• Tien An Men repression... • Commies in the CIA!!! (says McCarthy)... • Thomas Hardy is born... • First Aussies in Vietnam War... • Arrestation des Girondins... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • D~Day set for 5 June... • Amerindians attack trappers... • Civil War ends... • Oklahoma City bomber convicted... • New Pointcast CEO... • RJR + Nabisco... • Author Carver quits drinking... • Bombing helps Stalin... • Coronation of Elizabeth II... • US President marries... • God excised from exam... • Ribalta is born...
a 02 June:
2002 In a referendum, 72% of Swiss voters decide to make effective a law passed by parliament in March 2001, which allows abortion in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy and, to preserve physical integrity or avoid profound distress, even later.
2002 Jews, Gentiles, Congress, and God, all excised
from exam questions!
Have you ever read the one about the skinny Polish Jew and the fat old Gentile gringo which God sent to Hell because, in a bar where they were drinking fine California wine, they were stripped searched after killing a snake and then, regardless of what is said and done on Capitol Hill, got into a fight about the differences between the Suzuki method in the US and in Japan? Not on the New York Regents' exam you didn't!
An article in The New York Times exposes the ludicrous extremes to which New York Regents' exam quotations have been bowdlerized, without any indication that they have been modified, nor any authorization from the copyright holders, and, in some cases, rendering meaningless the exam's questions. Examples:
1) Man wants to be free: free to choose between good and evil, love and vengeance, life and death.
Man, who was created in God's image, wants to be free as God is free: free to choose between good and evil, love and vengeance, life and death. (from Elie Wiesel's essay What Really Makes Us Free)
2) Whoa they're not getting married after all! And you had no idea!
Whoa they're not getting married after all! She's gay! And you had no idea! (from Bird by Bird by Anne Lamott)
3) Polls show strong American support for the organization at the grass-roots level.
Polls show strong American support for the organization at the grass-roots level regardless of what is said and done on Capitol Hill. (from a speech by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, from which were also removed mentions of the US's unpaid debt to the UN, and of fine California wine [hum... would fine New York wine have been more acceptable?]).
Also removed are words such as: Jewish, Jews, Gentiles, Polish, gringo, old, skinny, fat, a bar, hell; as well as mentions of race, religion, ethnicity, sex, nudity, alcohol, mild profanity, strip-search, differences between violin instruction in Japan and in the US, killing a snake.
The NY State Education Department, which prepares the exams, says that it follows sensitivity review guidelines so that no student will be uncomfortable in a testing situation.
1997 Oklahoma City bomber is convicted
Timothy McVeigh [23 Apr 1968 – 11 Jun 2001], a former US Army soldier, is convicted on fifteen counts of murder and conspiracy for his role in the 1995 terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City.
On 19 April 1995, just after 09:00 central time, a truck bomb exploded outside the nine-story building, instantly killing over a hundred persons and trapping dozens more in the rubble. Emergency crews raced to Oklahoma City from across the country, and when the rescue effort finally ended two weeks later, the death toll stood at 168 people, including nineteen infants and young children who were in the building's day care center at the time of the blast.
On 21 April 1995, the manhunt for suspects in the worst terrorist attack ever committed until then on US soil resulted in the capture of Timothy McVeigh, who matched an eyewitness description of a man seen at the scene of the crime. On the same day, Terry Nichols [01 Apr 1955~], an associate of McVeigh's, surrendered at Herington, Kansas, after learning that the police were looking for him. Both men were found to be members of a radical right-wing survivalist group based in Michigan, and on 08 August, John Fortier, who knew of McVeigh's plan to bomb the federal building, agreed to testify against McVeigh and Nichols in exchange for a reduced sentence. Two days later, a grand jury indicted McVeigh and Nichols on murder and conspiracy charges.
While still in his teens, Timothy McVeigh had acquired a penchant for guns, and he began honing survivalist skills that he believed would be necessary in the event of a Cold War showdown with the Soviet Union. Lacking direction after high school, he enlisted in the US Army, and proved a disciplined and meticulous soldier. It was during this time that he befriended Terry Nichols, a fellow soldier who, although thirteen years his senior, shared his survivalist interests. In early 1991, McVeigh served in the Persian Gulf War, and was decorated with several medals for a brief combat mission. Despite these honors, he was discharged from the US Army at the end of the year, one of many casualties of the US military downsizing that came after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Another result of the Cold War's end was that McVeigh shifted his ideology from a hatred of foreign Communist governments to a suspicion of the US federal government, especially as its new elected leader, Democrat Bill Clinton, had successfully campaigned for the presidency on a platform of gun control. The August 1992 shootout between federal agents and survivalist Randy Weaver [03 Jan 1948~] at his cabin at Ruby Ridge in Idaho, in which Weaver's wife and son were killed, followed by the 19 April 1993 inferno near Waco, Texas, that killed some eighty Branch Davidians, deeply radicalized McVeigh, Nichols, and their associates.
In early 1995, Nichols and McVeigh planned an attack on the federal building in Oklahoma City, which housed, among other federal agencies, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF)--the agency that had launched the initial raid on the Branch Davidian compound in 1993. On 19 April 1995, the two-year anniversary of the disastrous end to the Waco standoff, McVeigh parked a Ryder rental truck loaded with a diesel fuel-fertilizer bomb outside the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City and fled. Minutes later, the massive bomb exploded, killing 168 innocent people.
On 02 June 1997, he is convicted on fifteen counts of murder and conspiracy, and on 14 August 1997, under the unanimous recommendation of the jury, he is sentenced to die by lethal injection. Michael Fortier was sentenced to twelve years in prison and fined $200'000 for failing to warn authorities about McVeigh's bombing plans. Terry Nichols was found guilty on one count of conspiracy and eight counts of involuntary manslaughter, and was sentenced to life in prison.
1987 President Reagan nominates economist Alan Greenspan to succeed Paul Volcker as chairman of the Federal Reserve Board.
| 1975 Vice President Nelson Rockefeller said his commission
had found no widespread pattern of illegal activities at the Central Intelligence
1967 Race riots in Roxbury section of Boston
| 1949 Transjordan is renamed Jordan.
1946 Italian plebiscite chooses republic over monarchy (National Day)
1936 Gen Anastasio Somoza takes over as dictator of Nicaragua
1925 NY Yankee Lou Gehrig begins his 2130 consecutive game streak, 16 years before his death on this same date.
1910 Pygmies discovered in Dutch New Guinea
1899 Black Americans observed day of fasting to protest lynchings
1897 Mark Twain, 61, is quoted by the New York Journal as saying from London that the report of my death was an exaggeration.
President Cleveland marries in White House
In an intimate ceremony held in the Blue Room, President Grover Cleveland, (18 Mar 1837 – 24 Jun 1908) marries Frances Folsom, the daughter of Cleveland’s late law partner and friend, Oscar Folsom. Fewer than forty people are present to witness the president exchange vows with Frances, who at twenty-one years became the youngest first lady in US history.
As a devoted family friend, Cleveland allegedly bought "Frank" her first baby carriage, and after her father’s death, administered her estate. When Frances entered Wells College, Cleveland, then the governor of New York, asked Mrs. Folsom’s permission to correspond with the young lady. After Cleveland's inauguration as president in 1885, Frances and her mother visited him at the executive mansion.
Despite a twenty-seven-year difference in age, their affection turned to romance, and on 02 June 1886, the couple is married in the White House. Mrs. Cleveland, who replaced Cleveland’s sister Rose Elizabeth as White House hostess, won immediate popularity for her good looks and unaffected charm. After the president’s defeat in his 1888 reelection bid, the Clevelands lived in New York City, where their first child, Ruth, was born in 1891.
In 1892, in an event unprecedented in US political history, Cleveland was elected president again, and the popular first lady returned to Washington and resumed her duties as if she had been gone but a day. In 1893, the first family saw the addition of a second child, Esther, who was the first child of a president to be born in the White House. When Grover Cleveland left the presidency in 1897, his wife had become one of the most popular first ladies in history.
In 1908, she was at his side when he died at their home in Princeton, New Jersey. Five years later, she married Thomas J. Preston, Jr., a professor of archeology at Princeton University. She died in 1947.
| 1883 Chicago's "El" opens to traffic
1875 Light-skinned James A. Healy is consecrated bishop over the Diocese of Maine, making him the first African-American bishop in the history of American Catholicism.
1866 Renegade Irish [next link is broken] Fenians surrender to US forces
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1862 Gen Robert E Lee takes command of the Confederate armies of E VA and NC
1861 General P.G.T. Beauregard takes command of Confederate forces in northern Virginia
1851 first US alcohol prohibition law enacted (Maine)
1835 P.T. Barnum and his circus begin first tour of US
1794 (14 prairial an II) GUENIOT Marguerite Louise Charlotte, femme de Jean Baptiste Maure, directeur de la poste à Tonnère, département de l'Yonne, née à Avalon, même département, est coondamnée à mort par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme ennemie de la révolution. Elle s'est déclarée enceinte, à été transféré à l'hospice de l'évêché et a obtenu sa mise en liberté après le 9 thermidor an 2. (sans doute la même: GUESINOT Marguerite L. Charlotte, domiciliée à Tonnerre, département de l'Yonne, coondamnée à mort par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme conspiratrice).
0575 Benedict I begins his reign as Pope.
0553 The Second Council of Constantinople closes. Led by Eutychius, Patriarch of Constantinople, the council condemned the Nestorian writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret of Cyprus and Ibas of Edessa.
0455 Gaiseric and the Vandals sack Rome.
2005 Enrique Cárdenas Saldaña, comandante of the Policía Municipal de Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, México, in drive-by shooting at 08:00 (13:00 UT), as he left his home to take his daughter to school.
2005 Samir Kassir [1960–] [photo >], by a remote control bomb under the driver's seat of his car, just after he gets into it outside his home in the mostly Christian Ashrafiya neighborhood of Beirut, Lebanon. He was a prominent anti-Syrian columnist for the daily An-Nahar, an activist who help organize the popular protest against the assassination of Rafik Hariri [01 Nov 1944 – 14 Feb 2005], and writer, for example of the book Histoire de Beyrouth (2003).
2003 Felix de Weldon, born in Austria on 12 April 1907, US sculptor who made more than 2000 public sculptures, including the Marine Corps War Memorial in Arlington, Virginia, 5 times life-sized, which he made from the 23 February 1945 photo by Joe Rosenthal of the flag raising on Mount Suribachi in Iwo Jima.
2002 Paolo Ayala, 7, who was a guest at a birthday party for wealthy classmate Alex Farkhondehpour, in Los Angeles, but is not there when his parents come to pick him up. Non-swimmer Paolo's body is found by a housekeeper on 04 June 2002 in the Farkhondehpour pool, though it had not been seen there by searchers on 02 June nor by a pool cleaner on 03 June.
1990 Robert Noyce, co-inventor (semi-conductor) / founded Intel.
1965 Some 35'000 by 2nd of 2 cyclones in less than a month (Ganges River, India).
1944 Achille Langé, French artist born on 29 April 1861.
1943 Edward Burr Van Vleck, US mathematician born on 07 June 1863. Almost all Van Vleck's research papers were in the fields of function theory and differential equations.
1942 Andrew Russell Forsyth, British mathematician born on 18 June 1858. Author of Theory of functions of a complex variable (1893), A treatise on differential equations (1885), Theory of differential equations (6 six volumes 1890-1906), Lectures on the differential geometry of curves and surfaces (1912), Lectures introductory to the theory of functions of two complex variables (1914), Calculus of variations (1927), Geometry of four dimensions (1930), and Intrinsic geometry of ideal space (1935).
1941 Lou Gehrig, 37, in Riverdale NY, Yankee baseball great, of ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), since then commonly known as Lou Gehrig's disease.
1929 Otto Schreier, mathematician born on 03 March 1901. He worked in combinatorial group theory, particularly on subgroups of free groups and on knot groups. [Yes, but has anyone figured out a way to undo the knots so as to emancipate slave groups?]
1917 Hilda Fearon, British painter born on 14 September 1878. — a bit more with links to two images.
1903 Ferencz Eisenhut, Hungarian Austrian artist who was born on 26 January 1857.
1882 Giuseppe Garibaldi, 74, Italian unification leader.
1843 Johann-Heinrich-August Friedrich, German artist born on 01 July 1789.
1839 (03 Jun?) Wijnand Jan Josephus Nuyen, Dutch painter and printmaker specialized in Landscapes, born on 04 March 1813. — more with links to images.
2001 Ahmed Ibrahim and Mohammed Ibrahim, twins conjoined at the crown of their heads [a photo], sharing blood vessels and 10% of their brains, are born by Caesarean section to Sabah Abu el-Wafa Abul Qais and her husband Mohammed Ibrahim, 29, in Qus, Egypt, 450 km south of Cairo, to which they would be taken in the next few days. On 22 June 2002 they would arrive at North Texas Hospital for Children in Dallas, brought by the World Craniofacial Foundation to be evaluated by its founder, craniofacial surgeon Dr. Kenneth Salyer, and a team of specialists. He would go to Dallas in October 2002, to be briefed on the dangers of a separation operation. After some funds are raised, the $2 million operation is performed on 11 October 2003. [photos below]
(July ?) 2002 photo
04 October 2002 photo
| 1930 first baby born on a vessel passing through Panama Canal
1895 Tibor Radó, Hungarian US mathematician who died on 12 December 1965.
1857 Edward Elgar Broadheath, England, composer (Pomp and Circumstance)
1857 Chain-stitch single-thread sewing machine patented by James Gibbs, Virginia.
1841 Federigo Zandomeneghi, Italian painter who died on 30 December 1917. — Photo of Zandomeneghi MORE ON ZANDOMENEGHI AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1821 Ion Bratianu (Lib), premier of Romania (1876-1888) who died on 16 May 1891.
1759 Jan Ekels II, Dutch artist who died on 04 June 1793.
1740 Donatien Alphonse François comte (marquis) de Sade, first known sadist, jailbird, French writer of novels, plays, and philosophical treatises, best known for his long-suppressed erotic works. He died on 02 December 1814 in the Charenton lunatic asylum. — DE SADE ONLINE: Oeuvres choisies — Dialogue entre un prêtre et un moribond (1782) — La vérité (1787) — Historiettes, contes et fabliaux (1788) — Les infortunes de la vertu (1787) — Justine (1791) — La philosophie dans le boudoir (1795), version PDF — Les 120 journées de Sodome (1785), version PDF, — La nouvelle Justine (1797) — Histoire de Juliette (sans doute 1801) Augustine de Villeblanche L'instituteur philosophe.
1658 (infant baptism) Nicolas Dorigny, French printmaker who died on 01 December 1746. — more with link to an image.
1621 Isaack van Ostade, Dutch artist who died on 15 October 1649. MORE ON VAN OSTADE AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1491 Henry VIII King of England (1509-1547) [click image for portrait >]
1565 (infant baptism) Francisco Ribalta, Spanish Baroque painter who died on 12 January 1628. MORE ON RIBALTA AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.