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Events, deaths, births, of JUN 04
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[For events of Jun 04  Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jun 141700s: Jun 151800s: Jun 161900~2099: Jun 17]
• Tien An Men bloodbath continues... • West Papua independence... • US women may vote... • Battle of Midway... • Taft~Hartley Act... • 1st Barbary War ends... • George III in born... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Train crosses US in 83 hours... • Ford's Quadricycle... • US war against UK... • Laos neutral (ha!)... • Walt's Marine command in Vietnam... • Spy for Israel pleads guilty... • Angela Davis acquitted... • Robert B. Anderson is born... • Robert W. Anderson is born... • The Heart is a Lonely Hunter...
^  On a 04 June:
2006 (Pentecost Sunday) Celebrating Mass at the Vatican, Pope Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927~] gives this homily. — (060605)
OXGN price chart2003 To the tiny (10 employees) Swedish biopharmaceutical company Oxigene Inc. (OXGN) the US Food and Drug Administration gives fast-track status for the tumor-starving compound, Combretastatin A4 Prodrug, currently in Phase II studies for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer, for which there is no current treatment. On the NASDAQ, of the 12.7 million OXGN shares, 12.1 million OXGN share-transactions are made (presumably some of the shares being traded several times during the day), surging from their previous close of $3.94 to an intraday high of $7.85 and closing at $7.23. They had traded as low as $0.78 as recently as 26 December 2002 and as high as $26.00 on 06 March 2000.. [5~year price chart >] On 27 May 2003 Oxigene had announced that it was forming a partnership with the charity Cancer Research UK to complete the preclinical and phase I trials of its compound OXi4503, also designed to shut down the flow of blood to a tumor and starve it. On that day 5.3 million OXGN shares were traded, surging from their previous close of $2.80 to an intraday high of $4.60 and closing at $4.35.
2003 To promote the 01 May 2003 revised “Road Map” to a solution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, US-imposed Palestinian Premier Mahmmoud Abbas meets in Aqaba on 04 June with his Israeli counterpart war-criminal Ariel Sharon and US usurper-President “Dubya” Bush. The three make statements which are obnoxious to Israeli extremist settlers and, even more so, to the majority of Palestinians. Abbas vows to fight terrorism but says nothing about the Right of Return, Sharon promises to remove the “illegal outposts” but says nothing of the settlements which his government promotes, Dubya says that he will send an observer mission and train “a new Palestinian security service”, and that he is committed “to Israel's security as a vibrant Jewish state.” Non-Jewish Israelis are not reassured by such vibrations, nor are Palestinians by the prospect of a secret police organized by the CIA.
2002 Ex-CEO of Tyco is indicted for art sales tax evasion. — MORE AT ART “4” JUNE
^ 2001 (22 Jestha 2058) Third Nepalese King in 4 days.
Gyanendra enthroned      After parricide King Dipendra of Nepal dies early in the morning, ending his 3-day comatose reign on life support, his uncle, regent-for-3 days Prince Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev [December 2000 photo >], becomes king and is enthroned at 11:00 [< photo].
     It is the second time that Gyanendra has been crowned. In November 1950, the then Rana prime minister had made him king at the age of four after King Tribhuvan and King Mahendra secretly left Kathmandu for India to return in February 1951 to restore the House of the Shahs in Nepal. Not counting Gyanendra's brief kingship then, he will be the 12th Shah king of Nepal in a dynasty that stretches back to Prithvi Narayan Shah, the unifier of modern Nepal.
     King Gyanendra was born in July 1947 and is the middle brother of King Birendra who died shot by his son Dipendra on 01 June 2001. Gyanendra is married to Princess Komal was wounded in the shooting. They have a son and daughter. Gyanendra completed his Senior Cambridge from St. Joseph's College, Darjeeling, India, and graduated from Tribhuvan University with a B.A. degree. A former hunter, Gyanendra became a keen conservationist who heads the King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation and is member of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature Conservation. The Trust’s flagship work is the much-acclaimed Annapurna Area Conservation Project which has been credited with a sustainable eco-tourism programme.
      Crown Prince Dipendra had been declared king after massacring his family on 01 June and his suicide attempt putting him into a coma. No credible official explanation of the royal massacre having been given, there is great unrest among the Nepalese population.
     Thousands of angry mourners who refused to believe Crown Prince Dipendra killed his family and then himself lobbed rocks outside the palace, chanting "Dipendra is innocent" and "We don't want Gyanendra." Armed riot police fired tear gas to disperse them. Soldiers beat demonstrators with batons and fired warning shots in other parts of Katmandu. Two people were killed and 19 others injured. Police ordered an overnight curfew, and state-run radio warned residents to remain indoors.
      New King Gyanendra addresses briefly the Nepalese nation:
     "Beloved citizens, I am extremely saddened to tell you that His Majesty King Dipendra is no more with us. In his tenure as King, we as Prince Regent had addressed you earlier. In that address, we had referred to the tragic incident at the Royal Palace on Friday, 19 Jestha 2058, but there were constitutional and legal difficulties in expressing what had actually transpired. Now that the situation has changed, we will make an investigation into the incident and urgently let the beloved citizens know the outcome. We are convinced that all Nepalis must be solemn and united in living through these tragic times. May Lord Pashupatinath Bless Us All. Jaya Nepal"
2000 President Clinton and Russian President Putin end their summit by conceding differences on missile defense, agreeing to dispose of weapons-grade plutonium and pledging early warning of missile and space launches
^ 2000 Declaration of Independence by West Papua
      After 37 years of repressive rule, a landmark congress of West Papua activists defies a warning from Indonesia's government and publicly declares independence. In a statement hammered out during an extra day of the weeklong congress, the 501 delegates unanimously call on the world to recognize West Papua's rights as a sovereign state and claim that the half-island territory on the western side of New Guinea island was never legally integrated into Indonesia.
     The southeast Asian nation annexed West Papua, also known as Irian Jaya, in 1963. This was recognized by the United Nations in 1969 following a vote by community leaders. Independence activists now say that the process was a sham and should be overturned. "We have passed a resolution stating our independence from Indonesia. We have been independent since 1961, when the Dutch left," says congress organizer Willy Mandoen. "The United Nations must now review the political status of West Papua." He says that the congress also calls on the Netherlands, Indonesia and the United States to recognize West Papua's independence.
      The United States, led by former President John Kennedy, pressured the Netherlands to hand over its former colonial territory to Indonesia in the early 1960s. Free Papua Movement rebels have been battling Indonesian rule ever since. Until 1999, Indonesia's army controlled the resource-rich province with an iron hand, and torture and murder were reportedly common.
      Many of West Papua's people still live a near-Stone Age existence in the mountainous interior. The tribesmen traditionally use poison arrows and spears in their conflicts.      Indonesian President Abdurrahman Wahid has said he will reject any calls for secession. Wahid, who came to power as a democratic reformer in October 1999, has criticized the congress as not truly representing West Papua's 2 million people.
      On this same Sunday 04 June 2000, Indonesia's parliamentary speaker Akbar Tanjung calls on Wahid and the armed forces commander "to take firm measures to ensure the unity of the Republic of Indonesia."
      While flouting Wahid's warning, the congress does not want the secessionist movement to descend again into violence, Mandoen said. "We want to proceed peacefully," he said. "I hope Indonesia's government will be willing to meet for a political dialogue."
      More than 20'000 persons in and around the congress cheered and clapped when the resolution was passed. But hundreds in the capital of Jayapura, 3000 km east of Jakarta, had already begun to flee, expecting an outbreak of violence. Most of those to go are reportedly Indonesians from other parts of this vast archipelago who had moved to West Papua in search of a better life.
      The call for independence in West Papua is the latest challenge to Indonesia's national unity as the country struggles to redefine itself after three decades of authoritarian rule under ex-President Suharto. Wahid has granted provinces greater powers of autonomy. But he has repeatedly stressed that he will not allow the breakup of Indonesia, a huge archipelago grappling with massive social and economic problems.
1998 A US federal judge sentences Terry Nichols to life in prison for his role in the Oklahoma City bombing.
^ 1996 Microsoft licenses Visual Basic for applications
      Microsoft announces that t will license Visual Basic for Applications, a programming tool that makes it easier to customize Microsoft applications. The program let companies enhance Microsoft programs and link them to other products: For example, programmers could create scripts to import information from a database program into a spreadsheet or word processing program. Although Microsoft had not licensed Visual Basic for Applications before, the company hoped it would compete with Java as a programming language for Internet applications.
1992 In the Caucasus region, the republic of Ingushetia is created within the Russian Federation.
1991 The government of China announces 14 May death by suicide of Jiang Qing, 77, discredited widow of Mao Tse-tung.
1991 Data Discman debuts
      Sony introduces the Data Discman, a handheld computer allowing users to search through digital encyclopedias or dictionaries stored on three-inch compact discs. About 9 cm long and weighing about 600 grams, the machine had a flip screen and a miniature keyboard. Sony executives said the biggest hurdle to the Discman would be finding publishers to create software for the device.
1989 Beijing cop shoots and wounds Chinese premier Li Peng, 60, who had the day before ordered the armed forces into central Peking to crush the pro-democracy movement centered on the demonstrations at Tiananmen Square.
Pollard^ 1986 Pollard pleads guilty to spying for Israel
     On the promise of a reduced sentence through a plea bargain arrangement, Jonathan Pollard pleads guilty only to: "espionage in favor of Israel"
      Jonathan Jay Pollard [photo >], born on 07 August 1954, was a US Navy intelligence analyst. He sold enough classified documents to fill a medium-sized room. Pollard was arrested on 21 November 1985 in front of the Israeli embassy in Washington,, after attempting to obtain political asylum. US authorities had learned that he had been meeting with Israeli agents every two weeks for the last year. He was paid approximately $50'000 for the highly sensitive documents and expected to receive as much as $300'000 in a secret Swiss bank account. The top secret information included satellite photos and data on Soviet weapons.
     On 04 March 1987, despite the promise of the government not to ask such a sentence and not to sue his wife, Jonathan Pollard is condemned to a life sentence. His wife, Anne Pollard, is condemned to 5 years for her accessory role.
      The discovery of his betrayal put a chill on the relationship between the US and Israel. Viewing the US as its ally, Israel believed that the information should have been passed along anyway. But the fact that some Israeli agents remained in high positions despite their involvement in the espionage angered the United States.
     Only in May, 1998, did Israel finally admit that Pollard served as its agent. Israel granted Pollard Israeli citizenship, and tried to obtain his release. During peace negotiations mediated by President Clinton in the late 1990s, the nation has made Pollard's release from prison a key point. However, the United States has declined to work out such a deal.
1985 Supreme Court strikes down Alabama "moment of silence" law
1985 Prueba nuclear francesa subterránea en el atolón de Mururoa, en el Pacífico Sur.
1982 Israel attacks targets in south Lebanon — Invasión del Líbano por tropas israelíes, que llegan hasta Beirut.
1979 Dimite el presidente de la República de Sudáfrica, Balthazar Johannes Vorster.
^ 1972 Communist Angela Davis acquitted
      Angela Yvonne Davis [26 Jan 1944~], a black militant, former philosophy professor at the University of California, and self-proclaimed Communist, is acquitted on charges of conspiracy, murder, and kidnapping, by an all-white jury in San Jose, California.
      On 13 October 1970, Davis was arrested in New York City in connection with a shootout that occurred on August 7 in a San Raphael, California, courtroom. Davis was accused of supplying weapons to Jonathan Jackson, who burst into the Marin County courtroom in a bid to free inmates on trial there and take hostages that he hoped to exchange for his brother George, a prison revolutionary held at San Quentin Prison. Police fired on Jonathan Jackson and in the subsequent shootout he was killed along with Superior Court Judge Harold Haley and two inmates.
      Angela Davis, who was deemed a suspect because of her political beliefs rather than any specific evidence, was indicted in the crime but went into hiding. Apprehended two months later, her trial began in March 1972, and three months later, she was acquitted of all charges. After leaving the criminal justice system, she returned to teaching and writing and in 1980 was the vice-presidential candidate of the American Communist Party.
1970 Tonga gains independence from Britain (National Day)
1970 El Salvador y Honduras firman un acuerdo en San José de Costa Rica que pone fin a la Guerra del Fútbol.
^ 1965 Walt takes command of 3rd Marine Division in Vietnam.
      Maj. Gen. Lewis Walt takes command of the 3rd Marine Division from Maj. Gen. William Collins. Walt was concurrently named Commander of the III Amphibious Force (III MAF), the first corps-level Marine Corps headquarters in history. As such, Walt was in command of two Marine divisions and responsible for I Corps Tactical Zone, the northernmost region of South Vietnam, which bordered the Demilitarized Zone. His command also included serving as Chief of Naval Forces Vietnam, as well as being Senior Adviser to the commander of South Vietnam's I Corps, who was responsible for the security of the northern portion of South Vietnam. After supervising the US and South Vietnamese build up in that region from 1965 to 1967, General Walt returned to the United States and later served as Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps. He retired from active service on 01 February 1971.
^ 1961 Kennedy and Khrushchev agree on neutrality for Laos
      President John F. Kennedy and Premier Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union, meeting in Vienna, strike a bargain to support a neutral and independent Laos. Laos had been the scene of an ongoing communist insurgency by the Pathet Lao guerrillas. In July 1959, the North Vietnamese Politburo had formed Group 959 to furnish weapons and supplies to the Pathet Lao. By 1960, the Pathet Lao was threatening the survival of the Royal Lao government. On 19 January 1961, when President Eisenhower was about to leave office, he told Kennedy that Laos "was the key to the entire area of Southeast Asia." Kennedy considered intervening in Laos with US combat troops, but decided against it. Nevertheless, the US president did not want to lose Laos to the communists. Kennedy was prepared to accept neutrality for Laos as a solution. Eventually a 14-nation conference would convene in Geneva and an agreement was signed in July 1962, proclaiming Laos neutral. This took care of the situation in Laos for the time being, but both the Communists and the United States soon ignored the declared neutrality of the area.
1961 Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev proposes to US President John Kennedy to establish Berlin as a free city during a peace conference.
1956 Speech by Khrushchev blasting Stalin made public
1954 In Paris, French Premier Joseph Laniel and Vietnamese Premier Buu Loc initial treaties according "complete independence" to Vietnam.
^ 1947 Anti-labor Taft-Hartley Act voted by Republican US House of Representatives.
      The US House of Representatives overwhelmingly approves the “Taft-Hartley Act”, Labor-management Relations Act of 1947 (US Code Title 29 Chapter 7). Amending much of the pro-union Wagner Act of July 1935, it would be enacted over the veto of President Harry S. Truman.
     Generally high wages and a series of successful strikes lead some businessmen and government officials to press for political action to weaken unions. The Republican Party takes control of Congress and quickly writes a new labor law called the Labor-Management Relations Act, better known as the Taft-Hartley Act, after its authors. The law is clearly anti-labor, and the AFL raises nearly one million dollars to fight its passage. President Truman vetoes the bill, but Congress overrides the veto and the bill becomes law. Key elements of the Taft-Hartley Act include the following:
  • Unions are forbidden to spend money or make contributions in connection with federal elections, primaries and conventions.
  • The NLRB is authorized to secure injunctions that restrain labor unions from engaging in a set of predefined "unfair labor practices."
  • Businesses are given the right to sue for damages from strikes or work stoppages deemed unlawful under the Taft-Hartley Act.
  • Employees are explicitly granted the right not to join a union and not to participate in collective action (a right that was never legally denied).
  • Closed-shop (a workplace in which only union members can be employed) agreements are prohibited.
  • Limited union-shop agreements are allowed only if a majority of the employees agree in a secret-ballot election and only if permitted by state law.
  • Employers are prohibited from contributing to union health and welfare funds that are not under joint labor-management administration. The federal government may stop a strike for a so-called "80-day cooling off period."
  • 1946 Largest solar prominence (500'000 km) observed
    1946 Radio fax to a moving train
          The postmaster general sends a telegram from the law library in the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C., to a moving train traveling between Baltimore and Washington. The message, written and signed by President Harry S. Truman's daughter Margaret, is the same message sent by Samuel Morse to inaugurate commercial telegraph service in 1844: "What hath God wrought?"
    1944 First submarine captured and boarded on high seas — U 505
    1944 US 5th Army enters and begins liberating Rome from Mussolini's Fascist armies and Hitler's, during World War II.
    1943 Se constituye en Argel el Comité Francés de Liberación Nacional, presidido por Charles André de Gaulle y Henri-Honoré Giraud.
    ^ 1942 Battle of Midway begins
          At the beginning of one of the most unequal battles in World War II, twenty-seven US fighter planes take off from the island of Midway to intercept 108 Japanese bombers and fighters en route to the strategic US outpost in the Pacific.
          In May 1942, the Japanese had concentrated their forces for a surprise attack on Midway, an archipelago in the Hawaiian group. Possession of the atoll would give the Japanese a base only 1600 km from the main Hawaiian islands, while placing the Central Pacific firmly under their control. However, unlike at Pearl Harbor six months before, the Americans anticipated the surprise attack, largely thanks to the breaking of Japanese codes by US intelligence. Nevertheless, the US Navy, only in World War II for six months, was still significantly outnumbered by its Japanese equivalent.
          In early June, US military command, rightly recognizing a Japanese attack in the Alaska’s Aleutians Islands as merely a diversionary tactic, massed its limited forces at Midway, and on 03 June 1942, the massive Japanese occupation force was spotted steaming toward the island. The next day, an advance Japanese squadron numbering seventy-two bombers and thirty-six Zeros took off from the Japanese carriers to bomb Midway into submission. Twenty-seven US pilots, who were informed by their superiors that their mission was one of self-sacrifice, took off to intercept the Japanese aircraft. Most perished by the end of the day, but forty-three Japanese planes were downed, and Midway’s air base and landing strip were preserved.
          At the same time, 300 km to the northeast, two US attack fleets caught the Japanese force entirely by surprise. American aircraft from two carriers assaulted the Japanese forces, and by the end of the day, three of the four Japanese aircraft carriers were sunk, and the fourth was so badly damaged that it was later scuttled by its Japanese officers. The Japanese fleet attempted to retreat, but on 06 June 1942, after a day of bad weather, the pursuing US aircraft resumed their assault. By 07 June 1942, the battle had ended. The substantial Japanese losses in the Battle of Midway crippled their naval might forever, and marked a major turning point in the Pacific War.
    ^ 1940 The evacuation of Dunkirk ends
          The British Expeditionary Force, which had flowed into northern France to help battle the German invaders, completes its evacuation of Dunkirk, leaving behind a significant amount of arms. Having been pushed to the Channel by German forces, Britain had no choice but to pull its northern forces back home. The evacuation began 11 days earlier, with destroyers and Channel ferries arriving at the shores of Dunkirk to pick up beach loads of BEF troops. A little over 338'000 British and Allied troops made their way to England-leaving behind 7000 tons of ammunition.
         The evacuation of Allied forces from Dunkirk on the Belgian coast ends as German forces capture the beach port. The nine-day evacuation, the largest of its kind in history and an unexpected success, saved 338'000 Allied troops from capture by the Nazis. On 10 May 1940, the Germans launched their attack against the West, storming into Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg. Faced with far superior airpower, more unified command, and highly mobile armored forces, the Allied defenders were a poor match for the German Wehrmacht. In a lightning attack, the Germans raced across Western Europe. On 12 May, they entered France, out-flanking the northwest corners of the Maginot Line, an impregnable defense of France's eastern border that did not extend to the Belgium border. On 15 May, the Dutch surrendered.
          The Germans advanced in an arc westward from the Ardennes in Belgium, along France's Somme River, and to the English Channel, cutting off communication between the Allies' northern and southern forces. The Allied armies in the north, which comprised the main body of Allied forces, were quickly being encircled. By 19 May, Lord John Gort, the British commander, was already considering the withdrawal of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) by sea. Reluctant to retreat so soon, the Allies fought on and launched an ineffective counterattack on 21 May. By 24 May, Walther von Brauchitsch, the German army commander in chief, was poised to take Dunkirk, the last port available for the withdrawal of the mass of the BEF from Europe.
          Fortunately for the Allies, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler suddenly intervened, halting the German advance. Hitler had been assured by Hermann Göring, head of the Luftwaffe, that his aircraft could destroy the Allied forces trapped on the beaches at Dunkirk, so Hitler ordered the forces besieging Dunkirk to pull back. On 26 May, the British finally initiated Operation Dynamo--the evacuation of Allied forces from Dunkirk. The next day, the Allies learned that King Leopold III of Belgium was surrendering, and the Germans resumed the land attack on Dunkirk. By then, the British had fortified their defenses, but the Germans would not be held for long, and the evacuation was escalated. As there were not enough ships to transport the huge masses of men stranded at Dunkirk, the British Admiralty called on all British citizens in possession of sea-worthy vessels to lend their ships to the effort. Fishing boats, pleasure yachts, lifeboats, and other civilian ships raced to Dunkirk, braving mines, bombs, and torpedoes. During the evacuation, the Royal Air Force (RAF) successfully resisted the Luftwaffe, saving the operation from failure. Still, the Germans dive-bombed the beach, destroyed numerous vessels, and pursued other ships within a few kilometers of the English coast. The harbor at Dunkirk was bombed out of use, and small civilian vessels had to ferry the soldiers from the beaches to the warships waiting at sea. But for nine days, the evacuation continued, a miracle to the Allied commanders who had expected disaster.
          By 04 June, when the Germans closed in and the operation came to an end, 198'000 British and 140'000 French troops were saved. These experienced soldiers would play a crucial role in future resistance against Nazi Germany. With Western Europe abandoned by its main defenders, the German army swept through the rest of France, and Paris fell on 14 June. Eight days later, Pétain signed an armistice with the Nazis at Compiègne. Germany occupied half the country and all its coasts, leaving the other half in the hands of the puppet Pétain regime in Vichy. On 06 June 1944, liberation of Western Europe finally began with the successful Allied landings in Normandy.
    1939 The S.S. St. Louis, carrying more than 900 Jewish refugees from Germany, is turned away from the Florida coast.
    1929 George Eastman demonstrates first technicolor movie (Rochester NY)
    1927 Ahmed Sukarno funda en Yakarta el Partido Nacional Indonesio, cuyo objetivo es la independencia.
    1920 Treaty of Trianon — Se firma el Tratado de Trianon, acuerdo entre los Aliados y Hungría en el que se delimitan las fronteras entre Checoslovaquia, Alemania y Yugoslavia.
    1919 US marines invade Costa Rica
    ^ 1919 US Congress passes the Nineteenth Amendment
    to the Constitution, guaranteeing women the right to vote. Is is then sent to the states for ratification. The woman suffrage movement was founded in the mid-nineteenth century by women who had become politically active through their work in the abolitionism and temperance movements. On July 28, 1848, three hundred woman suffragists, including Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, met in Seneca Falls, New York, to assert the right of women to vote.
          However, female enfranchisement was still largely opposed by most Americans, and the major distraction of the North-South conflict prevented further discussion. During the Reconstruction Era, the Fifteenth Amendment was adopted, granting African-American men the right to vote, but the Republican-dominated Congress failed to expand their progressive radicalism to women.
          The National Woman Suffrage Association, led by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, was formed in 1869 to push for an amendment to the US Constitution. Another organization, the American Woman Suffrage Association, led by Lucy Stone, was organized in the same year to work through the state legislatures. In 1890, these two societies were united as the National American Woman Suffrage Association.
          However, the political climate of the United States had taken a conservative turn in the late nineteenth century, and, even as the role of women in American society was drastically changing, opposition to female enfranchisement remained. By the beginning of the twentieth century, women were working more, receiving a better education, and bearing fewer children, and several states and territories had granted the right to vote.
          In 1913, the National Woman’s party organized the voting power of these enfranchised women to elect congressional representatives who supported woman suffrage, and by 1916, both the Democratic and Republican parties openly endorsed female enfranchisement.
          In 1919, the Nineteenth Amendment, which states that "the rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex," passes both houses of Congress and is sent to the states for ratification. On August 18, 1920, Tennessee became the thirty-sixth state to ratify the amendment, giving it the two-third majority of state ratification necessary to make it the law of the land. Eight days later, the Nineteenth Amendment took effect.
    1912 Massachusetts passes first US minimum wage law
    1901 Se establece en Suecia el servicio militar obligatorio.
    1896 Henry takes his first Ford through streets of Detroit
    1878 Cyprus ceded by Turkey to Britain for administrative purposes — El sultán de Turquía cede la posesión de la isla de Chipre a Gran Bretaña.
    ^ 1876 Train crosses the US in 83 hours
          A mere 83 hours after leaving New York City, the Transcontinental Express train arrives in San Francisco. That any human being could travel across the entire nation in less than four days was inconceivable to previous generations of Americans. During the early 19th century, when Thomas Jefferson first dreamed of an American nation stretching from "sea to shining sea," it took the president 10 days to travel the 360 km from Monticello to Philadelphia via carriage. Even with frequent changing of horses, the 100-mile journey from New York to Philadelphia demanded two days hard travel in a light stagecoach. At such speeds, the coasts of the continent-wide American nation were months apart. How could such a vast country ever hope to remain united? As early as 1802, Jefferson had some glimmer of an answer. "The introduction of so powerful an agent as steam," he predicted, "[to a carriage on wheels] will make a great change in the situation of man."
          Though Jefferson never saw a train in his lifetime, he had glimpsed the future with the idea. Within half a century, America would have more railroads than any other nation in the world. By 1869, the first transcontinental line linking the coasts was completed. Suddenly, a journey that had previously taken months using horses could be made in less than a week. Five days after the transcontinental railroad was completed, daily passenger service over the rails began. The speed and comfort offered by rail travel was so astonishing that many Americans could scarcely believe it, and popular magazines wrote glowing accounts of the amazing journey. For the wealthy, a trip on the transcontinental railroad was a luxurious experience. First-class passengers rode in beautifully appointed cars with plush velvet seats that converted into snug sleeping berths. The finer amenities included steam heat, fresh linen daily, and gracious porters who catered to their every whim. For an extra $4 a day, the wealthy traveler could opt to take the weekly Pacific Hotel Express, which offered first-class dining on board. As one happy passenger wrote, "The rarest and richest of all my journeying through life is this three-thousand miles by rail."
          The trip was a good deal less speedy and comfortable for passengers unwilling or unable to pay the premium fares. Whereas most of the first-class passengers traveled the transcontinental line for business or pleasure, the third-class occupants were often emigrants hoping to make a new start in the West. A third-class ticket could be purchased for only $40--less than half the price of the first-class fare. At this low rate, the traveler received no luxuries. Their cars, fitted with rows of narrow wooden benches, were congested, noisy, and uncomfortable. The railroad often attached the coach cars to freight cars that were constantly shunted aside to make way for the express trains. Consequently, the third-class traveler's journey west might take 10 or more days. Even under these trying conditions, few travelers complained. Even 10 days spent sitting on a hard bench seat was preferable to six months walking alongside a Conestoga wagon on the Oregon Trail.
          Railroad promotions, however, naturally focused on the speedy express trains. The arrival of the Transcontinental Express train in San Francisco on this day was widely celebrated in the newspapers and magazines of the day. With this new express service, a businessman could leave New York City on Monday morning, spend 83 hours in relaxing comfort, and arrive refreshed and ready for work in San Francisco by Thursday afternoon. The powerful agent of steam had effectively shrunk a vast nation to a manageable size.
    1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
    1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
    1863 Confederate General Robert E. Lee continues to mobilize his army for an invasion of Pennsylvania by sending Richard Ewell's corps out of Fredericksburg toward the Shenandoah Valley.
    ^ 1862 Confederates evacuate Fort Pillow
          Confederate forces slip out of Fort Pillow, Tennessee, a key stronghold on the Mississippi River, clearing the way for the Union capture of Memphis. Fort Pillow lay south of Island No. 10, the Confederates' key defense from a Northern assault. Although considered a backup to Island No. 10, Fort Pillow was really a significant fortification in its own right. After a Union campaign captured the island in early April, Fort Pillow was all that stood between the Yankees and Memphis.
          At the beginning of the war, Union military leaders had concocted the Anaconda Plan, which called for the dismemberment of the Confederacy piece by piece. The first part of the plan involved capturing the Mississippi River through operations from both the north and the Gulf of Mexico. By mid-April, a combined Union land force and naval squadron approached Fort Pillow. Most of the land force, however, had to be diverted to serve in northern Mississippi, so only 1200 soldiers remained. Although the land force was too small to take the fort, Yankee ships began a weeks-long bombardment. On 25 May an additional flotilla arrived to step up the pressure on the Confederate bastion. Events in northern Mississippi sealed the fate of Fort Pillow. The Confederates evacuated Corinth on 04 June and fell back to a more defensible position in central Mississippi, leaving Fort Pillow dangerously isolated in Union-held territory, with no support from the southeast. On 04 June, the Rebel garrison slipped away from the fort, destroying what cannons and provisions they could not carry with them. That set the stage for the capture of Memphis on 06 June.
    1862 Southern planters burn cotton shipments on the Yazoo River to keep them from Union hands.
    1832 3rd US national Black convention meets (Phila)
    1825 Unseasonable hurricane hits NYC
    ^ 1812 US House of Representatives votes war against Great Britain
    79 to 49, three days after President James Madison called on Congress to declare war. President Madison had grown tired of watching the US's merchant ships and sailors take a beating at the hands of the British. The nation's maritime interests had been caught in the crossfire of the Napoleonic Wars since the early 1800s. Though France had long since begged off from interfering with US economic activities, England persisted in its practice of halting US ships and seizing men who were suspected of having deserted the Royal Navy. Reluctant to build up America's military forces, Madison had attempted to rebuff the British through fiscally minded measures. However, neither the Embargo Act (1807) nor successive versions of non-intercourse legislation (1809, 1810) did much to dissuade the British from their habit of harassing US ports and ships.
    1812 The Louisiana Territory is renamed the Missouri Territory.
    ^ 1805 The First Barbary War ends
          Representatives of the United States and Tripoli agreed to terms for a peace treaty to end the First Barbary War. Also known as the War with Tripoli, the First Barbary War had begun four years earlier, when US President Thomas Jefferson ordered US Navy vessels to the Mediterranean Sea in protest of continuing raids against US ships by pirates from the Barbary states--Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, and Tripolitania. American sailors were often abducted along with the captured booty and ransomed back to the US at an exorbitant price.
          After two years of minor confrontations, sustained action began in June 1803 when a small US expeditionary force attacked Tripoli harbor in present-day Libya. In February 1804, a force of US Marines under Lieutenant Stephen Decatur led an expedition into Tripoli harbor to destroy a captured American vessel; a mission that famed British Admiral Horatio Nelson later called the "most daring act of the age." Six months later, Decatur returned to Tripoli Harbor as part of a larger American offensive, and emerged as a hero again during the so-called "Battle of the Gunboats," a naval battle that saw hand-to-hand combat between the Americans and the Tripolitans.
          In April of 1805, another American victory came during the Derna campaign, which was the first campaign undertaken by US land forces in North Africa. After marching 800 km from Egypt, US agent William Eaton led a small force of US Marines and Berber mercenaries against the Tripolitan port city of Derna. The Marines and Berbers were on a mission to depose Yusuf Karamanli, the ruling pasha of Tripoli, who had seized power from his brother, Hamet Karamanli, a pasha who was sympathetic to the United States. Supported by the heavy guns of the USS. Argus and the USS. Hornet, Marines and Arab mercenaries under William Eaton captured Derna and deposed Yusuf.
          However, much to Eaton’s dismay, the peace terms agreed to two months later failed to approve Hamet’s restoration to the throne. The US government, which was anxious to reach a peace agreement, decided to set aside Hamet’s claim in exchange for a promise by Tripoli to grant most-favored trading status to the United States, to not molest American merchant vessels, and to forgo demands for tribute payments. The treaty, approved by Congress in 1806 after a long and heated debate, was the most favorable any nation had negotiated with a pirate state. However, conflict with other Barbary states continued for over a decade.
    1792 Captain George Vancouver claims Puget Sound for Britain
    1784 Mme Thible becomes first woman to fly (in a balloon)
    1783 Montgolfier brothers launch first hot-air balloon (unmanned) — Los hermanos Jacques y Etienne Montgolfier realizan su primera demostración pública de ascensión en globo, en Annonay (Francia).
    1745 Prussians defeat Austrians at Hohenfriedeberg
    1647 British army seizes King Charles I as a prisoner
    1070 Roquefort cheese created in a cave near Roquefort, France
    --780 -BC- first total solar eclipse reliably recorded, by Chinese
    < 03 Jun 05 Jun >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 04 June:

    2004 Two Slovak truckers, whose truck, transporting tires, catches fire in the engine, inside the 13-km-long Fréjus tunnel, nearer to its end in Italy than the one in France, at about 18:00 (16:00 UT). Other vehicles catch fire, most of the tunnel gets blocked by collapse of walls. The tunnel, which was inaugurated in July 1980, will take months to clear. It has been serving for some 2 million vehicle crossings per year.
    2004 Eight persons, by terrorist bomb, near a railroad track, on the back wall of a kiosk in the Kirov market in Samara, Russia. 37 persons are wounded.
    2003 David Shambik, 27, and Moran Menachem, 17, Israeli man and woman, stabbed, at the exit to Moshav Even Sapir, near Jerusalem. Shambick was a security guard in Jerusalem. Their bodies are found the next day, Shambik without his gun.
    2002 At least 5, possibly 450 persons as an Orontes River dam (built in 1996) collapses in heavy rain after been hit by a landslide, and a 3-meter high wall of water destroys the village of Zeyzoun, Syria (population 450), near Idlib.
    2002 Michael Antinori, 30, when the single-engine Cessna he is piloting crashes into a wooded area near Tampa after circling aimlessly for an hour after taking off from Tampa airport without a flight plan. Suicide is suspected as Antinori was also the pilot and owner of a helicopter that crashed into a home in Tampa the previous night, when he suffered minor injuries.
    2002 Fernando Belaunde Terry, twice ineffective President of Peru (1963–03 Oct 1968 coup, 1980–28 Jul 1985), born on 07 October 1912.
    2001 King Dipendra of Nepal, his uncle Dhirendra, and two rioters.
          Dipendra's death at 03:45 ends his 3-day comatose reign on life support. He had been declared king after massacring his father King Birendra and many in his family on 1 June and his suicide attempt putting him into a coma. His uncle, regent-for-3 days Gyanendra becomes king. Dhirendra Shah, 51, Birendra's younger brother, also dies (at 17:57), of injuries he suffered in the 1 June shoot-out at the Royal Palace,
          No credible official explanation of the royal massacre having been given, there is great unrest among the Nepalese population, some of which riot chanting "Dipendra is innocent" and "We don't want Gyanendra." Armed riot police fire tear gas to disperse them. Soldiers beat demonstrators with batons and fired warning shots. Two people are killed and 19 injured.
    ^ 2001 (Monday) Mazen Julani, 33, is buried; Palestinian, he was shot and died “the previous week” and is buried today.
    Palestinian Man's Organs Save Israelis Updated: 2001 Tue, Jun 05 11:02 AM EDT - The family of a Palestinian man shot in the head last week has donated his organs to four Jews and an Arab waiting for lifesaving transplants in Israel, the national organ transplant coordinator said Tuesday. Tamar Ashkenazi said it was the first organ donation from a Palestinian to Israelis since peace efforts collapsed under fighting that began on 28 September. Mazen Julani, a 33-year-old pharmacist from traditionally Arab east Jerusalem, was shot in the head by a man in a passing car as he sat at a cafe last week. Julani's father, Lufti, said the family believes he was killed by a Jewish settler. Police say the shooting was criminal, not political. "Islam does not forbid donating organs to save another's life," said Lufti Julani, 71. "So, I donated organs to save the lives of others, no matter if they were Jews, Christians or Muslims, even though my son was killed by a Jewish settler's bullet." At his funeral Monday in east Jerusalem, mourners sharing the belief he was shot by a settler declared him a martyr. Carrying Palestinian flags, some of them scuffled with police. Igal Cohen, who received a heart from the man, was quoted by the Maariv daily as saying he was thankful to the family and would like to meet with Mazen Julani's father and brothers. "If this (transplant) can help advance the peace, then I've contributed my part," Cohen was quoted as saying.

    Palestinian Heart Saves Life of Dying Israeli Updated: 2001 Tue, Jun 05 7:50 AM EDT — After clinging weakly to life for four months, Israeli Yigal Cohen may soon leave hospital like a brand new person -- thanks to the Palestinian heart pumping in his chest. Cohen, who would have died without a heart transplant, received the vital organ from a most unlikely donor: Palestinian Mazen Joulani, whose family says he was killed by Jewish settlers. Israeli police, who are investigating Joulani's death on Sunday, say he was killed in a feud with other Palestinians. Despite the disagreement and eight months of vicious Israeli-Palestinian fighting, his family agreed to donate his organs, saving five people's lives, including Cohen's. Israeli media quoted Joulani's father Lotfi as saying he would be willing to donate the organs if it "saved lives, Jews or Muslims." "This is a noble act that really, really touched us. We were very surprised yesterday to find out the identity of the donor," Cohen's father David told Israel Radio. "It is really touching, especially in these days when relations are so tense, this noble family comes and teaches us that it is possible to do things in a different way," he said. A Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip erupted in September after peace talks stalled. "The very fact of the act simply taught me that there are other kinds of people on the other side and maybe there will be others like this, and through people like this we will find the path to peace and to a normal relationship," Cohen said. DEEP DOWN EVERYONE IS THE SAME Dr. Yaacov Lavie, the cardiologist at Tel Hashomer Hospital near Tel Aviv who carried out the transplant, said Yigal Cohen would have died without Joulani's heart. Now the father of two can expect to go home to his wife and children within a couple of weeks, Lavie said. "When you are deep in the transplant operation you don't think about it, but a moment later you think that during the operation you held in your right hand the heart of an Arab Palestinian Muslim...and in the other hand the heart of a Jew," Lavie said. "You smile to yourself and see that deep inside we are exactly the same and all the conflicts are completely unnecessary," he told Israel Radio. Lavie said he was disturbed by the thought that in the same Palestinian nation there were those who would donate organs and save the lives of Jews and other families who sent their sons to commit suicide in a crowd of Israelis. On the night of Cohen's transplant, Lavie said the family of one of the Israeli victims of Friday's Palestinian suicide bombing which killed 20 people and the bomber also decided to donate organs. "We are in a political and emotional tornado and the things are blurred...but there is a ray of light and these are the things that give you the strength to continue," Lavie said.
    2000 At least 100 in Sumatra earthquake.
    1994 John Hesch,
    suicide by shooting himself in the head. He was a Catholic priest of the Diocese of Richmond. Virginia. Several hours earlier, he had been confronted with allegations of child sexual abuse. Next to his body are found notes claiming his innocence.
    ^ 1989 Hundreds of demonstrators in the 2rd day of clearing Tiananmen Square
          The previous day, with protests for democratic reforms entering their seventh week, the Chinese government oldered its soldiers and tanks to reclaim Beijing’s Tiananmen Square at all cost. By the end of June 4, Chinese troops had forcibly cleared Tiananmen Square and Beijing's streets, killing hundreds of demonstrators and arresting thousands of protestors and other suspected dissidents.
          On April 15, the death of Hu Yaobang, a former Communist Party head who supported democratic reforms, roused some 100'000 students to gather at Beijing's Tiananmen Square to commemorate Hu and voice their discontent with China's authoritative Communist government. On April 22, an official memorial service for Hu Yaobang was held in Tiananmen's Great Hall of the People, and student representatives carried a petition to the steps of the Great Hall, demanding to meet with Premier Li Peng. The Chinese government refused such a meeting, leading to a general boycott of Chinese universities across the country and widespread calls for democratic reforms.
          Ignoring government warnings of violent suppression of any mass demonstration, students from more than forty universities began a march to Tiananmen on April 27. The students were joined by workers, intellectuals, and civil servants, and by mid-May over a million people filled the square, the site of Communist leader's Mao Zedong's proclamation of the People's Republic of China in 1949.
          On May 20, the government formally declared martial law in Beijing, and troops and tanks were called in to disperse the dissidents. However, large numbers of students and citizens blocked the army's advance, and by May 23, government forces had pulled back to the outskirts of Beijing.
          On June 3 and 4 Chinese troops carry out orders from the Chinese government to seize control of Tiananmen Square and the streets of Beijing, killing hundreds and arresting thousands. In the weeks after the government crackdown, an unknown number of dissidents are executed and hard-liners in the government take firm control of the country.
          The international community was outraged by the incident, and economic sanctions imposed by the United States and other countries sent China's economy into decline. However, by late 1990, international trade had resumed, thanks in part to China's release of several hundred imprisoned dissidents.
          Chinese troops storm through Tiananmen Square in the center of Beijing, killing and arresting thousands of pro-democracy protesters. The brutal Chinese government assault on the protesters shocked the West and brought denunciations and sanctions from the United States. In May 1989, nearly a million Chinese, mostly young students, crowded into central Beijing to protest for greater democracy and call for the resignations of Chinese Communist Party leaders deemed too repressive. For nearly three weeks, the protesters kept up daily vigils, and marched and chanted. Western reporters captured much of the drama for television and newspaper audiences in the United States and Europe. On June 4, 1989, however, Chinese troops and security police stormed through Tiananmen Square, firing indiscriminately into the crowds of protesters. Turmoil ensued, as tens of thousands of the young students tried to escape the rampaging Chinese forces. Other protesters fought back, stoning the attacking troops and overturning and setting fire to military vehicles. Reporters and Western diplomats on the scene estimated that at least 300, and perhaps thousands, of the protesters had been killed and as many as 10,000 were arrested. The savagery of the Chinese government's attack shocked both its allies and Cold War enemies. Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev declared that he was saddened by the events in China. He said he hoped that the government would adopt his own domestic reform program and begin to democratize the Chinese political system. In the United States, editorialists and members of Congress denounced the Tiananmen Square massacre and pressed for President George Bush to punish the Chinese government. A little more than three weeks later, the US Congress voted to impose economic sanctions against the People's Republic of China in response to the brutal violation of human rights.
         El Ejército chino dispara indiscriminadamente contra la multitud que ocupaba la plaza de Tiannamen, en Pekín, y causa decenas de muertos y cientos de heridos.
    Radio Beijing English Service (0400 UT 11685 MHz) Date: 4 Jun 89 06:26:22 UT http://www.cnd.org/June4th/1989.06-04.hz8.html
           "Please remember June the Third, 1989. The most tragic event happened in the Chinese Capital, Beijing. Thousands of people, most of them innocent civilians, were killed by fully-armed soldiers when they forced their way into city. Among the killed are our colleagues at Radio Beijing. The soldiers were riding on armored vehicles and used machine guns against thousands of local residents and students who tried to block their way. When the army conveys made the breakthrough, soldiers continued to spray their bullets indiscriminately at crowds in the street. Eyewitnesses say some armored vehicles even crushed foot soldiers who hesitated in front of the resisting civilians. Radio Beijing English Department deeply mourns those who died in the tragic incident and appeals to all its listeners to join our protest for the gross violation of human rights and the most barbarous suppression of the people.
          Because of the abnormal situation here in Beijing there is no other news we could bring you. We sincerely ask for your understanding and thank you for joining us at this most tragic moment."
    It was a night to remember, a night of savagery. As dawn broke over China's capital Sunday, the Avenue of Eternal Peace had become a street of tears.
          Chinese troops massacred unarmed civilians this morning, cutting a bloody swath through Beijing and rolling into student-occupied Tiananmen Square with tanks and armored personnel carriers. Hundreds of people were killed and hundreds wounded as the military put a violent end to a peaceful protest.
          It was a night of blood, pandemonium and defiance as tracer rounds flashed over the Statue of Liberty erected by demonstrators in the square and AK-47 rounds ricocheted off government buildings.
          As heavy smoke rose from the square, a helicopter was seen landing. The firing was too intense for reporters to get to the square itself. Shortly after 10 a.m. Beijing time, soldiers were still firing on unarmed demonstrators remaining in the steets, and this reporter saw 10 persons die in one clash alone. Military helicopters were swooping low over the city, and there were unconfirmed reports of fighting in outlying sections of Beijing.
          Security forces fired directly into the crowds. At 3:30 a.m. on the avenue near the Forbidden City, several hundred soldiers knelt and fired hundreds of rounds into a great mass of demonstrators who had been driven about a hundred yards down the main artery. This reporter saw at least eight persons killed and dozens wounded in the intense fusillade, which lasted more than five minutes. Most of the wounds were in the chest and stomach.
          Bicycle rickshaw drivers, the heroes of the violent night, pedaled between the crowds and the military and bundled the wounded into the backs of their flimsy vehicles, then pedaled them to safety.
          Several people were crushed to death by armored vehicles that roared toward the square. Soldiers were also killed by the vehicles.
          "Murderers," the crowd screamed as heavy fire continued. "Li Peng, murderer." It was Premier Li Peng who declared martial law.
          There were pools and smears of blood up and down the avenue as well as bodies of the dead. People dipped their hands in the blood and held it up to the journalists remaining on the scene. "Show the world what the Chinese government has done to its people," said one young man.
          The violence began at 14:00 yesterday when security forces fired volleys of tear gas at demonstrators. Later, crowds confronted several thousand soldiers massed outside the Great Hall of the People, China's capitol, and overturned a military jeep.
          The worst fighting of the night occurred around the Minzu Hotel, west of the square, where grim-faced troops opened fire with tracer bullets and live ammunition on milling crowds blocking their access to the square.
          Scores of people were wounded. Some of the bodies were laid out on the side of the road as the troops moved on to take the square, which has been the symbol of China's democratic movement for the last seven weeks.
          One tank ran into the back of another one that had stalled on the Jianguomenwai overpass. As they hurriedly bounced apart, the machine guns on their turrets began to train on the approaching crowd of about 10'000.
          The crowd, in a do-or-die mood, tried to board them but the tanks rumbled on. Then troops leapt off a convoy of trucks in their wake and fired volleys of tear gas and bullets as the crowd took cover in bushes or climbed over a spiked fence into a compound for foreigners, where trembling students and young workers hid in corridors and the elevator.
          At about 23:00 a huge blast was heard and a fireball rose a couple of kilometers from the square. The cause of the explosion was unclear, but it occurred in an area where security forces were massed.
          The main attack began in the middle of the night when armored vehicles crashed through the street barricades. Two of the vehicles were set ablaze by the angry demonstrators and were destroyed. Automatic rifle fire crackled continuously in the heart of the city.
          There were continual broadcasts on government-run television urging people to stay off the streets and telling all foreign reporters to leave the area.
          "They murdered the people...They just shot the people down like dogs, with no warning," said a man whose shirt was soaked with blood. "I carried a woman to an ambulance, but I think she was dead."
          "Please," he said, "you must tell the world what has happened here. We need your protection from our government."
          "You see, this is how your government loves you," said a woman huddling under a tree along the roadway with her 8-year-old son.
          "Our people are in shock," said one woman, tears flowing down her cheeks.
          "Our nation has become a hell."
    On 04 June 2001, the National Security Archive puts The US "Tiananmen Papers" on the internet at http://www.nsarchive.org/NSAEBB/NSAEBB47
    1989 Ayatalloh Ruhullah Khomeini of Iran, 86, of internal bleeding — Ruhola Jomeini, ayatola y dirigente político de la revolución islámica de Irán.
    1982 Rebecca Lynn Williams, raped and stabbed at noontime in Culpeper, Virginia, , dies a few hours later after indicating that the murderer was a black man acting alone. On 21 May 1983 Earl Washington Jr, 22, IQ 69, is arrested on unrelated charges, then confesses to 5 crimes including this one. He is sentenced to death. DNA evidence exculpates him in 1993, but he is kept in prison until 2001 on the other charge, though he has been in prison much longer than it warrants.
    1973 Maurice René Fréchet, French mathematician born on 02 September 1878. He made major contributions to the topology of point sets and defined and founded the theory of abstract spaces. Fréchet's most important books include Les Espaces abstraits (1928), Récherches théoretiques modernes sur la théorie des probabilités (1938), Pages choisies d'analyse générale (1953), Les Mathématiques et le concret (1955).
    1963 William Baziotes, US Abstract Expressionist painter born on 11 June 1912. — MORE ON BAZIOTES AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1957 Adolf Dietrich, Swiss artist born on 09 November 1877. — more with links to images.
    1951 Víctor Hugo Cárdenas Conde, político boliviano.
    1946 Ernst Leonard Lindelöf, Helsinki mathematician born on 07 March 1870, son of mathematics professor Leonard Lorenz Lindelöf. Author of Le calcul des résidus et ses applications à la théorie des fonctions (1905), Differential and integral calculus and their applications (4 volumes, 1920-1946), Introduction to function theory (1936).
    1944 Ruth Weil [28 May 1939–], at the Auschwitz death camp, to which she had been deported from France, where she was born at Neuilly-sur-Seine. The Nazis considered the little girl to be worse than vermin such as rats, just as they did the even younger one listed next, and all Jews.
    1944 Michelle Marie Weill [19 Sep 1939–], at the Auschwitz death camp, to which she had been deported from France, where she was born at à Bruyères (Vosges)..
    1944 Marcel Weill [25 May 1892–] at the Auschwitz death camp, to which he had been deported from France, where he was born at Stotzheim (Bas-Rhin).
    ^ 1942 Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich, 38, "der Henker" (the Hangman) deputy Reichsprotektor for Bohemia and Moravia, from wounds suffered in attempt to assassinate him on 27 May.
         He was the German Nazi official who was Heinrich Himmler's chief lieutenant in the SS (Schutzstaffel). He played a key role in organizing the Holocaust during the opening years of World War II.
          Heydrich joined a Freikorps gang in 1919 and entered the German navy in 1922, rising to the rank of first lieutenant before he was forced to resign in 1931 for having trifled with the affections of a shipyard director's daughter. That same year he joined the SS, where he soon became Himmler's closest collaborator and rose rapidly through the ranks, becoming chief of the Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service: SD).
          After Hitler became chancellor in 1933, Heydrich was appointed chief of the political department of the Munich police force, and he soon helped bring the political police forces throughout Germany under Himmler's control. He was appointed SS chief for Berlin in 1934, and when Himmler became chief of all German police forces in 1936, Heydrich took charge of the SD, the criminal police (Kripo), and the Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei: secret political police).
          In 1939 Heydrich became head of the Reich Security Central Office, which was in charge of all security and secret police throughout the Third Reich. Heydrich masterminded the fake "Polish" attack on the Gleiwitz radio transmitter that provided Hitler with a pretext for invading Poland on 01 September 1939.
          Soon afterward Heydrich and Adolf Eichmann began organizing the first deportations of Jews from Germany and Austria to ghettoes in occupied Poland. Heydrich also organized the Einsatzgruppen, mobile killing squads that murdered almost one million Soviet and Polish Jews in the occupied territories. On 31 July 1941, Hermann Göring commissioned Heydrich to carry out a "final solution of the Jewish question," authorizing him to take all organizational and administrative measures necessary for the extermination of the Jews. Heydrich chaired the infamous Wannsee Conference (20 January 1942), at which bureaucratic measures to implement the Final Solution were discussed.
          In September 1941 Heydrich had been appointed deputy Reichsprotektor for Bohemia and Moravia. He combined repressive measures and mass executions with an attempt to mollify Czech peasants and workers by improved social and economic conditions. The success of his measures in "pacifying" the Czech population lulled Heydrich into a false sense of security, and on 27 May 1942, two Free Czech agents bombed and shot him while he was riding in his car without an armed escort. He died on 04 June in a Prague hospital. Gestapo officials exacted vengeance for his death by executing hundreds of Czechs and wiping out the entire village of Lidice.
    1941 Guillermo II, último emperador de Alemania.
    1925 Camille Flammarion, astrónomo francés.
    1905 Emilio García Gómez, arabista y académico español.
    1899 Eugenio Beltrami, Italian mathematician born on 16 November 1835. He contributed to work in differential geometry on curves and surfaces. In 1868 he gave as interpretation of the non-Euclidean geometry of Lobachevsky and Bolyai, connecting it with Riemann's geometry, by use of the pseudosphere, a surface generated by the revolution of a tractrix about its asymptote.
    1885 Louis Burt Mayer, estadounidense, fundador de la Metro-Goldwin-Mayer.
    1879 Frederick Richard Lee, British painter born on 10 June 1798. — links to images.
    1859 Thousands of dead at the Battle of Magenta in Lombardy. During the Franco-Piedmontese war against the Austrians (second War of Italian Independence, 1859–1861). Napoléon III [20 Apr 1808 – 09 Jan 1873] and his 54'000 soldiers meet 58'000 Austrians under General Franz Gyulai in a highly disorganized battle that leaves some 9700 dead or injured and 4600 missing. The narrow French victory over the Austrians prooves to be an important step toward Italian independence, for it leads many districts and cities, beginning with Bologna on 12 June 1859, to throw off Austrian rule and join the cause of Italian unity. — Image: Il Campo italiano dopo la battaglia di Magenta (1862, 70x83cm; 338x494pix, 52kb) by Fattori [06 Sep 1825 – 30 Aug 1908]
    1842 Hippolyte-Camille Delpy, French artist born in 1842.
    1830 Antonio José de Sucre, héroe de la independencia hispanoamericana, muere asesinado.
    1818 Egbert van Drielst, Dutch painter, restorer, and art appraiser, baptized as an infant on 12 March 1745.
    1798 Giovanni Giaccomo Casanova, aventurero italiano.

    ^ Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
    1794 (16 prairial an II):
    DUBOIS Rosalie, domiciliée à Coulichet (Nord), comme distributrice de faux assignats, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.

    GOMBAUD Jean Daniel Alphonse, 70 ans, ex noble, né et domicilié à Bordeaux (Gironde), par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux, comme aristocrate et père d'émigré, et pour avoir dit au procureur de la commune de la Réole, que jamais la tyrannie n'avait été exercée avec autant de force..
    PIIS Charles Antoine, 52 ans, ex noble et grand sénéchal au présidial de Bazas, natif de Bordeaux, (Gironde), comme ennemi de la révolution, par la commission militaire de Bordeaux.
    GRIFFET LA BEAUME Louis, né à Moulins (Allier), ingénieur des ponts et chaussées, par la commission révolutionnaire séante à Lyon, comme conspirateur.
    RAJAR Maurice, 60 ans, natif de Boën (Loire), teneur de livres, domicilié à Lyon (Rhône) , comme contre-révolutionnaire, par la commission révolutionnaire de Lyon.
    LECLERC Jacques, hussard au 10ème régiment, domicilié à Vesoul (Haute Saône), par le tribunal criminel du département de la Marne, comme distributeur de faux assignats.
    VEIBELL Jacques, domicilié à Vettville (Haut-Rhin), comme émigré, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
    LEBRUN Charles, boucher, domicilié à Paris, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Seine, comme fabricateur de faux assignats.
    VALORI Marie Françoise, veuve de François Etienne Mazin, ex noble, 67 ans, native du Quesnoy (Nord), domiciliée à Dampierre (Nièvre), par le tribunal révolutionnaire, ayant cherché à s’évader de la maison d’arrêt de Cosne où elle était détenue.
    LETENEUR Nicolas Toussaints, capitaine de la gendarmerie de Versailles, ex noble, ci-devant cornette de la cavalerie, domicilié à Versailles (Seine et Oise), comme conspirateur, par le tribunal révolutionnaire.

    Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
    GONIN Jacquette, femme divorcée de Paquier-de-Larevenchère, 43 ans, née et domiciliée à Chasseneuille (Charente), pour avoir tenu des propos contre-révolutionnaires.
    CLEMENT Jacques, 41 ans, natif de Vac, ex curé de Vervant (Charente),comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    DUFOUR Marie Louise, 66 ans, née à Limoges, femme de compagnie de Goursac, domiciliée à Chasseneuil (Charente), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
         ... comme conspirateurs:
    LECOCQ Pierre Joseph, 60 ans, ex curé, né à Querqueville, près Cherbourg (Manche), domicilié à Colleçon (Seine et Marne), ... ayant craché sur une oriflamme, en disant que la convention était composée de gredins, et en pariant qu'avant peu les émigrés entreraient dans Paris.
    THIRIAL Jean François, 40 ans, ex constituant, curé et médecin, natif de Compiégne (Loire), domicilié à Versailles (Seine et Oise), ... ayant rétracté le serment par lui prêté à la constitution civile du clergé.
    DAUPHIN François, (dit Goursac), 61 ans, ex noble, chevalier de St Louis, et chevau-léger de la Garde du dernier tyran roi, domicilié à Chasseneuille (Charente).
    DAUPHIN Jacques, (dit Lapayreà), ex noble de la Charente.
    DAUPHIN Jeanne, (dite Coursac), fille, 54 ans, née à Chasseneille, domiciliée à Goursac (Charente).
    LEDUC-BIEVILLE Etienne Michel, père, 69 ans, ex conseiller, au ci-devant parlement de Rouen, ex noble, gentilhomme ordinaire de la chambre de Capet, né à Rouen (Loire Inférieure), domicilié à Paris.
    LEDUC-BIEVILLE Antoine Louis, fils, 27 ans, ex noble, lieutenant au ci-devant régiment des chasseurs des Vosges, né à Paris, domicilié à Belleville (Seine).
    THOMAS Thérèse, veuve Goursac, ex-noble, 80 ans, native d'Angoulême, domicilié à Chasseneuille (Charente).
               ... domiciliés à Paris:
    LORENZO Grégoire Philippe, homme de lettre, 29 ans, né à Dunkerque (Nord). — MEYNARD Jean Jacques, commis à la comptabilité, 46 ans, né à Alby (Tarn).
    MOREUIL Alexis, 49 ans, né à Ferrières (Somme), employé à la liquidation, ci-devant maître d'hôtel de l'ex comte de Lamarck émigré.

    1793 Jan Ekels II, Dutch painter and draftsman born on 28 (02?) June 1759.
    1737 François Le Moyne (or Le Moine, Lemoine), French Rococo era painter, born in 1688, who commits suicide by stabbing himself nine times. — MORE ON LE MOYNE AT ART “4” JUNE  , and MORE ON THE CONTINENCE OF SCIPIO, with links to images.
    1681 Cornelis Saftleven, Dutch painter born in 1607. — MORE ON SAFTLEVEN AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    < 03 Jun 05 Jun >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 04 June:

    ^ 1940 The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter is published
          22-year-old Carson McCullers' first novel, about misfits in a Georgia mill town, is an instant success. McCullers, born Lula Carson Smith in Columbus, Georgia, in 1917, was strongly encouraged in her childhood artistic endeavors by her mother, who believed she was an artistic genius. McCullers planned to be a concert pianist. Meanwhile, she began writing plays for her siblings to perform. At age 17, she went to New York to study at Juilliard, but on the subway, she lost all the money her parents had saved for her tuition. She supported herself for a year at school, then gave up music for writing and returned to Georgia.
          In 1937, she married a soldier named Reeves McCullers. Three years later, her first novel was published to great acclaim. Her fame, and her husband's own thwarted ambitions, strained the marriage, as did their mutual sexual ambiguity. Both tended to fall passionately in love with members of both sexes. In 1940, the couple separated, and McCullers took an apartment in a Victorian house in Brooklyn Heights shared by other prominent writers as well as musicians such as Aaron Copland and artists like Salvador Dali.
          Reeves McCullers returned to the Army, becoming an esteemed war hero, and the couple remarried, but Reeves later drank heavily and killed himself in a Paris hotel room. McCullers continued to churn out popular novels and stories, including The Member of the Wedding (1946), which became a successful stage play and movie. Playwright Edward Albee dramatized her novella The Ballad of the Sad Café (1951) in 1963. McCullers died at age 50, after battling breast cancer and a series of paralyzing strokes.
    1929 Antonio Huerta, who, on 06 April 2007 (Good Friday) shortly before midnight, was united to the Passion of Christ by falling and hitting his head, in his home at 3601 Wickham Avenue, El Paso, Texas. This put him into an irreversible coma. After one day in the hospital he was returned to his home, where on 09 April 2007 (Easter Monday) he received the sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick from Father JFC and his soul was commended to God, in the presence of his wife and daughters. He died some days later, still during the season of the celebration of the Resurrection. —(070409)
    1928 Dr. Ruth Westheimer (sex therapist; author; TV celeb)
    1926 Robert Earl Hughes, who grew up (to 1.84 m), and grew out, and grew out, and grew out (to an all time record chest circumference of 315 cm), and became the heaviest known human (486 kg) for a couple of decades. He died on 10 July 1958. Carol Yager [1960-1994] at her death was 1.70 m tall and weighed 544 kg, having thinned down from an estimated maximum of 680 kg. {her hip circumference must have been awesome} — 28 heavies —(070409)
    1917 Howard Metzenbaum (Sen-D-Ohio)
    ^ 1917 Robert Woodruff Anderson, author:
    Tea and Sympathy
    1953, a drama in 3 acts about a student who needed love - and the married woman who dared to give it to him, .
    After (1973), his first novel, it is the story of what happens to a man when his wife dies.
    Getting Up and Going Home (1978): Fiction -- His wife wants a divorce, not because she no longer loves him, but because their marriage has gone stale. Sad and happy memories are evoked before his final acceptance of the fact that, for a while, his love life will involve having to get up and go home .. alone.
    You Know I Can't Hear You When the Water's Running -- Two old women exchange their half-forgotten, mixed-up memories of their past marriages.
    Solitaire and Double Solitaire  
    I Never Sang For My Father  
    ^ 1910 Robert Bernard Anderson
         He grew up to be the lawyer turned legislator who helped shaped the conservative economic policies of President Dwight Eisenhower's second administration. Born in the small town of Burleson in Texas, Anderson spent a portion of his life hopping from modestly prestigious public posts to relatively lucrative spots in the private sector. After securing a law degree from the University of Texas in 1932, Anderson did an extended stint in the state government, serving first as a member of the state house of representatives (1932), then assistant attorney general, and later state tax commissioner. By the dawn of the 1940s, Anderson switched career paths and headed into the private sector, working as the general manager of a Texas-based oil and ranching concern.
          During the 1950s, he continued to move between business and government, though this time his dalliances with the public sector landed him a seat in President Eisenhower's administration. After working as Eisenhower's secretary of the Navy (1953) and then the secretary of defense (1954), Anderson made a temporary retreat into the private world. However, in 1957 Eisenhower, casting about for someone to run the Treasury, again beckoned Anderson to Washington. The Texas businessman heeded the President's call and headed up the Treasury until Eisenhower left office in 1961.
         Anderson received the Medal of Freedom in 1955. He pleaded guilty in 1987 to charges of evading taxes by illegally operating an offshore bank; was sentenced to jail and disbarred. He died, of complications from surgery on cancer of the esophagus, in New York, N.Y., on 14 August 1989
    ^ 1896 Ford's Quadricycle
          At approximately 01:30, Henry Ford test drives his Quadricycle, the first automobile he ever designed or drove. Ford was working at the Edison Illuminating Company in Detroit at the time that he began building the Quadricycle. He had reportedly seen an article on the gasoline engine in the American Machinist while in the company of friend and fellow engineer Charles King. In King's recollection, Ford claimed: "I want to build one of these."
          Ford employed the help of his friends in the Detroit engineering community to build an internal combustion engine on his kitchen table. It is important to note to what extent Ford was a visionary and an organizer. He was an engineer, of course, but he didn't, by any means, accomplish his engineering feats alone. Men like King, along with a slew of other engineers, volunteered their time to Ford's projects. King provided Ford with a whole crew of workers who labored in the makeshift machine shop Ford had constructed in his garage behind his Bagley Avenue residence in Detroit. Ford even convinced his neighbor, Felix Julian, to donate his half of the shed to the cause.
          King was building his own vehicle at the time and actually preempted Ford in testing the horseless carriage in March of 1896. Ford followed King's carriage's test-run on his bicycle. Ford did make one major innovation in building his first vehicle: his decision not to attach an engine to an existing carriage but rather to construct a four-wheel body based on the principles of bicycle manufacturing.
          Ford completed his Quadricycle early in the morning on this day in 1896. He couldn't wait to test the invention. Only one of his associates, Jim Bishop, was present at the time of the vehicle's completion. In all of his enthusiasm in getting the car together Ford failed to consider that his contraption was wider than the doors of the shed in which he built it. He and Bishop set upon the door and adjacent walls with axes in order to hack an entrance sufficient for the Quadricycle.
          The 230-kg, two-cylinder vehicle came to life in the alley behind Ford's house. Ford drove it down Bagley Avenue to Grand River Avenue, to Washington Boulevard, where the Quadricycle stopped. Bishop and Ford pushed the automobile to the Edison plant where they replaced a nut and spring that had come loose.
          The next month Henry drove his vehicle to his father's farm to show it off. His father apparently walked around it cautiously. Later he expressed his doubts to one of his neighbors: "John and William [Henry's brothers] are alright, but Henry worries me. He doesn't seem to be settled down and I don't know what's going to become of him." Little did his father know that his son Henry would do just fine for himself!
    1892 The Sierra Club is incorporated in San Francisco.
    1881 (Julian date > go to 16 June Gregorian) Natalia Sergeevna Gonchavova.
    1877 Heinrich Wieland German chemist (bile acids-Nobel 1927)
    1871 Louis Soutter, Swiss artist who died on 20 February 1942. — MORE ON SOUTTER AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1867 Carl Gustaf Mannerheim, Finland, military hero, President (1944-1946)
    1817 Henricus Engelbertus Reyntjens, Dutch artist who died in 1899 or 1900.
    1809 John Henry Pratt, English mathematician, Anglican priest in India, who died on 28 December 1871. Author of The mathematical principles of mechanical philosophy (1836), On attractions, Laplace's functions and the figure of the Earth (1860), Scripture and science not at variance (1856)
    click for full portrait^ 1738 (24 May Julian) George William Frederick, George III (born in London)
         He would become king of Great Britain and Ireland (1760-1820) and elector (1760-1814) and then king (1814-20) of Hanover, during a period when Britain won an empire in the Seven Years' War but lost its American colonies, and then, after the struggle against Revolutionary and Napoleonic France, emerged as a leading power in Europe. During the last years of his life (from 1811) he was intermittently mad—his son, the future George IV, acting as regent.
          George was retarded as a child, he only learned to read properly at the age of 11. In 1760, twenty-year-old George succeeded his grandfather, George II, as king of Great Britain and Ireland. Although he hoped to govern more directly than his predecessor had, King George III was unable to find a minister that he could trust until 1770, when he appointed Lord Frederick North of Kirtling as his chief minister. Lord North proved able to manage Parliament and willing to follow royal leadership, but George’s policy of coercion against the American colonists led to the outbreak of the American War for Independence and his subsequent refusal to accept the loss of his most profitable colonies prolonged the war.
          Although the debacle of the American colonies' War of Independence contributed to widespread opposition to the king in Parliament, in 1784 his appointment as prime minister, William Pitt, succeeded in winning a parliamentary majority. Pitt’s ascendance brought to an end the supremacy of the old aristocratic Whig families in British government. After his prime minister secured power, the king retired from active participation in government, except for occasional interference in major issues such as Catholic Emancipation, which he defeated in 1801. George, who had suffered a short nervous breakdown in 1765 and a more serious one in the winter of 1788 to 1789, became permanently insane in 1810. It has been suggested that he was a victim of the hereditary disease porphyria, a defect of the blood that can cause mental illness when not treated. He spent the rest of his life in the care of his devoted wife, Charlotte Sophia, whom he had married in 1761. Following his retirement from public life in 1810, his son, the prince of Wales, was named prince regent, and upon the death of George III on 29 January 1820, became King George IV.
    Portrait of George IIICaricature of George III
    1694 François Quesnay France, economist, leader of the Physiocrats  He died on 16 December 1774.
    Holidays Botswana : Commonwealth Day / Finland : Flag Day (1867) / International : Day of Innocent Children Victims of Aggression / Tonga : Independence Day / Ingushetia : Day of the Formation of the Republic (1992)

    Religious Observances  Christian : SS Quirinus and Optatus / Christian : St Saturnine / Unification Church : Day of all things / RC : St Francis Caracciolo, confessor
    click click

    Thoughts for the day:
    “The laborer is worthy of his hire, if his labor is.”
    — {What if it's her hire and her labor?}
    “Never underestimate the power of stupid people in large groups.”George Carlin [12 May 1937~]
    “Never underestimate the stupidity of large people in powerful groups.”
    “Never empower largely underestimated people in stupid groups.”
    “Never stupefy people of large power in underestimated groups.”
    “Never underestimate the power of George Carlin all by himself.”
    updated Saturday 14-Jun-2008 0:57 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.50 Monday 04-Jun-2007 3:20 UT
    v.6.60 Saturday 01-Jul-2006 15:08 UT
    v.5.50 Sunday 05-Jun-2005 14:38 UT
    Friday 04-Jun-2004 21:06 UT

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