a 30 July:
2003 The previous evening Pinnacle Systems (PCLE) announced results for the quarter and for the fiscal year ended on 30 June 2003. Sales are up about 40% over the year-ago periods, but the improvement in earnings is not as great as analysts expected. Consequently PCLE is downgraded by JP Morgan from Overweight to Neutral and by USB Piper Jaffray from Outperform to Market Perform. On the NASDAQ 25 million of the 63 million PCLE shares are traded, plunging from their previous close of $12.49 to an intraday low of $7.79 and closing at $7.82. They had been traded as low as $2.80 on 2001 and as high as $35.50 on 27 March 2000. [5~year price chart >]. PCLE is a supplier of video authoring, editing, storage, distribution and Internet streaming equipment for broadcasters, professionals, and consumers.
2002 Peace at last for the Congo?
In Pretoria, South Africa, President Paul Kagame of Rwanda and President Joseph Kabila of the Democratic Republic of Congo (capital Kinshasa) sign a peace agreement aimed at ending a devastating war which has killed about two million people. South Africa and the United Nations act as guarantors for a deal which optimists hope will mark the beginning of the end of the four-year-old war in Congo. Rwanda pledges to withdraw thousands of troops from eastern Congo, while Congo undertakes to help disarm Rwandan Hutu gunmen blamed for the slaughter of the Tutsi minority in Rwanda's 1994 genocide. It's a bright day for the African continent, says South African President Thabo Mbeki. Of the countries involved, Uganda, which backs the smaller MLC Congo rebel force, has already pulled out the majority of its soldiers under the 1999 Lusaka agreement. Among Kinshasa's backers, Namibia has withdrawn most of its soldiers. Kinshasa regards forces from Zimbabwe and Angola as guests of the government who will depart as soon as the latest peace accord is seen to be operating successfully. After the collapse of previous cease-fires the success of today's deal is uncertain. Kabila says that it re-affirms the often-violated Lusaka peace agreement. Mbeki says that Kabila has pledged to return to all-party, all-inclusive talks under the so-called Inter-Congolese dialogue on the country's future. The initial talks were abandoned in South Africa in April 2002 after Kabila struck a private deal with the MLC rebel group backed by Uganda. The Inter-Congolese dialogue seeks to create an all-party transitional government to prepare for elections.
The agreement calls for all Rwandan forces to pull out within 90 days and to provide a detailed program for doing this within five days. It also calls for the repatriation of former Rwandan soldiers opposed to their government and the Hutu gunmen within 90 days. But Christophe Hakizabera, leader of the Democratic Liberation Forces of Rwanda, an umbrella group representing Hutu forces in Congo, says: They must not try to force anything on us or it will be our legitimate right to resist. However a top Congolese rebel, Bizima Karaha, security chief of the Rwandan-backed Rally for Congolese Democracy, says, in Goma, Congo, that he believes that Kabila is likely to comply with the peace accord: For the first time, Kinshasa admits that they have been recruiting, training, and arming that Interahamwe [Hutu militia]. So we believe that this time, they will stop and will contribute to resolve that problem.
An additional 30 days are stipulated in the accord to verify that all parties have met their obligations. Kabila, Kagame and Mbeki will meet every 30 days to review progress.
On the second day of his third and last visit to Guatemala, Pope John Paul II canonizes missionary Brother Pedro de San José Bentancur [19 Mar 1626 25 Apr 1667] [image >].
Pedro de Betancur nació el 19 de marzo de 1626, y fue bautizado el 21 del mismo mes, en la parroquia San Pedro, en Chasna de Vilaflor, poblado de Tenerife, en las Islas Canarias, España.
Pedro fue hijo de Amador González y Ana García. La línea paterna desciende del caballero normando Maciot de Betancourt, señor de Lanzarote.
Don Amador cambia su apellido a Betancur, ya que la mayoría de los pobladores del lugar se apellidaban González, de allí que Pedro adquiere ese apellido.
Pasa su infancia entregado al pastoreo del rebaño de su padre. Muy pequeño estuvo un tiempo paralítico, por lo que ofrece hacer una visita a la ermita de San Amaro, a pocos kilómetros de Chasna, donde se curó en poco tiempo.
En los valles de la Escalona y en las playas del Médano encuentra un lugar propicio para meditar y hacer oración.
Después de la muerte de su padre, su mamá hace planes de matrimonio para él, pero desde el día en que escucha de un pariente suyo, fray Luis de Betancur, hablar de América, de sus selvas y de sus indios, sólo sueña con viajar a Honduras y entregarse a la evangelización de los nativos.
Pedro confía a una tía suya su inquietud de viajar a “las indias” y ella le aconseja seguir los dictados de su conciencia: “Debes salir al encuentro de Dios, como Pedro sobre las aguas”, le dice.
Estas palabras hacen que el joven tome la determinación de ir al Nuevo Mundo. Se dirige, al puerto de Santa Cruz de Tenerife, desde donde emprende su viaje a América. Antes de partir escribe una carta a su madre donde explica sus razones de que “Un amor mayor y un servicio más comprometido lo impulsan a dejarlo todo”.
Desembarca en La Habana en 1649, a la edad de 23 años. Dos años después sale hacia Honduras como mozo de abordo para pagar su pasaje. Durante su viaje padece de fiebres que hacen peligrar su vida, por lo que la tripulación decide dejarlo en la playa donde lo encuentra un pescador que le habla de Guatemala.
Al recuperarse sale a pie de Trujillo hacia Guatemala, y llega a Santiago de los Caballeros el 18 de febrero de 1651. Se cuenta que al entrar en la ciudad besa el suelo como agradecimiento; en ese momento se produce un fuerte temblor que interpretó como una señal del cielo.
En la ciudad de Santiago trabajó como tejedor en los telares de don Pedro de Almengor, de 1651 a 1653.
Estudió para sacerdote en el Colegio de la Compañía de Jesús hasta 1654, y el 08 Dec firma con su sangre el juramento de defender hasta con su propia vida la Inmaculada Concepción de María. Sin embargo, uno de los requisitos para ser sacerdote era hablar el latín, y tras reprobar un examen de dicha lengua fue rechazado.
| Al fracasar en su intento de ser sacerdote
ingresó a la orden terciaria de los franciscanos. Se retiró a vivir en la
iglesia El Calvario donde inició a la fundación de la Orden de Hermanos
El 14 Jan 1655, recibió el hábito exterior de Terciario, y se retira al Calvario donde ejerce el oficio de sacristán, lugar donde se dedica a la oración. El 24 febrero de 1658 compra la casa de María de Esquivel, por 40 pesos, que la convierte en sala de enfermería por la noche, y oratorio y escuela para niños pobres, de día.
A esta casa la bautiza con el nombre de Nuestra Señora de Belén, primera escuela gratuita de alfabetización de América Central, y primer hospital de convalecientes en las colonias de España en América.
El 18 de abril de 1667, el Hermano Pedro vuelve a padecer fiebres muy altas, que lo postran en cama. Su estado de salud se deteriora de tal forma que decide dictar su testamento, donde solicita ser enterrado en el convento de San Francisco.
Cuando tenía 41 años, el 25 Apr 1667, a las 14:00 en el Hospital de Belén, mirando un cuadro de San José exclamó: “Esta es mi Gloria”, y expiró.
Al morir deja su obra y su familia religiosa a cargo de Fray Rodrigo de la Cruz, Anteriormente Rodrigo Arias de Maldonado, Marques de Talamanca y exgobernador de Costa Rica, milagrosamente transformado por la vida y ejemplo del Hermano Pedro.
El 02 mayo de 1667, ocho días después de la muerte del Hermano Pedro, llega a Guatemala la Real Cédula, que doña Mariana de Austria, Reina Gobernadora, regente de Don Carlos II, había expedido el 10 de noviembre de 1666 otorgando la autorización para la fundación del Hospital de Belén.
Su legado El obispo Don Payo de Rivera, el 20 Aug 1667, aprueba las primeras constituciones de los hermanos seguidores de las obras. Con este acto nace jurídicamente la nueva orden de los Hermanos Betlemitas, autorizados los pronuncia como hermanos hospitalarios, el 25 de enero de 1668, y autoriza el uso del nuevo hábito; desde entonces comenzó a llamarse Compañía de Belén.
Las Madres Betlemitas fueron iniciadas en el obispado de Don Juan Ortega y Montañez por dos terciarias franciscanas, madre e hija, ambas viudas: Agustina Delgado y Mariana de Jesús, con aprobación de Fray Rodrigo de la Cruz.
El 25 de julio de 1771, el Papa Clemente XIV decretó que el Hermano Pedro había practicado las virtudes teologales y morales en grado heroico, declarándolo Venerable.
Tras un proceso de más de tres siglos fue beatificado el 22 junio de 1980, y canonizado el 30 julio de 2002.
| 2000 President Hugo Chávez of Venezuela wins
a new six-year term in a landslide re-election.
1996 A US federal law enforcement source says that security guard Richard Jewell has become a focus of the investigation into the bombing at Centennial Olympic Park. (Jewell would be cleared as a suspect by the Justice Department, after months of the misdirected investigation which let the real culprit go undetected and irresponsibly ruined Jewell's reputation and career.)
1991 US President Bush (Sr.) and Soviet President Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev began their face-to-face meetings in Moscow.
1989 The Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls agrees to relax restrictions on the export of computers like the IBM PS/2 Model 30 and the Apple Macintosh Plus to Soviet bloc countries.
1987 Tres mil soldados indios desembarcan en Ceilán para imponer el alto el fuego a los guerrilleros tamiles y a las fuerzas del Gobierno de Colombo, según el acuerdo firmado entre Rajiv Gandhi y el presidente cingalés, Junius Jayewardene.
| 1984 Alvenus tanker at Cameron, Louisiana, spills 2.8
million gallons of oil .
1984 Mobutu Sese Seko es reelegido nuevamente Presidente de Zaire.
1983 Entra en vigor en España la ley de las 40 horas semanales de trabajo y 30 días de vacaciones al año.
1980 British New Hebrides becomes independent & takes name Vanuatu
1976 El rey Juan Carlos I decreta una amnistía política en España que afecta a 500 personas encarceladas por su ideología.
| 1973 Watergate: H.R. Haldeman testifies before the Senate
Committee. He denies participation in the cover-up and denies that the President
knew of the cover-up, but admits approving money for "dirty tricks".
1967 General William Westmoreland claims that he is winning the war in Vietnam but needs more men
1965 US President Lyndon Johnson signed into law the Medicare bill, which went into effect the following year.
1957 Gran Bretaña concede la autonomía a Nigeria.
1956 By an act of Congress, signed by President Eisenhower, 'In God We Trust' becomes the official US motto.
| 1940 A bombing lull ends the first phase of the Battle
1931 El Congreso de los Diputados ratifica los poderes del Gobierno provisional de la República española para que prosiga su labor hasta la constitución definitiva del Estado.
1928 George Eastman demonstrates 1st color movie
1923 New Zealand claims Ross Dependency.
1919 Federal troops are called out to put down Chicago race riots.
1918 I Guerra Mundial: Finaliza la larga batalla del Marne, en la que vencen los aliados.
1915 I Guerra Mundial: Retirada rusa de la región polaca de Galitzia.
1913 Conclusion of the 2nd Balkan War.
1910 El Gobierno español, presidido por José Canalejas, suspende sus relaciones diplomáticas con el Vaticano.
1909 US Army accepts delivery of 1st military airplane
1908 Around the World Autombile Race ends in Paris.
1907 Rusia y Japón firman un tratado sobre China, en el que garantizan la integridad del territorio y la libertad de comercio.
1906 Gabriel Lippmann presenta en la Academia de Ciencias de París un método para la reproducción fotográfica de los colores.
1905 El general Lapunov, jefe de las fuerzas rusas en la isla de Sajalín, se rinde a los japoneses.
1889 Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure The Naval Treaty
| 1887 Concluidos los trabajos de cimentación de la parisina
1864 Capture and burning of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania
1881 Firma en Pretoria de un convenio por el que Inglaterra otorga a los boers una República bajo protectorado británico en asuntos exteriores.
1864 Combat at Macon, Georgia on Stoneman's Raid
1863 US President Lincoln issues "eye-for-eye" order to shoot a Rebel prisoner for every Black prisoner shot by the Confederates.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1822 Pioneer church founder James Varick, 72, is consecrated the first bishop of theAfrican Methodist Episcopal Zion Church.
1808 José Bonaparte abandona Madrid precipitadamente al conocer la noticia de la victoria de las tropas españolas sobre las francesas en la Batalla de Bailén.
| 1799 The French garrison at Mantua, Italy surrenders
to the Austrians.
1762 Tropas inglesas ocupan el castillo del Morro, en La Habana, pese a la resistencia que ofrecieron los españoles.
1676 Nathaniel Bacon Jr., in rebellion against governor William Berkeley of colonial Virginia, issues his "Declaration of the People", stating that Berkeley is corrupt, plays favorites and protects the Indians for his own selfish purposes
2006 At least 54 persons, including 37 children, after two Israeli bombs at 01:00 (22:00 UT on 29 Jul) and 01:10 destroy the building in Qana, Lebanon, to which they, members of two extended families, had fled from smaller villages bombed and shelled by Israeli forces during their offensive (started on 12 July 2006) against Hezbollah, which has resulted to date in the deaths of some 750 Lebanese deaths and 30 Israeli soldiers; 18 civilians were killed in Israel by Hezbollah rockets. The Qana bombing left some injured survivors. 106 persons were killed by Israeli shelling in Qana on 18 April 1996. — (060731)
2005 All aboard a Ugandan presidential Mi-172 helicopter, including 1 unnamed person (possibly?), and South Sudanese John Garang de Mabior; and 5 bodyguards: Lt-Col. Ali Mayen Majok; Lt-Col. Amat Malwal; 1st Lt. Deng Majok Kuany; 1st Lt. Mayen Deng Mabior; and Oboki Obur Amaybek; and 7 Ugandans: pilot Col. Peter Nyakairu, co-pilot Capt. Paul Kiyimba, flight engineer Maj. Patrick Kiggundu; jet officer Lt. Johnson Munanura; signaler Corp. Hassan Kiiza of the Presidential Guards; stewardess Lillian Kanaije; protocol officer of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Samuel Bakowa; and (possibly) 3 other persons (on the ground if not aboard). Late in the evening, the helicopter crashes near the borders of Uganda, Kenya, and Sudan. Garang [23 Jun 1945–] was the leader of the rebel Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and president of South Sudan. Following a 09 January 2005 peace agreement he became first vice-president of Sudan on 09 July 2005. Garang's longtime deputy, Silva Kiir, succeeds him as head of the SPLM and as president of South Sudan. South Sudanese suspect foul play and would riot on 01-03 August 2005, resulting in 111 deaths and some 300 injuries. — (050810)
2005 Anthony Walker [21 Feb 1987–], Black, at 05:25 (04:25) in a hospital. He had been axed in the head, in a park near his home in Huyton, Liverpool, England, at 23:30 (22:30 UT) the previous evening, by Michael Barton,17, and Barton's cousin Paul Taylor, 20. — (051201)
2002 James Allen, 61, of heart attack suffered shortly after boarding a Boston commuter train which, despite passengers' pleas, made two scheduled stops before reaching, some 20 minutes later, a station where an ambulance was waiting. Allen dies 15 minutes after reaching the hospital.
2002 Suicide bomber, 17, Palestinian from Bethlehem, whose explosives detonate as, at about 13:00, after noticing policemen, he enters the Yemenite Felafel Stand on Hanevi'im Street in downtown Jerusalem. No one else is killed but give persons are injured. [felafel = fried chickpea patties]
2002 Shlomo Odesar, 60, and Mordechai Odesar, 50, Israelis brothers from the Tapuah enclave settlement, shot while selling diesel fuel to a cement factory in the Palestinian village of Jama'in, close to the West Bank enclave settlement of Ariel. While settlers in Jewish enclaves taken from Palestinian territory constitute some 3% of the Israeli population, they make up 20% of all Israeli fatalities since the 28 September 2000 start of the al-Aqsa intifada. Jama'in is in Area B, which is under Palestinian civilian administration and full Israeli security control. The military wing of the Fatah, the al-Aqsa Martyr's Brigade, took responsibility for the attack.
2002 Palestinian shot by an Israeli soldier and a security officer of the the Jewish enclave settlement Itamar, West Bank, where a married couple had just been injured, awakened in their bedroom at 03:00 by the Palestinian stabbing them with two knives.
2002 Anthony Stuckey, 49, and Jack Moore, 62, [smaller photo below] after being punched, kicked, and beaten by a half-dozen bystanders with bricks that came off the house (in the 3900 block of South Lake Park Avenue in the Oakland neigborhood of Chicago's South Side) into the stoop of which which their rental van [photo below] crashed at 18:35 after jumping a curb and hitting Shauna Lawrence, 26 (in critical condition as she ended up under the van, she would die on 05 August 2002), her cousin Jenny Lawrence, 18 (in fair condition), and Andrea Long, 17 (in fair condition), who have to be hospitalized. Stuckey [larger photo below] did not have a driver's license, Moore was driving, drunk. Among the possibly 20 murderers, charged with first-degree murder would be seven gang members: brothers Roosevelt Lawrence, 43, and Henry Lawrence, 47, relatives of Shauna and Jenny Lawrence; Ricky Lawson, 43; James Ousley, 31; Lamont Motes, 20; Robert Tucker, 20; and Antonio Fort, 16, charged as an adult.
driver Moore and passenger Stuckey
were pulled from this van
and beaten to death
1985 Julia Hall Bowman Robinson, US mathematician born on 08 December 1985. She worked on computability, decision problems and non-standard models of arithmetic.
1978 Rufus Bowen, Californian mathematician who died on 30 July 1978. He worked on dynamical systems.
1978 Umberto Nobile, general y aeronauta italiano.
1976 Rudolf Bultmann, 92, German Bible scholar and one of the three major pioneers of modern form 'criticism' (i.e., 'analysis') of the New Testament Gospels.
1971 Japanese Boeing 727 collides with an F-86 fighter killing 162
1968 Unas 70 personas por erupción del volcán Arenal en Costa Rica. Otras 90 personas desaparecen.
1967 Race riot in Milwaukee (4 killed)
| 1914 Jean Jaurès, leading socialist, assassinated
1899 Adolf Schreyer, German Academic painter specialized in Orientalism (more specifically: Arab cavalry), born on 09 July 1828. MORE ON SCHREYER AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1834 Diego Clemencin, periodista y político español.
^ 1771 Thomas Gray, of gout, English poet born on 26 December 1716. He is buried in the country churchyard in which he wrote an elegy (Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire).
Although Gray wrote only 49 poems, he was the dominant poet in mid-18th century Great Britain and a precursor of the Romantic movement.
[Appropriately in shades of gray: Gray's portrait, from an engraving after a painting by Benjamin Wilson >]
Born into a prosperous but unhappy home, Gray was the sole survivor of 12 children of a harsh and violentfather and a long-suffering mother, who operated a millinery business to educate him. A delicate, pensive, studious boy, he was sent to Eton in 1725 at the age of eight. There he formed a “Quadruple Alliance” with three other boys who liked poetry and classics and disliked rowdy sports and the Hogarthian manners of the period. They were Horace Walpole [24 Sep 1717 – 02 Mar 1797], the son of the prime minister Robert Walpole [26 Aug 1676 – 18 Mar 1745]; the precocious poet Richard West [1716 – 01 Jun 1742], who was closest to Gray; and Thomas Ashton [1716-1775]. The style of life Gray developed at Eton, devoted to quiet study, the pleasures of the imagination, and a few understanding friends, was to persist for the rest of his years.
In 1734 he entered Peterhouse College, Cambridge, where he began to write Latin verse of considerable merit. He left in 1738 without a degree and set out in 1739 with Walpole on a grand tour of France, Switzerland, and Italy at Sir Robert Walpole's expense.At first all went well, but in 1741 they quarreled, possibly over Gray's preferences for museums and scenery to Walpole's interest in lighter social pursuits, and Gray returned to England. They were reconciled in 1745 on Walpole's initiative and remained somewhat cooler friends for the rest of their lives.
In 1742 Gray settled at Cambridge. That same year West died, an event that affected him profoundly. Gray had begun to write English poems, among which some of the best were “Ode on the Spring,” “Sonnet on the Death of Mr. Richard West,” “Hymn to Adversity,” and “Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College.” They revealed his maturity, ease and felicity of expression, wistful melancholy, and the ability to phrase truisms in striking, quotable lines, such as “where ignorance is bliss, 'Tis folly to be wise.” The Eton ode was published in 1747 and again in 1748 along with “Ode on the Spring.” They attracted no attention.
It was not until “An Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard,” a poem long in the making, was published in 1751 that Gray was recognized. Its success was instantaneous and overwhelming. A dignified elegy in classical diction celebrating the graves of humble and unknown villagers was, in itself, a novelty. Its theme that the lives of the rich and poor alike “lead but to the grave” was already familiar, but Gray's treatment, which had the effect of suggesting that it was not only the “rude forefathers of the village” he was mourning but the death of all men and of the poet himself, gave the poem its universal appeal. Gray's newfound celebrity did not make the slightest difference in his habits. He remained at Peterhouse until 1756, when, outraged by a prank played on him by students, he moved to Pembroke College. He wrote two Pindaric odes, “The Progress of Poesy” and “The Bard,” published in 1757 by Walpole's Strawberry Hill Press. They were criticized, not without reason, for obscurity, and in disappointment, Gray virtually ceased to write. He buried himself in his studies of Celtic and Scandinavian antiquities and became increasingly retiring and hypochondriacal. In his last years his peace was disrupted by his friendship with a young Swiss nobleman, Charles Victor de Bonstetten [03 Sep 1745 – 03 Feb 1842], for whom he conceived a romantic devotion, the most profound emotional experience of his life.
All 49 Poems
Elegy Written in a Country Church-Yard (with other poems) ["The paths of glory lead but to the grave. ; "...where ignorance is bliss / 'Tis folly to be wise. ]
Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College
Sonnet on the Death of Mr Richard West
In vain to me the smiling mornings shine,
And redd'ning Phoebus lifts his golden fire:
The birds in vain their amorous descant join;
Or cheerful fields resume their green attire:
These ears, alas! for other notes repine,
A different object do these eyes require:
My lonely anguish melts no heart but mine;
And in my breast the imperfect joys expire.
Yet morning smiles the busy race to cheer,
And new-born pleasure brings to happier men:
The fields to all their wonted tribute bear;
To warm their little loves the birds complain:
I fruitless mourn to him that cannot hear,
And weep the more, because I weep in vain.
| Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard
Save that from yonder ivy-mantled tow'r
Beneath those rugged elms, that yew-tree's shade,
The breezy call of incense-breathing Morn,
For them no more the blazing hearth shall burn,
Oft did the harvest to their sickle yield,
Let not Ambition mock their useful toil,
The boast of heraldry, the pomp of pow'r,
Can storied urn or animated bust
Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid
But Knowledge to their eyes her ample page
Full many a gem of purest ray serene,
Some village-Hampden, that with dauntless breast
Th' applause of list'ning senates to command,
Their lot forbade: nor circumscrib'd alone
The struggling pangs of conscious truth to hide,
Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife,
Their name, their years, spelt by th' unletter'd muse,
For who to dumb Forgetfulness a prey,
On some fond breast the parting soul relies,
For thee, who mindful of th' unhonour'd Dead
Haply some hoary-headed swain may say,
"There at the foot of yonder nodding beech
"Hard by yon wood, now smiling as in scorn,
"The next with dirges due in sad array
| 1762 William
Braikenridge, English Anglican clergyman and mathematician
born in 1700. He worked on geometry and discovered independently many of
the same results as Maclaurin
[Feb 1698 – 14 Jun 1746], including the Braikenridge-Maclaurin theorem:
If the sides of a polygon are
restricted so that they pass through fixed points and all the vertices except
one lie on fixed straight lines, the free vertex will describe a conic or
a straight line.|
1746 Francesco Trevisani, cavaliere romano, Italian Rococo Era painter born on 09 April or 17 April 1656. MORE ON TREVISANI AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1718 William Penn, 74, English Quaker and founder of American colony of Pennsylvania. Penn permitted in his colony all forms of public worship compatible with monotheism and religious liberty.
1608 Two Iroquois chiefs, by arquebus shots from Samuel de Champlain [03 Jul 1567 – 25 Dec 1635] during a battle agains some 200 Iroquois at Ticonderoga (now Crown Point, New York). Champlain had recently made alliances with enemies of the Iroquois, the Huron and the Algonquins. Iroquois hostility toward the French would last one hundred years. (050810)
1528 Jacopo d'Antonio de Negreto (or Negretti) Palma il Vecchio, Italian High Renaissance painter born in 1480. MORE ON PALMA AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
0579 Benedict I, Pope of unknown birth date.
1942 Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES) is created as part of the US Navy by a bill signed by President Franklin Roosevelt.
1940 Patricia Schroeder (Rep-D-Colo)
1924 William Gass Fargo, ND, novelist, philosopher (Omensetter's Luck)
1913 Alfonso López Michelsen, político liberal, novelista y ensayista colombiano.
1909 Juan Bosch Gaviño, escritor y político dominicano.
1909 Cyril Northcote Parkinson England, historian (Pursuit of Progress)
1898 Henry Moore, English Abstract sculptor who died on 31 August 1986. MORE ON MOORE AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1889 Vladimir Zworykin electronics engineer/inventor, father of TV.
1882 Julian Onderdonk, US artist who died in 1922.
1880 Robert Rutherford McCormick US, editor/publisher Chicago Tribune
1857 Thorsten Veblen US, economist (Theory of the Leisure Class-1899) VEBLEN ONLINE: The Engineers and the Price System (PDF) The Higher Learning in America: A Memorandum of the Conduct of Universities by Business Men An Inquiry into the Nature of Peace and the Terms of Its Perpetuation The Theory of Business Enterprise The Theory of the Leisure Class The Vested Interests and the Common Man
1853 Julian Falat, Polish painter who died on 19 (09?) July 1929. MORE ON FALAT AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1826 Achille Jean-Baptiste Zo, French artist who died on 03 March 1901.
1699 Giuseppe Marchesi il Sansone, Bolognese who died on 16 February 1771. — more with links to two images.
1581 Alonso Jerónimo de Salas Barbadillo, escritor español.
1511 Giorgio Vasari, Italian Mannerist painter, architect, and writer of Le vite de' più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori italiani, da Cimabue insino a' tempi nostri [1550, zipped]. In 1568 Vasari added his autobiography and the lives of Michelangelo and other major painters of the time. Vasari died on 27 June 1574. writings by VASARI ONLINE: Lives of the Most Excellent Italian Architects, Painters, and Sculptors, from Cimabue Until Our Times [selections in English translation] [illustrations with quotes from English translation] MORE ON VASARI AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.