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Events, deaths, births, of 01 JUN
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ALTERNATE SITES     ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY    ART “4” JUN 01    wikipedia
• Nepal's Crown Prince kills royal family... • Benedict Arnold's court martial... • Shcharansky charged with treason... • De Gaulle leads France again... • Romanian dictator executed for war crimes... • Blind deaf Keller dies... • US wants war against UK... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Coleridge's The Friend... • Linus's security blanket... • Chemical weapons to be destroyed... • US officials meet on Vietnam... • Viet vets support Nixon... • Death camps revealed... • Germans take Crete... • Counting machines used in Census... • Cadillac founder resigns...
^  On a 01 June:
2010 The Pope's prayer intentions for June 2010:
General: Respect for Human Life — That every national and transnational institution may strive to guarantee respect for human life from conception to natural death.
Missionary: The Churches in Asia — That the Churches in Asia, which constitute a “little flock” among non-Christian populations, may know how to communicate the Gospel and give joyful witness to their adherence to Christ. —(091216)
2009 The Pope's prayer intentions for June 2009:
General: That international attention towards the poorer countries may give rise to more concrete help, in particular to relieve them of the crushing burden of foreign debt.
Mission: That the particular Churches operating in regions marked by violence may be sustained by the love and concrete closeness of all the Catholics in the world. —(090301)
2000 With about half an hour to spare, Texas Governor. George W. Bush blocked the scheduled execution of convicted killer Ricky McGinn so that possibly exculpatory DNA evidence could be reviewed. (The DNA tests failed to establish McGinn's innocence, and he was put to death by injection the following September.)
1999 It is discovered that 2^6'972'593 – 1 is a Mersenne prime (the 38th found).(Mersenne prime numbers are primes of the form 2^n – 1, which requires n to be prime; and it is equivalent to [2^(n–1)]x(2^n – 1) being equal to the sum of its factors other than itself, i.e. a “perfect number”). They can all be found (with their date of discovery) at http://www.isthe.com/chongo/tech/math/prime/mersenne.html.
1995 El poeta José Hierro obtiene el IV Premio Iberoamericano de Poesía Reina Sofía.
1994 Meckler Media Corporation says that it will introduce MecklerWeb, an online combination yellow pages and shopping mall, in September 1994. Businesses pay a $25,000 fee to be listed in the directory
1991 Mount Pinatubo (Philippines) erupts for first time in 600 years.
1991 The United States and the Soviet Union resolved differences over the Conventional Forces in Europe treaty, clearing the way for a superpower summit.
^ 1990 Superpowers to destroy chemical weapons
      At a superpowers summit meeting in Washington DC, US President George Bush (Sr.) and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev signed a historic agreement to cease production of chemical weapons and to begin destruction of both nations’ sizable reserves. According to the agreement, on-site inspectors from both countries would be permitted to observe the destruction process.
      The treaty, which called for an 80-percent reduction of their chemical weapon arsenals, was part of an effort to create a climate of change that would discourage smaller nations from stockpiling and using the lethal weapons. First developed during World War I, most countries in the world were in possession of the technology needed to build chemical weapons by 1990, and some such as Iraq, had readily engaged in chemical warfare in recent years.
1990 Dow Jones Avg hits a record high of 2900.97
1988 Finaliza en Moscú la cumbre Reagan-Gorbachov con la ratificación del acuerdo entre Estados Unidos y la URSS para la eliminación de misiles de alcance intermedio.
1986 As announced earlier in the year, AT&T shuts down its Net 1000. It had taken ten years and $1 million to develop, and was an early networking project that linked computers over telephone lines. The linked computers allowed companies to order from suppliers, monitor inventory at plants at different locations, take orders, and bill customers.
1978 Se aprueban los estatutos de preautonomía de Baleares, Canarias, Castilla y León y Extremadura.
^ 1977 Soviets charge Shcharansky with treason
      The Soviet government charges Anatoly Shcharansky, a leader among Jewish dissidents and human rights activists in Russia, with the crime of treason. The action was viewed by many in the West as a direct challenge to President Jimmy Carter's new foreign policy emphasis on human rights and his criticism of Soviet repression. Shcharansky, a 29-year-old computer expert, had been a leading figure in the so-called "Helsinki group" in the Soviet Union. This group came into existence in 1975, after the signing of the European Security Act. The European Security Act, also referred to as the Helsinki Accords, was the result of US and Soviet efforts to reinvigorate the spirit of détente. The two nations called 35 other countries together to discuss a variety of topics, and the final agreements signed at the meeting included guidelines for human rights.
      Although the Soviets signed the act, Jewish dissidents in Russia complained that their rights continued to be violated, particularly their right to emigrate. These Jewish dissidents and other human rights activists in the Soviet Union came together to form the Helsinki group, which was designed to monitor Russian respect of the 1975 act. Shcharansky was one of the best known of this group, particularly because of his flair for sparking public interest in human rights violations in Russia. President Carter used the situation of Russian Jews as an example of the human rights violations he wished to curtail when he came into office in 1977. The Soviets responded with a series of arrests of Helsinki group leaders and the deportation of others.
      Shcharansky, the most vociferous of the group, came in for the harshest treatment. In June 1977, he was charged with treason, specifically with accepting funds from the CIA in order to create dissension in the Soviet Union. After a perfunctory trial, he was sentenced to 14 years in prison. He was finally released in February 1986, when he and four other prisoners were exchanged for four Soviet spies who had been held in the West. Shcharansky's arrest and imprisonment elicited a good deal of criticism from the American people and government, but the criticism seemed merely to harden the Soviet position. It was not until after Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in 1985, promising a freer political atmosphere in the Soviet Union, that Shchransky and other political dissidents, such as Andrei Sakharov, were freed from prison and internal exile. Despite the relatively freer atmosphere of the Gorbachev years, members of the Helsinki group, as well as other Soviet dissidents, continued to press for greater democratic freedom and human rights right up to the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991.
1973 Se proclama la República en Grecia, presidida provisionalmente por el general Georgios Papadopoulos.
^ 1971 Vietnam Veterans group announces support for Nixon
      In support of the Nixon Administration's conduct of the war, a group named the Vietnam Veterans for a Just Peace declares that it represents the majority of the US veterans that had served in Southeast Asia, and calls the protests and congressional testimony of the Vietnam Veterans Against the War "irresponsible." On 19 April, as a prelude to a massive antiwar protest, the Vietnam Veterans Against the War began a five-day demonstration in Washington DC. The generally peaceful protest, called Dewey Canyon III in honor of the February and March operation in Laos, ended on 23 April with some 1000 veterans throwing their combat ribbons, helmets, and uniforms along with toy weapons on the Capitol steps. Earlier they had lobbied with their congressmen, laid wreaths in Arlington National Cemetery, and staged mock "search and destroy" missions.
^ 1964 Top US officials meet on Vietnam
      Top US officials concerned about the Vietnam War gather for two days of meetings in Honolulu. Attendees included Secretary of State Dean Rusk, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, Gen. William Westmoreland, Gen. Maxwell Taylor, and CIA Director John McCone, among others. Much of the discussion focused on the projected air war against North Vietnam, including a list of 94 potential targets. There was also a discussion of the plan for a joint Congressional resolution. The meeting was convened to develop options for President Lyndon B. Johnson in dealing with the rapidly deteriorating situation in Vietnam. In March 1964, Secretary of Defense McNamara had reported that 40 percent of the countryside was under Viet Cong control or influence. Johnson was afraid that he would be run out of office if South Vietnam fell to the communists, but he did not want to employ US military power on a large scale because of the impact that such actions might have on his Great Society domestic programs.
      Upon returning from the meeting in Honolulu, several of Johnson's advisers, led by William Bundy, developed a scenario of graduated overt pressures against North Vietnam, according to which the president, after securing a Congressional resolution, would authorize air strikes against selected North Vietnamese targets. Johnson rejected the idea of submitting the resolution to Congress because it would "raise a whole series of disagreeable questions" which might jeopardize passage of the administration's civil rights legislation. However, the idea of such a resolution would surface again in less than two months. In August 1964, after North Vietnamese torpedo boats were (probably falsely) reported to have attacked US destroyers, in what became known as the Tonkin Gulf incident, McNamara and Rusk appeared before a joint Congressional committee on foreign affairs. They presented the Johnson administration's arguments for a resolution authorizing the president "to take all necessary measures" to defend Southeast Asia. Subsequently, Congress passed Public Law 88-408, the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, giving President Johnson the power to take whatever actions he deemed necessary, including "the use of armed force." The resolution passed 82 to 2 in the Senate, where Wayne K. Morse (D-Oregon) and Ernest Gruening (D-Alaska) were the only dissenting votes; the bill passed unanimously in the House of Representatives. President Johnson signed it into law on 10 August. It became the legal basis for every presidential action taken by the Johnson administration during its conduct of the war.
1963 El ministro de Defensa británico, John Dennis Profumo, renuncia a su cargo a causa del escándalo de sus relaciones con la "call-girl" Christine Keeler.
1959 Constitution of Tunisia promulgated (National Day)
^ 1958 De Gaulle reassumes French leadership
      During a French political crisis over the military and civilian revolt in Algeria, Charles de Gaulle was called out of retirement to head a new emergency government. Considered the only leader of sufficient strength and stature to deal with the perilous situation, the former war hero was made the virtual dictator of France with power to rule by decree for six months.
      A veteran of World War I, de Gaulle had unsuccessfully petitioned his country to modernize its armed forces in the years before the outbreak of World War II. After Philippe Petain and other French leaders signed an armistice with Nazi Germany in June of 1940, he fled to London, where he organized the Free French forces and rallied French colonies to the Allied cause. His forces fought successfully in North Africa, and in June of 1944, he was named head of the French government in exile. On 26 August, following the Allied invasion of France, de Gaulle entered Paris in triumph, and in November, was unanimously elected provisional president of France. However, he resigned two months later, claiming he lacked sufficient governing power.
      He formed a new political party that had only moderate electoral success, and in 1953, he retired. However, five years later, in May of 1958, the Algerian revolt created a political crisis in France, and he was called out of retirement to lead the nation. A new constitution was passed, and in late December, he was elected president of the Fifth Republic.
      Over the next decade, President de Gaulle granted independence to Algeria and attempted to restore France to its former international stature by withdrawing from the US-dominated NATO alliance and promoting the development of French atomic weapons. However, student demonstrations and workers’ strikes in 1968 eroded his popular support, and in 1969, his proposals for further constitutional reform were defeated in a national vote. On 28 April 28 1969, Charles de Gaulle, seventy-nine years old, retired for good. He died the following year.
1952 Se suprimen las cartillas de racionamiento en España.
Linus^ 1952 Linus's security blanket appears for the first time in Peanuts [shown below]

      Linus Van Pelt inspired the term "security blanket" with his classic pose. He is the intellectual of the gang, and flabbergasts his friends with his philosophical revelations and solutions to problems. He suffers abuse from his big sister, Lucy, and the unwanted attentions of Charlie Brown's little sister, Sally. He is a paradox: despite his age, he can put life into perspective while sucking his thumb. He knows the true meaning of Christmas while continuing to believe in the Great Pumpkin.
1947 In the US , the OPA, which issued WW II rationing coupons, disbands
1945 Los aliados bombardean Osaka, la segunda ciudad del Japón, que queda arrasada.
^ 1942 News of death camp killings
      A Warsaw underground newspaper, the Liberty Brigade, makes public the news of the gassing of tens of thousands of Jews at Chelmno, a death camp in Poland-almost seven months after extermination of prisoners began.
      A year earlier, the means of effecting what would become the "Final Solution," the mass extermination of European Jewry, was devised: 700 Jews were murdered by channeling gas fumes back into a van used to transport them to the village of Chelmno, in Poland. This "gas van" would become the death chamber for a total of 360'000 Jews from more than 200 communities in Poland. The advantage of this form of extermination was that it was silent and invisible. One month before the infamous Wannsee Conference of January 1942, during which Nazi officials decided to address formally the "Jewish question," the gas vans in Chelmno were used to kill up to 1000 Jews a day. The vans provided the "Final Solution" for Adolf Eichmann and other Wannsee attendees. The mass gassings were the most orderly and systematic means of eliminating European Jewry.
      Eventually, more such vans were employed in other parts of Poland. There was no thought of selecting out the "fit" from the "unfit" for slave labor, as in Auschwitz. There was only one goal: utter extermination. On 01 June 1942, the story of a young Jew, Emanuel Ringelblum, (who escaped from the Chelmno death camp after being forced to bury bodies as they were thrown out of the gas vans), was published in the underground Polish Socialist newspaper Liberty Brigade. The West now knew the "bloodcurdling news … about the slaughter of Jews," and it had a name-Chelmno.
1941 Nazi Germany bans all Catholic publications
1941 II Guerra Mundial: los ingleses entran en Bagdad.
^ 1941 Crete falls to German forces
      During World War II, Crete, the last Allied stronghold in Greece, is captured by German forces at high cost to both sides.
      In late 1940, the Greek army, reinforced by the British air force, decisively repulsed an Italian invasion of their country. However, in April of 1941, Allied triumphs in Greece turned to defeat when Nazi leader Adolf Hitler turned his undefeated German Wehrmacht against the country. The German army advanced so quickly that the British chose to cancel plans to send reinforcements to Greece.
      On 23 April, the Greek king and his government evacuated to Crete, an island south of the Greek mainland, and the next day, a general Allied evacuation to the island began. For the next six days, the Germans assaulted the Allied ships en route to Crete, killing some 15'000 Allied sailors and troops. However, by 29 April, almost 50'000 British, Greek, Australian, and New Zealand troops had reached the safety of the heavily fortified island.
      Three weeks later, the German invasion of Crete began, with over 20'000 German parachute troops landing on the island within a few days. Under heavy resistance from the Allies, the Germans succeeded in gaining control of an airfield, and were thus able to fly in a steady number of reinforcements. On 26 May, the Allies began to move to the southern coast of Crete, where an evacuation to British-controlled Egypt began. By 01 June the last of some 20'000 surviving Allied troops had escaped, and Crete fell to the Axis.
1940 L'évacuation de Dunkerque, commencée le 28 mai, continue; el sera terminée le 3 juin -- Chute de Lille
1936 Mussolini proclaims King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, 66, Emperor of Ethiopia, which is made part of Italian East Africa shortly after having been annexed on 09 May 1936.
1924 La fábrica Ford de Detroit pone en el mercado el automóvil número 10 millones.
^ 1917 Cadillac founder resigns
Henry Leland, the founder of the Cadillac Motor Car Company, resigns as company president. Ever since William Durant had arranged for General Motors to purchase Cadillac, Leland and Durant had endured a strained relationship, but Leland’s electric starter had made Cadillac so successful early on that Durant had avoided meddling with the autonomy of his company.
      Leland’s next great achievement at Cadillac was his supervision of his son’s proposal that Cadillac should introduce a V-8 engine. Previously, Cadillac, and most other American companies, had only offered four-cylinder engines. The in-line six- and eight-cylinder engines experimented with by other companies had proven troublesome and required constant maintenance. Henry’s son, Wilfred Leland, suggested that Cadillac oppose two four-cylinder engines in a V-shaped formation. The idea was not unheard of, as the French automaker DeDion-Bouton had already used such a configuration. But Cadillac aimed to create a more powerful, higher quality V-8 engine. In order to keep the project secret Leland contracted the parts for his new engine to over half a dozen New England firms in such a way that the companies had no idea what the parts were for. They were then delivered to a dummy manufacturing firm called Ideal Manufacturing Company. The new Cadillac car with its V-8 was put on the market in 1914. It was received with a good deal of skepticism, as some people thought that such a complicated engine would create problems for drivers. Nonetheless, the engine proved a great success and was standard in Cadillacs until 1927.
      The success was followed, however, by the outbreak of war in Europe. Leland had visited the continent a few years earlier as a part of a contingent of engineers. He had returned to America convinced that war in Europe was inevitable and that it would decide the fate of Western Civilization. He was adamant that the United States would become involved sooner or later, and at the outbreak of the war he urged Durant to let Cadillac convert its facilities to the manufacture of aircraft engines, specifically the Liberty engine. The two stubborn men butted heads. Durant refused to respond to Leland’s urgings, and Leland resigned. Durant’s assistant Charles Mott suggested that Leland had not resigned but was fired for other reasons.
      Whatever the circumstances, Leland left and started the Lincoln Motor Car Company. In 1917 he won the first contract to manufacture Liberty engines for the war effort. Leland worked closely with British, French, and American engineers to design a high-production, high-powered twelve-cylinder airplane engine for the war effort. By the war’s end, Lincoln had manufactured more Liberty engines than any other single company. GM marques Cadillac and Buick also manufactured Liberty engines.
1915 first Zeppelin air raid over England
1907 -33º C, Sarmiento, Argentina (South American record)
^ 1890 Counting machines used in census
     Some 45'000 census counters set out to count the US's sixty million plus population. The census takers took along hole punches and recorded the results of their surveys by punching out designated spots on the card, like a train conductor punching a ticket. Later, those cards were counted by a tabulating machine invented by 29-year-old Herman Hollerith. In a test run, Hollerith's counting machine had proven dramatically faster than other proposed counting methods. Hollerith founded the Tabulating Machine Company in 1896. Through a series of mergers and reorganizations, the company eventually became IBM.
1880 The first pay telephone service begins, in New Haven, Connecticut. The pay phone is located in the office of the Connecticut Telephone Company. Patrons pay a toll to an attendant who lets them use the phone
1877 US troops authorized to pursue bandits into Mexico
1869 Las Cortes Constituyentes, establecidas tras la Revolución de 1868, aprueban una nueva Constitución para España.
1868 Texas constitutional convention meets in Austin
1864 Major Union attack at Cold Harbor, Virginia
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege on Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1862 Union suppresses publication of the newspaper, The Chicago Times
1862 Battle of Seven Pines (Fair Oaks), Virginia, started the previous day, concludes.
1861 first skirmish in the Civil War, Fairfax Court House, Virginia
1861 US and Confederacy simultaneously stop mail interchange
1855 US adventurer William Walker [08 May 1824 – 12 Sep 1860] starts his conquest of Nicaragua, which he will complete by the end of the year, become President of Nicaragua on 12 July 1856, reestablish slavery, fight off a coalition of Central American states until 01 May 1857, then, in order to avoid capture, surrender to the US Navy.
1845 Homing pigeon completes 11'000 km trip (Namibia-London) in 55 days
1843 It snows in Buffalo and Rochester NY and Cleveland Ohio
1843 Former slave Isabella Van Wagener [1797 – 26 Nov 1883] leaves New York City and takes the name “Sojourner Truth” to begin her career as a preacher and soon as an antislavery activist.
1813 The commander of the US frigate Chesapeake, Capt. James Lawrence, said, "Don't give up the ship" during a losing battle with a British frigate. This would become the US Navy's motto.
^ 1812 Madison calls for war against Britain
      By the summer of 1812 US President James Madison had grown tired of watching America's merchant ships and sailors take a beating at the hands of the British. The nation's maritime interests had been caught in the crossfire of the Napoleonic Wars since the early 1800s. Though France had long since begged off from interfering with US economic activities, England persisted in its practice of halting US ships and seizing men who were suspected of having deserted the Royal Navy. Reluctant to build up America's military forces, Madison attempted to rebuff the British through fiscally minded measures. However, neither the Embargo Act (1807) nor successive versions of non-intercourse legislation (1809, 1810) did much to dissuade the British from their habit of harassing American ports and ships. And so on this day in 1812, Madison gave the call to Congress to declare war on Great Britain. Just three days later the hawkish House voted 79 to 49 to engage England in armed conflict; by the end of the month the United States was embroiled in the War of 1812.
^ 1809 Coleridge begins to publish The Friend
      Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who helped establish the Romantic school of poetry, begins to publish his own periodical, The Friend. The essays that Coleridge published in The Friend are later collected into a book, Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit, and Miscellaneous Essays From "The Friend".
      Coleridge led a turbulent, tragic life. Born on 21 October 1772 in the small town of Ottery St. Mary in Devonshire, England, he was sent to school in London after his father's death. He was a lonely student who fell into dissolution and debt after he went to Cambridge in 1791. He fled his creditors and enlisted in the cavalry, which he later abandoned with help from his brothers. He returned to Cambridge, where he met poet Robert Southey. The two launched an ambitious plan to establish a democratic utopia in Pennsylvania. To further the plan, Coleridge married a woman he did not love, the sister of Southey's fiancée. When Southey abandoned the plan, Coleridge remained in the ultimately unhappy marriage.
      In 1795, Coleridge met the poet William Wordsworth. The two became close friends and collaborators, assisted by Dorothy Wordsworth, the poet's sister. The Wordsworths moved near Coleridge in 1797, and the following year Wordsworth and Coleridge published Lyrical Ballads, which established the Romantic school of poetry. It included Coleridge's famous poem "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner."
      Coleridge's life began unraveling at the turn of the century. He became estranged from his wife and fell in love with Sara Hutchinson, whose sister married Wordsworth three years later. Meanwhile, his health began to suffer, and he began taking large doses of opium to control his rheumatism and other problems. He became addicted to opium, and his creative output waned. In 1810, he broke with Wordsworth, and the two would not reconcile for nearly 20 years.
      Starting in 1808, he supported himself for a decade with successful lecture series on literature. Meanwhile, he single-handedly wrote, edited, and distributed The Friend for about a year, and in 1813 his tragedy Remorse was well-received. Thanks to the help of Dr. James Gillman and his wife (with whom Coleridge eventually lived), the poet began to cut back on his opium use. In 1816, he published the fragmentary poem "Kubla Khan," written under the influence of opium around 1797. In 1817, he published a significant work of criticism, Biographa Literaria, and in 1828 was reconciled with Wordsworth. Coleridge died on 25 July 1834.
COLERIDGE ONLINE:
  • Christabel
  • Kubla Khan
  • The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
  • The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
  • Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit, and Miscellaneous Essays From "The Friend"
  • Selected works

    Selections and commentary by John Spencer Hill:
  • A Coleridge Companion
  • Imagination in Coleridge

    Co-authored with Wordsworth:
  • Lyrical Ballads
  • Lyrical Ballads
  • Translations of Euripides:
  • Andromache
  • The Cyclops
  • Electra
  • Hecuba
  • Helen
  • Heracles
  • The Herecleidae
  • Hippolytus
  • Medea
  • Orestes
  • The Phoenissae
  • Rhesus
  • The Suppliants
  • 1809 Allardyce Barclay begins a bet of walking 1 mile every hour for 1000 hours. Each hour he walked a mile round trip from his home
    1796 Tennessee admitted as 16th US state
    1794 Battle of the First of June, the first great naval engagement of the French Revolutionary Wars, fought between the French and the British in the Atlantic Ocean about 690 km west of the Breton island of Ouessant.
    1792 Kentucky admitted as 15th US state
    1789 first US congressional act becomes law (on administering oaths)
    ^ 1779 Benedict Arnold's court-martial, which would lead to his treason
          The court-martial of Benedict Arnold convenes in Philadelphia. After a relatively clean record in the early days of the American Revolution, Arnold was charged with malfeasance, misusing government wagons, illegally buying and selling goods, and favoritism to the British Loyalists. Although his notorious betrayal was still many months away, Arnold's resentment over this order and the perceived mistreatment by the American Army would fuel his traitorous decision. Abruptly interrupted at its outset by a British attack north of New York City, the court-martial did not get under way again until 23 December in Morristown, New Jersey. Although Arnold was cleared of most charges, General George Washington issued a reprimand against him, and Arnold became increasingly angered.
          While on a trip to the important West Point base to ensure that it could withstand a British attack, Arnold stewed over his slight by Washington and the Americans. He thought that he had never been properly rewarded or acknowledged for his military success on their behalf. He began corresponding with British spies about the possibility of changing sides. Arnold negotiated his defection to the British and the subversion of West Point over the next several months. The British already held control of New York City and believed that by taking West Point they could effectively cut off the Americans' New England forces from the rest of the fledgling nation.
          In August 1780, Sir Henry Clinton offered Arnold £20'000 for delivering West Point and 3000 soldiers. Arnold told General Washington that West Point was adequately prepared for an attack, even though he was busy making sure that it really wasn't. He even tried to set up General Washington's capture as a bonus. His plan might have been successful, but his message was delivered too late and Washington escaped. The West Point surrender was also foiled when an American colonel ignored Arnold's order not to fire on an approaching British ship.
          Arnold's defection was revealed to the Americans when British officer John André, acting as a messenger, was robbed by AWOL Americans working as pirates in the woods north of New York City. The notes revealing Arnold's traitorous agreement were stashed in his boots. Arnold and his wife Peggy, who fooled American officers into believing she had no involvement in the betrayal, escaped to New York City. At the British surrender at Yorktown, Benedict Arnold was burned in effigy, and his name has since become synonymous with traitor. The British didn't treat him very well after the war either. After prevailing in a libel action, he was awarded only a nominal amount because his reputation was already so tarnished. He died in 1801 and was buried in England without military honor.
    1774 British government orders Port of Boston closed.
    1533 Ana Bolena es coronada reina de Inglaterra.
    1252 Alfonso X el Sabio es proclamado rey de Castilla y León.
    1183 El rey de Castilla Alfonso VIII firma el Tratado de Fresno-Lavandera con Fernando II de León, por el que este último se comprometía a romper su alianza con los almohades y atacar sus plazas.
    TO THE TOP
    < 31 May 02 Jun >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 01 June:

    2006 Luis Albarran, 5, and his uncle Magno Albarran, 29, and mother Flora Albarran, 22, and their mother Emma Valdez, 46, and Emma's husband Alberto Covarrubias Sr., 56; and their sons Alberto Covarrubias Jr., 11, and David Covarrubias, 9; shot by criminal on parole Desmond Turner, 28, and James Stewart, 30, intent on robbing the Covarrubias home in the 500 block of North Hamilton Avenue, Indianapolis, Indiana, at 22:00 (03:00 UT on 02 June) as Flora Albarran (who, on that day, had moved from that home to an apartment) arrives to pick up her son. Stewart is arrested on 02 June 2006 and Turner on 03 June 2006. — (060604)
    2005 General Akram Khakrizwal, and 26 others, including a suicide bomber, at 10:00 (05:30 UT) at the Abdul Rub Akhundzadar mosque in Kandahar, Afghanistan, during a fateha service for Maulvi Abdul Fayaz Akhondzada, a prominent anti-Talaban mullah murdered on 26 May 2005 (the mosque was renamed in his honor). Khakrizwal was the Kabul police chief. Some 50 persons are injured.
    2002 Joseph Nanven Garba, Nigerian officer, pro-democracy coup plotter (29 Jul 1975), diplomat, born on 17 July 1943. Author of Diplomatic Soldiering (1987).
    Crown Prince Dipendra, 1998King and Queen of Nepal, 1998.^ 2001 (19 Jestha 2058) Nepal's Crown Prince kills King Birendra, 55; his wife Queen Aiswarya, 51; his brother Prince Nirajan, 22; his sister Princess Sruti Dipendra 24; the eldest sister of King Birendra Princess Shanti Rajya Laxmi Devi Singh, 60; the king's cousin Princess Shanri Jayanti Shah; the king's sister Princess Sharada Shah; and her husband Kumar Khadga Bikram Shah.
           At 22:40, with an automatic rifle, Nepal's crown prince Dipendra [27 Jun 1971 – 04 Jun 2001] [< 19 Feb 1998 photo], shoots dead his parents — the king and queen [8 Feb 1998 photo >] — in a dispute over his choice of bride. The prince guns down six other family members before shooting himself, falling into a coma; he would die on 04 June. The king's youngest brother Prince Dhirendra, is critically wounded and would die on 04 June. Also wounded are : Princess Shruti's husband Kumar Gorakh Rana Bikram, Princess Komal Shah, wife of the king's brother Gyanendra and sister of the late Queen Aishwarya, the king's only surviving sister Princess Shoba, and the king's cousin Keytaki Chester
         Dipendra had taken alcohol and smoked cigarettes laced with opium before he walked into the billiard room of the Narayanhiti Palace and gunned down King Birendra, Queen Aiswarya, his own brother and sister, an aunt and uncle and three others
          The shootings of the revered royals were prompted by a dispute over the crown prince's marriage because his mother, the queen, objected to his choice of wife. The crown prince, educated at Britain's Eton College, was heir to the throne.
          A helicopter was sent to Chitwan, 120 km southwest of Katmandu, to pick up Prince Gyanendra [07 Jul 1947~], the king's brother who is next in line to the throne, but has to turn back because of bad weather. The next afternoon Gyanendra arrives in Kathmandu and becomes Regent, for, though the Raj Parishad (State Council) declares Dipendra king, the announcement is made: "As the new king is in serious condition and being treated in the intensive care unit in hospital and unable to rule, Prince Gyanendra, middle brother of the late King Birendra, has been appointed regent." Gyanendra becomes king on 04 June 2001, after parricide matricide mass murderer suicide Dipendra dies.
    click to zoom in[from left: Princess Shruti, King Birendra, Crown Prince Dependra, Queen Aiswarya, Prince Nirajan. Click on photo to enlarge >]
          Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, born on 28 December 1945, was educated at St. Joseph's College (Darjeeling, India), Eton College (England), Tokyo University (1967), and Harvard University (1967–1968) and traveled extensively before acceding to the throne on the death of his father, King Mahendra [11 Jun 1920 – 21 Jan 1972].
         Birendra continued the autocratic tradition of his father, who had dissolved the elected parliament in 1960 and banned political parties in the constitution of 1962; for a time, Birendra was one of the world's few remaining absolute monarchs. He managed to maintain Nepal's independence despite encroaching influences by India, China, and the Soviet Union. During his reign Nepal was opened up to extensive tourism.
          Beginning early in 1990, a popular prodemocracy movement led to demonstrations that erupted into seven weeks of demonstrations and bloody clashes with the soldiers and police. On 06 April 1990 police fired at 200'000 demonstrators marching toward the royal palace. At least 72 persons died, according to officials, but more than 300 according to witnesses. Submitting to pressure, Birendra lifted the ban on political activity and on 09 November 1990, approved a new constitution that preserved his status as chief of state but provided for a multiparty parliamentary democracy, a separation of powers, and the protection of human rights. The king has since remained a figurehead much like the queen of England, appearing in ceremonies and addressing the Parliament once a year.
          Birendra was crowned king on 24 February 1975. He was the latest monarch in the Shah dynasty, which has held the throne since the mid-1700s. Many Nepalis, especially illiterate farmers who comprise the bulk of this country's population of nearly 22 million, viewed the king as the reincarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu. Some 90% of Nepal's population is Hindu. Hundreds of people lined the streets of Katmandu on 29 December 2000 to greet King Birendra on his 55th birthday.
          The shootings come at a time of major political instability in Nepal. Opposition parties have been demanding Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala's resignation for the government's alleged role in a bribery scandal and for not better quelling a Maoist insurgency. The country was shut down for three days earlier in the week by the opposition parties to press for the resignation. Parliament was stalled the entire winter session earlier in the year and street protests have been held regularly. http://www.nepalnews.com/

         Dipendra was declared heir-apparent in January 1972 and in 1990 he was given the added title Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Nepal Army. Two years later he was appointed chairman of the Council of Royal Representatives responsible for looking after affairs of state during the king's absence. Born on 27 June 1971, he was the eldest son of King Birendra and Queen Aishwarya [07 Nov 1949 – 01 Jun 2001]. Educated at schools in Kathmandu, he later followed in his father's footsteps by attending Eton College in England. At university in the Nepali capital Dipendra gained a first class BA degree and an MA in geography. Following his studies he trained at the Royal Nepal Military Academy, and, like his father, gained a licence to fly a helicopter. He had been patron of the Nepal Sports Council since 1992 and had travelled widely in both Asia and Europe. In his first ever interview in 1993, given to The Rising Nepal and Gorkhapatra newspapers, he said: "As long as everybody works according to the constitution and stays within the laws of the land, I don't think there will be any problem." His hobbies were flying helicopters, swimming, squash, listening to Nepali folk songs and modern and classical western music, playing the electronic piano and guitar at the royal palace and reading poetry
    Nepal royals in 1990
    [<  1990 photo. From left to right are King Birendra, Queen Aishwarya, Prince Nirajan, Princess Sruti Dipendra, and heir to the throne Prince Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev]


         A soft-spoken man with glasses and a moustache, King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev was 10th in his line to rule Nepal and considered an incarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu. King Birendra had won popularity with his people when he bowed to mass protests led by centrist and leftist parties and promulgated a new constitution in 1990. The new constitution turned the world's only Hindu king into a British-style monarch and handed over power to a multi-party parliament. Though his new role gave him more time for his hobbies such as painting and riding, King Birendra continued to wield considerable influence in the Himalayan kingdom. Weaker Nepali governments depended on him for support and he retained under the new constitution the right to name a prime minister in the event of a hung parliament. Born in Kathmandu on 28 December 1945, he was the first of Nepal's monarchs to get a formal education. After eight years at a Jesuit school in Darjeeling, India, he attended England's prestigious Eton College between 1959 and 1964. Later he studied briefly at the University of Tokyo and spent a year at Harvard where he studied political theory. Two years after returning from the United States, he married Queen Aishwarya Rajya Laxmi Devi Shah in 1970. Crown Prince Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev was born in June 1971. Birendra ascended the throne in 1972 at the age of 26, but as a teenager his father conferred on him the title of Grand Master and Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Nepalese Army. He was a keen conservationist and was the patron of the King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation.
    2001 20 Israelis and a Palestinian suicide bomber in Tel Aviv, at about 23:00 outside the Dolphinarium disco, on the beachside walkway Herbert Samuel Esplanade, near its southern end, when a suicide bomber from Islamic Jihad, mingling with those waiting to get in, detonates the explosives strapped around his waist. At least 86 are injured. The al-Aqsa intifada body count stands at 484 Palestinians and 104 Israelis, including 24 settlers of enclaves on Palestinian land.
    Here's a list of some of the largest bomb attacks since Israel-Palestinian peace accord was signed in 1993:
    April 6, 1994 - Palestinian parks car rigged with explosives next to bus in Afula, in northern Israel. Nine Israelis killed. Militant Muslim group Hamas claims responsibility.
    Oct. 19, 1994 - Palestinian suicide bomber kills 22 Israelis in bus explosion in Tel Aviv. Hamas claims responsibility.
    Jan. 22, 1995 -Two Palestinians blow themselves up at the Beit Lid junction in central Israel, killing 21 Israelis. Islamic Jihad claims responsibility.
    April 9, 1995 -Two Palestinians blow themselves up outside two Jewish settlements in the Gaza Strip, killing seven Israeli soldiers and an American. Hamas and Islamic Jihad claim responsibility.
    Feb. 25, 1996-Palestinian suicide bombers blow up bus in Jerusalem and soldiers' hitchhiking post in coastal city of Ashkelon, killing 24 Israelis, two Americans and a Palestinian. Hamas claims responsibility.
    March 3, 1996 - Bus bomb in Jerusalem kills at least 18 people, including six Romanians and two Palestinians. Hamas claimed responsibility. March 4, 1996 - Suicide bomber blows himself up outside a Tel Aviv shopping center, killing at least 14 people.
    July 30, 1997 - Two bombers kill themselves and 15 others in an outdoor Jerusalem market. Leaflet signed by Hamas' military wing claims responsibility.
     Hutari     Hamas man from Qalqilyah bombed disco By Daniel Sobelman and Amos Harel Ha'aretz Correspondents and Agencies The Dolphi-Disco suicide bomber was Sa'id Hutari, 22, from Qalqilyah refugee camp in the West Bank, according to a statement Hamas released yesterday. The radical Islamic movement said Hutari was a Hamas supporter, but it did not take responsibility for the terrorist attack that left 19 people dead. The Hamas statement said Hutari had attended prayer services at the Ali ben Abu Taleb mosque in Qalqilyah and had also joined religious classes there. Palestinian Authority security sources said Hutari, whose family lives in Jordan, had been a sergeant in the Jordanian army. He moved to Qalqilyah with his brother about two years ago, leaving the rest of his family in Jordan. According to the PA sources, Hutari was arrested and held for 12 days by Palestinian security forces two months ago following a suicide bomb attack in March that killed two Israeli youths and wounded four. That attack, in Neveh Yamin, was carried out by a friend of Hutari's, Fadi Atallah. Hezbollah television station, Al-Manar, reported last night that the military wing of Hamas, Az a Din al Kassam, had taken responsibility for Friday's suicide bombing. In an interview with Abu Dhabi television yesterday, Hutari's father Hassan said he did not regret his son's action, adding that Sa'id's bravery would be remembered by Palestinians. "If I had 20 children, I would send them to commit suicide in Israel and kill Israelis," he said. Israeli security sources said they had numerous reports about preparations for more terror attacks by Hamas.
     Nkosi, 9 July 2000    . Abu Dhabi television identified the attacker as Said Hassan Hotari from the West Bank town of Qalqilya. Relatives there said the family moved to Jordan, but Hotari, in his early 20s, lived with an uncle in Qalqilya for the last two years, and was a close friend of a suicide bomber who blew himself up on March 28, killing two Israeli children.


    2001 Xolani Nkosi Johnson, 12, of AIDS in his sleep at 05:40, in Johannesburg, South Africa. AIDS activist, Nkosi had been critically ill since December 2000. He was HIV-positive since birth.
    [photo: Nkosi speaks during the opening of the 13th International Aids Conferrence in Durban, 09 July 2000 >]
    Nkosi was born on 04 February 1989, with the virus that causes AIDS. His mother could not afford to bring him up, and White woman Gail Johnson became his foster mother when he was 2. Nkosi's mother died of AIDS-related diseases in 1997. In 1997, Gail and Nkosi successfully battled to force a public primary school to admit him despite his infection. The fight led to a policy forbidding schools from discriminating against HIV-positive children, and to guidelines for how schools should treat infected pupils.

    1997 Betty Shabazz
    , widow of Malcolm X, fatally burned in a fire set by her 12-year-old grandson in her Yonkers, N.Y., apartment.
    1994 Juan José Hernández Rovira, de 58 años, general de brigada, asesinado en Madrid por ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna].
    1994 Joaquín Pérez Villanueva, historiador y académico español.
    1989 Edward James McShane, US mathematician born on 10 May 1904. Author of Integration (1944), Order preserving maps and integration processes (1953), Stochastic calculus and stochastic models (1974), Unified integration (1983).
    1987 Rashid Karami, 65, Lebanon, 10 times PM of Lebanon
    1987 Errol W Barrow, 67, PM of Barbados (1961-1976)
    Helen Keller and Ann Sullivan, 1895^ 1968 Helen Keller, 87, blind and deaf celebrity.
         Helen Keller dies in Westport, Connecticut. Blind and deaf from infancy, Keller circumvented her disabilities to become a world-renowned writer and lecturer. Helen Adams Keller was born on June 27, 1880, on a farm near Tuscumbia, Alabama. A normal infant, she was stricken with an illness at 19 months, probably scarlet fever, which left her blind and deaf. For the next four years, she lived at home, a mute and unruly child. Special education for the blind and deaf was just beginning at the time, and it was not until after Helen's sixth birthday that her parents had her examined by an eye physician interested in the blind. He referred the Kellers to Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor of the telephone and a pioneer in teaching speech to the deaf. Bell examined Helen and arranged to have a teacher sent for her from the Perkins Institution for the Blind in Boston. The teacher, 20-year-old Anne Sullivan, was partially blind. At Perkins, she had been instructed how to teach a blind and deaf student to communicate using a hand alphabet signaled by touch into the student's palm.
          Sullivan arrived in Tuscumbia in March 1887 and immediately set about teaching this form of sign language to Helen. Although she had no knowledge of written language and only the haziest recollection of spoken language, Helen learned her first word within days: "water." Keller later described the experience: "I knew then that 'w-a-t-e-r' meant the wonderful cool something that was flowing over my hand. That living word awakened my soul, gave it light, hope, joy, set it free."
          Under Sullivan's dedicated guidance, Keller learned at a staggering rate. By April, her vocabulary was growing by more than a dozen words a day, and in May she began to read and arrange sentences using raised words on cardboard. By the end of the month, she was reading complete stories. One year later, the seven-year-old Keller made her first visit to the Perkins Institution, where she learned to read Braille. She spent several winters there and in 1890 was taught to speak by Sarah Fuller of the Horace Mann School for the Deaf. Keller learned to imitate the position of Fuller's lips and tongue in speech, and how to lip-read by placing her fingers on the lips and throat of the speaker. In speaking, she usually required an interpreter, such as Sullivan, who was familiar with her sounds and could translate. When she was 14, Keller entered the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf in New York City. Two years later, with Sullivan at her side and spelling into her hand, she enrolled at the Cambridge School for Young Ladies in Massachusetts.
          In 1900, she was accepted into Radcliffe, a prestigious women's college in Cambridge with classes taught by Harvard University faculty. She was a determined and brilliant student, and while still at Radcliffe her first autobiography, The Story of My Life, was published serially in The Ladies Home Journal and then as a book. In 1904, she graduated cum laude from Radcliffe. Keller became an accomplished writer, publishing, among other books, The World I Live In (1908), Out of the Dark (1913), My Religion (1927), Helen Keller's Journal (1938), and Teacher (1955).
          In 1913, she began lecturing, with the aid of an interpreter, primarily on behalf of the American Foundation for the Blind. Her lecture tours took her several times around the world, and she did much to remove the stigmas and ignorance surrounding sight and hearing disorders, which historically had often resulted in the committal of the blind and deaf to asylums. Helen Keller was also outspoken in other areas and supported socialism all her life. For her work on behalf of the blind and the deaf, she was widely honored and in 1964 was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor, by President Lyndon B. Johnson. "My life has been happy because I have had wonderful friends and plenty of interesting work to do," Helen Keller once wrote, adding, "I seldom think about my limitations, and they never make me sad. Perhaps there is just a touch of yearning at times, but it is vague, like a breeze among flowers. The wind passes, and the flowers are content."
         In infancy, scarlet fever had left her blind, deaf, and (consequently) mute. Her parents appealed to Alexander Graham Bell for help and he referred them to a semi-blind teacher, Anne Sullivan, who taught Helen to speak with an alphabet communicated by touch. Helen Keller graduated cum laude from Radcliffe and gained international recognition as a writer and teacher.
         Ann Sullivan was born on 14 April 1866 in Feeding Hills, Mass. of Irish immigrant parents. Her mother Alice Cloesy was a caring woman who died of tuberculosis when Annie was eight. Of the three children Annie was left at home with her shiftless and ill-tempered father, while the other two were taken by relatives. Throughout her youth, Annie's eyes continued to weaken from trachoma she had contracted early in life.
         Of her arrival on 03 March 1887 at Helen Keller's home, she later wrote:
         “...It was 6:30 when I reached Tuscumbia. I found Mrs. Keller and Mr. James Keller waiting for me. ... My first question was, "Where is Helen?" ... I had scarcely put my foot on the steps, when she rushed toward me with such force that she would have thrown me backward if Captain Keller had not been behind me. She felt my face and dress and my bag, which she took out of my hand and tried to open. It did not open easily, and she felt carefully to see if there was a keyhole. Finding that there was, she turned to me, making the sign of turning a key and pointing to the bag. ...”
         Helen (born on 27 June 1880) was deaf and blind since the age of 19 months. Early on Annie realized that to work with Helen she would need to be the main conduct for information and discipline, so she and Helen moved into a cottage in the Keller property. Ann Sullivan taught Helen to make signs with her hand to spell words. It was some time until Helen understood those signs as concepts, the first one being "water".
         In a letter on 05 April 1887, Ann Sullivan wrote: “... something very important has happened. Helen has taken the second great step in her education. She has learned that everything has a name, and that the manual alphabet is the key to everything she wants to know. ... This morning, while she was washing, she wanted to know the name for "water." When she wants to know the name of anything, she points to it and pats my hand. I spelled "w-a-t-e-r" and thought no more about it until after breakfast. Then ... we went out to the pump-house, and I made Helen hold her mug under the spout while I pumped. As the cold water gushed forth, filling the mug, I spelled "w-a-t-e-r" in Helen's free hand. The word coming so close upon the sensation of cold water rushing over her hand seemed to startle her. She dropped the mug and stood as one transfixed. A new light came into her face. She spelled "water" several times. Then she dropped on the ground and asked for its name and pointed to the pump ..., and suddenly turning round she asked for my name. I spelled "Teacher." Just then the nurse brought Helen's little sister into the pump-house, and Helen spelled "baby" and pointed to the nurse. All the way back to the house she was highly excited, and learned the name of every object she touched, so that in a few hours she had added thirty new words to her vocabulary.” [on 1 April Helen knew 29 words in all]
        Helen Keller wrote about that day:
         “We walked down the path to the well-house .... Some one was drawing water and my teacher placed my hand under the spout. As the cool stream gushed over one hand she spelled into the other the word water, first slowly, then rapidly. I stood still, my whole attention fixed upon the motions of her fingers. Suddenly I felt a misty consciousness as of something forgotten—a thrill of returning thought; and somehow the mystery of language was revealed to me. I knew then that "w-a-t-e-r" meant the wonderful cool something that was flowing over my hand. That living word awakened my soul, gave it light, hope, joy, set it free! ... I left the well-house eager to learn. Everything had a name, and each name gave birth to a new thought.”
         As Helen progressed Annie's eyes continued to worsen. Helen began to write in 1902, and published her The Story of My Life. (Keller online)
         In 1927 Neela Braddy met Annie to write her biography. Annie told Neels the story of Terksbury and of her childhood, something she had kept from Helen for a long time. This biography Anne Sullivan was published in 1933.
          Ann Sullivan died on 20 October 1936 in Forest Hill NY.
          In June 1960, a fountain was dedicated at Radcliffe College in memory of Ann Sullivan. At the dedication Helen Keller said one word "Water".
    [photo: Helen Keller and Ann Sullivan, 1895 >]
    Some relevant links: Ann Sullivan reads a book to Helen KellerLife of Helen KellerLife of Ann SullivanHelen Keller's Home PageBooks by Helen Keller about educationTime Line of Helen KellerA Starter Course on Helen Keller
    1947 David Enskog, Swedish mathematician born on 22 April 1884.
    ^ 1946 Ion Antonescu, former Romanian dictator, executed for war crimes
          The pro-Nazi dictator of Romania during World War II is executed in Bucharest for his crimes against humanity.
          After World War I, Antonescu [15 Jun 1882–] served as military attaché in Paris and in London and, in 1934, as chief of the Romanian general staff. Named minister of defense in 1937, he retained office with the establishment of King Carol II's corporatist dictatorship (1938), but only for a few weeks until he was fired by King Carol II [15 Oct 1893 – 04 Apr 1953] because of his suspected intrigues with the Iron Guard, an illegal right-wing party that imitated the Nazis in both ideology and methods. However, after the Munich Pact was signed (30 Sep 1938) --considered an abandonment of Romania by its Western allies from World War I -- followed by the Nazi-Soviet Pact {23 Aug 1939), which ceded portions of Romania to the USSR, the country fell into violent turmoil.
          In 1940, Antonescu seized power and forced King Carol II to abdicate, and in November, troops of the legalized Iron Guard massacred over sixty aides of the exiled king, including Nicolae Iorga [18 Jun 1871 – 28 Nov 1940], a former minister and acclaimed historian. General Antonescu established a dictatorship with Hitler's approval, killing, exiling, or imprisoning most of his former political opposition while allowing the Nazis full control over Romania’s economy, foreign policy, and Jewish population.
          However, Romanian resistance against the Iron Guard and Nazi occupation persisted during the war, and on 23 August 1944, a massive revolt in the Romanian capital of Bucharest, 1944 led by King Michael [25 Oct 1921~], toppled Antonescu’s government, and the dictator himself was arrested. One week later, Soviet forces captured the city without firing a shot. After the war, Antonescu was tried and convicted for his crimes against humanity, and on 01 June 1946, he is executed in Bucharest.
    1943 Leslie Howard, actor, and all others aboard a civilian flight from Lisbon to London shot down by the Germans during World War II.
    1943 Michel Gaston Vuillequez [11 Mar 1924–], in Cologne, Germany, having been deported from France, where he was born at Lac-ou-Villers (Doubs).
    1941 Hugh Seymour Walpole, English novelist born on 13 March 1884. — Hugh Walpole (800x673pix, 144kb) sloppy portrait by Walter Richard Sickert [31 May 1860 – 22 Jan 1942]. — (060530)
    1941 Kurt Hensel, German mathematician born on 29 December 1861. He invented the p-adic numbers in 1897.
    1936 Francisco Grandmontagne, escritor español — [¿sobre qué escribía? ¿alpinismo?].
    1930 (02 Jun ?) Julius Mordecai Pinkas “Jules Pascin”, Bulgarian French Expressionist painter born on 31 March 1885. — MORE ON “PASCIN” AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1921: 21 Whites and 60 Blacks in race riot, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
    1915 John White Alexander, US painter and illustrator born on 07 October 1856. — MORE ON ALEXANDER AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1868 James Buchanan, the 15th president of the United States, near Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
    1867 Karl Georg Christian von Staudt, German mathematician born on 24 January 1798.
    1864 Solomon George Washington Dill, poor White ally of Blacks, assassinated in his home by White terrorists in SC
    ^ 1862 More than 5000 Yanks and 6000 Rebs in the 2-day Battle of Seven Pines.
          This US Civil War battle, also called Battle of Fair Oaks, which began the previous day, now concludes indecisively, ending the first phase of the Peninsular Campaign. 10 km east of the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia, the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Major General George B. McClellan [03 Dec 1826 – 29 Oct 1885] repulsed the attacks of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia commanded by General Joseph E. Johnston [03 Feb 1807 – 21 Mar 1891], who was severely wounded in the first day of fighting and is replaced on this day 01 June 1862 by General Robert E. Lee [19 Jan 1807 – 12 Oct 1870].
          The Peninsular Campaign was a large-scale but ultimately unsuccessful Union effort to capture t Richmond, by way of the peninsula formed by the York and the James rivers. On 04 April 1862 Federal supplies and 100'000 soldiers were disembarked at Fort Monroe under McClellan.
         The second phase of the campaign is three weeks of inactivity following the Battle of Seven Pines.
         The third and final phase would end triumphantly for Lee, when his troops force the withdrawal of the Federal Army of the Potomac after the Seven Days' Battles (25 June 1862 to 01 July 1862).
    1860 José María Dionisio Melo y Ortiz, general y político colombiano.
    1846 Gregorio XVI, papa
    1841 Sir David Wilkie, Scottish painter and etcher born on 18 November 1785. — MORE ON WILKIE AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    ^ Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
    1794 (13 prairial an II):
    PIEDFORT Jacques Joseph, 25 ans, célibataire, né à Reclinghem, (St Omer), à Arras
    CAUDRILLIER Pierre Nicolas, ancien palfrenier des gardes du tyran roi, domicilié à Versailles (Seine et Oise), comme émigré, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
    CAMUS Jean, journalier, domicilié à Martigué-der-Chaux (Ille-et-Vilaine), comme brigand de la Vendée, par la commission militaire séante à Laval.
    MOULAU Louis (dit Laretry), domicilié à Laval (Mayenne), par la commission révolutionnaire de Laval.

    Domiciliés dans le département du Gard, comme fédéralistes, par le tribunal criminel dudit département:
    BREST Louis, homme de loi et juge au tribunal du district de Sommière, domicilié à Nismes.
    CHAS (dit Castor), fabricant et officier municipal domicilié à Nismes.
    PEYRON Antoine, homme de loi, juge du tribunal du district, domicilié à Baucaire.

    Par le tribunal révolutionnaire séant à Cambray (Nord):
    DESMOULINS Jean Baptiste, cultivateur, comme convaincu d'avoir fourni des vivres à l'ennemi.
    RAIMOND Menismer, cultivateur, domicilié à Cambray, comme ayant adressé un placet à Colourg pour le succès de ses armes.
    Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
    AUGER Jean, 23 ans, brigadier-fourrier dans le 8e régiment d'hussards, né et domicilié à Paris, convaincu d'être complice d'une conspiration contre la liberté du peuple français, soit en cachant du numéraire dans la terre, soit en entretenant des intelligences avec les ennemis de l'extérieur.
    BELLET Thomas Auguste, 37 ans, né à Paris, ex audiencier de la chambre des compte de Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir caché du numéraire pour le soustraire au recherches de la nation, à l'effet de le réserver aux ennemis de d'avoir tenu des propos contre la révolution.
    SERIGNY Jacques, ex curé de Famigny, 53 ans, né et domicilié à Bouillant (Côte-d'Or), comme contre-révolutionnaire ayant dit que la nation ne gagnerait jamais, que les nobles et le clergé rentreraient bientôt dans leurs droits, et que s'il ne tenait qu'à lui et à sa servante, il ferait couper le cou à la Convention.
         ... comme conspirateurs:
    BERTIER Etienne, 43 ans, né à Besançon, fondeur et doreur, domicilié à Dijon (Côte-d'Or), comme conspirateur.
    LEVASSEUR Jean, ex curé de Saumont-la-Patrie, 38 ans, né à Trillie (Seine Inférieure), domicilié à Gournay, même département.
    MILLIN Jérôme Robert, (dit Duperreux), ex administrateur des loteries, 62 ans, né à Nevers (Nièvre), domicilié au Perreux (Seine).
               ... domiciliés à Paris:
    BOISMARIE Louis, instituteur, 23 ans, né à Longwy (Orne). — BRILLE Louis Martin, marchand de journaux.
    CHAUVEREAU François Mar., 37 and, né à Tours (Indre et Loire), commis marchand.
    DUBREUIL Gilbert, 49 ans, né à Muetz (Creuze), valet de chambre de Gilbert de Voisin.
    MEGARD Jacques Adrien, agent de Torelly, napolitain, 26 ans, né à Rathieville (Seine Inférieure).
                    ... et nés à Paris:
    BRILLON Alexandre, (dit St Cyr), 52 ans, ex maître de chambre des comptes de Paris.
    DUFOULEUR Jean François, 38 ans, notaire — GERMAIN Louis Joseph, marchand d'étoffes de soie, 38 ans

    1727 Cornelis Huysmans van Mechelen, Flemish painter baptized as an infant on 02 April 1648. — MORE ON HUYSMANS AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1660 Mary Barrett Dyer, hanged on Boston Common for being a Quaker and coming back to Boston from where she had been banished for being a Quaker.
     
    < 31 May 02 Jun >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 01 June:

    1953 David Berkowitz, who would grow up to be a murderer: “Son of Sam”.
    1945 Manuel Narvaez y Patiño, Spanish painter and printmaker. — link to an image.
    1932 Naguib Surur, Egyptian playwright, poet, actor and critic, who died on 24 October 1978.
    1926 Marilyn Monroe (Norma Jean Baker Mortenson) (actress: Gentleman Prefer Blondes, The Seven-Year Itch, Some Like It Hot, The Asphalt Jungle, Diamonds are a Girl's Best Friend, The Misfits; famous centerfold: Playboy [1952])
    1905 El periódico ABC, primer número como publicación diaria.
    1899 Edward Charles “Ted” Titchmarsh, English mathematician who died on 18 January 1963. All his work was in analysis. Author of Introduction to the Theory of Fourier Integrals (1937), The Zeta-Function of Riemann (1930), The Theory of the Riemann Zeta-Function (1951), The theory of functions (1932) Eigenfunction Expansions Associated with Second-Order Differential Equations (1958).
    1884 Eduard Helly, Jewish Austrian US mathematician who died on 28 November 1943. He worked on functional analysis and proved the Hahn-Banach theorem in 1912 fifteen years before Hahn [27 Sep 1879 – 24 Jul 1934] published essentially the same proof and 20 years before Banach [30 Mar 1892 – 31 Aug 1945] gave his new setting. Helly is remembered for Helly's theorem, published in 1923, which states that if there are given n convex subsets of a d-dimensional euclidean space with n > d+1 and if each collection of d + 1 of the subsets has a point in common then there is a common point of the n subsets.
    1880 Heinrich Nauen, German painter and printmaker who died on 26 November 1940.MORE ON NAUEN AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1869 Voting Machine patented by Thomas Edison.
    1868 Raimund Germela, Hungarian artist who died in 1945.
    1851 Isaac Peral y Caballero, inventor español del submarino.
    1851 Edwin Bailey Elliott, Oxford, England, mathematician who died on 21 July 1937.
    1815 Osip Ivanovich Somov, Russian applied mathematician who died on 26 April 1876.
    1801 Brigham Young (Mormon leader: led thousands across the wilderness to settle in over 300 US western towns; survived by 17 wives and 47 children)
    1796 Sadi Carnot, French physicist, best known for his theory of thermodynamics, and mathematician, who would die of cholera on 24 August 1832. He was the son of Lazare Carnot [13 May 1753 – 02 Aug 1823]
    1751 Janvier Antides, sabio relojero francés.
    1563 Robert Cecil Earl of Salisbury, English chief minister (1598-1625)
     
    Holidays China PR, Mongolia : Children's Festival Day / Kentucky-1792, Tennessee-1796 : Statehood Day / Kenya : Madaraka Day, a day to enjoy freedom
    Philadelphia : Elfreth's Alley Day-celebrates oldest US street / Samoa : Independence Day / Thailand : Visakha Puja / Tunisia : Victory Day/Constitution Day (1959) / Western Samoa : National Day

    Religious Observances Eastern Orthodox : All Saint's Day / Moslem-Uganda : Supreme Council Day / RC : BVM, Mediatrix of All Graces / Ang, Luth : Justin, martyr at Rome / Ang : first Book of Common Prayer / Santos Íñigo, Pablo, Simeón y Justino. Nuestra Señora de la Luz.
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “Conversation enriches the understanding, but solitude is the school of genius.”
    “Patience is the invention of dullards and sluggards.”
    — Grace Elizabeth King, US author [29 Nov 1852 – Jan 1932].
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    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4jun/h4jun01.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4jun/h4jun01.html
    http://www.geocities.com/hills4526/history/h4jun/h4jun01.html
    updated Wednesday 16-Dec-2009 18:05 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.9.20 Monday 02-Mar-2009 1:27 UT
    v.7.40 Friday 01-Jun-2007 1:38 UT
    v.6.51 Monday 12-Jun-2006 20:23 UT
    v.5.50 Thursday 02-Jun-2005 4:48 UT
    Tuesday 01-Feb-2005 10:55 UT

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