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Events, deaths, births, of JUN 03
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[For events of Jun 03  Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jun 131700s: Jun 141800s: Jun 151900~2099: Jun 16]
• US Congress to move to Memphis? !!!... • Tien An Men bloodbath... • Cities discovered under sea... • Right to a lawyer... • Crusaders massacre Turks... • GM saves money with defective latches... • President Adams moves to Washington... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Gorbachev~Bush Sr. meeting ends... • Grant goofs, thousands die... • Victory in Cambodia?... • Le Duc Tho joins Vietnam peace talks... • Nazi planes bomb Paris civilians... • Spacewalk... • Olds is born... • Novelist McMurtry is born... • Casey at the Bat...
^  On a 03 June:
2007 (Trinity Sunday) Pope Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927~] canonizes Father George Preca [12 Feb 1880 – 26 Jul 1962], the first Maltese to be declared a saint, founder of the Society for Christian Doctrine; Father Szymon of Lipnica OFM [1439 – 18 Jul 1482], Polish; Father Charles of St. Andrew CP (or Charles of Mount Argus) born Johannes Andreas Houben [11 Dec 1821 – 05 Jan 1893], Dutch; and Mother Marie-Eugénie de Jésus (born Anne-Eugénie Milleret de Brou) [25 Aug 1817 – 10 Mar 1898], French, founder (in 1839) of the Sisters of the Assumption. —(070508)
LOUD price chart2003 Loudeye (LOUD) announces that it was selected by The Orchard, a distributor of non-major label music, to provide digital media fulfillment and distribution services to support the digital delivery of The Orchard's music catalog to customers, retailers and partners worldwide. Under the agreement, Loudeye is encoding, processing and distributing more than 120'000 songs from over 30 genres in The Orchard's music catalog, which will be integrated with Loudeye's current music archive of more than 3.3 million tracks. The Orchard holds agreements with more than 3000 record labels and 10'000 artists from over 30 countries. On the NASDAQ, 15 million of the 46 million LOUD shares are traded, surging from their previous close of $0.53 to an intraday high of $1.29 and close at $1.27. They had traded as low as $0.18 as recently as 17 April 2003. The had started trading on 13 March 2000, at $40.00. [3~year price chart >]
2003 The Office of the Inspector General of the US Department of Justice releases the 239-page report The September 11 Detainees: A Review of the Treatment of Aliens Held on Immigration Charges in Connection with the Investigation of the September 11 Attacks [PDF, 13'561kb], dated 29 April 2003, which goes a short way toward validating the complaints of human rights advocates about abuses committed by the regime of usurper-President “Dubya” Bush. The report, signed by Inspector General Glenn A. Fine, says, on page 197, just before the end of its Conclusions:
     In sum, while the chaotic situation and the uncertainties surrounding the detainees’ connections to terrorism explain some of these problems, they do not explain them all. We believe the Department should carefully consider and address the issues described in this report, and we therefore offered a series of recommendations regarding the systemic problems we identified in our review. They include recommendations to ensure a timely clearance process; timely service of immigration charges; careful consideration of where to house detainees with possible connections to terrorism, and under what kind of restrictions; better training of staff on the treatment of these detainees; and better oversight of the conditions of confinement.
^ 2002 US Congress may move to Memphis.
      The US Congress demands a new Capitol building with a retractable dome. Otherwise it threatens to move to another city that will build one for them, such as Memphis or Charlotte. “Don't get us wrong: We love the drafty old building," says House Speaker Dennis Hastert. "But the hard reality is, it's no longer suitable for a world-class legislative branch. The sight lines are bad, there aren't enough concession stands or bathrooms, and the parking is miserable."
     These sensational news are today's edition (no, not 01 April's) of Beijing's most popular newspaper, the Beijing Evening News, which claims a circulation of 1.25 million. The source? The US spoof tabloid, The Onion, “America's finest news source”, 29 May 2002 edition, which parodies Congress as a Major League Baseball team which wants a a new ballpark.
     The Onion has published news under headlines [not taken up by the Beijing Evening News, but let's hope that will change now] such as:
Clinton Deploys Vowels to Bosnia: Operation Vowel Storm Will Make Countless Bosnian Names More Pronounceable
— Jesus Christ Returns to NBA
Microsoft Patents Ones, Zeroes
— I Can't Stand My Filthy Hippy Owner by Thunder the Ferret
— Christopher Reeve Placed Atop Washington Monument
Tenth Circle Added To Rapidly Growing Hell
Pope Calls For Greater Understanding Between Catholics, Hellbound
— Loved Ones Recall Local Man's Cowardly Battle With Cancer
Funnyuns Still Outselling Responsibilityuns
— Life Jackets Issued To All Americans For Some Reason
— Klan Rally 70 Percent Undercover Reporters
Gatorade Pledges $240 Million In Thirst Aid To Underquenched Nations
U.S. Ambassador To Bulungi Suspected Of Making Country Up
Secret of Fire Falls Into Russian Hands
Northern Irish, Serbs, Hutus Granted Homeland In West Bank
World Death Rate Holding Steady At 100 Percent
Serbia Deploys Peacekeeping Forces To U.S.
ACLU Defends Nazis' Right To Burn Down ACLU Headquarters
American People Ruled Unfit To Govern
Best-Laid Plans Of Mice And Men Faulted In 747 Crash
8-Year-Old Accidentally Exercises Second Amendment Rights
Clinton Vaguely Disappointed By Lack Of Assassination Attempts
Heroic PETA Commandos Kill 49, Save Rabbit
Lab Rabbit Strongly Recommends Cover Girl Waterproof Mascara For Sensitive Eyes
Nation's Schoolchildren Call For Cuts In Math, Science Funding
Nation's Educators Alarmed By Poorly Written Teen Suicide Notes
Christian Right Lobbies To Overturn Second Law Of Thermodynamics
Fundamentalist Aesopians Interpret Fox-Grapes Parable Literally
Judge Orders God To Break Up Into Smaller Deities
Non-Controversial Christ Painting Under Fire From Art Community
God Re-Floods Middle East
Cardinals Blasted For Negative Campaign Tactics In Papal Race
Aspirin Taken Daily With Fifth Of Bourbon Greatly Reduces Awareness Of Heart Attacks
Babies Are Stupid
Fun Toy Banned Because Of Three Stupid Dead Kids
New Remote Control Can Be Operated By Remote
Revolutionary New Insoles Combine Five Forms Of Pseudoscience
TV Helps Build Valuable Looking Skills
Retirees Rise Up Against Gang Violence- All Are Killed
Rules Grammar Change- English Traditional Replaced To Be New Syntax With
Klingon Speakers Now Outnumber Navajo Speakers
Twelve Customers Gunned Down In Convenience- Store Clerk's Imagination
Children Of Divorce Twice As Likely To Write Bad Poetry
Dolphins Evolve Opposable Thumbs: 'Oh, ***,' Says Humanity {*** mild fecal expletive deleted: this is a straight-laced family web site}
Chinese Rockers Hold Benefit For Oppression
Monk Gloats Over Yoga Championship
^ 2002 Tyco CEO resigns under pressure.
      Tyco International's board forces the resignation of its CEO Dennis Kozlowski. If it had fired him, Tyco would have probably had to pay Kozlowski a severance package of at least $120 million. Kozlowski also resigned on 03 June as a director of the Raytheon Company.
      Kozlowski's resignation deepens the crisis at Tyco, a conglomerate that has a quarter-million employees and manufactures, designs, and sells electronic components, undersea cable, disposable medical supplies, fire suppression and detection equipment, security systems and flow control products. Tyco's stock (TYC) has lost three-quarters of its value in the first five months of 2002, leaving investors $85 billion poorer. It had traded as high as $62.19 on 22 January 2001. But on 03 June 2002 it drops as low as $15.25 (below its 5-year low of $15.66 on 09 June 1997) closing at $16.05, from the previous close of $21.95. [5~year TYC price chart >]
      If Tyco cannot raise cash and regain investors' confidence by selling assets, it may face a cash squeeze, with $12 billion in debt coming due by the end of 2003. The forced resignation of Kozlowski represents the end of the stock market boom of the 1990's. He is the epitome of a group of swashbuckling C.E.O.'s who came along in the 1990s and who called themselves, audaciously, the serial acquirers. Kozlowski was the most aggressive of all. Other executives, like Bernard J. Ebbers, who lost his job in April as chief executive of WorldCom, confined themselves to one industry. Kozlowski sought to build a giant multi-industry corporation, following in the footsteps of the conglomerate builders of the 1960's, like Harold Geneen of ITT.
     The next day Kozlowski is indicted on 04 June 2002 for conspiring with art galleries and consultants in New York and London to avoid paying more than $1 million in state and city sales taxes on artworks costing millions of dollars.
     TYC would dip as low as $6.98 on 25 July 2002, but would then recover to some extent and on 03 June 2003, TYC would close at $17.88.
Burdine on Death Row2002 The US Supreme Court unanimously rejects an appeal by Texas, which wanted to execute Calvin Jerold Burdine, even though his lawyer Joe Frank Cannon (died since) slept some 10 times for up to 10 minutes each during Burdine's 23~27 Jan 1984 trial in Houston for the 18 April 1983 stabbing murder of his homosexual mate W.T. “Dub” Wise at the trailer home the two shared in Houston during a robbery which Burdine admits perpetrating jointly with Douglas McCreight. Burdine said he was angry because Wise had asked him to prostitute himself to earn more money. However Burdine pled not guilty, and McCreight pled guilty to the actual murder, yet McCreight was released from prison on parole after serving 8 years.

Presidential elections in Peru: Alejandro Toledo, 55, a shoeshine boy with Amerindian ancestry who rose from poverty to become a World Bank economist, is elected president over former president Alan Garcia. Raul Diez Canseco, a Toledo ally, is elected first vice-president (of the 2 that Peru has).
Toledo in Iquitos[photo: Toledo greets supporters from a boat after a trip on Nanai river, in Iquitos, 29 May 2001 >]

2000 US President Clinton holds talks in Moscow with Russian President Vladimir Putin on topics including missile defense.

2000 Ancient lost cities discovered under sea.       ^top^
      Archaeologists scouring the Mediterranean seabed announce that they have found the 2500-year-old ruins of submerged Pharaonic cities that until now were known only through Greek tragedies, travelogues and legends.
      Among the stunning discoveries at the sites — where the cities of Herakleion, Canopus and Menouthis once stood — are remarkably preserved houses, temples, port infrastructure and colossal statues that stand testimony to the citizens' luxuriant lifestyle, which some travelers had described as decadent.
      This is the first time that historians have found physical evidence of the existence of the lost cities, which were famous not only for their riches and arts, but also for numerous temples dedicated to the gods Isis, Serapis and Osiris, making the region an important pilgrimage destination for various cults.
      Herakleion, once a customs port where commerce flourished until the founding of Alexandria by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C., was found in its entirety. "We have an intact city, frozen in time," French archaeologist Franck Goddio, who led the international team in the search, announces.
      The team worked for two years off Alexandria in waters 6 to 10 meters deep, using modern technology including the use of magnetic waves to map the area.
      "It is the most exciting find in the history of marine archaeology. It has shown that land is not enough for Egyptian antiquities," comments Gaballa Ali Gaballa, secretary-general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, Egypt's top archaeology body.
      At the news conference, underwater television footage of the site was shown. Some of the treasure was also on display - a basalt head of a pharaoh, a bust of the curly haired and bearded god Serapis and a life-size headless black granite statue of the goddess Isis, sculpted as if wearing a diaphanous cloth held together by knots at her breast.
      "At long last, these lost cities of Menouthis and Herakleion have been located," exclaims Gaballa, adding that the cities — probably built during the waning days of the pharaohs in the 7th or 6th century B.C. - will be left as they are in the sea and only smaller pieces will be retrieved for museums.
      Numerous ancient texts speak of the importance of the region and the cities, before they were covered over by the sea, probably following an earthquake.
      Greek historian Herodotus, who visited Egypt in 450 B.C., wrote about Herakleion and its temple dedicated to Hercules. The sites were also named in Greek tragedies — Greek mythology tells the story of Menelaos, king of Spartans, who stopped in Herakleion during his return from Troy with Helena. His helmsman Canopus was bitten by a viper and subsequently transformed into a god. Canopus and his wife Menouthis were immortalized by two cities that bore their names.
      Authors such as Strabo describe the geographic location of the cities and their rich lifestyle, while others, such as Seneca, condemn their moral corruption.
      Herakleion lost its economic importance after the building of Alexandria. It was probably destroyed by an earthquake, indicated by the position of collapsed columns and walls. They had all fallen systematically in one direction, said Amos Nur, a geophysicist from Stanford University who did the magnetic mapping of the area. The sea encroached on the land following the quake, and ruins of Herakleion are now about six kilometers from land in the Bay of Abu Qir. The sea also engulfed Canopus and Menouthis. The destruction most likely happened in the 7th or 8th century. Divers found Islamic and Byzantine coins and jewelry from that period, but none more recent.
1998 Newsweek Web site
      Newsweek announces that it will develop a Web site. The news magazine — the online version of which had previously only been available on AOL — found itself at a disadvantage when news of President Clinton's affair with Monica Lewinsky came out. At the time, most major news sources already had a Web site where breaking news could be posted a short notice.
1997 Haiti was admitted as the 15th member of the Caribbean Community, CARICOM.
1996 Russian President Boris Yeltsin won the runoff vote against Communist leader Gennady Zyuganov to retain the presidency.
1996 NATO foreign ministers backed a deal that boosted the role of European members within the Atlantic alliance.
1996 The FBI disconnects the electricity to the Freemen ranch in Montana, to persuade the occupants to negotiate an end to the 71-day-old standoff.
1996 During joint war games in the Pacific, a Japanese destroyer mistakenly shoots down a US attack plane; two US Navy aviators eject safely.
^ 1996 The $150 million door latch saved GM $766 million
      Alex Hardy was driving home late one evening in 1991 when he took an unplanned nap at the wheel of his Chevrolet Blazer. As the truck spun out of control, its axle snapped and door latch failed to stay shut. Hardy, who was ejected from the vehicle as it tumbled over, was left paralyzed. In the wake of the accident, Hardy and his wife claimed that General Motors, maker of the Chevy Blazer, had knowingly sold vehicles with defective door latches.
      The Hardys brought their case to Alabama's courts and, on this day in 1996, won some measure of vindication, as a jury slapped GM with a whopping $150 million in punitive damages. Though Hardy would likely never walk again, the auto giant's general council, Thomas Gottschalk, dismissed the "completely outrageous" decision as "the crowning example of a state tort system gone berserk."
      However, during the trial, Hardy's legal team presented seemingly damning evidence against GM, including internal documents in which the company's own engineers conceded that the Blazer's latch was " substandard" and was prone to failure. Moreover, the documents revealed that GM had decided against recalling and repairing the vehicles with the defective latches because it deemed the $916 million price tag for such measures to be too hefty.
^ 1990 Bush and Gorbachev end second summit meeting
      President George Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev end their three-day summit meeting with warm words of friendship but without any concrete agreement concerning German reunification. Bush and Gorbachev held their second summit conference in Washington, D.C. The main topic of conversation was the future of a reunified Germany. Communist rule in East Germany had already crumbled and the Berlin Wall was torn down in 1989. Differences arose between the United States and the Soviet Union, however, over the issue of a reunified Germany in Cold War Europe. The United States wished for the new Germany to be a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which had been created in 1949 as a mutual defense organization to oppose Soviet expansion into Western Europe. The Soviet Union, already somewhat fearful of a reunified and armed Germany, expressed grave concerns over German membership in NATO. Gorbachev proposed that the new Germany be a member of both NATO and the Warsaw Pact, the communist bloc equivalent of NATO. Also part of the discussions at the second summit was the fate of Lithuania, the Soviet republic that had proclaimed its independence in late 1989. The Soviet government responded harshly to the Lithuanian independence movement, imposing economic sanctions and threatening military intervention. The Bush administration was clearly in favor of independence for Lithuania and asked the Soviet government to cease its threatening attitude toward the republic. No agreements were reached at the summit concerning either Germany or Lithuania, or any other issue for that matter. President Bush, however, preferred to end the meetings on a positive note, declaring, "We've moved a long, long way from the depths of the Cold War. I don't quite know how to quantify it for you, but we could never have had the discussions at Camp David yesterday, or as we sat in the Oval Office a couple of days before, with President Gorbachev, 20 years ago." Events of the next year, however, rendered moot the issues that had been raised at the summit. Economic and political turmoil in the Soviet Union led to Gorbachev's resignation as president in December 1991, at which point the Soviet Union ceased to exist.
1989 China's crackdown on pro-democracy dissidents protesting in Tiananmen Square began.
1987 In France, Klaus Barbie, the Nazi "butcher of Lyon," was jailed for life for wartime crimes against humanity.
      Apple Computer announces that chairman and cofounder Steve Jobs would no longer control the manufacturing and marketing of the Macintosh computer. The thirty-year-old Jobs had led the development team that designed the machine.
1981 Pope John Paul II left a Rome hospital and returned to the Vatican three weeks after the attempt on his life.
1972 In Cincinnati, Ohio, Sally J. Priesand, 25, becomes the first woman in Reform Judaism to be ordained as a rabbi.
^ 1970 Nixon claims victory in Cambodia
     In a televised speech, President Richard Nixon claims the Allied drive into Cambodia is the "most successful operation of this long and difficult war," and that he is now able to resume the withdrawal of US troops from South Vietnam. US and South Vietnamese forces had launched a limited "incursion" into Cambodia on April 29. The campaign included 13 major ground operations to clear North Vietnamese sanctuaries 20 miles inside Cambodia. Some 50,000 South Vietnamese soldiers and 30,000 US troops were involved, making it the largest operation of the war since Operation Junction City in 1967. The announcement of the Cambodian operation gave the antiwar movement in the United States a new rallying point. News of the incursion set off a wave of antiwar demonstrations, including one at Kent State University that resulted in the killing of four students by Army National Guard troops and another at Jackson State in Mississippi, resulting in the shooting of two students when police opened fire on a women's dormitory. In his speech, Nixon reaffirmed earlier pledges to bring the Cambodian operation to an end by 30 June 30, with "all our major military objectives" achieved and reported that 17'000 of the 31'000 US troops in Cambodia had already returned to South Vietnam. After 30 June, said Nixon, "all American air support" for Allied troops in fighting in Cambodia would end, with the only remaining American activity being attacks on enemy troop movements and supplies threatening US forces in South Vietnam. Nixon promised that 50'000 of the 150,000 troops, whose withdrawal from Vietnam he had announced on 20 April, would "be out by October 15."
1968 Le Duc Tho joins Vietnam peace talks
      Le Duc Tho, a member of the North Vietnam Communist Party's Politburo, joins the North Vietnamese negotiating team as a special counselor. The Paris peace talks had begun in March 1968, but had made little headway in ending the war. In August 1969, Tho and Henry Kissinger would begin meeting secretly in a villa outside Paris in an attempt to reach a peace settlement. It was these private talks that would ultimately result in the January 1973 Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring the Peace in Vietnam. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize with Kissinger in 1973, Tho, aware that the North Vietnamese were still planning to conquer South Vietnam, declined the honor.
1968 Pop artist Andy Warhol is shot and critically wounded in his New York film studio, known as The Factory, by Valerie Solanas, an actress and self-styled militant feminist.
^ 1965 A US astronaut “walks” in space
      190 km above earth, Major Edward H. White II, opens the hatch of Gemini 4 and steps out of the space capsule, becoming the first US astronaut to "walk" in space. Attached to the craft by a 8-meter tether and controlling his movements with a hand-held oxygen jet propulsion gun, White remains outside the capsule for just over twenty minutes. Although the first American to walk in space, White had been preceded on March 18, 1965, by Soviet cosmonaut Aleksei A. Leonov.
      Implemented at the height of the space race, NASA’s Gemini program was the least famous of the three US manned space programs conducted during the 1960s. However, as an extension of Project Mercury, which put the first American in space in 1961, Gemini laid crucial groundwork for the more dramatic Apollo moon missions that began in 1969.
      The Gemini space flights were the first involving multiple crews, and the extended duration of the missions provided valuable information about the biological effects of longer-term space travel. In addition, when the Gemini program ended in 1966, US astronauts had perfected rendezvous and docking maneuvers with other orbiting vehicles, a skill that would be essential during the three-stage Apollo moon missions.
^ 1960 Clarence Gideon is arrested
and charged with breaking into a poolroom in Florida. The right to an attorney would be established as one of the chief principles of American criminal justice as a result of the appeal of Gideon's subsequent conviction. Due to Gideon's perseverance, every criminal suspect is entitled to representation by a lawyer.
      Gideon, claiming innocence, demanded a lawyer for his trial in 1960. But Florida did not provide lawyers to defendants who could not afford to pay them. He was forced to represent himself and was convicted after a very short trial. In prison, Gideon wrote out his appeal in pencil on a pad of paper. He claimed that he was constitutionally entitled to a lawyer. When the appeals court decided to hear Gideon's claim, Abe Fortas, one of the country's leading attorneys and later a Supreme Court justice, argued the case, which went all the way to the nation's highest court.
      In Gideon v. Wainwright, the Supreme Court ruled that a fair trial "cannot be realized if the poor man charged with [the] crime has to face his accusers without a lawyer to assist him." Gideon not only got his own conviction overturned, but he also established a principle that is at the heart of the criminal justice system today. Now incorporated into what are known as our Miranda rights-"You have the right to speak to an attorney. If you can't afford one, one will be provided for you" — this information must be announced by every officer while making an arrest.
      When Florida decided to retry Gideon for the poolroom burglary in 1963, he had an experienced lawyer at his trial. The attorney easily poked holes in the prosecution's flimsy case, and Gideon was acquitted. New York Times writer Anthony Lewis wrote the stirring account of how one poor man changed the entire system in his 1965 book, Gideon's Trumpet, which later became a movie starring Henry Fonda.
1949 first negro to graduate from US Naval Academy (Wesley Anthony Brown)
1940 L'évacuation de Dunkerque, commencée le 28 mai, se termine. Près de 340'000 hommes ont réussi à gagner l'Angleterre — Les Allemands bombardent Paris.
pigeon héroïque^ 1940 The king of Norway is no quisling
      Despite the fact that the British Expeditionary Force is on the verge of completing its evacuation at Dunkirk, and that France is on the verge of collapse to the German invaders, the British War Cabinet is informed that Norway's king, Haakon, has expressed complete confidence that the Allies will win in the end. The king, having made his prediction, then flees Norway for England, his own country now under German occupation.
1937 Duke of Windsor weds Mrs Wallis Warfield Simpson in France. He had abdicated as Edward VIII for that purpose.
1935 French Normandie sets Atlantic crossing record of 1077 hours
1933 Pope Pius XI encyclical On oppression of the Church in Spain.
1929 Border dispute between Peru and Chile resolved.
1918 US Supreme Court rules child labor laws unconstitutional.
1916 Le dernier pigeon du Fort de Vaux [photo >] mérite la citation qui lui vaudra la Bague de Guerre: “Dans la journée du 3 juin 1916, malgré une brume intense, a porté le 3e message du Commandant Raynal annonçant l'encerclement du fort de Vaux, et l'héroïque résistance de la garnison.”
1928 John Logie Baird transmitted the world's first color television pictures in London.
1898 The US Navy defeats the Spanish fleet in the harbor of Santiago, Cuba, during the Spanish-American War.
^ 1888 “Casey at the Bat” is published
by "Phin" (Ernest Lawrence Thayer) in the San Francisco Daily Examiner.

The outlook wasn't brilliant for the Mudville nine that day;
The score stood four to two with but one inning more to play.
And then when Cooney died at first, and Barrows did the same,
A sickly silence fell upon the patrons of the game.

A straggling few got up to go in deep despair. The rest
Clung to that hope which springs eternal in the human breast;
They thought if only Casey could but get a whack at that —
We'd put up even money now with Casey at the bat.

But Flynn preceded Casey, as did also Jimmy Blake,
And the former was a lulu and the latter was a cake;
So upon that stricken multitude grim melancholy sat,
For there seemed but little chance of Casey's getting to the bat.

But Flynn let drive a single, to the wonderment of all,
And Blake, the much despis-ed, tore the cover off the ball;
And when the dust had lifted, and the men saw what had occured,
There was Johnnie safe at second and Flynn a-hugging third.

Then from 5000 throats and more there rose a lusty yell;
It rumbled through the valley, it rattled in the dell;
It knocked upon the mountain and recoiled upon the flat,
For Casey, mighty Casey, was advancing to the bat.

There was ease in Casey's manner as he stepped into his place;
There was pride in Casey's bearing and a smile on Casey's face.
And when, responding to the cheers, he lightly doffed his hat,
No stranger in the crowd could doubt 'twas Casey at the bat.

Ten thousand eyes were on him as he rubbed his hands with dirt;
Five thousand tongues applauded when he wiped them on his shirt.
Then while the writhing pitcher ground the ball into his hip,
Defiance gleamed in Casey's eye, a sneer curled Casey's lip.

And now the leather-covered sphere came hurtling through the air,
And Casey stood a-watching it in haughty grandeur there.
Close by the sturdy batsman the ball unheeded sped —
"That ain't my style," said Casey. "Strike one," the umpire said.

From the benches black with people, there went up a muffled roar,
Like the beating of the storm-waves on a stern and distant shore.
"Kill him! Kill the umpire!" shouted some one on the stand;
And it's likely they'd have killed him had not Casey raised his hand.

With a smile of Christian charity great Casey's visage shone;
He stilled the rising tumult; he bade the game go on;
He signaled to the pitcher, and once more the spheroid flew;
But Casey still ignored it, and the umpire said, "Strike two."

"Fraud!" cried the maddened thousands, and echo answered fraud;
But one scornful look from Casey and the audience was awed.
They saw his face grow stern and cold, they saw his muscles strain,
And they knew that Casey wouldn't let that ball go by again.

The sneer is gone from Casey's lip, his teeth are clenched in hate;
He pounds with cruel violence his bat upon the plate.
And now the pitcher holds the ball, and now he lets it go,
And now the air is shattered by the force of Casey's blow.

Oh, somewhere in this favored land the sun is shining bright;
The band is playing somewhere, and somewhere hearts are light,
And somewhere men are laughing, and somewhere children shout;
But there is no joy in Mudville — mighty Casey has struck out.
1864 Battle of Cold Harbor, Virginia continues with all-out Union assault
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege on Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1862 Evacuation of Fort Pillow, Tennessee
1861 first Civil War land battle-Union defeats Confederacy at Philippi, Virginia (now West Virginia)
1803 President Thomas Jefferson writes a letter of instructions to Meriwether Lewis and William Clark and their Corps of Discover. Jefferson directes the explorers to seek “the most direct and practicable water communication across this continent” through the newly acquired Louisiana Territory. He also requests that the captains record “other objects worthy of notice,” particularly animals not known in the US. During their expedition, Lewis and Clark would scientifically record 122 new species and expand knowledge about many others.
^ 1800 President Adams settles in new capital
      John Adams, the second president of the United States, becomes the first president to reside in Washington DC, as he moves into Union Tavern in Georgetown, while construction is being completed on the executive mansion. .
      The city of Washington was created to replace Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as the nation's capital because of its geographical position in the center of the new republic. The states of Maryland and Virginia ceded land around the Potomac River to form the District of Columbia, and work began on Washington in 1791. French architect Charles L'Enfant designed the city's radical layout, full of dozens of circles, crisscross avenues, and plentiful parks. In 1792, work began on the neoclassical White House building at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue under the guidance of Irish-American architect James Hoban, whose White House design was a virtual copy of a building sketch in James Gibbs’s Book of Architecture. In the next year, Benjamin Latrobe began construction on the other principal government building, the US Capitol.
      On 01 November 1800, the president was welcomed into the White House, and the next day, wrote his wife about the new home: "I pray heaven to bestow the best of blessings on this house, and on all that shall hereafter inhabit it. May none but wise men ever rule under this roof!" Soon after, Abigail Adams arrived at the White House, and, on 17 November, the US Congress convened for the first time at the US Capitol. During the War of 1812, both buildings were set on fire in 1814 by British soldiers in retaliation for the burning of government buildings in Canada by US troops. Although a torrential downpour saved the still uncompleted Capitol building, the White House was burned to the ground. James Hoban finished reconstruction of the executive building in 1817.
1621 The Dutch West India Company receives a charter for New Netherlands — a name later changed to New York.
1539 Hernando De Soto claims Florida for Spain.
< 02 Jun 04 Jun >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 03 June:

Father Ganni2007 (Sunday) Ragheed Aziz Ganni (or Kani) [20 Jan 1972–] [photo >>>]; Basman Yousef Daoud; Wahid Hanna Isho; and Gassan Isam Bidawed; ambushed and shot in Mossul, Iraq at 19:35 (15:35 UT), after Mass, as they leave by car the Chaldean rite Catholic church of the Holy Spirit, where Ganni was pastor and the other three, accomparying him as bodyguards, were sub-deacons. Bidawed was a cousin of Ganni. The other passenger in the car, Bidawed's wife Gassan Isam Bidawed is deliberately spared. Ganni, born in Mosul, graduated in 1993 with a B.S. in civil engineering form the University of Mosul, and studied theology from 1996 to 2003 in Rome at the Pontifical Irish College and the Pontifical University of Thomas Aquinas the "Angelicum", where he received a licence in Ecumenical Theology. It was in Rome and during visits to Ireland that he became fluent in Italian, English, and French. He was ordained a priest in 2002. He was due to return to Rome in 2008 to study for a doctorate in ecumenism. On 04 August 2006, Father Ganni managed to maintain the calm of the Mass at which 81 children (aged 11 to 14) received their first communion, despite the gunfire and explosions of terrorist attacks near the church, which spread through the city and killed nine policemen. On 26 March 2005, in an interview, he had commented on meaning of Christ's sacrifice in Mosul martyred by war. In addition to pastor, Father Ganni was the secretary of the Chaldean Catholic archbishop of Mossul, Paulos Faraj Rahho [20 Nov 1942 – 08 Mar 2008], who would be murdered a few days after being abducted from his car on 29 February 2008, while his driver, Faris Gorgis Khoder, and his two bodyguard, Ramy and Samir, were murdered. —(080208)
2006:: 29 persons including a suicide car bomber at a market in Basra, Iraq, in the late afternoon. 62 persons are injured. —(060604)
2006 Vitaly Vitalyevich Titov, employee of the Russian embassy in Baghdad, Iraq, shot and left to die as the four others, from the same SUV vehicle attacked on on 14 Ramadan Street in the al-Mansur district at 13:45 (09:45 UT), are abducted. They are Fyodor Pavlovich Zaitsev, third secretary of the embassy; and embassy employees Rinat Nailiyevich Agliulin, Anatoly Nikolayevich Smirnov, and Oleg Yevgenyevich Fedoseyev. —(060604)
2005 Nicholas Scott Faibish, 12, and pit bull bitch Ella, which, together with pit bull male Rex, kills Nicholas in their San Francisco apartment, where he was alone with them, having missed school today. Ella opposes arriving police and is shot. Rex is arrested.
2003:: 14 passengers and 5 train crew members, in head-on collision of the Madrid-to-Cartagena Talgo train, with 86 passengers and a crew of 4 aboard, with an empty freight train with a crew of 2, at 21:40, 5 km from Chinchilla and 15 km from Albacete, Spain, on a single track from which one of the trains ought to have been sided to let the other one pass. High tension wires fall on the wreck causing a fire in both locomotives and in the first four cars of the Talgo train. Some 40 persons are injured. [below: the wreck, photographed the next morning >] The Talgo 350, presented on 22 May 2000, can reach a speed of 350 km/h.
2000 William Simon, 72, in Santa Barbara, California, former US Treasury Secretary and onetime "energy czar"
^ 1995 John Presper Eckert
      John Presper Eckert, born on 09 April 1919, a research associate at the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of engineering, worked with John Mauchly to develop ENIAC, one of the first electronic computers. Eckert, who was in his early twenties when ENIAC was developed, went on to obtain more than eighty-five patents for his inventions. However, Eckert and Mauchly's patents on ENIAC were overturned in 1973 by a judge who claimed they had not filed their patent claims in time to preserve their intellectual property rights.
      Eckert and Mauchly left the Moore School in 1946 and formed one of the first computer start-ups, Electronic Control Company, to manufacture the first commercial computer, UNIVAC. Eckert and Mauchly received their first order in the spring of 1946 from the Census Bureau. The new machine, UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer), took five years to develop. Along the way, the company ran out of funding and sold itself to Remington Rand in 1950.
      UNIVAC caught the public's imagination on election night, 1952, when the computer's election picks were televised. Contradicting opinion polls by Gallup and Roper, the computer predicted a landslide for Eisenhower. For a time, UNIVAC became the generic term for "computer."
1991 Mount Unzen erupts in Japan. Worst eruption in Japanese history
^ 1989 Hundreds of sympathizers of the Tiananmen demonstrators, beaten to death, shot, crushed by tanks.
      With protests for democratic reforms entering their seventh week, the Chinese government authorizes its soldiers and tanks to reclaim Beijing’s Tiananmen Square at all cost. By the end of the next day, Chinese troops had forcibly cleared Tiananmen Square and Beijing's streets, killing hundreds of demonstrators and arresting thousands of protestors and other suspected dissidents. Few, if any, of the killings were at Tiananmen itself, and those killed were not mainly students, but workers, which the regime feared more, and ordinary citizens.
      On 15 April, the death of Hu Yaobang, a former Communist Party head who supported democratic reforms, roused some 100'000 students to gather at Beijing's Tiananmen Square to commemorate Hu and voice their discontent with China's authoritative Communist government. On 22 April, an official memorial service for Hu Yaobang was held in Tiananmen's Great Hall of the People, and student representatives carried a petition to the steps of the Great Hall, demanding to meet with Premier Li Peng. The Chinese government refused such a meeting, leading to a general boycott of Chinese universities across the country and widespread calls for democratic reforms.
      Ignoring government warnings of violent suppression of any mass demonstration, students from more than forty universities began a march to Tiananmen on 27 April. The students were joined by workers, intellectuals, and civil servants, and by mid-May over a million people filled the square, the site of Communist leader's Mao Zedong's proclamation of the People's Republic of China in 1949.
      On May 20, the government formally declared martial law in Beijing, and troops and tanks were called in to disperse the dissidents. However, large numbers of students and citizens blocked the army's advance, and by May 23, government forces had pulled back to the outskirts of Beijing.
      On June 3, with negotiations to end the protests stalled and calls for democratic reforms escalating, the troops receive orders from the Chinese government to seize control of Tiananmen Square and the streets of Beijing. Hundreds are killed and thousands are arrested. In the weeks after the government crackdown, an unknown number of dissidents are executed and hard-liners in the government take firm control of the country.
      The international community was outraged by the incident, and economic sanctions imposed by the United States and other countries sent China's economy into decline. However, by late 1990, international trade had resumed, thanks in part to China's release of several hundred imprisoned dissidents.
Troops and Demonstrators Clash; Martial-Law Headquarters Issues Stern Statement http://www.cnd.org/June4th/1989.06-03.hz8.html
     At dawn hours, tens of thousands of troops entered Beijing, once again they were blocked by residents, and they withdrew.
      In the morning, students and residents stopped armed military vehicles near Xinhuamen.

In the afternoon, troops and police used tear-gas grenades to disperse crowds, regained control of the stalled vehicles. For a period of time at the western gate of Great Hall of the People, tens of thousands of troops stood face-to-face against the students.
      Starting around 10 pm, armored vehicles and tanks led martial law troops into the city, opened gun-fires on people who tried to stop them as well as bystanders. Many killed or injured.

BEIJING — Violence began Saturday afternoon 890603 when troops firing tear gas outside the Zhongnanhai compund housing the party and government headquarters clashed with thousands of demonstrators, many hurling stones and insults. Several hundred workers hurled stones and bricks at the Great Hall of the People, after bloody clashes with troops. The stones and bricks smashed ornate lampposts lining the western side of the vast hall.
      Students tried in vain to stop the angry workers. Two thousand helmeted troops looked on, blocked by a sea of protesters. Between 10 and 30 demonstrators and several soldiers were injured in earlier clashes outside the hall.
      Earlier the soldiers, numbering several thousand, dragged a youth into their midst and beat him relentlessly with clubs, fists and feet. Bloodied and apparently badly injured, the man managed to stagger out of his circle of assailants.
      Witnesses saw two more men dragged out of the crowd and beaten and a fourth carried away unconscious by demonstrators after the fighting, in which troops were outnumbered by protesters.
      The midafternoon confrontation unfolded after an earlier attempt to move soldiers to the square during the predawn hours had failed.
      The number of citizens in the square after midnight today was unusually high because of an incident Friday evening in which a police van or military vehicle traveling at excessive speed on the west side of the city ran down several pedestrians or bicyclists. Accounts of the incident varied, but it appeared that at least one person was killed and three others seriously injured.
      The mood among the students in Tian An Men Square as the troops advanced was one of quiet tension and determination, mixed with a belief that the army would not use violence against them. "We will stay here and resist with all our strength," said one student after the troop advance was reported over student-run loudspeakers. "We will struggle for democracy and freedom."
      As dawn approached and it became clear that another night would pass without the soldiers reaching the square, the loudspeaker in the square began broadcasting popular music hits. "The students are happy," said one of the students camped in the square. "Now there have been several attempts like this, and each time the people have blocked the soldiers." This man said that the students are strong because whatever happens now, they win — either by winning concessions leading to democratic reforms, or by being suppressed.
      Student demonstrators, reaching deeper into a so-far bottomless reservoir of innovative ideas, staged a raucous parody of recent government-organized demonstrations. About 500 students, some displaying swastikas and wearing masks of pigs or demons, staged a march ridiculing martial law and chanting, "Oppose Freedom! Oppose Freedom!"
      China's official media on Saturday scathingly attacked a "small group" they accused of plotting to overthrow communist rule and said the group had help from the highest level of the party. The front-page article, printed in every major newspaper in the Chinese capital and read in full on state television and radio, also accused the plotters of getting help from abroad.
      China's martial-law headquarters issued stern warnings to thousands of anti-government demonstrators Saturday evening after clashes with troops who used teargas and clubs in central Peking. "Nobody may use any pretext to stop military trucks, stop soldiers, obstruct troops carrying out martial-law orders ... We will resolutely carry out the Beijing government's three decrees of martial law... We hope the broad masses of Beijing will obey martial law decrees," the martial-law headquarters said in a broadcast statement. Soldiers and police sent into the center of the capital had the "right to use all methods" to deal with protesters, the headquarters said.
1989 Ruhollah Khomeini, ayatollah, Iran's spiritual-political leader.
1988 All 290 aboard an Iran Airbus A300 shot down by US warship Vincennes over the Persian Gulf, in the last weeks of the Iran-Iraq war.
1980 Naum Iliych Akhiezer, Ukrainian mathematician born in Belarus on 06 March 1901. Author of Theory of Approximation, which won the Chebyshev Prize; of Theory of Operators in Hilbert Space and of 6 other books.
1971 Heinz Hopf, Jewish German mathematician born on 19 November 1894. He work was in algebraic topology. He studied vector fields and extended Lefschetz's fixed point formula. He also studied homotopy classes and defined what is now known as the Hopf invariant.
1970 Roger Colne, a Frenchman, sound technician of NBC, presumably murdered by the Khmer Rouge at Takeo in Cambodia, after having been taken hostage with others on 31 May 1970.
1963 Pope John XXIII, born Angelo Roncalli on 25 November 1881. He would be succeeded by Pope Paul VI. Roncalli was ordained a priest on 10 August 1904. He was consecrated an archbishop in 1925 and served in the Vatican diplomatic corps. At age 72 he was made a cardinal and patriarch of Venice. He was elected Pope two weeks after the 09 October 1958 death of Pope Pius XII.
1955 Barbara Graham, executed in the gas chamber in Calfornia.
1949 Amadeo Peter Giannini, 79, US banker, founder of the California-based Bank of Italy — later the Bank of America — which, by the 1930s, was the world's largest commercial bank. He was a major pioneer of branch banking.
1944 Yvonne Renée Weinbach (née Jacob) [20 Sep 1881–], in the Birkenau death camp to which she had been deported from France, where she was born in Paris (16e arrondissement).
^ 1940:: 254 persons in Paris, bombed by the German air force.
     Determined to wreck France's economy and military, reduce its population, and in short, cripple its morale as well as its ability to rally support for other occupied nations, the Germans bomb the French capital without regard to the fact that most of the victims are civilians, including schoolchildren. The bombing succeeds in provoking just the right amount of terror; France's minister of the interior can only keep government officials from fleeing Paris by threatening them with severe penalties.

1926* Lionel Noël Royer, French artist born on 25 December 1852, who died on “31 June 1926”* (my source says!... but is it really 03 or 30 Jun or 31 Jul 1926???).
1921 Some 120 by a sudden cloudburst near Pikes Peak, Colorado
1903 Leopold Bernhard Gegenbauer, Austrian mathematician born on 02 February 1849.
1886 (Ascension Thursday) Charles Lwanga, 21; Lukka Baanabakintu, 30; James Buzabaliao, 29; Gyavire, 17; Ambrosio Kibuuka, 18; Anatoli Kiriggwajjo, 20; Mukasa Kiriwawanvu, 20; Achilles Kiwanuka, 17; Kizito, 14; Adolphus Mukasa Ludigo, 24; Mugagga, 16; Bruno Sserunkuumba, 30; Mbaga Tuzinde, 17; Noe Mwahhali, 35

Charles Lwanga, age 25>21
Luke Banabakintu, age 30
James Buzabaliawo, age 25>29
Gyavira, age 17
Ambrose Kibuka, age 18
Anatole Kiriggwajjo, age 20
Mukasa Kiriwawanvu, age 20
Achilles Kiwanuka, age 17
Kizito, age 14
Dolphus Mukasa Ludigo, age 24
Mugagga, age 16
Bruno Serunkuma, age 30
Mbaga Tuzinde, age 17
Noe Mwahhali, age 35

Joseph Mukasa Balikuddembe, age 25
Andrew Kaggwa, age 30
Pontian Ngondwe, age 35
Denis Ssebuggwawo, age 16
Athanasius Bazzeketta, age 20
Gonzaga Gonza, age 24
Matthias Kalemba, age 50
Jean-Marie Muzeyi, age 30

pages at the court of Mwanda, kabaka (king) of Buganda (now Uganda), who orders them atrociously tortured and killed by burning because they refuse to abandon their Catholic faith and to submit to homosexual acts. They were canonized on 18 October 1964 together with these others (who died on the dates shown):
15 Nov 1885: Joseph Mukasa Balikuddembe, 25;
26 May 1886: Anderea Kaggwa, 30; Pontian Ngondwe, 35; Denis Ssebuggwawo, 16.
27 May 1886 Antanansio Bazzekuketta, 20; Gonzaga Gonza, 24.
30 May 1886 Matiya Murumba Kalemba; 50.
27 Jan 1887: Jean-Marie Muzeyi, 30.
      The feast day of “the Ugandan martyrs, Charles Lwanga and his 21 companions” is on 03 June. Some 100 other Ugandan Catholics, whose name are not know, were martyred during the same period.
      Protestant missionaries came to Buganda in 1877 and Father Simeon Lourdel with other Catholic White Fathers (now the Missionaries of Africa) in 1879. King Mutesa welcomed them all at first. But later, he favored Islam and forced the White Fathers out of the country. The priests returned after the 1884 death of Mutesa, who was succeeded by his son Mwanga. During the absence of the missionaries, the Catholics they had left had won new converts, who renounced polygamy and slavery.
      An outstanding example, Joseph Mukasa Balikuddembe had converted a number of the 500 or so pages at the court, of whom he was the supervisor. But king Mwanga became outraged after Mukasa tried unsuccessfully to dissuade him from ordering the death of the missionary Anglican “bishop” James Hannington [03 Sep 1847 – 29 Oct 1885] and opposed the king's homosexual abuse of pages. Mwanga ordered that Mukasa be slowly tortured to death by gradual burning starting with the feet. Mukasa told the executioner: “a Christian who gives his life for God has no reason to fear death. Tell Mwanga that he has condemned me unjustly, but I forgive him with all my heart.” At that the executioner contravened the kings order by sparing Mukasa from the torture, beheading him before burning his corpse.
      Mwanga replaced Mukasa by Charles Lwanga as supervisor of the pages. But Lwanga inspired the Christian (Catholic and Anglican) pages to resist the king's demand that they abjure the Faith and submit to his homosexuality or be killed. The catechumens among the pages asked to be baptized before they died. One evening, King Mwanga learned that page Denis Ssebuggwawo had been teaching the catechism to a younger boy, Mwanga’s favorite sex victim. The king gave Denis a brutal beating and ordered him hacked him to pieces. The next morning Mwanga had all the pages assemble in front of the palace. He ordered “those who do not pray” to his right and “those who pray” to his left. These he orders to be marched 30 kilometers to the traditional place of execution in the village Namugongo, and there burned..
      Father Lourdel, who tried to save them, reported afterwards that “they were tied so closely that they could scarcely walk, and I saw little Kizito laughing merrily at this, as though it were a game.” Another page said to the priest:“Father, why be sad? What I suffer now is little compared with the eternal happiness you have taught me to look forward to!” During the long march to the execution site, the condemned pages prayed aloud and recited the catechism. Three of them were speared to death before reaching the village. The martyrs cheered and encouraged each other while they were wrapped in reeds and placed on the fire. “Call on your God, and see if he can save you,” yelled one executioner. “Poor madman,” replied Lwanga. “You are burning me, but it is as if you are pouring water over my body.” In the fire the pages were still praying and singing until their last breath..

Andrew Kaggwa, a friend of the king’s, was beheaded. Impatient to meet his fate, he said to his executioner, “Why don’t you carry out your orders? I’m afraid delay will get you into serious trouble.” Noe Mawaggali was speared, then attacked by wild dogs. Matthias Kalemba was dismembered and pieces of his flesh roasted before his eyes. Before he died, he said, “Surely Katonda [God] will deliver me, but you will not see how he does it. He will take my soul and leave you my body.”
There is no valid Anglican bishop
1881 Japanese giant salamander, 55, in Dutch zoo; oldest amphibian.
1875 Georges Bizet France, composer (...and that's no Bull!)

^ 1864 Thousands of Yanks, fewer Rebs, in one hour at Cold Harbor.
      Union General Ulysses S. Grant makes what he later recognizes to be his greatest mistake by ordering a frontal assault on entrenched Confederates at Cold Harbor. The result was some 7000 Union casualties in less than an hour of fighting.
      Grant's Army of the Potomac and Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia had already inflicted frightful losses upon each other as they wheeled along an arc around Richmond—from the Wilderness to Spotsylvania and numerous smaller battle sites—the previous month. On 30 May Lee and Grant collided at Bethesda Church. The next day, the advance units of the armies arrived at the strategic crossroads of Cold Harbor, just 16 km from Richmond, where a Yankee attack seized the intersection. Sensing that there was a chance to destroy Lee at the gates of Richmond, Grant prepared for a major assault along the entire Confederate front on June 2. But when Winfield Hancock's Union corps did not arrive on schedule, the operation was postponed until the following day. The delay was tragic for the Union, because it gave Lee's troops time to entrench. Perhaps frustrated with the protracted pursuit of Lee's army, Grant gave the order to attack on 03 June — a decision that resulted in an unmitigated disaster. The Yankees met murderous fire, and were only able to reach the Confederate trenches in a few places. The 7000 Union casualties, compared to only 1500 for the Confederates, were all lost in under an hour. Grant pulled out of Cold Harbor nine days later and continued to try to flank Lee's army. The next stop was Petersburg, south of Richmond, where a nine-month siege ensued. There would be no more attacks on the scale of Cold Harbor.
1861 Stephen A. Douglas
1850 Telokite, Tomahas, Clokomas, Isiaasheluckas, and Kiamasumkin, Cayute Indians publicly executed for being guilty of the Whitman massacre of 20 November 1847.
1813 Johann-Christian-Jacob Friedrich, German artist born on 13 October 1746.
^ Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
1794 (15 prairial an II):

AUSEL Pierre Jean Louis, teinturier, domicilié à Beauvais (Oise), comme émigré, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
COSTE Jean (dit Costet), laboureur, domicilié à Bannes (Ardèche), comme séditieux, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
SUGIER François, cultivateur, domicilié à Rabiac (Gard), comme séditieux, par le tribunal criminel du département de l'Ardèche.
PEIFFER Elisabeth, femme Lambin, marchand, domiciliée à Thionville (Moselle), comme distributrice de faux assignats, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
DEFLANDRE Jean Joseph, 58 ans né à Chanast, département de l’Ain, brigadier de la 26ème division de gendarmerie, domicilié à Bouchain (Nord), comme conspirateur, par la commission révolutionnaire de Paris.
Domiciliés dans le département du Gard, comme conspirateurs, par le tribunal criminel dudit département:
ABAUZIT Pierre Firmin, nég. Admin. Du dép., dom. A Uzés.

GUIZOT Louis, agriculteur, administrateur du département du Gard, domicilié à Ste Genies.
MARSIAL Jean, agriculteur et administrateur du département du Gard, domicilié à Salle.
RAFFIN Marc Antoine Jean, cultivateur et administrateur du département du Gard, domicilié à Guisac.
RIBES Pierre, cultivateur et administrateur du département, domicilié à Aiguevives.
ROQUIER Jean Louis, administrateur du département, domicilié à Anduze.
SOULIER Pierre, ex ministre protestant, et administrateur du département, domicilié à Sauves.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
FACESSOIS Claude, 55 ans, né à Montfaucot (Aisne), traiteur, ex notable de la commune de Sedan, domicilié à Lagny-Bagny (Ardennes), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
     ... comme conspirateurs:
BOISIERES Jean Antoine, agriculteur, ex administrateur du département du Gard, domicilié à Montfrin, canton de Beaucaire (Gard).
CORDELOIS Alexandre, 36 ans, né à Cambray, ci-devant adjudant de la Garde nationale du canton du Quesnoy, domicilié à Werlingue (Nord).
MARTIN Philippe, cordonnier, 65 ans, né et domicilié à Delut (Meuse).
LEFRANC Claude, chirurgien appointé dans le 7ème régiment d'hussards, né à Livry (Seine et Marne), domicilié à Paris.
            ... domiciliés dans le département des Ardennes:
BECHET Louis Joseph, manufacturier, officier municipal, domicilié à Philippeville, canton de Roc Libre.
GUIDET Arnoux, soldat-invalide, domicilié à Jouval.
                  ... domiciliés à Sedan:
DELATRE Simon Jacques, 44 ans, tailleur, ex noble. — DESROUSSEAUX Louis Georges, maire.
EDET Louis, menuisier notable, 66 ans, né à Sedan. — FAUSSOIS Claude, traiteur notable.
FOURNIER Pierre Charles, épicier, officier municipal, 42 ans. — GIGOUX-VERMON Pierre, 44 ans, né à Sedan, brasseur, ex notable de la dite commune.
GIGOUX-SAINT-SIMON Louis François, 61 ans, avant la révolution aide major de la place de Sedan, né à Marles (Deux-Sèvres).
GROSLIN Augustin, père, notable. — HENNECY Etienne, libraire né à Sedan, ex notable de la commune, 46 ans.
HUSSIN Nicolas Rolin, père, 63 ans, officier municipal, fabricant de draps, né à Sedan. — JEAMES Louis Edet, charpentier, notable.
                       ... et notamment comme complices du traître Lafayette:
LECHANTEUR Jean Charles Nicolas, 31 ans, brasseur et administrateur de district, né à Vrillambois.
LEGARDEUR Jean Baptiste Delphine, fabricant et membre de la municipalité de Sedan, 52 ans, né . à Sedan.
LEGARDEUR François Pierre, fabricant de draps et président du bureau de paix, 60 ans, né à Verdun (Meuse).
LENOIR-PEYRE Jean Louis, teinturier et procureur de la commune, 39 ans, né à Sedan.
LUDET, chef armurier, 64 ans, né . à Sedan, ex notable de ladite commune.
MESMER Henri, laboureur, ex notable de la commune de Sedan, 52 ans, né à Sedan.
NOEL Michel (dit Laurant), confiseur, officier municipal, 63 ans, né à Sedan, ... et comme contre-révolutionnaire..
                       ... comme complices des conspirations et complots formés avec le tyran Capet, ses agents, et notamment Lafayette en prenant et publiant de concert avec lui, des arrêtés et proclamations en date des 12 et 14 août 1792, tendantes à protéger sa trahison, et en retenant comme otage des représentants du peuple délégués par le corps législatif:
VERMON Pierre Gibou, brasseur, ex notable, 44 ans, né à Sedan.
PETIT Jean Baptiste, fils, médecin et officier municipal, 50 ans, natif de Mézières (Ardennes).
ROUSSEAU Antoine Charles, manufacturier, notable de la commune de Sedan, 56 ans, natif de Paris.
SAINT-PIERRE Yrou Georges Jacques, 55 ans, officier municipal de Sedan, natif d’Auxaussyeux (Seine Inférieure).
SERVAIS Hermes, manufacturier de poêles, ex notable de la commune de Sedan, 66 ans.
VAROQUIER Nicolas, notable de la commune de Sedan, 62 ans, natif de Givry.
Domiciliés dans le département des Landes, comme contre-révolutionnaires, par le tribunal criminel dudit département:
DUBROCA Pierre, domestique, domicilié à Couyon — DUCLA Jean, (dit Machéhé), cadet, domicilié à Montgaillard.
1720 Cristoforo Monari, Italian painter baptized as an infant on 21 July 1667. — more with links to two images.
1679 Jean-François “Francisque” Millet, French painter born on 27 April 1642. — MORE ON MILLET AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1626 Juan de Oñate, cruel, discredited conquistador of New Mexico.
1592 Bartolomeo Passerotti, Bolognese painter born on 28 June 1529. — MORE ON PASSEROTTI AT ART “4” JUNE 28 with links to images.
1428 Andrea di Bartolo, Italian early Renaissance painter active since 1389. — links to and comments on images.
^ 1098 Thousands of Turks massacred by Crusaders taking Antioch
      During the First Crusade, Christian knights under Bohemond of Taranto capture Antioch in present-day Turkey after a six-month siege.
      Beginning in the eleventh century, Christians in Jerusalem were increasingly persecuted by the city’s Islamic rulers, especially when control of the holy city passed from the comparatively tolerant Egyptians to the Seljuk Turks in 1071. Late in the century, Byzantine Emperor Alexius I, also threatened by the Seljuk Turks, appealed to the West for aid.
      European Christians, who had been calling for a crusade to recover the holy lands for several decades, answered his plea enthusiastically. The first crusaders were actually undisciplined hordes of French and German peasants who met with little success, however, in 1097, under the authority of the pope, an army of Christian knights crossed into Asia Minor. In June, the crusaders captured the Turkish-held city of Nicaea and then defeated a massive army of Seljuk Turks at Dorylaeum. From there, they marched on to Antioch, located on the Orontes River below Mount Silpius, and began a difficult six-month siege during which they endured several attacks by Turkish relief armies.
      Finally early in the morning of 03 June 1098, Bohemond persuades a Turkish traitor to open Antioch’s Bridge Gate and the knights pour into the city. In an orgy of killing, the Christians massacre thousands of enemy soldiers and citizens, and all but the city’s fortified citadel is taken.
      Later in the month, a large Turkish army under Kerboga of Mosul arrived to attempt to regain the city. Lacking supplies to withstand a long siege, Bohemond marched his men out to meet the Kerboga’s army, and, after limited fighting, the Turks fled the field. However, thousands of the retreating soldiers failed to escape, and the knights massacred them along the banks of the Orontes River. After the decisive Turkish defeat, the citadel in Antioch promptly surrendered to the Christians. After resting and reorganizing for six months, the crusaders set off for their ultimate goal, Jerusalem. The holy city fell to them on 14 July 1099.
< 02 Jun 04 Jun >
^  Births which occurred on a 03 June:

1948 200" (5.08 m) Hale telescope dedicated at the Palomar Mountain Observatory in California.
^ 1936 Larry McMurtry, bestselling novelist, in Wichita Falls, Texas.
      Many of his novels will be set in Texas and the West. McMurtry was raised by his grandparents, first generation pioneers who settled Archer City, Texas. McMurtry, who read nothing but drugstore paperbacks growing up, attended Rice University in Houston, where he became a voracious reader of literature. He later studied writing at Stanford.
      McMurtry published his first novel, Horseman, Pass By (1961), at the age of 25. His 1966 novel, The Last Picture Show, explored the isolation of small-town society, and his 1975 novel, Terms of Endearment, became an award-winning movie in 1983. He won the Pulitzer Prize in 1986 for his bestseller Lonesome Dove (1985), about a cattle drive in the 19th century West.
      In 1992, McMurtry had open-heart surgery and experienced a year or more of profound depression as he recovered in Tucson at the home of his companion and colleague, Diana Ossana. While struggling to overcome depression, he wrote Streets of Laredo, the sequel to Lonesome Dove. He has written roughly two dozen books. In the late 1990s, he began a massive attempt to turn Archer, Texas, into a haven for book lovers by buying abandoned buildings and filling them with hundreds of thousands of used books for sale.
      Larry McMurtry, one of the most talented modern writers working in the western genre, is born in Wichita Falls, Texas. McMurtry's family had been involved in Texas ranching for three generations, and he was exposed to ranching life from an early age. McMurtry, however, ultimately proved more interested in books than in cattle. After studying at Rice University, McMurtry traveled to California, where he joined Wallace Stegner's creative writing program at Stanford University. Stegner, who had written several highly successful western novels, including The Big Rock Candy Mountain (1943), recognized McMurtry's talent and encouraged his ambitions to write about the modern West. Uncertain if he could make a living solely through writing, McMurtry established bookstores in Texas and Washington, D.C., and divided his time between the two areas. In his early fiction, McMurtry also combined a rural and urban perspective, giving rise to what some have called the "urban western." The impact of modern society on the traditional ways and ideals of the American West fascinated McMurtry. The West of his novels is a place where cowboys on horseback confront wealthy oilmen in Cadillacs; where the sons and daughters of ranchers prefer the glitter and flash of the movie palaces to a hard life living off the land. Of McMurtry's early novels, his best known was Horseman, Pass By (1961), which became the basis for the popular movie Hud. Homer Bannon, an elderly Texas rancher who symbolizes the courage and endurance of the Old West, refuses to allow oil drilling on his ranch. His stepson, Hud Bannon (played by Paul Newman in the movie), scorns Homer's values and cares only about the potential profits of oil. He begins legal proceedings to have his stepfather declared incompetent and make himself the executor of the estate. Many of McMurtry's other novels, including Leaving Cheyenne (1963), The Last Picture Show (1966), and Moving On (1970), reflect a similar concern with the place of traditional western values in a ruthless modern world. McMurtry's most successful novel, however, is set in the late 19th century during the early days of the open-range cattle industry. Lonesome Dove (1986) tells the story of two aging Texas ranchers who embark on an epic cattle drive north to Montana where they plan to start anew. More heroic than McMurtry's earlier novels, Lonesome Dove nonetheless defies the conventions of the traditional western novel with its often starkly realistic and brutal portrait of life in the Old West. In his 1988 novel, Anything for Billy, McMurtry continued to undermine the mythic view of the Old West. A sophisticated and historically informed portrait of Billy the Kid, Anything for Billy portrays the famous gunslinger as a charismatic but confused young man swept along by social and political forces he cannot control or really understand. McMurtry gives a similar treatment to the popular myths concerning Calamity Jane in his 1990 novel, Buffalo Girls. A sophisticated observer of both the "Old" and the "New" West, McMurtry has also written several essays on western cultural life and western films.
1926 Irwin Allen Ginsberg, US Beat poet who died on 05 April 1997. He is best known for Howl (first reading, at the Six Gallery: 06 Oct 1955), a long poem about consumer society's negative human values, which, shortly after its publication in the fall of 1956 by poet and publisher Lawrence Ferlinghetti [24 Mar 1919~], was banned for obscenity until 03 October 1957 when Judge Clayton Horn ruled: “I do not believe that Howl is without even the slightest redeeming social importance. The first part of Howl presents a picture of a nightmare world; the second part is an indictment of those elements in modern society destructive of the best qualities of human nature; such elements are predominantly identified as materialism, conformity, and mechanization leading toward war. The third part presents a picture of an individual who is a specific representation of what the author conceives as a general condition. Footnote to Howl seems to be a declamation that everything in the world is holy, including parts of the body by name. It ends in a plea for holy living. In considering material claimed to be obscene it is well to remember the motto: Honi soit qui mal y pense.”. — (060520)
1924 Bernard Safran, US Canadian Contemporary Realist painter who died on 14 October 1995. — links to biography and images.
1901 Henri Honoré d'Estienne d'Orves French Résistance hero.
1894 Herbert Boeckl, Austrian painter who died on 20 January 1966. — [Not to be confused with US political cartoonist Herbert Lawrence Block “Herblock” (13 Oct 1909 – 07 Oct 2001)]
1887 August Macke, German expresssionist painter who died on 26 September 1914 (born 02 or 03 January 1887, according to some) — MORE ON MACKE AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1881 Mikhail Fyodorovich Larionov, Moldovan~Russian French Cubist painter, stage designer, printmaker, illustrator, draftsman, and writer, who died on 10 May 1964. — MORE ON LARIONOV AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1877 Raoul Dufy, French Fauvist painter, printmaker, and decorative artist, who died on 23 March 1953. — MORE ON DUFY AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1865 George V, king of England (1910-1936)
^ 1864 Ransom Eli Olds is born to Pliny and Sarah Olds in the northeastern Ohio town of Geneva.
      He grew up to be an auto (Oldsmobile) and truck (REO) manufacturer.
      The Olds family moved to Lansing, Michigan, when Ransom was sixteen so that Pliny Olds could start his own business. He opened a machine shop called Pliny Olds and Son. The son wasn’t Ransom but his older brother Wallace. Ransom, though, worked in the shop part time, after school and on weekends. He took business courses at the Lansing Business College, but his attention remained on his father’s machine shop.
      When Ransom turned twenty-one, he bought his older brother’s share of the business. Ransom worked tirelessly. Not long after becoming his son’s partner, Pliny realized Ransom was more capable of taking their family business to another level, and by 1890 Ransom Olds was serving as general manager of the family company. Ransom guessed that the demand for the steam engine would increase through the 1890s and he turned the company’s attention to manufacturing the engines. His guess bore fruit, and it also led Olds to experiment with steam engines as a means for propelling water and road vehicles.
      It’s not clear when exactly he began working on road carriages—possibly in 1886—and his first vehicles were crude, displaying little outside of existing steam engine technology. His father disapproved of his son’s obsession with road vehicles: "Ranse thinks he can put an engine in a buggy and make the contraption carry him over the roads. If he doesn’t get killed at his fool undertaking, I will be satisfied." Ransom continued his experiments with steam engines, enduring much ridicule, until he decided the steam engine was not the future of the self-propelled vehicle. Nevertheless one of his last steam engines, a 550-kg vehicle ostensibly capable of reaching 24 km/h, provided the road was flat, gained Olds the attention of Scientific American magazine.
      Then in 1893 Ransom’s vision took shape when he saw demonstrations of gasoline engines at the Chicago World’s Fair. By 1895 his company had already applied for a patent on its own design of a gasoline engine. Production of the gas-burning engine brought record profits to the Olds’s business. Ransom began experimenting with gas-burning horseless carriages. In June of 1896 he completed a prototype. It wasn’t the first such vehicle—among others, the Duryea’s had already built gas-burning cars—but Olds’s car generated unprecedented interest due, at least in part, to the successful manufacturing company that lay behind it.
      Olds then raised money to go into production on his car. He incorporated the Olds Motor Vehicle Works separately from P.F. Olds and Son. The venture was largely speculative, fueled by the money of already-rich Lansing businessmen who were willing to part with a small sum in hopes of getting a great return. As it turned out the money wasn’t enough for Olds to go into production. In searching for more capital Olds merged his family business with the Olds Motor Works and sold new shares of their combined stock to raise the money he needed. On 08 March 1899, the Olds Motor Works, the actual grandfather to today’s Oldsmobile, was formed.
1852 Theodore Robinson, US Impressionist painter who died on 01 April 1896. He studied under Claude Monet. — MORE ON ROBINSON AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1844 Paul Mansion, Belgian mathematician who died on 16 April 1919.
1842 Eugen Felix Prosper Bracht, Swiss German artist who died in 1921.
1819 Johan Barthold Jongkind, Dutch Realist painter and printmaker whose small, informal landscapes continued the tradition of the Dutch landscapists while also stimulating the development of Impressionism. He died on 09 February 1891. — MORE ON JONGKIND AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1808 Jefferson Davis, in Christian County, Ky.(only President of the Confederate States of America [1861-1865]; US Senator and Secretary of War)
1786 William Hilton the Younger, English painter who died on 30 December 1839. — a bit more with links to images.
1761 Henry Shrapnel English artillery officer, who in 1784 invented a type of antipersonnel projectile shrapnel artillery shell). Shrapnel projectiles contained small shot or spherical bullets, usually of lead, along with an explosive charge to scatter the shot as well as fragments of the shell. [early 21st century suicide bombers use nails instead].
1736 Augustin de Saint~Aubin, French engraver who died on 09 November 1807. — more with links to images.
1662 Willem van Mieris, Dutch painter who died on 27 January 1747. — MORE ON VAN MIERIS AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1659 David Gregory, British mathematician who died on 10 October 1708.
Holidays Kentucky, Louisana: Confederate Memorial Day (1868)

Religious Observances Buddhist: Memorial of Broken Dolls / RC: St Clotilda, queen of the Franks / RC, Ang: SS Charles Lwanga and 21 companions, Ugandan martyrs / Luth: John XXIII, Bishop of Rome
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Thoughts for the day:
“They know enough who know how to learn.”
“They never learn who think that they know enough.”
“They know enough who know that they don't know enough.”
“Don't sweat the petty things and don't pet the sweaty things.” —
George Carlin
“Atheism is a non-prophet organization.” — George Carlin [12 May 1937~], US atheist comedian, actor, author.
“If man evolved from monkeys and apes, why do we still have monkeys and apes?” George Carlin
updated Friday 05-Jun-2009 22:39 UT
Principal updates:
v.8.50 Saturday 14-Jun-2008 0:55 UT
v.7.51 Monday 04-Jun-2007 17:43 UT
v.6.50 Sunday 04-Jun-2006 14:50 UT
v.5.50 Saturday 04-Jun-2005 13:40 UT
Thursday 03-Jun-2004 5:26 UT

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