• Nepal's Crown Prince kills royal family... • Benedict Arnold's court martial... • Shcharansky charged with treason... • De Gaulle leads France again... • Romanian dictator executed for war crimes... • Blind deaf Keller dies... • US wants war against UK... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Coleridge's The Friend... • Linus's security blanket... • Chemical weapons to be destroyed... • US officials meet on Vietnam... • Viet vets support Nixon... • Death camps revealed... • Germans take Crete... • Counting machines used in Census... • Cadillac founder resigns...
a 01 June:
2010 The Pope's prayer intentions for June 2010:
General: Respect for Human Life — That every national and transnational institution may strive to guarantee respect for human life from conception to natural death.
Missionary: The Churches in Asia — That the Churches in Asia, which constitute a “little flock” among non-Christian populations, may know how to communicate the Gospel and give joyful witness to their adherence to Christ. —(091216)
2009 The Pope's prayer intentions for June 2009:
General: That international attention towards the poorer countries may give rise to more concrete help, in particular to relieve them of the crushing burden of foreign debt.
Mission: That the particular Churches operating in regions marked by violence may be sustained by the love and concrete closeness of all the Catholics in the world. —(090301)
2000 With about half an hour to spare, Texas Governor. George W. Bush blocked the scheduled execution of convicted killer Ricky McGinn so that possibly exculpatory DNA evidence could be reviewed. (The DNA tests failed to establish McGinn's innocence, and he was put to death by injection the following September.)
1999 It is discovered that 2^6'972'593 1 is a Mersenne prime (the 38th found).(Mersenne prime numbers are primes of the form 2^n 1, which requires n to be prime; and it is equivalent to [2^(n1)]x(2^n 1) being equal to the sum of its factors other than itself, i.e. a perfect number). They can all be found (with their date of discovery) at http://www.isthe.com/chongo/tech/math/prime/mersenne.html.
1995 El poeta José Hierro obtiene el IV Premio Iberoamericano de Poesía Reina Sofía.
1994 Meckler Media Corporation says that it will introduce MecklerWeb, an online combination yellow pages and shopping mall, in September 1994. Businesses pay a $25,000 fee to be listed in the directory
1991 Mount Pinatubo (Philippines) erupts for first time in 600 years.
1991 The United States and the Soviet Union resolved differences over the Conventional Forces in Europe treaty, clearing the way for a superpower summit.
1988 Finaliza en Moscú la cumbre Reagan-Gorbachov con la ratificación del acuerdo entre Estados Unidos y la URSS para la eliminación de misiles de alcance intermedio.
1986 As announced earlier in the year, AT&T shuts down its Net 1000. It had taken ten years and $1 million to develop, and was an early networking project that linked computers over telephone lines. The linked computers allowed companies to order from suppliers, monitor inventory at plants at different locations, take orders, and bill customers.
1978 Se aprueban los estatutos de preautonomía de Baleares, Canarias, Castilla y León y Extremadura.
1959 Constitution of Tunisia promulgated (National Day)
security blanket appears for the first time in Peanuts
Linus Van Pelt inspired the term "security blanket" with his classic pose. He is the intellectual of the gang, and flabbergasts his friends with his philosophical revelations and solutions to problems. He suffers abuse from his big sister, Lucy, and the unwanted attentions of Charlie Brown's little sister, Sally. He is a paradox: despite his age, he can put life into perspective while sucking his thumb. He knows the true meaning of Christmas while continuing to believe in the Great Pumpkin.
| 1947 In the US , the OPA, which issued WW II rationing
1945 Los aliados bombardean Osaka, la segunda ciudad del Japón, que queda arrasada.
1941 II Guerra Mundial: los ingleses entran en Bagdad.
1936 Mussolini proclaims King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, 66, Emperor of Ethiopia, which is made part of Italian East Africa shortly after having been annexed on 09 May 1936.
1924 La fábrica Ford de Detroit pone en el mercado el automóvil número 10 millones.
1907 -33º C, Sarmiento, Argentina (South American record)
1877 US troops authorized to pursue bandits into Mexico
1869 Las Cortes Constituyentes, establecidas tras la Revolución de 1868, aprueban una nueva Constitución para España.
1868 Texas constitutional convention meets in Austin
1864 Major Union attack at Cold Harbor, Virginia
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege on Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1862 Union suppresses publication of the newspaper, The Chicago Times
1862 Battle of Seven Pines (Fair Oaks), Virginia, started the previous day, concludes.
1861 first skirmish in the Civil War, Fairfax Court House, Virginia
1861 US and Confederacy simultaneously stop mail interchange
1855 US adventurer William Walker [08 May 1824 – 12 Sep 1860] starts his conquest of Nicaragua, which he will complete by the end of the year, become President of Nicaragua on 12 July 1856, reestablish slavery, fight off a coalition of Central American states until 01 May 1857, then, in order to avoid capture, surrender to the US Navy.
1845 Homing pigeon completes 11'000 km trip (Namibia-London) in 55 days
1843 It snows in Buffalo and Rochester NY and Cleveland Ohio
1843 Former slave Isabella Van Wagener [1797 – 26 Nov 1883] leaves New York City and takes the name “Sojourner Truth” to begin her career as a preacher and soon as an antislavery activist.
1813 The commander of the US frigate Chesapeake, Capt. James Lawrence, said, "Don't give up the ship" during a losing battle with a British frigate. This would become the US Navy's motto.
1796 Tennessee admitted as 16th US state
1794 Battle of the First of June, the first great naval engagement of the French Revolutionary Wars, fought between the French and the British in the Atlantic Ocean about 690 km west of the Breton island of Ouessant.
1792 Kentucky admitted as 15th US state
1789 first US congressional act becomes law (on administering oaths)
1533 Ana Bolena es coronada reina de Inglaterra.
1252 Alfonso X el Sabio es proclamado rey de Castilla y León.
1183 El rey de Castilla Alfonso VIII firma el Tratado de Fresno-Lavandera con Fernando II de León, por el que este último se comprometía a romper su alianza con los almohades y atacar sus plazas.
2006 Luis Albarran, 5, and his uncle Magno Albarran, 29, and mother Flora Albarran, 22, and their mother Emma Valdez, 46, and Emma's husband Alberto Covarrubias Sr., 56; and their sons Alberto Covarrubias Jr., 11, and David Covarrubias, 9; shot by criminal on parole Desmond Turner, 28, and James Stewart, 30, intent on robbing the Covarrubias home in the 500 block of North Hamilton Avenue, Indianapolis, Indiana, at 22:00 (03:00 UT on 02 June) as Flora Albarran (who, on that day, had moved from that home to an apartment) arrives to pick up her son. Stewart is arrested on 02 June 2006 and Turner on 03 June 2006. — (060604)
2005 General Akram Khakrizwal, and 26 others, including a suicide bomber, at 10:00 (05:30 UT) at the Abdul Rub Akhundzadar mosque in Kandahar, Afghanistan, during a fateha service for Maulvi Abdul Fayaz Akhondzada, a prominent anti-Talaban mullah murdered on 26 May 2005 (the mosque was renamed in his honor). Khakrizwal was the Kabul police chief. Some 50 persons are injured.
2002 Joseph Nanven Garba, Nigerian officer, pro-democracy coup plotter (29 Jul 1975), diplomat, born on 17 July 1943. Author of Diplomatic Soldiering (1987).
2001 (19 Jestha 2058) Nepal's Crown
Prince kills King Birendra, 55; his
wife Queen Aiswarya, 51; his brother Prince Nirajan,
22; his sister Princess Sruti Dipendra 24; the
eldest sister of King Birendra Princess Shanti Rajya Laxmi Devi
Singh, 60; the king's cousin Princess Shanri Jayanti Shah;
the king's sister Princess Sharada Shah; and her
husband Kumar Khadga Bikram Shah.
At 22:40, with an automatic rifle, Nepal's crown prince Dipendra [27 Jun 1971 – 04 Jun 2001] [< 19 Feb 1998 photo], shoots dead his parents the king and queen [8 Feb 1998 photo >] in a dispute over his choice of bride. The prince guns down six other family members before shooting himself, falling into a coma; he would die on 04 June. The king's youngest brother Prince Dhirendra, is critically wounded and would die on 04 June. Also wounded are : Princess Shruti's husband Kumar Gorakh Rana Bikram, Princess Komal Shah, wife of the king's brother Gyanendra and sister of the late Queen Aishwarya, the king's only surviving sister Princess Shoba, and the king's cousin Keytaki Chester
Dipendra had taken alcohol and smoked cigarettes laced with opium before he walked into the billiard room of the Narayanhiti Palace and gunned down King Birendra, Queen Aiswarya, his own brother and sister, an aunt and uncle and three others
The shootings of the revered royals were prompted by a dispute over the crown prince's marriage because his mother, the queen, objected to his choice of wife. The crown prince, educated at Britain's Eton College, was heir to the throne.
A helicopter was sent to Chitwan, 120 km southwest of Katmandu, to pick up Prince Gyanendra [07 Jul 1947~], the king's brother who is next in line to the throne, but has to turn back because of bad weather. The next afternoon Gyanendra arrives in Kathmandu and becomes Regent, for, though the Raj Parishad (State Council) declares Dipendra king, the announcement is made: "As the new king is in serious condition and being treated in the intensive care unit in hospital and unable to rule, Prince Gyanendra, middle brother of the late King Birendra, has been appointed regent." Gyanendra becomes king on 04 June 2001, after parricide matricide mass murderer suicide Dipendra dies.
[from left: Princess Shruti, King Birendra, Crown Prince Dependra, Queen Aiswarya, Prince Nirajan. Click on photo to enlarge >]
Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, born on 28 December 1945, was educated at St. Joseph's College (Darjeeling, India), Eton College (England), Tokyo University (1967), and Harvard University (1967–1968) and traveled extensively before acceding to the throne on the death of his father, King Mahendra [11 Jun 1920 – 21 Jan 1972].
Birendra continued the autocratic tradition of his father, who had dissolved the elected parliament in 1960 and banned political parties in the constitution of 1962; for a time, Birendra was one of the world's few remaining absolute monarchs. He managed to maintain Nepal's independence despite encroaching influences by India, China, and the Soviet Union. During his reign Nepal was opened up to extensive tourism.
Beginning early in 1990, a popular prodemocracy movement led to demonstrations that erupted into seven weeks of demonstrations and bloody clashes with the soldiers and police. On 06 April 1990 police fired at 200'000 demonstrators marching toward the royal palace. At least 72 persons died, according to officials, but more than 300 according to witnesses. Submitting to pressure, Birendra lifted the ban on political activity and on 09 November 1990, approved a new constitution that preserved his status as chief of state but provided for a multiparty parliamentary democracy, a separation of powers, and the protection of human rights. The king has since remained a figurehead much like the queen of England, appearing in ceremonies and addressing the Parliament once a year.
Birendra was crowned king on 24 February 1975. He was the latest monarch in the Shah dynasty, which has held the throne since the mid-1700s. Many Nepalis, especially illiterate farmers who comprise the bulk of this country's population of nearly 22 million, viewed the king as the reincarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu. Some 90% of Nepal's population is Hindu. Hundreds of people lined the streets of Katmandu on 29 December 2000 to greet King Birendra on his 55th birthday.
The shootings come at a time of major political instability in Nepal. Opposition parties have been demanding Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala's resignation for the government's alleged role in a bribery scandal and for not better quelling a Maoist insurgency. The country was shut down for three days earlier in the week by the opposition parties to press for the resignation. Parliament was stalled the entire winter session earlier in the year and street protests have been held regularly. http://www.nepalnews.com/
Dipendra was declared heir-apparent in January 1972 and in 1990 he was given the added title Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Nepal Army. Two years later he was appointed chairman of the Council of Royal Representatives responsible for looking after affairs of state during the king's absence. Born on 27 June 1971, he was the eldest son of King Birendra and Queen Aishwarya [07 Nov 1949 – 01 Jun 2001]. Educated at schools in Kathmandu, he later followed in his father's footsteps by attending Eton College in England. At university in the Nepali capital Dipendra gained a first class BA degree and an MA in geography. Following his studies he trained at the Royal Nepal Military Academy, and, like his father, gained a licence to fly a helicopter. He had been patron of the Nepal Sports Council since 1992 and had travelled widely in both Asia and Europe. In his first ever interview in 1993, given to The Rising Nepal and Gorkhapatra newspapers, he said: "As long as everybody works according to the constitution and stays within the laws of the land, I don't think there will be any problem." His hobbies were flying helicopters, swimming, squash, listening to Nepali folk songs and modern and classical western music, playing the electronic piano and guitar at the royal palace and reading poetry
[< 1990 photo. From left to right are King Birendra, Queen Aishwarya, Prince Nirajan, Princess Sruti Dipendra, and heir to the throne Prince Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev]
A soft-spoken man with glasses and a moustache, King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev was 10th in his line to rule Nepal and considered an incarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu. King Birendra had won popularity with his people when he bowed to mass protests led by centrist and leftist parties and promulgated a new constitution in 1990. The new constitution turned the world's only Hindu king into a British-style monarch and handed over power to a multi-party parliament. Though his new role gave him more time for his hobbies such as painting and riding, King Birendra continued to wield considerable influence in the Himalayan kingdom. Weaker Nepali governments depended on him for support and he retained under the new constitution the right to name a prime minister in the event of a hung parliament. Born in Kathmandu on 28 December 1945, he was the first of Nepal's monarchs to get a formal education. After eight years at a Jesuit school in Darjeeling, India, he attended England's prestigious Eton College between 1959 and 1964. Later he studied briefly at the University of Tokyo and spent a year at Harvard where he studied political theory. Two years after returning from the United States, he married Queen Aishwarya Rajya Laxmi Devi Shah in 1970. Crown Prince Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev was born in June 1971. Birendra ascended the throne in 1972 at the age of 26, but as a teenager his father conferred on him the title of Grand Master and Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Nepalese Army. He was a keen conservationist and was the patron of the King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation.
| 2001 20 Israelis and a Palestinian suicide bomber in Tel Aviv,
at about 23:00 outside the Dolphinarium disco, on the beachside walkway
Herbert Samuel Esplanade, near its southern end, when a suicide bomber from
Islamic Jihad, mingling with those waiting to get in, detonates the explosives
strapped around his waist. At least 86 are injured. The al-Aqsa intifada
body count stands at 484 Palestinians and 104 Israelis, including 24 settlers
of enclaves on Palestinian land.
Here's a list of some of the largest bomb attacks since Israel-Palestinian peace accord was signed in 1993:
April 6, 1994 - Palestinian parks car rigged with explosives next to bus in Afula, in northern Israel. Nine Israelis killed. Militant Muslim group Hamas claims responsibility.
Oct. 19, 1994 - Palestinian suicide bomber kills 22 Israelis in bus explosion in Tel Aviv. Hamas claims responsibility.
Jan. 22, 1995 -Two Palestinians blow themselves up at the Beit Lid junction in central Israel, killing 21 Israelis. Islamic Jihad claims responsibility.
April 9, 1995 -Two Palestinians blow themselves up outside two Jewish settlements in the Gaza Strip, killing seven Israeli soldiers and an American. Hamas and Islamic Jihad claim responsibility.
Feb. 25, 1996-Palestinian suicide bombers blow up bus in Jerusalem and soldiers' hitchhiking post in coastal city of Ashkelon, killing 24 Israelis, two Americans and a Palestinian. Hamas claims responsibility.
March 3, 1996 - Bus bomb in Jerusalem kills at least 18 people, including six Romanians and two Palestinians. Hamas claimed responsibility. March 4, 1996 - Suicide bomber blows himself up outside a Tel Aviv shopping center, killing at least 14 people.
July 30, 1997 - Two bombers kill themselves and 15 others in an outdoor Jerusalem market. Leaflet signed by Hamas' military wing claims responsibility.
Hamas man from Qalqilyah bombed disco By Daniel Sobelman and Amos Harel Ha'aretz Correspondents and Agencies The Dolphi-Disco suicide bomber was Sa'id Hutari, 22, from Qalqilyah refugee camp in the West Bank, according to a statement Hamas released yesterday. The radical Islamic movement said Hutari was a Hamas supporter, but it did not take responsibility for the terrorist attack that left 19 people dead. The Hamas statement said Hutari had attended prayer services at the Ali ben Abu Taleb mosque in Qalqilyah and had also joined religious classes there. Palestinian Authority security sources said Hutari, whose family lives in Jordan, had been a sergeant in the Jordanian army. He moved to Qalqilyah with his brother about two years ago, leaving the rest of his family in Jordan. According to the PA sources, Hutari was arrested and held for 12 days by Palestinian security forces two months ago following a suicide bomb attack in March that killed two Israeli youths and wounded four. That attack, in Neveh Yamin, was carried out by a friend of Hutari's, Fadi Atallah. Hezbollah television station, Al-Manar, reported last night that the military wing of Hamas, Az a Din al Kassam, had taken responsibility for Friday's suicide bombing. In an interview with Abu Dhabi television yesterday, Hutari's father Hassan said he did not regret his son's action, adding that Sa'id's bravery would be remembered by Palestinians. "If I had 20 children, I would send them to commit suicide in Israel and kill Israelis," he said. Israeli security sources said they had numerous reports about preparations for more terror attacks by Hamas.
. Abu Dhabi television identified the attacker as Said Hassan Hotari from the West Bank town of Qalqilya. Relatives there said the family moved to Jordan, but Hotari, in his early 20s, lived with an uncle in Qalqilya for the last two years, and was a close friend of a suicide bomber who blew himself up on March 28, killing two Israeli children.
2001 Xolani Nkosi Johnson, 12, of AIDS in his sleep at 05:40, in Johannesburg, South Africa. AIDS activist, Nkosi had been critically ill since December 2000. He was HIV-positive since birth.
[photo: Nkosi speaks during the opening of the 13th International Aids Conferrence in Durban, 09 July 2000 >]
Nkosi was born on 04 February 1989, with the virus that causes AIDS. His mother could not afford to bring him up, and White woman Gail Johnson became his foster mother when he was 2. Nkosi's mother died of AIDS-related diseases in 1997. In 1997, Gail and Nkosi successfully battled to force a public primary school to admit him despite his infection. The fight led to a policy forbidding schools from discriminating against HIV-positive children, and to guidelines for how schools should treat infected pupils.
1997 Betty Shabazz, widow of Malcolm X, fatally burned in a fire set by her 12-year-old grandson in her Yonkers, N.Y., apartment.
1994 Juan José Hernández Rovira, de 58 años, general de brigada, asesinado en Madrid por ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna].
1994 Joaquín Pérez Villanueva, historiador y académico español.
1989 Edward James McShane, US mathematician born on 10 May 1904. Author of Integration (1944), Order preserving maps and integration processes (1953), Stochastic calculus and stochastic models (1974), Unified integration (1983).
1987 Rashid Karami, 65, Lebanon, 10 times PM of Lebanon
1987 Errol W Barrow, 67, PM of Barbados (1961-1976)
1968 Helen Keller, 87, blind and deaf
Helen Keller dies in Westport, Connecticut. Blind and deaf from infancy, Keller circumvented her disabilities to become a world-renowned writer and lecturer. Helen Adams Keller was born on June 27, 1880, on a farm near Tuscumbia, Alabama. A normal infant, she was stricken with an illness at 19 months, probably scarlet fever, which left her blind and deaf. For the next four years, she lived at home, a mute and unruly child. Special education for the blind and deaf was just beginning at the time, and it was not until after Helen's sixth birthday that her parents had her examined by an eye physician interested in the blind. He referred the Kellers to Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor of the telephone and a pioneer in teaching speech to the deaf. Bell examined Helen and arranged to have a teacher sent for her from the Perkins Institution for the Blind in Boston. The teacher, 20-year-old Anne Sullivan, was partially blind. At Perkins, she had been instructed how to teach a blind and deaf student to communicate using a hand alphabet signaled by touch into the student's palm.
Sullivan arrived in Tuscumbia in March 1887 and immediately set about teaching this form of sign language to Helen. Although she had no knowledge of written language and only the haziest recollection of spoken language, Helen learned her first word within days: "water." Keller later described the experience: "I knew then that 'w-a-t-e-r' meant the wonderful cool something that was flowing over my hand. That living word awakened my soul, gave it light, hope, joy, set it free."
Under Sullivan's dedicated guidance, Keller learned at a staggering rate. By April, her vocabulary was growing by more than a dozen words a day, and in May she began to read and arrange sentences using raised words on cardboard. By the end of the month, she was reading complete stories. One year later, the seven-year-old Keller made her first visit to the Perkins Institution, where she learned to read Braille. She spent several winters there and in 1890 was taught to speak by Sarah Fuller of the Horace Mann School for the Deaf. Keller learned to imitate the position of Fuller's lips and tongue in speech, and how to lip-read by placing her fingers on the lips and throat of the speaker. In speaking, she usually required an interpreter, such as Sullivan, who was familiar with her sounds and could translate. When she was 14, Keller entered the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf in New York City. Two years later, with Sullivan at her side and spelling into her hand, she enrolled at the Cambridge School for Young Ladies in Massachusetts.
In 1900, she was accepted into Radcliffe, a prestigious women's college in Cambridge with classes taught by Harvard University faculty. She was a determined and brilliant student, and while still at Radcliffe her first autobiography, The Story of My Life, was published serially in The Ladies Home Journal and then as a book. In 1904, she graduated cum laude from Radcliffe. Keller became an accomplished writer, publishing, among other books, The World I Live In (1908), Out of the Dark (1913), My Religion (1927), Helen Keller's Journal (1938), and Teacher (1955).
In 1913, she began lecturing, with the aid of an interpreter, primarily on behalf of the American Foundation for the Blind. Her lecture tours took her several times around the world, and she did much to remove the stigmas and ignorance surrounding sight and hearing disorders, which historically had often resulted in the committal of the blind and deaf to asylums. Helen Keller was also outspoken in other areas and supported socialism all her life. For her work on behalf of the blind and the deaf, she was widely honored and in 1964 was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor, by President Lyndon B. Johnson. "My life has been happy because I have had wonderful friends and plenty of interesting work to do," Helen Keller once wrote, adding, "I seldom think about my limitations, and they never make me sad. Perhaps there is just a touch of yearning at times, but it is vague, like a breeze among flowers. The wind passes, and the flowers are content."
In infancy, scarlet fever had left her blind, deaf, and (consequently) mute. Her parents appealed to Alexander Graham Bell for help and he referred them to a semi-blind teacher, Anne Sullivan, who taught Helen to speak with an alphabet communicated by touch. Helen Keller graduated cum laude from Radcliffe and gained international recognition as a writer and teacher.
Ann Sullivan was born on 14 April 1866 in Feeding Hills, Mass. of Irish immigrant parents. Her mother Alice Cloesy was a caring woman who died of tuberculosis when Annie was eight. Of the three children Annie was left at home with her shiftless and ill-tempered father, while the other two were taken by relatives. Throughout her youth, Annie's eyes continued to weaken from trachoma she had contracted early in life.
Of her arrival on 03 March 1887 at Helen Keller's home, she later wrote:
...It was 6:30 when I reached Tuscumbia. I found Mrs. Keller and Mr. James Keller waiting for me. ... My first question was, "Where is Helen?" ... I had scarcely put my foot on the steps, when she rushed toward me with such force that she would have thrown me backward if Captain Keller had not been behind me. She felt my face and dress and my bag, which she took out of my hand and tried to open. It did not open easily, and she felt carefully to see if there was a keyhole. Finding that there was, she turned to me, making the sign of turning a key and pointing to the bag. ...
Helen (born on 27 June 1880) was deaf and blind since the age of 19 months. Early on Annie realized that to work with Helen she would need to be the main conduct for information and discipline, so she and Helen moved into a cottage in the Keller property. Ann Sullivan taught Helen to make signs with her hand to spell words. It was some time until Helen understood those signs as concepts, the first one being "water".
In a letter on 05 April 1887, Ann Sullivan wrote: ... something very important has happened. Helen has taken the second great step in her education. She has learned that everything has a name, and that the manual alphabet is the key to everything she wants to know. ... This morning, while she was washing, she wanted to know the name for "water." When she wants to know the name of anything, she points to it and pats my hand. I spelled "w-a-t-e-r" and thought no more about it until after breakfast. Then ... we went out to the pump-house, and I made Helen hold her mug under the spout while I pumped. As the cold water gushed forth, filling the mug, I spelled "w-a-t-e-r" in Helen's free hand. The word coming so close upon the sensation of cold water rushing over her hand seemed to startle her. She dropped the mug and stood as one transfixed. A new light came into her face. She spelled "water" several times. Then she dropped on the ground and asked for its name and pointed to the pump ..., and suddenly turning round she asked for my name. I spelled "Teacher." Just then the nurse brought Helen's little sister into the pump-house, and Helen spelled "baby" and pointed to the nurse. All the way back to the house she was highly excited, and learned the name of every object she touched, so that in a few hours she had added thirty new words to her vocabulary. [on 1 April Helen knew 29 words in all]
Helen Keller wrote about that day:
We walked down the path to the well-house .... Some one was drawing water and my teacher placed my hand under the spout. As the cool stream gushed over one hand she spelled into the other the word water, first slowly, then rapidly. I stood still, my whole attention fixed upon the motions of her fingers. Suddenly I felt a misty consciousness as of something forgottena thrill of returning thought; and somehow the mystery of language was revealed to me. I knew then that "w-a-t-e-r" meant the wonderful cool something that was flowing over my hand. That living word awakened my soul, gave it light, hope, joy, set it free! ... I left the well-house eager to learn. Everything had a name, and each name gave birth to a new thought.
As Helen progressed Annie's eyes continued to worsen. Helen began to write in 1902, and published her The Story of My Life. (Keller online)
In 1927 Neela Braddy met Annie to write her biography. Annie told Neels the story of Terksbury and of her childhood, something she had kept from Helen for a long time. This biography Anne Sullivan was published in 1933.
Ann Sullivan died on 20 October 1936 in Forest Hill NY.
In June 1960, a fountain was dedicated at Radcliffe College in memory of Ann Sullivan. At the dedication Helen Keller said one word "Water".
[photo: Helen Keller and Ann Sullivan, 1895 >]
Some relevant links: Ann Sullivan reads a book to Helen Keller Life of Helen Keller Life of Ann Sullivan Helen Keller's Home Page Books by Helen Keller about education Time Line of Helen Keller A Starter Course on Helen Keller
| 1947 David
Enskog, Swedish mathematician born on 22 April 1884.
1943 Michel Gaston Vuillequez [11 Mar 1924–], in Cologne, Germany, having been deported from France, where he was born at Lac-ou-Villers (Doubs).
1941 Hugh Seymour Walpole, English novelist born on 13 March 1884. — Hugh Walpole (800x673pix, 144kb) sloppy portrait by Walter Richard Sickert [31 May 1860 – 22 Jan 1942]. — (060530)
1941 Kurt Hensel, German mathematician born on 29 December 1861. He invented the p-adic numbers in 1897.
1936 Francisco Grandmontagne, escritor español [¿sobre qué escribía? ¿alpinismo?].
1930 (02 Jun ?) Julius Mordecai Pinkas “Jules Pascin”, Bulgarian French Expressionist painter born on 31 March 1885. MORE ON “PASCIN” AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1921: 21 Whites and 60 Blacks in race riot, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
1915 John White Alexander, US painter and illustrator born on 07 October 1856. MORE ON ALEXANDER AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1868 James Buchanan, the 15th president of the United States, near Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
1867 Karl Georg Christian von Staudt, German mathematician born on 24 January 1798.
1864 Solomon George Washington Dill, poor White ally of Blacks, assassinated in his home by White terrorists in SC
1846 Gregorio XVI, papa
1841 Sir David Wilkie, Scottish painter and etcher born on 18 November 1785. MORE ON WILKIE AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1660 Mary Barrett Dyer, hanged on Boston Common for being a Quaker and coming back to Boston from where she had been banished for being a Quaker.
1953 David Berkowitz, who would grow up to be a murderer: “Son of Sam”.
1945 Manuel Narvaez y Patiño, Spanish painter and printmaker. — link to an image.
1932 Naguib Surur, Egyptian playwright, poet, actor and critic, who died on 24 October 1978.
1926 Marilyn Monroe (Norma Jean Baker Mortenson) (actress: Gentleman Prefer Blondes, The Seven-Year Itch, Some Like It Hot, The Asphalt Jungle, Diamonds are a Girl's Best Friend, The Misfits; famous centerfold: Playboy )
1905 El periódico ABC, primer número como publicación diaria.
1899 Edward Charles “Ted” Titchmarsh, English mathematician who died on 18 January 1963. All his work was in analysis. Author of Introduction to the Theory of Fourier Integrals (1937), The Zeta-Function of Riemann (1930), The Theory of the Riemann Zeta-Function (1951), The theory of functions (1932) Eigenfunction Expansions Associated with Second-Order Differential Equations (1958).
1884 Eduard Helly, Jewish Austrian US mathematician who died on 28 November 1943. He worked on functional analysis and proved the Hahn-Banach theorem in 1912 fifteen years before Hahn [27 Sep 1879 – 24 Jul 1934] published essentially the same proof and 20 years before Banach [30 Mar 1892 – 31 Aug 1945] gave his new setting. Helly is remembered for Helly's theorem, published in 1923, which states that if there are given n convex subsets of a d-dimensional euclidean space with n > d+1 and if each collection of d + 1 of the subsets has a point in common then there is a common point of the n subsets.
1880 Heinrich Nauen, German painter and printmaker who died on 26 November 1940. MORE ON NAUEN AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1869 Voting Machine patented by Thomas Edison.
1868 Raimund Germela, Hungarian artist who died in 1945.
1851 Isaac Peral y Caballero, inventor español del submarino.
1851 Edwin Bailey Elliott, Oxford, England, mathematician who died on 21 July 1937.
1815 Osip Ivanovich Somov, Russian applied mathematician who died on 26 April 1876.
1801 Brigham Young (Mormon leader: led thousands across the wilderness to settle in over 300 US western towns; survived by 17 wives and 47 children)
1796 Sadi Carnot, French physicist, best known for his theory of thermodynamics, and mathematician, who would die of cholera on 24 August 1832. He was the son of Lazare Carnot [13 May 1753 – 02 Aug 1823]
1751 Janvier Antides, sabio relojero francés.
1563 Robert Cecil Earl of Salisbury, English chief minister (1598-1625)