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Events, deaths, births, of 02 JUN
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ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY    ART “4” JUN 02    wikipedia
• Tien An Men repression... • Commies in the CIA!!! (says McCarthy)... • Thomas Hardy is born... • First Aussies in Vietnam War... • Arrestation des Girondins... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • D~Day set for 5 June... • Amerindians attack trappers... • Civil War ends... • Oklahoma City bomber convicted... • New Pointcast CEO... • RJR + Nabisco... • Author Carver quits drinking... • Bombing helps Stalin... • Coronation of Elizabeth II... • US President marries... • God excised from exam... • Ribalta is born...
^  On a 02 June:
2002 In a referendum, 72% of Swiss voters decide to make effective a law passed by parliament in March 2001, which allows abortion in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy and, to preserve “physical integrity” or avoid “profound distress”, even later.
^ 2002 Jews, Gentiles, Congress, and God, all excised from exam questions!

     Have you ever read the one about the skinny Polish Jew and the fat old Gentile gringo which God sent to Hell because, in a bar where they were drinking fine California wine, they were stripped searched after killing a snake and then, regardless of what is said and done on Capitol Hill, got into a fight about the differences between the Suzuki method in the US and in Japan? Not on the New York Regents' exam you didn't!

     An article in The New York Times exposes the ludicrous extremes to which New York Regents' exam quotations have been bowdlerized, without any indication that they have been modified, nor any authorization from the copyright holders, and, in some cases, rendering meaningless the exam's questions. Examples:

1) Man wants to be free: free to choose between good and evil, love and vengeance, life and death.
instead of
Man, who was created in God's image, wants to be free as God is free: free to choose between good and evil, love and vengeance, life and death. (from Elie Wiesel's essay What Really Makes Us Free)

2) Whoa — they're not getting married after all! And you had no idea!
instead of
Whoa — they're not getting married after all! She's gay! And you had no idea! (from Bird by Bird by Anne Lamott)

3) Polls show strong American support for the organization at the grass-roots level.
instead of
Polls show strong American support for the organization at the grass-roots level regardless of what is said and done on Capitol Hill. (from a speech by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, from which were also removed mentions of the US's unpaid debt to the UN, and of “fine California wine” [hum... would “fine New York wine” have been more acceptable?]).

     Also removed are words such as: Jewish, Jews, Gentiles, Polish, gringo, old, skinny, fat, a bar, hell; as well as mentions of race, religion, ethnicity, sex, nudity, alcohol, mild profanity, strip-search, differences between violin instruction in Japan and in the US, killing a snake.

    The NY State Education Department, which prepares the exams, says that it follows “sensitivity review guidelines” so that no student will be “uncomfortable in a testing situation.”
^ 1997 Oklahoma City bomber is convicted
      Timothy McVeigh [23 Apr 1968 – 11 Jun 2001], a former US Army soldier, is convicted on fifteen counts of murder and conspiracy for his role in the 1995 terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City.
      On 19 April 1995, just after 09:00 central time, a truck bomb exploded outside the nine-story building, instantly killing over a hundred persons and trapping dozens more in the rubble. Emergency crews raced to Oklahoma City from across the country, and when the rescue effort finally ended two weeks later, the death toll stood at 168 people, including nineteen infants and young children who were in the building's day care center at the time of the blast.
      On 21 April 1995, the manhunt for suspects in the worst terrorist attack ever committed until then on US soil resulted in the capture of Timothy McVeigh, who matched an eyewitness description of a man seen at the scene of the crime. On the same day, Terry Nichols [01 Apr 1955~], an associate of McVeigh's, surrendered at Herington, Kansas, after learning that the police were looking for him. Both men were found to be members of a radical right-wing survivalist group based in Michigan, and on 08 August, John Fortier, who knew of McVeigh's plan to bomb the federal building, agreed to testify against McVeigh and Nichols in exchange for a reduced sentence. Two days later, a grand jury indicted McVeigh and Nichols on murder and conspiracy charges.
      While still in his teens, Timothy McVeigh had acquired a penchant for guns, and he began honing survivalist skills that he believed would be necessary in the event of a Cold War showdown with the Soviet Union. Lacking direction after high school, he enlisted in the US Army, and proved a disciplined and meticulous soldier. It was during this time that he befriended Terry Nichols, a fellow soldier who, although thirteen years his senior, shared his survivalist interests. In early 1991, McVeigh served in the Persian Gulf War, and was decorated with several medals for a brief combat mission. Despite these honors, he was discharged from the US Army at the end of the year, one of many casualties of the US military downsizing that came after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
      Another result of the Cold War's end was that McVeigh shifted his ideology from a hatred of foreign Communist governments to a suspicion of the US federal government, especially as its new elected leader, Democrat Bill Clinton, had successfully campaigned for the presidency on a platform of gun control. The August 1992 shootout between federal agents and survivalist Randy Weaver [03 Jan 1948~] at his cabin at Ruby Ridge in Idaho, in which Weaver's wife and son were killed, followed by the 19 April 1993 inferno near Waco, Texas, that killed some eighty Branch Davidians, deeply radicalized McVeigh, Nichols, and their associates.
      In early 1995, Nichols and McVeigh planned an attack on the federal building in Oklahoma City, which housed, among other federal agencies, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF)--the agency that had launched the initial raid on the Branch Davidian compound in 1993. On 19 April 1995, the two-year anniversary of the disastrous end to the Waco standoff, McVeigh parked a Ryder rental truck loaded with a diesel fuel-fertilizer bomb outside the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City and fled. Minutes later, the massive bomb exploded, killing 168 innocent people.
      On 02 June 1997, he is convicted on fifteen counts of murder and conspiracy, and on 14 August 1997, under the unanimous recommendation of the jury, he is sentenced to die by lethal injection. Michael Fortier was sentenced to twelve years in prison and fined $200'000 for failing to warn authorities about McVeigh's bombing plans. Terry Nichols was found guilty on one count of conspiracy and eight counts of involuntary manslaughter, and was sentenced to life in prison.
^ 1997 Pointcast to get new CEO
      "Push" pioneer Pointcast says that its founding president and CEO will step aside in favor of a new CEO to run the company after its planned initial public offering. Pointcast had pioneered the idea of bringing information directly to passive Web surfers, who wouldn't have to look for it themselves on the Web. CEO Chris Hassett says that he feels he is better at starting companies than running them and that the company will seek a new leader to head its growth period after the IPO.
1993 Apple suit dismissed
     A district court judge dismissed Apple's suit against Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard for stealing the "look and feel" of its Macintosh interface. Apple had sued the two companies in 1989 for copying its point-and-click interface.
1993 Interactive television test
      ATandT and Viacom announce that they will test interactive television services in the homes of 13'000 Viacom cable customers in California. The companies said the tests could include interactive educational programs and movies on demand.
1989,  10'000 Chinese soldiers are blocked by 100'000 citizens protecting students demonstrating for democracy in Tiananmen Square, Beijing
1987 President Reagan nominates economist Alan Greenspan to succeed Paul Volcker as chairman of the Federal Reserve Board.
^ 1985 Tobacco marries Cookies
      Tobacco titan R.J. Reynolds Industries began what would prove to be a short but intense courtship of the National Brands, Inc. (more popularly known as Nabisco). When viewed on paper, R.J. Reynolds and Nabisco seemed like strange bedfellows; though the origins of both companies dated back to the late nineteenth century, they seemingly shared few other similarities. Reynolds had made its money from cigarettes, a putatively adult-oriented product, while Nabisco mined the more family-minded vein of cookies and crackers. But, corporate matchmaking is more a game of money and market share than overt compatibility; R.J. Reynolds had been expanding into the food industry since the 1960s and partnering with Nabisco, then the largest producer of packaged snack items, promised to be a most profitable union. After a sustained spate of wooing and negotiation, Reynolds and Nabisco agreed to join forces to form a $4.9 billion company.
      However, the newly formed RJR Nabisco, Inc. company proved to be ripe for the plucking in the merger-mad atmosphere of the late 1980s: In 1989, the tobacco and food giant was snapped up for a record $23 billion by Wall Street buyout firm Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and Company. Then, in 1999, RJR Nabisco sold its international tobacco business for nearly $8 billion to Japan Tobacco, Inc. RJR Nabisco also announced it plans to separate its remaining food and domestic tobacco interests.
1979 Pope John Paul II arrives in his native Poland on the first visit by a pope to a Communist country.
^ 1977 Author Raymond Carver quits drinking
      Carver quits drinking after being hospitalized four times in 1976. Carver, the son of an Oregon sawmill worker and a waitress, had recently established his reputation as a powerful short story writer with his story collection Will You Please Be Quite Please? (1976).
      Born on 25 May 1938, Raymond Clevie Carver grew up in Yakima, Washington. He married a year after high school graduation and worked menial jobs to support himself and his family. A creative writing class inspired him, and he went to study writing at Humboldt State College in Arcata, California. He later studied at the prestigious Iowa Writer's Workshop. In 1967, his first short story was published, and his first collection, Put Yourself in My Shoes, was published in 1974.
      Carver and his wife divorced in 1982, and Carver began a relationship with poet Tess Gallagher that lasted until his death. He won a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1979 and two grants from the National Endowment for the Arts. He taught writing at the University of California at Santa Cruz, the Iowa Writer's Workshop, the University of Texas, and elsewhere until 1983, when he won an award granting him a $35'000-a-year salary for five years. He continued to win honors and awards for his short story collections, including What We Talk About When We Talk About Love (1981) and Where I'm Calling From (1988). He died of cancer on 02 August 1988.
1975 Vice President Nelson Rockefeller said his commission had found no widespread pattern of illegal activities at the Central Intelligence Agency.
1967 Race riots in Roxbury section of Boston
^ 1965 First Aussies in Vietnam War.
     The first contingent of Australian combat troops arrives by plane in Saigon. They joined the US 173rd Airborne Brigade at Bien Hoa air base. Another contingent of 400 Australian troops would arrive by ship on June 8. These Australian troops became part of the Free World Military Forces, an effort by President Lyndon B. Johnson to enlist other nations to support the American cause in South Vietnam by sending military aid and troops. The level of support was not the primary issue; Johnson wanted to portray international solidarity and consensus for US policies in Southeast Asia and he believed that participation by a number of countries would do that. The effort was also known as the "many flags" program. The Australian government had first sent a small aviation detachment and an engineer civic action team to Vietnam in 1964. They were increasing their commitment to the war with the deployment of the 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (RAR). In 1966, the Australians once again increased their troop strength in Vietnam with the formation of the First Australian Task Force, which established its own base of operations near Ba Ria in Phuoc Tuy province. The task force included two infantry battalions, a medium tank squadron, a helicopter squadron, as well as signal, engineer, and other support forces. By 1969, Australian forces in Vietnam totaled an estimated 8,000 personnel.
^ 1954 McCarthy charges communists are in the CIA
      Senator Joseph McCarthy (born 14 Nov 1908) charges that communists have infiltrated the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the atomic weapons industry. Although McCarthy's accusations created a momentary controversy, they were quickly dismissed as mere sensationalism from a man whose career was rapidly slipping away. Senator McCarthy first made a name for himself in 1950 when he charged that over 200 "known communists" were in the Department of State. During the next few years, he alleged that communists were in nearly every branch of the US government. His reckless accusations helped to create what came to be known as the Red Scare, a time when people in the US feared that communists were infiltrating all aspects of US government and life. Despite the fact that McCarthy never managed to unearth a single communist, his ability to whip up public hysteria and smear opponents as communist sympathizers made him front-page news for several years. By 1954, however, his power was slipping. His earlier charges had been leveled at the Democratic administration of President Harry S. Truman, and Republicans had embraced McCarthy as a useful weapon.
      When Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower stepped into the presidency in 1953, however, McCarthy's wild accusations became a nuisance and source of embarrassment to the Republican Party. Sensing that his base of power was eroding, in 1954 McCarthy embarked on a spectacularly unsuccessful effort to recapture public support by opening investigations into alleged communist infiltration of the US Army. By early June 1954, the McCarthy-Army hearings had been going on for nearly a month. This was the first opportunity for the American public to get a firsthand view of McCarthy, as the hearings were televised. His bullying style and hysterical behavior quickly turned off the audience. In a desperate attempt to regain momentum, McCarthy charged that communists had also infiltrated the CIA and atomic weapons industry. No one took the charges seriously, and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, his brother, CIA Director Allen Dulles, and President Eisenhower brusquely dismissed McCarthy's accusations as reckless and without basis. Just a few weeks later, McCarthy was thoroughly disgraced when the lawyer for the US Army, Joseph Welch, gave him a devastatingly effective tongue-lashing, which ended with Welch asking the senator whether he had any sense of "decency" at all. The McCarthy-Army hearings collapsed soon thereafter, and the US Senate voted to censure McCarthy. He died, an alcoholic, still holding office, on 02 May 1957.
^ 1953 Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II
      Princess Elizabeth was twenty-five when she inherited the throne of England after the death of King George IV in February of 1952. After she mourned her father for a year, a lavish coronation celebration is held for her at Westminster Abbey. A thousand dignitaries and guests attend the ceremony, and millions listen on radio, or, for the first time, watched a British coronation on live television.
     Queen Elizabeth II is crowned monarch of the United Kingdom in a lavish ceremony steeped in traditions that date back a millennium. A thousand dignitaries and guests attended the coronation at London's Westminster Abbey, and hundreds of millions listened on radio and for the first time watched the proceedings on live television. After the ceremony, millions of rain-drenched spectators cheered the 27-year-old queen and her husband, the 30-year-old duke of Edinburgh, as they passed along a five-mile procession route in a gilded horse-drawn carriage. Elizabeth, born in 1926, was the first-born daughter of Prince George, the second son of King George V. Her grandfather died in 1936, and her uncle was proclaimed King Edward VIII.
      Later that year, however, Edward abdicated over the controversy surrounding his decision to marry Wallis Warfield Simpson, an American divorcée, and Elizabeth's father was proclaimed King George VI in his place. During the Battle of Britain, Princess Elizabeth and her only sibling, Princess Margaret, lived away from London in the safety of the countryside, but their parents endeared themselves to their subjects by remaining in bomb-damaged Buckingham Palace throughout the German air offensive. Later in the war, Elizabeth trained as a second lieutenant in the women's services and drove and repaired military trucks. In 1947, she married her distant cousin, Philip Mountbatten, a former prince of Greece and Denmark who renounced his titles in order to marry Elizabeth. He was made duke of Edinburgh on the eve of the wedding.
      The celebrations surrounding the wedding of the popular princess lifted the spirits of the people of Britain, who were enduring economic difficulties in the aftermath of World War II. Their first child, Prince Charles, was born in 1948 at Buckingham Palace. A second, Princess Anne, was born in 1950. On 06 February 1952, the royal couple were in Kenya in the midst of a goodwill tour when they learned that the king had died. Elizabeth was immediately proclaimed Britain's new monarch but remained in seclusion for the first three months of her reign as she mourned her father. During the summer of 1952, she began to perform routine duties of the sovereign, and in November she carried out her first state opening of the Parliament.
      On 02 June 1953, her coronation is held at Westminster Abbey. The ceremony at Westminster was one of pomp and pageantry, and the characteristically poised Elizabeth delivered in a solemn and clear voice the coronation oath that bound her to the service of the people of Great Britain and the British Commonwealth. In the procession through the streets of London that followed, Elizabeth and her husband were joined by representatives from the more than 40 member states of the Commonwealth, including heads of state, sultans, and prime ministers. British troops like the Yeomen of the Guard were joined by a great variety of Commonwealth troops, including police from the Solomon Islands, Malaysians in white uniforms and green sarongs, Pakistanis in puggaree headdresses, Canadian Mounties, and New Zealanders and Australians in wide-brimmed hats. After the parade, Elizabeth stood with her family on the Buckingham Palace balcony and waved to the crowd as jet planes of the Royal Air Force flew across the Mall in tight formation. In five decades of rule, Queen Elizabeth II's popularity has hardly subsided. She has traveled more extensively than any other British monarch and was the first reigning British monarch to visit South America and the Persian Gulf countries. In addition to Charles and Anne, she and Philip have had two other children, Prince Andrew in 1960 and Prince Edward in 1964. In 1992, Elizabeth, the wealthiest woman in England, agreed to pay income tax for the first time.
1949 Transjordan is renamed Jordan.
1946 Italian plebiscite chooses republic over monarchy (National Day)
^ 1944 US begins bombing to help Frantic Joe [Stalin]
      American bombers of the Fifteenth Air Force launch Operation Frantic, a series of bombing raids over Central Europe, alighting from airbases in southern Italy, but landing at airbases in Poltava, in the Soviet Union, in what is called "shuttle bombing." The Fifteenth US Air Force was created solely to cripple Germany's war economy. Operating out of Italy, and commanded by General Carl Spaatz, a World War I fighter pilot, the Fifteenth was recruited by a desperate Joseph Stalin to help the Red Army in its campaign in Romania.
      In exchange for the Fifteenth's assistance, Stalin allowed the American bombers to land at airbases within the Soviet Union as they carried out Operation Frantic, a plan to devastate German industrial regions in occupied Silesia, Hungary, and Romania. Given that such bombing patterns would have made return flights to Foggia and other parts of southern Italy, the Fifteenth's launching points, impossible because of refueling problems, the "shuttle" to Poltava was the solution that made Frantic a reality. Before it was shortened to Frantic, the operation was dubbed Operation Frantic Joe-a commentary on Joe Stalin's original urgent appeal for help. It was changed to avoid offending the Soviet premier.
^ 1944 D-Day set for 05 June.
     The Allied invasion of Normandy, is fixed for 05 June. Originally 04 June, it was acknowledged by Allied strategists that bad weather would make keeping to any one day problematic. German General Karl von Rundstedt, intercepting an Allied radio signal relating the 04 June date, was convinced that four consecutive days of good weather was necessary for the successful prosecution of the invasion. There was no such pattern of good weather in sight. The general became convinced that D-Day would not come off within the first week of June at all.
1940 L'évacuation de Dunkerque, commencée le 28 mai, continue; el sera terminée le lendemain.
1936 Gen Anastasio Somoza takes over as dictator of Nicaragua
1925 NY Yankee Lou Gehrig begins his 2130 consecutive game streak, 16 years before his death on this same date.
^ 1924 The Indian Citizenship Act is passed conferring citizenship on all Amerindians born within the territorial limits of the US.
      Before the Civil War, citizenship was often limited to Native Americans of one-half or less Indian blood. In the Reconstruction period, progressive Republicans in Congress sought to accelerate the granting of citizenship to friendly tribes, although the necessary state support for these measures was often limited. In 1888, Amerindian women married to US citizens were conferred citizenship; however, women of the Five Civilized Tribes, which opposed US citizenship, were excluded. In 1919, Amerindian veterans of World War I were offered the reward of citizenship, and in 1924, the Indian Citizenship Act, an all-inclusive act, was passed by Congress. However, as was found by many Black citizens in the United States, the privileges of citizenship, although ensured by the federal government, were governed by state law, and the right to vote was often denied to Amerindians in the early twentieth century.
1910 first roundtrip flight over the English Channel (C.S. Rolls, England)
1910 Pygmies discovered in Dutch New Guinea
1899 Black Americans observed day of fasting to protest lynchings
1897 Mark Twain, 61, is quoted by the New York Journal as saying from London that “the report of my death was an exaggeration.”
Cleveland wedding1886 President Cleveland marries in White House       ^top^
      In an intimate ceremony held in the Blue Room, President Grover Cleveland, (18 Mar 1837 – 24 Jun 1908) marries Frances Folsom, the daughter of Cleveland’s late law partner and friend, Oscar Folsom. Fewer than forty people are present to witness the president exchange vows with Frances, who at twenty-one years became the youngest first lady in US history.
      As a devoted family friend, Cleveland allegedly bought "Frank" her first baby carriage, and after her father’s death, administered her estate. When Frances entered Wells College, Cleveland, then the governor of New York, asked Mrs. Folsom’s permission to correspond with the young lady. After Cleveland's inauguration as president in 1885, Frances and her mother visited him at the executive mansion.
      Despite a twenty-seven-year difference in age, their affection turned to romance, and on 02 June 1886, the couple is married in the White House. Mrs. Cleveland, who replaced Cleveland’s sister Rose Elizabeth as White House hostess, won immediate popularity for her good looks and unaffected charm. After the president’s defeat in his 1888 reelection bid, the Clevelands lived in New York City, where their first child, Ruth, was born in 1891.
      In 1892, in an event unprecedented in US political history, Cleveland was elected president again, and the popular first lady returned to Washington and resumed her duties as if she had been gone but a day. In 1893, the first family saw the addition of a second child, Esther, who was the first child of a president to be born in the White House. When Grover Cleveland left the presidency in 1897, his wife had become one of the most popular first ladies in history.
      In 1908, she was at his side when he died at their home in Princeton, New Jersey. Five years later, she married Thomas J. Preston, Jr., a professor of archeology at Princeton University. She died in 1947.
1883 Chicago's "El" opens to traffic
1875 Light-skinned James A. Healy is consecrated bishop over the Diocese of Maine, making him the first African-American bishop in the history of American Catholicism.
1866 Renegade Irish [next link is broken] Fenians surrender to US forces
^ 1865 The US Civil War ends.
      Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith, commander of Confederate forces west of the Mississippi, signs the surrender terms offered by Union negotiators. With Smith’s surrender, the last Confederate army ceases to exist, bringing a formal end to the bloodiest four years in US history.
      The US Civil War began on 12 April 1861, when Confederate shore batteries under General Pierre G. T. Beauregard opened fire on Union-held Fort Sumter in South Carolina's Charleston Bay. Over the next thirty-four hours, fifty Confederate guns and mortars launched over four thousand rounds at the poorly supplied fort, and on 13 April US Major Robert Anderson, commander of the Union garrison, surrendered.
      Two days later, US President Abraham Lincoln issued a proclamation calling for seventy-five thousand volunteer soldiers to help quell the Southern "insurrection." Four years later, the Confederacy is defeated at the total cost of 620'000 Union and Confederate dead.
1864 Battle of Cold Harbour, Day 2
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1862 Gen Robert E Lee takes command of the Confederate armies of E VA and NC
1861 General P.G.T. Beauregard takes command of Confederate forces in northern Virginia
1851 first US alcohol prohibition law enacted (Maine)
1835 P.T. Barnum and his circus begin first tour of US
1794 (14 prairial an II) GUENIOT Marguerite Louise Charlotte, femme de Jean Baptiste Maure, directeur de la poste à Tonnère, département de l'Yonne, née à Avalon, même département, est coondamnée à mort par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme ennemie de la révolution. Elle s'est déclarée enceinte, à été transféré à l'hospice de l'évêché et a obtenu sa mise en liberté après le 9 thermidor an 2. — (sans doute la même: GUESINOT Marguerite L. Charlotte, domiciliée à Tonnerre, département de l'Yonne, coondamnée à mort par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme conspiratrice).
^ 1793 Arrestation des Girondins
      100'000 Parisiens en colère assiègent l'Assemblée. Le sans-culotte Hanriot, à la tête de la garde nationale, menace les députés de la Convention. Les députés s'inclinent devant l'insurrection. Ils mettent en état d'arrestation 29 des leurs qui figurent parmi les chefs des Girondins. Ces Girondins, que l'on appelle ainsi parce que plusieurs étaient originaires du département de la Gironde, étaient très liés à la bourgeoisie provinciale. Groupés autour de Brissot et Vergniaud, ils souhaitaient arrêter le cours de la Révolution après la victoire de Valmy (20 septembre 1792) et l'instauration de la République. Mais au printemps, une succession de défaites militaires avait ranimé la crainte de l'invasion. Les Vendéens s'étaient de leur côté soulevés pour échapper à la levée en masse. La disette et l'inflation réapparaissaient de plus belle.
      Au contraire des Girondins, les députés de la Montagne (ainsi appelés parce qu'ils siégeaient en haut de l'Assemblée) préconisaient des mesures draconiennes. Robespierre, leur chef, craignait qu'une interruption du processus révolutionnaire n'entraîne un retour en arrière. Les Montagnards avaient déjà fait voter une loi sur le cours forcé de l'assignat et ils avaient obtenu le lancement d'un "emprunt forcé" sur les riches. Ils avaient aussi créé un Tribunal révolutionnaire et un Comité de salut public. Ils avaient le soutien des sans-culottes parisiens, de la Commune de Paris et du club des Jacobins, ainsi que des bourgeois enrichis par la vente des biens nationaux. Leurs mesures extrêmes leur rallièrent aussi le mouvement parisien des Enragés de Jacques Roux.
      Les Girondins, bien qu'au gouvernement, furent acculés. Ils tentèrent de faire mettre en accusation Marat, un agitateur populaire. De façon prévisible, celui-ci fut acquitté par le Tribunal révolutionnaire. Ils mirent alors sur pied, à la Convention, une Commission des Douze chargée d'enquêter sur des pétitions contre eux-mêmes, qui circulaient dans les sections parisiennes de sans-culottes. Les Montagnards tentèrent une première fois, le 31 mai, d'organiser une insurrection populaire autour de l'Assemblée pour abattre leurs rivaux. Mais l'insurrection n'aboutit qu'à la suppression de la Commission des Douze. L'insurrection du 2 juin, mieux organisée par les sections parisiennes de sans-culottes et la garde nationale, atteint son objectif. Les Girondins, arrêtés et retenus à leur domicile, s'enfuient et tentent sans succès de soulever les provinces. Les Montagnards ayant enfin les mains libres, ce sera pendant 13 mois la Grande Terreur, sous la dictature du Comité de Salut public.
0597 Augustine, missionary to England and first archbishop of Canterbury, baptizes Saxon king Ethelbert. Afterward, the Christian faith spread rapidly among the Angles and Saxons.
0575 Benedict I begins his reign as Pope.
0553 The Second Council of Constantinople closes. Led by Eutychius, Patriarch of Constantinople, the council condemned the Nestorian writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret of Cyprus and Ibas of Edessa.
0455 Gaiseric and the Vandals sack Rome.
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 02 June:

Kassir2005 Enrique Cárdenas Saldaña, comandante of the Policía Municipal de Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, México, in drive-by shooting at 08:00 (13:00 UT), as he left his home to take his daughter to school.

2005 Samir Kassir [1960–] [photo >], by a remote control bomb under the driver's seat of his car, just after he gets into it outside his home in the mostly Christian Ashrafiya neighborhood of Beirut, Lebanon. He was a prominent anti-Syrian columnist for the daily An-Nahar, an activist who help organize the popular protest against the assassination of Rafik Hariri [01 Nov 1944 – 14 Feb 2005], and writer, for example of the book Histoire de Beyrouth (2003).

2003 Felix de Weldon, born in Austria on 12 April 1907, US sculptor who made more than 2000 public sculptures, including the Marine Corps War Memorial in Arlington, Virginia, 5 times life-sized, which he made from the 23 February 1945 photo by Joe Rosenthal of the flag raising on Mount Suribachi in Iwo Jima.

2002 Paolo Ayala, 7, who was a guest at a birthday party for wealthy classmate Alex Farkhondehpour, in Los Angeles, but is not there when his parents come to pick him up. Non-swimmer Paolo's body is found by a housekeeper on 04 June 2002 in the Farkhondehpour pool, though it had not been seen there by searchers on 02 June nor by a pool cleaner on 03 June.

1990 Robert Noyce, co-inventor (semi-conductor) / founded Intel.

^ 1989 Three Chinese killed by a speeding police car in Beijing as authorities increase the pressure on the Tienanmen demonstrators.
http://www.cnd.org/June4th/1989.06-02.hz8.html
Troops Repelled from Advance to TianAnMen.
Four intellectuals went to Tiananmen Square and began their hunger strikes protesting the martial law.
At late night, a police vehicle drove at fast speed caused three fatalities and one injury. Citizens were furious about the accident.

BEIJING - Thousands of unarmed Chinese troops made a lightning push toward Tiananmen Square in the early hours of Saturday but residents barred their way in dozens of spots and sent them retreating in disarray, witnesses said. The troops approached from four directions but got no nearer than some 200 yards from the rag-tag tent city set up by pro-democracy student demonstrators three weeks ago.
      In scene after scene, passionate Beijing residents abused, berated and even assaulted the hapless troops, interrogating individuals and heaping shame on busloads of soldiers. "We came here to restore order, we were obeying orders. People of Beijing do not understand us," one soldier pleaded to a crowd east of Tiananmen. "We do understand you. We do not need you here," answered a young woman crouching nearby.
      Most of the soldiers did not appear to be armed but angry citizens produced several guns, bayonets and truncheons they said had been taken from assorted support vehicles they had also stopped.
      On Friday 890602, Taiwan singer Hou Dejian, wearing a T-shirt covered with supporters' signatures, was joined by three intellectuals in a fast in the middle of Tiananmen Square to drum up support for democracy. "The students have done everything they could but now they are getting tired and they need our help," the 36-year-old pop star told reporters.
      "We don't seek death but real life," said Zhou Tuo, an official at a computer company and one of the three other hunger strikers. Hou will fast for two days and the others will not eat for three days. Others are expected to replace them on strike afterward.
      In a hint that the authorities are on the verge of removing the pro-democracy demonstrators, Beijing Mayor Chen Xitong told a group of children Thursday: "I think that you will soon be able to pay tribute to the revolutionary martyrs at the Monument to the People's Heroes."
      More pro-government rallies were held in Beijing suburbs Friday 890602 and television showed footage of the events, saying they had drawn huge crowds, but the scenes showed a stadium with many empty seats. Other government rallies have drawn relatively small crowds in the past.
      The official Communist Party People's Daily newspaper reported that plainclothes martial-law troops have moved into 10 Beijing transportation and communication hubs - a move that puts the government in position to shut down this city of 10 million at any time. The newspaper also sent another signal that the power struggle between this nation's moderates and its hard-line communist conservatives is being won by the hard-liners. In the story about the 200'000 troops surrounding the capital, the newspaper omitted the name of Communist Party Chairman Zhao Ziyang from its list of political leaders -- indicating that Zhao, a political moderate, may have lost his battle for power with conservative Premier Li Peng and China's top leader, Deng Xiaoping.
      As the power struggle continued, thousands of Beijing children turned out to celebrate Children's Day - an event that normally would have found tens of thousands of them and their parents in Tiananmen Square. "Little friends, you don't understand this, but there has appeared a gray wolf in China and we are here to kill it," said an announcement broadcast over the students' makeshift public address system. The "gray wolf," was an apparent reference to Peng, who the students want to see purged.
      Last night, tensions in downtown Beijing were high. A crowd of students gathered outside the gate of the Beijing municipal police headquarters near the south end of the square. Another crowd assembled outside the gate of Zhongnanhai. All but a few of the students outside Zhongnanhai dispersed around midnight. But about 500 students and a few other people, incensed by an alleged police beating of a student, spent the entire night in angry protest outside the police headquarters.
      Despite the tenseness of the confrontation, both sides showed great restraint, as has been typical of virtually all such confrontations between students and security forces since martial law was imposed on 20 May. "Down with dictatorship! Long live democracy!" shouted the students, who despite their obvious anger maintained order throughout the night.      "These students aren't out of control," said a middle-aged woman who joined the crowd. "Our government is out of control. The police are out of control. They're arresting people as they please. Do we have laws or don't we? The officers must obey the law. The (officer who allegedly beat the student) should be punished severely according to the law."
^ 1987 General George Doriot
     A Harvard Business School professor, he founded the first non-family owned venture capital firm in the United States, American Research and Development. It provided the seed money to an MIT electrical engineering graduate named Kenneth Olsen to launch Digital Equipment Company in 1957: Digital became one of the world's most successful computer companies. Doriot's venture capital model spawned many imitators, and the proliferation of venture capital ultimately helped fuel the growth of the high-tech sector in the 1980s and '90s.
1969: 74 sailors as Australian aircraft carrier Melbourne slices US destroyer Frank E Evans in half (South Vietnam)
1965 Some 35'000 by 2nd of 2 cyclones in less than a month (Ganges River, India).
1944 Achille Langé, French artist born on 29 April 1861.
1943 Edward Burr Van Vleck, US mathematician born on 07 June 1863. Almost all Van Vleck's research papers were in the fields of function theory and differential equations.
1942 Andrew Russell Forsyth, British mathematician born on 18 June 1858. Author of Theory of functions of a complex variable (1893), A treatise on differential equations (1885), Theory of differential equations (6 six volumes 1890-1906), Lectures on the differential geometry of curves and surfaces (1912), Lectures introductory to the theory of functions of two complex variables (1914), Calculus of variations (1927), Geometry of four dimensions (1930), and Intrinsic geometry of ideal space (1935).
1941 Lou Gehrig, 37, in Riverdale NY, Yankee baseball great, of ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), since then commonly known as Lou Gehrig's disease.
1929 Otto Schreier, mathematician born on 03 March 1901. He worked in combinatorial group theory, particularly on subgroups of free groups and on knot groups. [Yes, but has anyone figured out a way to undo the knots so as to emancipate slave groups?]
1917 Hilda Fearon, British painter born on 14 September 1878. — a bit more with links to two images.
1903 Ferencz Eisenhut, Hungarian Austrian artist who was born on 26 January 1857.
1882 Giuseppe Garibaldi, 74, Italian unification leader.
1843 Johann-Heinrich-August Friedrich, German artist born on 01 July 1789.
1839 (03 Jun?) Wijnand Jan Josephus Nuyen, Dutch painter and printmaker specialized in Landscapes, born on 04 March 1813. — more with links to images.
^ 1823 Twelve fur trappers, killed by Arikaras.
      Arikara Indians attack William Henry Ashley [1778 – 26 Mar 1838] and his band of fur traders, igniting the most important of the early 19th century battles between Indians and mountain men. Two years before, William Ashley and his partner Andrew Henry had started the business that would eventually become the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. In 1822, Ashley advertised for "enterprising young men" to join him in an ambitious fur trapping expedition up the Missouri River into the Yellowstone country of present-day Montana. Many who signed on would later become celebrated mountain men, including Jim Bridger, the Sublette brothers, Jed Smith, and Edward Rose. For the first few years, though, Ashley and his men were greenhorns who learned to survive in the wilderness through hard experience. In the spring of 1823, Ashley led a force of about 70 men up the Missouri to begin a summer of trapping along the Yellowstone. On 30 May, they reached the territory of the Arikara Amerindians near the present-day border between North and South Dakota. The Arikara were no friends to the fur trappers. Generally, they resented the Anglo trappers' attempts to undercut the Indians' central role as fur suppliers. More specifically, the Arikara were upset that several weeks earlier a group of trappers had rescued several Sioux warriors that the Arikara had been hunting.
      On the morning of this day, a force of about 600 Arikara Indians attacks Ashley's small band of trappers. Ashley later reported that the majority of the Indians were, "armed with London Fuzils [muskets] that carry a ball with great accuracy, and force, and which they use with as much expertness as any men I ever saw handle arms." Those lacking guns attacked with bows and arrows and war axes. The fierce Arikara warriors overwhelmed Ashley's small band of mountain men, killing 12 and wounding many more. The survivors fled downstream; luckily, the Arikara did not pursue them. After the mountain men had regrouped, Ashley dispatched a messenger to St. Louis asking for military assistance.
      Colonel Henry H. Leavenworth immediately assembled a force of about 200 men and started up the river, gathering additional fighters along the way, including about 700 Sioux Indians. By the time Leavenworth's army reached Ashley in early August, that number had grown to at least 1100 men. The subsequent skirmishes, later somewhat ostentatiously referred to as the Arikara Campaign, proved indecisive. Despite his overwhelming superiority in numbers and armaments, Leavenworth failed to engage the Amerindians. Following a few minor encounters, the Arikara quietly withdrew under the cover of night and disappeared.
      Everyone knew, however, that the Indians would return after the soldiers had departed. Since Leavenworth failed to seriously damage the Arikara fighting ability, the Upper Missouri River route continued to be too dangerous for the trappers for several years to come. Desperate to keep his fledgling business alive, Ashley decided he had no choice but to abandon the traditional river routes and go overland. The next year, Ashley's trappers headed west on horses rather than in boats. Ironically, this desperate gambit revolutionized the fur trade by vastly increasing the mobility of the fur trappers and opening up whole new regions of the US West. Three years later, Ashley retired from the fur trade a wealthy man. He devoted the remainder of his life largely to politics. As a US congressman from 1831, he was an effective champion of Western interests.

^ Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
1794 (14 prairial an II):
BELLANGER François Joseph, 40 ans, né et demeurant à Samer, notaire, célibataire, à Arras
DEMAY Hippolyte, 30 ans, né et demeurant à Frévent, célibataire, jardinier, à Arras
LESUIRE Prosper, ex chanoine, domicilié à Champignu-sur-Vendée (Indre et Loire), comme réfractaire à la loi, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
CLAVEL Louis, ex curé de Huisson, et ensuite vicaire à Thor (Vaucluse), comme réfractaire à la loi, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
DONNIER Jean Antoine, ex vicomte de Mazorgues, domicilié à Gordes (Vaucluse), par le tribunal criminel dudit département comme réfractaire à la loi.
MARTZ Marie Nicaise et MARTZ Catherine, laveuses, domiciliées à Strasbourg (Bas-Rhin),par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme receleuses de prêtres réfractaires.
WOLBERT Henri Pierre Joseph, ex vicaire, domicilié à Strasbourg (Bas-Rhin), comme réfractaire à la loi, par le tribunal criminel du dit département.
BOSENS Jean Joseph, et BOSENS André, prêtres, domiciliés à Agnac, canton d'Anbin (Aveyron), comme réfractaires à la loi, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
Comme brigands de la Vendée, par la commission révolutionnaire de Laval:
BENATRE René, charron, domicilié à Brielles, canton de la Guerche (Ille-et-Vilaine) — SAUVE Toussaints, laboureur domicilié à Bielles (Ille et Vilaine). — NOURY André, tisserand, domicilié à Courvielles (Mayenne).

Par le tribunal révolutionnaire séant à Cambray (Nord), comme traîtres à la patrie:
BAUCOURT François, maréchal, domicilié à Crévecoeur. — GOATI Honoré, chirurgien, domiciliée à Crévecoeur. — MAILLET Noël, ex moine.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
PERRIN Philippe, fils, 26 ans, natif de Coignac (Charente), y demeurant, négociant, comme convaincu d'avoir fait l'éloge des brigands de la Vendée.
     ... comme conspirateurs:
LECOCQ J. François Célestin, 30 ans, boulanger, né et domicilié à Lille (Nord), ...et ayant discrédité les assignats, et en voyant des billets datés de l'an 4, de la liberté, pour la canaille et les sots.
BONGARD Louis Auguste François, (dit Daspremont), 68 ans, né à Auval (Seine Inférieure), ex marquis, grand bailli de Gisors, domicilié à Sancourt, canton des Andelys (Eure).
FERREY Bonaventure, ex curé de St Denys, domicilié à St Denys-sur-Sartois (Orne).
MARENTIN Valérie, femme Pasquet-Saint-Projet, ci-devant garde du tyran roi, 40 ans, née et domiciliée à la Rochefoucauld (Charente), ... ayant entretenu des correspondances avec son mari émigré.
CASSAIGNE Bernard Louis, 41 ans, né à Béziers (Hérault), ex vicaire de St Nicolas-des-Champs à Paris, domicilié à Laneraye (Seine Inférieure).
DANIAU André Salm, agriculteur, domicilié à Ecoigneux (Charente).
           ... domiciliés à Paris:
DUPAIN Jean Baptiste, marchand de bois.
MAINDOUZE Jean Pierre, commis au bureau des affaires étrangères, 53 ans, né à Toulouse (Haute-Garonne), ... et ayant pratiqué des intelligences avec Lafayette, Dumourier, Lebrun, Rolland, Pétion, Grangeneuve, Valazé et autres.
BARRE Jean Baptiste, 68 ans, né à Paris, ex procureur au Châtelet et avoué.
BOURDET Marie Adrien Joseph, ex vicaire de St André-des-Arts à Paris, 33 ans, natif de St-Valéry.(exécuté Place de la Révolution, inhumé au cimetière des Errancis)
1793:
Domiciliés dans le département de la Lozère, par le tribunal criminel dudit département:
ARNAL Antoine, domicilié à St Chély, comme conspirateur.

     ... comme contre-révolutionnaires:
TEYSEDRE Antoine, domicilié à Rauzas.
MAURIN Jean François, berger, domicilié à Lamulepe. — MEJAN Etienne, domicilié à Ste Eunemie. CLARET Etienne, berger, domicilié à St Ennemie. — FAGES Jean Batiste, huissier, domicilié à Meyrveis.BADAROUX Antoine, domicilié à St Georges de Lévesac, canton de Meyrveis — BURTON Pierre, domicilié à Chamberboux
                ... domiciliés à Mende:
BURETON Pierre — PRADEILLES Jean —
MALZAC Guillaume, domestique.
                ... domiciliés à St. Chély-de-Tarn:
CAUSSIGNAC Antoine — FAGES Antoine — FLOURON Jean Baptiste — DELMAS Antoine, manouvrier
                ... domiciliés à Laval, canton de Langogne:

BONAC Antoine, maire — BONICEL Pierre — BOYER François — BRASON Jacques, garçon tailleur — FOURNIE Louis — GACHE Jean — GAL Antoine — GAS Jean, journalier — LADET Antoine — LADET Jean — MALAFOSSE (ou MATAFOSSE) Jean Baptiste, cabaretier — MONESTIER Jean Joseph — PRADEILLES François — SEGUIN Antoine.
                ... domiciliés à la Malène, canton de Meyrveis:
BONNET Jean Baptiste — CAPBLAT Jacques — CAPBLAT Pierre — CAUSSIGNAC Jean Baptiste, trafiquant — FAGES Pierre Jean — FAGES Pierre, tisserand — GAL Jean — GAL Pierre Jean — MONTGIRON Pierre Jean — PERSEGOL Antoine — PERSEGOL François — PERSEGOL Jean Baptiste — PERSEGOL Louis — PERSEGOL Marcelin — POLGE Jean Jacques Philippe, notaire — ROBERT Jean — RUBIER Etienne (dit Chassac) — VERGELI Pierre.
1792: -
MARGOTTIN Claude, jardinier, domicilié à Paris, comme distributeur de faux assignats, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Seine.

0657 Saint Eugene I, Pope.
 
< 01 Jun 03 Jun >
^  Births which occurred on a 02 June:

2001 Ahmed Ibrahim and Mohammed Ibrahim, twins conjoined at the crown of their heads [a photo], sharing blood vessels and 10% of their brains, are born by Caesarean section to Sabah Abu el-Wafa Abul Qais and her husband Mohammed Ibrahim, 29, in Qus, Egypt, 450 km south of Cairo, to which they would be taken in the next few days. On 22 June 2002 they would arrive at North Texas Hospital for Children in Dallas, brought by the World Craniofacial Foundation to be evaluated by its founder, craniofacial surgeon Dr. Kenneth Salyer, and a team of specialists. He would go to Dallas in October 2002, to be briefed on the dangers of a separation operation. After some funds are raised, the $2 million operation is performed on 11 October 2003. — [photos below]
(July ?) 2002 photo
04 October 2002 photo
1930 first baby born on a vessel passing through Panama Canal
1895 Tibor Radó, Hungarian US mathematician who died on 12 December 1965.
1857 Edward Elgar Broadheath, England, composer (Pomp and Circumstance)
1857 Chain-stitch single-thread sewing machine patented by James Gibbs, Virginia.
1841 Federigo Zandomeneghi, Italian painter who died on 30 December 1917. — Photo of Zandomeneghi MORE ON  ZANDOMENEGHI AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
^ 1840 Thomas Hardy, poet, novelist.
      Hardy was born in Dorchester and was apprenticed to an architect when he was 15. After six years, he went to London to continue his training and began restoring churches. He also started writing poetry and fiction. In 1868, two publishers rejected his first novel. In 1870, he left London and went to restore a church in Cornwall, where he met his wife. The following year, his novel Desperate Remedies was published, followed by Under the Greenwood Tree in 1872, which was a success.
      Thomas Hardy's novel Far from the Madding Crowd would be published on 23 November 1874. In the novel, farm owner Bathsheba Everdene is courted by three suitors, each showing a different face of love and human nature. Although the book ends happily, it contains many of the tragic elements, grim view of human nature, and pessimistic outlook that characterize Hardy's later masterworks, including Tess of the d'Urbervilles (1891) and Jude the Obscure (1895).
      Hardy devoted himself to novels for the next 20 years or so, publishing The Return of the Native in 1878 and The Mayor of Casterbridge in 1886. However, Jude the Obscure was received with so much hostility that Hardy gave up the novel form altogether and turned to poetry. He wrote some 900 poems in a wide variety of styles, including a dramatic epic poem, The Dynasts (1910). He published Wessex Poems and Other Verses in 1898, taking the title from the fictional region of England where he set his novels, and Poems of the Past and Present in 1901. Hardy died in Dorchester in 1928.
HARDY ONLINE:
  • Far from the Madding Crowd
  • Far from the Madding Crowd
  • Jude the Obscure
  • Jude the Obscure
  • The Mayor of Casterbridge
  • The Mayor of Casterbridge
  • The Woodlanders
  • A Pair of Blue Eyes
  • The Return of the Native
  • Satires of Circumstance
  • Satires of Circumstance
  • Selected Works
  • Tess of the d'Urbervilles
  • Tess of the d'Urbervilles
  • The Trumpet-Major
  • Under the Greenwood Tree, or, The Mellstock Quire: A Rural Painting of the Dutch School
  • Wessex Poems and Other Verses
  • click for portrait of Henry VIII1835 St Pius X, 257th pope (1903-1914)
    1821 Ion Bratianu (Lib), premier of Romania (1876-1888) who died on 16 May 1891.
    1759 Jan Ekels II, Dutch artist who died on 04 June 1793.
    1740 Donatien Alphonse François comte (marquis) de Sade, first known sadist, jailbird, French writer of novels, plays, and philosophical treatises, best known for his long-suppressed erotic works. He died on 02 December 1814 in the Charenton lunatic asylum. — DE SADE ONLINE: Oeuvres choisiesDialogue entre un prêtre et un moribond (1782) — La vérité (1787) — Historiettes, contes et fabliaux (1788) — Les infortunes de la vertu (1787) — Justine (1791) — La philosophie dans le boudoir (1795), version PDFLes 120 journées de Sodome (1785), version PDF, — La nouvelle Justine (1797) — Histoire de Juliette (sans doute 1801) — Augustine de Villeblanche L'instituteur philosophe.
    1658 (infant baptism) Nicolas Dorigny, French printmaker who died on 01 December 1746. — more with link to an image.
    1621 Isaack van Ostade, Dutch artist who died on 15 October 1649.MORE ON  VAN OSTADE AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1491 Henry VIII King of England (1509-1547) [click image for portrait >]
    1565 (infant baptism) Francisco Ribalta, Spanish Baroque painter who died on 12 January 1628. MORE ON  RIBALTA AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
     
    Holidays / Bhutan : Coronation Day / Iceland : Seaman's Day / Italy-1946, West Germany : Republic (Constitution) Day / Tunisia : Youth Day /

    Religious Observances Ang : Martyrs of Lyons / RC : St Erasmus (Elmo), martyr, patron of sailors / RC : St Peter and St Marcellinus, martyrs
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    “Worse than justice delayed is injustice hastened.”
    “To be buried in just ice is injustice.”
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