "So far the blood is flowing mostly one way."
1985 K. C. Sreedharam Pillai, India-born (20 February 1920) Indiana statistician.
1976 Fourteen die as Teton Dam in Idaho bursts causing $1 billion in damage.
1970 José Antonio Montalvo Berbeo, político colombiano.
1944 Alice Weill (née Levy) [03 Aug 1893–], at the Auschwitz death camp, to which the Nazis had deported her from France, where she was born at Belfort.
1944 Louis Weill [30 May 1883–], at the Auschwitz death camp, to which the Nazis had deported him from France, where he was born at Pontailler-sur-Saône (Côte-d'Or).
1940 Augustus Edward Hough Love, English physicist and mathematician born on 17 April 1863. He wrote A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity (2 volumes 1892, 1893) and Some Problems in Geodynamics. He discovered short wavelength earthquake waves now called Love Waves.
^ 1922 George W. Carmack, discoverer of Klondike gold.
      George W. Carmack, the first person to discover gold along the Klondike River, dies in Vancouver, British Columbia. Carmack was born into a life of prospecting and mining. His father was a forty-niner who settled his family in Contra Costa County, California. When he was in his early 20s, Carmack followed his father's example, setting off on long prospecting journeys that took him from Juneau, Alaska, to the Yukon Territory of northwest Canada. There, he married a woman from the Tagish, a small tribe of Native Americans from the southern Yukon. Unlike many prospectors, Carmack was not consumed by the lust to find gold. For several years, he was happy to wander about the Yukon with his wife's people. When he did settle down in a cabin on the upper Yukon River, he enjoyed performing on an organ, reading periodicals like Scientific American, and occasionally writing sentimental poetry.
      In the summer of 1896, Carmack was fishing for salmon near the confluence of the Yukon and Klondike River. Accompanied by two Tagish friends, Carmack decided to explore Rabbit Creek, a tributary of the Klondike. As he did habitually, Carmack stopped occasionally to pan for signs of gold along the creek. At first, he found little of the telltale yellowish color in his pan. Then, on 17 August 1896, he stumbled across a deposit of gold so rich that he needed no pan to see it: Thumb-sized pieces of gold lay scattered about the creek bed. Carmack's two Tagish companions later said they had actually found the gold while Carmack was asleep under a birch tree.
      Regardless of who deserved the credit, the discovery sparked one of the last great western gold rushes. Thousands of would-be miners raced for the Klondike the following year. Partly because there was no other big news at the time, American newspapers exaggerated the reports of the gold fields in the Klondike. Steamship and outfitting companies did their part to promote the rush as well. Historians estimate that as many as 100'000 persons set out for the Yukon gold fields, though perhaps only half that number actually reached the diggings. Unlike Carmack, few of the gold seekers were experienced in prospecting or mining, and many were turned back by sickness, starvation, and the bitter northern cold. Carmack was luckier. After making several valuable claims, he abandoned his wandering life with the Tagish and set to work mining gold. According to some reports, when he returned to the United States in 1898 he had found gold worth more than a million dollars. Now a wealthy and influential man, Carmack moved to Vancouver BC, where he married the daughter of a successful mining operator. No mention was made of his earlier Tagish wife, Carmack may have simply abandoned her. He died in Vancouver at the age of 61.
1921 Georges Feydeau, comediógrafo francés.
1920 Julia Ann Davis Moore, born on 01 Dec 1847, The Sweet Singer of Michigan, a strong contender for the title of worst US poet.
1920 Nicolas Alexandrovitch Tarkhoff, Russian painter who died on 20 January 1871. — more with an image and links to images.
1915 Henri Gaundier~Brzeska, French artist born on 04 October 1891
1916 Horatio H Kitchener, 65, British General (Sudan)
1886 Antonio Varas de la Barra, político y abogado chileno.
1880 Karl Friedrich Lessing, German painter born on 15 February 1808.
1870 Unas 1200 personas en un incendio en Estambul, 60'000 personas quedan sin hogar.
1864 Gen William E "Grumble" Jones killed at Piedmont
^ 1864 Hundreds of Yanks and Rebs at Battle of Piedmont.
      At Piedmont, Viriginia, Union forces under General David Hunter rout a Confederate force led by General William "Grumble" Jones, giving the North their first real success in the 1864 Shenandoah campaign. As part of his attempt to knock out the Confederates in Virginia, Union General Ulysses S. Grant sent Franz Sigel to neutralize Rebel forces in the Shenandoah Valley in western Virginia. But Sigel did little to assist Grant, instead presiding over a Union defeat at New Market on 15 May. Hunter, who replaced Sigel, quickly moved toward the rail center at Staunton with some 11'000 soldiers and another 5000 cavalry troopers. Resisting him were about 5600 soldiers under the command of Jones and John D. Imboden, cobbled together from various Confederate units scattered about western Virginia. As the Union force marched south to Staunton, Imboden moved his part of the army to block the Yankees. They met north of Piedmont, where Hunter attacked on the morning of 05 June and forced Imboden to retreat. After being reinforced by Jones at Piedmont, the Confederates spread out to stop the Federals but left a small gap in their lines that later proved fatal. The Union troops pressed through the gap, and Jones was killed while leading an attempt to drive the Yankees back. The Confederate line was broken, and the Southerners retreated. Six hundred soldiers were killed or wounded, and another 1000 were captured; the Yankees lost 800. Rebel opposition evaporated, and Hunter entered Staunton the next day. The victory cleared the way for Union occupation of the upper Shenandoah Valley.
1854 Jenaro Pérez Villaamil, Spanish artist born on 03 February 1807.
1833 José María Castillo y Rada, abogado y político colombiano.
1826 Karl María Von Weber, compositor y pianista alemán.
^ Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
1794 (17 prairial an II):
BOULART Charles Joseph, 30 ans, né à St Omer, célibataire, musicien, guillotiné à Arras.
LEFEBVRE Alexandre, 38 ans, né à Hermaville, cultivateur à Monchy le Preux, guillotiné à Arras.
Comme brigands de la Vendée, par la commission révolutionnaire de Mayenne:
LAINE René, laboureur. domicilié à St Germain-le-Filoux (Mayenne et Loire)
     ... domiciliés dans le département de la Mayenne:
BEAUJEAN Jean, laboureur, domicilié à la Brulatté, canton de Laval. — BOUVET Michel, aîné, domicilié à Changé, canton de Laval. — COULON Julien, laboureur, domicilié à Laval. — COULON Julien, laboureur, domicilié à Laval. — MARTEAU François, tisserand, domicilié à Laval. — SEGRETAIN Jacques, domicilié à St Ouen-Destoir. — SORIN Etienne (dit Lalande), tisserand, domicilié à Poiron.
Comme traîtres à la Patrie, par le tribunal révolutionnaire séant à Cambray (Nord):
BARALLE Marie Josephine Nedochel, ex noble, religieuse — BOULANGER Augustin, écrivain, domicilié à Cambray — CARPENTIER Jacques, père, cultivateur — CARPENTIER Amand, fils, cultivateur — DELECOLE Jean Charles, journalier — PEUGNIEZ Pierre Joseph, ex cordelier, domicilié à Cambray
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
MEZERAI Paul, employé aux domaines nationaux, 45 ans, né à Montargis (Loiret), domicilié à Paris, comme complice d'un complot formé dans la maison d'arrêt du Port-Libre où il était détenu, pour exciter à l'insurrection.
VILLENEUVE Louis Henri, (dit Trans), colonel du ci-devant régiment de Roussillon, 59 ans, natif de Marseille, département de la Seine [sic], comme convaincu d'avoir conçu un projet de soulèvement de la part des détenus avec lui dans la maison d'arrêt de Pont-Libre.
PERRIER Marie Madeleine, veuve Fonsenay, 57 ans, native de Villiers (Orne), ex noble, domiciliée à Vincennes (Seine), comme conspiratrice, ayant dit, en parlant des despotes coalisés; voilà donc les nôtres qui s'avancent à force, et dans quinze jours il n'y aura plus de république.
DEGUE J., 32 ans, né à Passy (Mont Blanc), frotteur, domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d’être complice d’un complot contre le peuple français tendant au rétablissement de la royauté.
     ... comme conspirateurs:
GUILLER Elisabeth Thérèse, (dit Denouac), ex noble, 45 ans, née à Châteauneuf-en-Thimerais (Eure et Loire), domiciliée à Bourg-de-l'Egalité (Seine) [ci-devant Bourg-la-Reine?]
MERAUD Jean Antoine, 60 ans, né à Neclure (Puy-de-Dôme), ex curé constitutionnel de la Meilleraye, domicilié à Mailleraye (Sarthe)
ARMAND Louis, garde-chasse du ci-devant duc Montemart, et vigneron, domicilié à Paris.
1793:
ROQUILLE Joseph Dominique, (dit Lieutaud), homme de lettres, domicilié à Paris, comme missionnaire de faux assignats, par le tribunal criminel du département.de la Seine.
Comme fabricateurs de faux assignats:
BREMONT Amand Jules, entrepreneur des coches-d'eau, domicilié à Champigny, canton de Melun (Seine et Marne), par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
JUILLET Amédée A. L., ancien capitaine de cavalerie, domicilié à Paris
MEAUX Charles Laurent (dit St Marc), négociant, domicilié à Paris, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Seine.
RICHEMONT Pierre Théodore (dit Villote), homme de loi, domicilié à St Mandé (Seine), par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
1781 Noël Hallé, French painter, draftsman, and printmaker, born on 02 September 1711. MORE ON HALLÉ AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1716 Roger Cotes, English astronomer and mathematician born on 10 July 1682. He edited the second edition of Newton's Principia. Cotes made advances in the theory of logarithms, the integral calculus and in numerical methods, particularly interpolation.
1688 The victims of an earthquake in Benevento, Italy, see of the diocese of which Cardinal Pietro Francesco Orsini [02 Feb 1649 – 23 Feb 1730] is the bishop since 1686, and would still be in the earthquake of 14 March 1702. On 29 May 1724 he would become Pope Benedict XIII. —(080923)
1568 Willem Key, Flemish artist born in the period 1515-1520.
--221 -BC- Chu Yuan China's poet drowns.
 
< 04 Jun 06 Jun >
^  Births which occurred on a 05 June:

1977 Apple II is released
      The Apple II personal computer goes on sale. The machine, which sells for $1298, becomes the first commercially successful personal computer. Developer Steve Wozniak had created the Apple I to impress his friends in the Homebrew Computer Club in the early 1970s. Wozniak's sidekick, Steve Jobs, urged his friend to create a computer they could sell, and the two started Apple Computer in Jobs' garage. The Apple II boasted a color screen and a built-in version of the BASIC computer language
1954 Bonjour, tristesse, de Françoise Sagan.se publica creando gran escándalo en Francia.
^ 1951 Vehicle top with removable panels
      Designer Gordon M. Buehrig is issued a US patent for his "vehicle top with removable panels," an invention that would eventually appear as a "T-top" on the 1968 Chevrolet Corvette Stingray.
      Buehrig was a member of America’s first generation of automobile stylists. As a boy, he had always dreamed of designing cars, so at the age of seventeen he took a summer job with the Yellow Cab Company in Chicago in order to be around the greatest variety of cars possible. He held the job until the company discovered he was under-aged. Before he left Chicago, Buehrig called Clarence Wexelburg, designer for the custom body-building C.P. Kimball Company, and asked him how he should go about becoming a car designer. Wexelburg directed him to take classes in drafting, wood and metal shop, and art. Buehrig pursued all three at Bradley Polytechnic before leaving for Detroit in search of an apprenticeship, which he found at Packard. His inexperience limited him to unexciting work as a body panel designer, but it was at Packard that he made valuable connections in the design industry and where he first discovered Le Corbusier’s book, Toward a New Architectrure, a text that would influence Buehrig’s own aesthetic sense for the rest of his life.
      In 1928 Buehrig was the fourth man hired by Harley Earl for GM’s new Art and Color Section, the first GM department dedicated solely to design concerns. Buehrig didn’t stay long there, just long enough to share Earl’s frustration with the execution of the Art department’s designs. Of the 1929 Buick, the "pregnant Buick," Buehrig objectd: "Harley Earl’s original design was a masterpiece, but Art and Color was new and he couldn’t swing a lot of weight." Leaving GM’s fledgling Art Department may have been a mistake for Buehrig, as Earl would rapidly establish the department as the industry’s first design dynasty. But just as likely Buehrig’s inventiveness would have been harnessed by Earl, and while Buehrig would have become rich, he might never have achieved the boldness of his later designs.
      Buehrig, just twenty-four, left GM to become chief body designer at Stutz before moving on to the even more prestigious role of chief designer at Duesenberg. At the age of twenty-five he began designing America’s most high-profile car bodies. His crowning achievement came in 1936 with the Cord 810. Heavily influenced by Le Corbusier’s designs, the 810 had disappearing headlights, a hidden gas cap, and venetian blind louvers that accentuated the car’s lean "coffin-nosed" hood. It was an affordable future car. In 1951 the Museum of Modern Art picked the Cord 810 as one of eight automobiles selected worldwide to be exhibited as pieces of art. Curator Arthur Drexel wrote Buehrig that in the museum’s view, the 810 was "the outstanding American contribution to automobile design." Buehrig quietly changed the way cars look today. Ironically, his former employer Harley Earl would follow Buehrig’s work closely, often incorporating his innovations into GM’s designs. It was Buehrig who first erased the running board from the American car… and Earl who first got the credit.
^ 1949 Ken Follett
      Bestselling thriller writer Ken Follett is born in Wales to a devout Christian family that does not allow young Ken to watch TV, see movies, or listen to the radio. As a result of his strict media diet during childhood, Follett became a voracious reader. After college, he became a reporter for the newspaper in Cardiff, Wales, his hometown, and later reported for a paper in London. Deciding he wasn't a very good reporter, he tried his hand at novels after a friend received a 200-pound advance (less than $400) for a thriller. Coincidentally, Follett needed about 200 pounds to fix his broken car, so he wrote a thriller, which was picked up by Everest Publishers. Although his advance was large enough to fix his car, the book flopped, and Follett went to work for Everest. He wrote 10 novels during the next four years, finally breaking through with The Eye of the Needle. He wrote many more bestselling spy thrillers, then branched out with historical fiction such as Pillars of the Earth, about cathedral builders in medieval Europe, and On Wings of Eagles, a nonfiction account of Ross Perot's mission to rescue employees trapped in Iran.
1938 Marion Chapman smallest known premature baby to survive (280 g)
1917 Maurice Duverger, politólogo francés.
1900 Dennis Gabor inventor (holography (3D laser photography))
1898 Federico García Lorca Spain, poet/dramatist (Blood Wedding)
1894 Mané-Katz, Ukrainian-born French painter of Jewish life, who died on 08 September 1962. — MORE ON MANÉ~KATZ AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
Keynes^ 1883 John Maynard Keynes, in Cambridge, England.
 
     He would grow up to be the groundbreaking economist (and therefore mathematician) who argued for the benefits of full employment and active government involvement in economic matters. Keynes's early career centered on fiscally minded government work, both at home and in India. Following the close of World War I, Keynes began writing about various economic issues, publishing all-too prescient attacks on the decision to saddle Germany with heavy reparations. During this same period Keynes also began his increasingly critical investigation into then dominant fiscal policies, including "laissez-faire" economics.

      By the early 1930s much of the Western world was struggling through dire economic slumps, which only reinforced Keynes’s belief that governments, rather than "natural" fiscal forces, should be relied upon to steer national finances. Keynes articulated these beliefs in General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1935-1936), a landmark work that informed Roosevelt's interventionist approach to ending the Depression.

      In 1944, the US government called on Keynes to partake in the Bretton Woods Conference and help draft the blueprint for the post- World War II global fiscal order. Whatever his past success in shaping economic policy, Keynes's voice was largely drowned out by American leaders. Just two years after the conference, Keynes died in Sussex, England, on 21 April 1946.

KEYNES ONLINE: The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919) — General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money
1882 Antonin Prochaska (or Prochazka), Czech artist who died on 09 June 1945.
1881 Georg “Jerzy” Merkel, Austrian artist who died in 1976.
1878 Francisco (Pancho) Villa Mexico, bandit, revolutionary, guerrilla leader
1867 Miguel Abadía y Méndez, escritor y político colombiano.
^ 1851 Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly
     The novel begins to appear in serial form in the Washington National Era, an abolitionist weekly. The anti-slavery story by Harriet Beecher Stowe [14 Jun 1811 – 01 Jul 1896] would be published in forty installments over the next ten months. For her story Mrs. Stowe was paid $300.
      Although the weekly had a limited circulation, its audience increased as reader after reader passed their copy along to another. In March 1852, a Boston publisher decided to issue Uncle Tom's Cabin as a book and it became an instant best seller. Three hundred thousand copies were sold the first year, and about two million copies were sold worldwide by 1857. For one three-month period Stowe reportedly received $10'000 in royalties. Across the nation people discussed the novel and hotly debated the most pressing socio-political issue dramatized in its narrative, slavery.
      Because Uncle Tom's Cabin so polarized the abolitionist and anti-abolitionist debate, some claim it to be one of the causes of the Civil War. Indeed, when President Lincoln received its author, Harriet Beecher Stowe, at the White House in 1862, legend has it he exclaimed, "So this is the little lady who made this big war?"
      It is ironic that “an Uncle Tom” has come to mean a Black who is overeager to win the approval of Whites (as by obsequious behavior or uncritical acceptance of white values and goals), or even a member of any low-status group who is overly subservient to or cooperative with authority. This is because the title character, uncle Tom, is a pious and faithful slave who accepts his lot in life. [about the characters in the novel] [summary]

  • Read Documentary History of Slavery in the United States from the collection African American Perspectives, 1818-1907 for a concise review of slavery in the US between 1774 and 1850, when the Fugitive Slave Act was passed.
  • Search American Memory on the term Uncle Tom's Cabin to find a wide variety of material concerning the book, subsequent theatrical adaptations, and related music. See, for example, the musical pieces "Eliza's Flight," published in 1852 and "Eva to Her Papa."
  • Search on the term Harriet Beecher Stowe in The 19th Century in Print: Books to find material written by and concerning Mrs. Stowe. Among these items is a review of Uncle Tom's Cabin, entitled "Uncle Tom in England" from the London Times of Friday 03 September 1852.
  • A search on the term slavery in Narratives of the American South, 1860-1920 will reveal many non-fiction accounts of slavery. Tupelo, by John Hill Aughey, describes the plight of abolitionists living in the South at the time of secession while quoting a Southern perspective on slavery.
  • From Slavery to Freedom: The African-American Pamphlet Collection, 1824-1909 presents 397 pamphlets published from 1824 through 1909 by African-American authors and others who wrote about slavery, African colonization, Emancipation, Reconstruction, and related topics. Search the Subject Index to find a wide variety of materials including personal accounts, orations, reports, and speeches.

  • 1823 George Thorndike Angell Mass, lawyer (ASPCA)
    1819 John Couch Adams, mathematician, astronomer. At the age of 24, he was the first person to predict the position of a planet beyond Uranus, but this was not published. Thus it would be Urbain Le Verrier [11 Mar 1811 – 23 Sep 1877] who would make the prediction leading to the sighting of Neptune on 23 September 1846 by Johann Gottfried Galle [09 Jun 1812 – 10 Jul 1910] at the Berlin Observatory. Adams died on 21 January 1892.
    1814 Pierre Laurent Wantzel, French mathematician who died on 21 May 1848.
    ^ 1723 Adam Smith (baptized), in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. Social philosopher and political economist.
    Adam Smith      Known primarily for a single work, The Wealth of Nations (1776), the first comprehensive system of political economy, Adam Smith is more properly regarded as a social philosopher whose economic writings constitute only the capstone to an overarching view of political and social evolution. If his masterwork is viewed in relation to his earlier lectures on moral philosophy and government, as well as to allusions in The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) to a work he hoped to write on “the general principles of law and government, and of the different revolutions they have undergone in the different ages and periods of society,” then The Wealth of Nations may be seen not merely as a treatise on economics but also as a partial exposition of a much larger scheme of historical evolution. Adam Smith died on 17 July 1790 in Edinburgh
    ADAM SMITH ONLINE: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of NationsAn Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of NationsAn Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations The Theory of Moral SentimentsThe Theory of Moral Sentiments
    1718 (infant baptism) Thomas Chippendale, one of the leading cabinetmakers of 18th-century England, whose name is synonymous with the Anglicized Rococo style. His reputation rests in great part on Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker's Director (1754) with illustrations of almost every type of mid-18th-century domestic furniture.He died in November 1779 and was succeeded by his son Thomas Chippendale II (1749-1822].
     
    Holidays Columbia : Thanksgiving Day / Denmark : Constitution Day (1849, 1953)

    Religious Observances RC, Luth, Ang : St Boniface, bishop/martyr/apostle to Germany / Ang : first Book of Common Prayer / Santos Doroteo, Bonifacio, Marcelino, Fausto y Florencio.
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