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Events, deaths, births, of JUL 27
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^  On a 27 July:
Ninov2001 The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory retracts the announcement of the discovery of elements 116 and 118, which it had made on 07 June 1999. On 15 July 2002, news media would report that one of a 15-member team, physicist Victor Ninov [< photo], had falsified results and was fired late in 2001.
1998 A US federal appeals court overturns a $293'000 jury verdict against Digital. That verdict had found that a former hospital clerk had suffered repetitive stress injury using a Digital keyboard.
1993 Israeli guns and aircraft pound southern Lebanon in reprisal for rocket attacks by Hezbollah guerrillas.
1991 Fighting escalated in the breakaway republic of Croatia, as a Yugoslav air force jet fired on Croatian forces and ground fighting erupted into clashes with federal tanks and troops.
1989 El Parlamento soviético aprueba provisionalmente la autonomía financiera de las repúblicas bálticas.
^ 1989 1-2-3 upgrade
      Lotus Development Corporation began shipping 1-2-3 Release 2.2 several weeks earlier than expected. The company had already released version 3.0 the previous month but launched Release 2.2 for people running older personal computers that lacked sufficient memory to run version 3.0. Lotus 1-2-3, which appeared in 1983, quickly overtook VisiCalc, the first spreadsheet, in sales, and the company bought VisiCorp in 1985, immediately discontinuing VisiCalc. Lotus itself was purchased by IBM in 1995.
1988 En Brasil es aprobada una nueva Constitución con grandes innovaciones, a pesar de la oposición del presidente, José Sarney.
1987 Ukrainian-born Ivan “John” Nikolayevich Demjanjuk [03 Apr 1920~], accused Nazi "Ivan the Terrible" testifies in Israel
1985 El general Tito Olara Okello derroca a Milton Obote [28 Dec 1924~] y asume la presidencia de Uganda.
1978 El Congreso de los Diputados español aprueba las leyes antiterrorista y de la Policía.
1976 Kakuei Tanaka [04 May 1918 – 16 Dec 1993] is arrested and would be indicted in August 1976 on the charge of having accepted, while prime minister of Japan (1972- Dec 1974), about $2'000'000 in bribes from the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in order to influence All Nippon Airways to buy that company's jet airliners. Tanaka was convicted in 1983 of bribery and another charge and was sentenced to a fine of 500 million yen and four years in prison.
1974 Watergate: House Judiciary Committee passes the first of three articles of impeachment, charging obstruction of justice. The vote is 27 to 11 to recommend President Nixon's impeachment on a charge that he had personally engaged in a "course of conduct" designed to obstruct justice in the Watergate case.
^ 1965 US jets attack new North Vietnamese air defense sites
      Forty-six US F-105 fighter-bombers attack the missile installation that had fired at US planes on 24 July. They also attacked another missile installation 65 km northwest of Hanoi. One missile launcher was destroyed and another was damaged, but five US planes were shot down in the effort. On 24 July, US bombers on a raid over munitions manufacturing facilities at Kang Chi, 90 km northwest of Hanoi, were fired at from an unknown launching site. It was the first time the enemy had launched antiaircraft missiles at US aircraft. The presence of ground-to-air antiaircraft missiles represented a rapidly improving air defense capability for the North Vietnamese. As the war progressed, North Vietnam, supplied by China and the Soviet Union, would fashion a very effective and integrated air defense system, which became a formidable challenge to American flyers conducting missions over North Vietnam.
^ 1964 Pentagon announces 5000 more soldiers to Vietnam
      It is announced that the United States will send an additional 5000 US troops to Vietnam, bringing the total number of US forces in Vietnam to 21'000. Military spokesmen and Washington officials insisted that this did not represent any change in policy, and that new troops would only intensify existing US efforts. However, the situation changed in August 1964 when North Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked US destroyers off the coast of North Vietnam. What became known as the Tonkin Gulf incident led to the passage of the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, which passed unanimously in the House and 88 to 2 in the Senate. The resolution gave the president approval to "take all necessary measures to repel an armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression."
      Using the resolution, US President Johnson [27 Aug 1908 – 22 Jan 1973] ordered the bombing of North Vietnam in retaliation for the Tonkin Gulf incident. In 1965, Johnson was faced with a rapidly deteriorating situation in Vietnam. The Viet Cong had increased the level of combat and there were indications that Hanoi was sending troops to fight in the south. It was apparent that the South Vietnamese were in danger of being overwhelmed. Johnson had sent Marines and paratroopers to protect US installations, but he had become convinced that more had to be done to stop the communists or they would soon overwhelm South Vietnam. While some advisers, such as Undersecretary of State George Ball [19 Dec 1909 – 26 May 1994], recommended a negotiated settlement, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara [09 Jun 1916~] urged the president to "expand promptly and substantially" the US military presence in South Vietnam. Johnson, not wanting to "lose" Vietnam to the communists, ultimately accepted McNamara's recommendation. This decision led to a massive escalation of the war.
1964 President Lyndon Johnson sends an additional 5000 advisers to South Vietnam.
1962 Martin Luther King Jr jailed in Albany Georgia
1960 VP Richard Nixon is nominated for president at the Republican national convention in Chicago.
1958 Creación de la NASA por Ley firmada por el presidente estadounidense Eisenhower.
1955 Austria regains full independence after 4-power occupation
1954 Por el acuerdo firmado entre Reino Unido y Egipto, los británicos se retiran de la zona del Canal.
^ 1953 Korean War ends
      Representatives of the United Nations, Korea and China sign an armistice at Panmunjom, ending three years of bloody fighting. The Korean War, like World War II but unlike the succeeding Vietnam War, was a conflict marked by mass movements of troops. As part of the first UN peacekeeping force, over a million US soldiers served in a war in which 170'000 were killed, wounded, or missing in action. The armistice, although it has prevented fighting in Korea for nearly fifty years, was but a cease-fire. Korea remains, as it did for most of the war, sharply divided along the heavily fortified 38th parallel.
      After three years of a bloody and frustrating war, the United States, the People's Republic of China, North Korea, and South Korea agree to an armistice, bringing the Korean War to an end. The armistice ended America's first experiment with the Cold War concept of "limited war." The Korean War began on 25 June 1950, when communist North Korea invaded South Korea. Almost immediately, the United States secured a resolution from the United Nations calling for the military defense of South Korea against the North Korean aggression. In a matter of days, US land, air, and sea forces had joined the battle. The US intervention turned the tide of the war, and soon the US and South Korean forces were pushing into North Korea and toward that nation's border with China. In November and December 1951, hundreds of thousands of troops from the People's Republic of China began heavy assaults against the American and South Korea forces. The war eventually bogged down into a battle of attrition. In the US presidential election of 1952, Republican candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower [14 Oct 1890 – 28 Mar 1969] strongly criticized the handling of the war by President Harry S. Truman [08 May 1884 – 26 December 1972].
      After his victory, Eisenhower adhered to his promise to "go to Korea." His trip convinced him that something new was needed to break the diplomatic logjam at the peace talks that had begun in July 1951. Eisenhower began to publicly hint that the United States might make use of its nuclear arsenal to break the military stalemate in Korea. He allowed the Nationalist Chinese government on Taiwan to begin harassing air raids on mainland China. The president also put pressure on his South Korean ally to drop some of its demands in order to speed the peace process. Whether or not Eisenhower's threats of nuclear attacks helped, by July 1953 all sides involved in the conflict were ready to sign an agreement ending the bloodshed. The armistice, signed on 27 July, established a committee of representatives from neutral countries to decide the fate of the thousands of prisoners of war on both sides. It was eventually decided that the POWs could choose their own fate, stay where they were or return to their homelands. A new border between North and South Korea was drawn, which gave South Korea some additional territory and demilitarized the zone between the two nations. The war cost the lives of millions of Koreans and Chinese, as well as over 50'000 US soldiers. It had been a frustrating war for the US, which was used to forcing the unconditional surrender of its enemies. Many also could not understand why the United States had not expanded the war into China or used its nuclear arsenal. As government officials were well aware, however, such actions would likely have started World War III.
1946 El Kuomintang rechaza la oferta comunista para poner fin a la guerra civil en China.
1944 1st British jet fighter used in combat (Gloster Meteor)
1944 US troops complete the liberation of Guam.
^ 1943 Stalin: Not one step backward or be liquidated
      Joseph Stalin [21 Dec 1879 – 05 Mar 1953], premier and dictator of the Soviet Union, issues Order No. 227, the "Not one step backward" order, in light of German advances into Russian territory. The order declares, "Panic makers and cowards must be liquidated on the spot. Not one step backward without orders from higher headquarters! Commanders…who abandon a position without an order from higher headquarters are traitors to the Fatherland."
      Early German successes against Russia had emboldened Hitler in his goal of taking Leningrad and Stalingrad (Volgograd). But the German attack on Stalingrad, thought foolhardy by Hitler's generals, because of Russia's superior manpower and the enormous drain on German resources and troop strength, was repulsed by a fierce Soviet fighting force, which had been reinforced with greater numbers of men and materials.
      The Germans then turned their sights on Leningrad (St. Petersburg). Stalin needed to "motivate" both officers and civilians alike in their defense of Leningrad, hence Order No. 227. But it was hardly necessary. On the same day the order was given, Russian peasants and partisans in the Leningrad region killed a German official, Adolf Beck, whose job was to send agricultural products from occupied Russia to Germany or German troops. The Russian patriots also set fire to the granaries and barns in which the stash of agricultural products was stored before transport. A partisan pamphlet issued an order of its own: "Russians! Destroy the German landowners. Drive the Germans from the land of the Soviets!"
1941 Japanese forces land in Indo-China
1941 Los japoneses ocupan Phnom Penh, en Camboya.
1939 La comisión permanente de las Cortes de la República Española decide disolver el Gobierno en el exilio.
1934 Los partidos socialista y comunista de Francia firman en París un pacto de unidad de acción contra el fascismo.
1933 El Gobierno de la República española reconoce a la Unión Soviética. (Segunda República Española)
^ 1933 World Economic Conference ends fruitless
      By the summer of 1933, the Great Depression had long since spread from the shores of the United States to vast chunks of Europe. Earlier in the decade, the US's decision to raise revenues by adopting hefty tariffs had shattered Europe's fragile finances. Awash in red ink, Europe's leaders imposed their own stringent set of duties on US goods, causing international trade to grind to a halt and both the US and Europe to sink further into the depths of the Depression.
      It was against this dire backdrop that US and European big wigs gathered in London to hash out a fiscal remedy. Though the World Economic Conference stretched on for a good bit of the summer, running from 12 June to 27 July, the talks yielded few tangible results. In the main, the Conference stalled on differing opinions on how to revive international trade.
      European leaders pushed for the stabilization of exchange rates as a measured first step that would initially boost international prices and eventually stimulate global trade. But, with an eye clearly cast on national interests, recently elected US President Franklin Roosevelt [30 Jan 1882 – 12 Apr 1945] ,balked at this "internationalist" solution. Much to the chagrin of "US internationalists," including Secretary of State Cordell Hull [02 Oct 1871 – 23 Jul 1955], Roosevelt maintained his refusal to liberalize trade by reining in the dollar throughout the rest of 1933.
1931 Se firma el Convenio de Ginebra, que legislaba el trato humanitario que debían recibir los prisioneros de guerra.
^ 1923 Dillinger joins the Navy to avoid prosecution
      John Herbert Dillinger joins the Navy in order to avoid charges of auto theft in Indiana, marking the beginning of America's most notorious criminal's downfall. Years later, Dillinger's reputation was forged in a single 12-month period, during which he robbed more banks than Jesse James did in 15 years and became the most wanted fugitive in the nation.
      Dillinger didn't last in the Navy very long. Within months he had gone AWOL several times — the last time in December 1923. Making his way back to Indiana, he was arrested for armed robbery the following summer. Dillinger pled guilty, thinking that he would receive a light sentence, but instead got 10 to 20 years. His first words to the warden at the prison were, "I won't cause you any trouble except to escape." A man of his word, Dillinger had attempted to escape three times by the end of the year.
      Between escape attempts, Dillinger became friendly with some of the more professional thieves in the prison. After he was finally paroled in May 1933, Dillinger hooked up with his new friends and began robbing banks throughout the Midwest. He also began planning to break his friends out of prison. In September, he smuggled guns in to Harry Pierpont, who led a 10-man break from the Michigan City prison.
      As his friends were breaking out, Dillinger himself was captured and arrested for bank robbery in Lima, Ohio. Pierpont and the others returned the favor and broke Dillinger out in October, killing a sheriff in the process. The gang was now in full force. A week later, they raided a police arsenal in Peru, Indiana. The arrogant bandits pretended to be tourists who wanted to see what weapons the police were going to use to capture the Dillinger gang. Given the remarkable string of armed robberies and acts of violence in such a short period of time, police departments throughout the Midwest set up special units to capture Dillinger.
      Ironically, his eventual arrest was the result of pure luck. While hiding out in Tucson, Arizona, Dillinger was caught in a fire that broke out in his hotel. Firefighters became suspicious when two gang members offered them a large sum of money to save two heavy suitcases. When they found a small arsenal of guns inside, everyone was taken into custody. Dillinger was extradited to Indiana and held in what was believed to be an escape-proof jail, with extra guards posted to protect against outside attacks.
      But on 03 March 1934, Dillinger used a fake pistol that he had carved out of wood and painted black to escape. For the next several months, Dillinger and his gang went on a bank-robbing spree with the FBI one step behind at all times. J. Edgar Hoover, the director of the FBI, reportedly put out an order that agents should shoot Dillinger on sight. An illegal immigrant named Anna Sage offered to set the outlaw up if deportation proceedings against her were dropped. On 22 July 1934, detective Martin Zarkovich shot a man identified by the FBI as Dillinger as was leaving the Biograph Theater in Chicago, Illinois. Some "historians" believe that the man killed that day was not Dillinger, but Jimmy Lawrence. They think that Dillinger engineered the setup to drop out of sight [urban legend?]. If so, he was successful-no further record of Dillinger exists.
^ 1921 Insulin isolated
      At the University of Toronto, Canadian scientists Frederick Banting and Charles Best successfully isolate insulin — a hormone that they believe could prevent diabetes — for the first time. Within a year, the first human sufferers of diabetes would be receiving insulin treatments, and countless lives would be saved from what was previously regarded as a fatal disease.
      Diabetes had been recognized as a distinct medical condition for over three thousand years, but its exact cause was a mystery until the twentieth century. By the early 1920s, many researchers strongly suspected that diabetes was caused by a malfunction in the digestive system related to the pancreas gland, a small organ that sits on top of the liver. At that time, the only way to treat the fatal disease was through a diet low in carbohydrates and sugar and high in fat and protein. Instead of dying shortly after diagnosis, this diet allowed diabetics to live — but only for about a year.
      A breakthrough comes at the University of Toronto in the summer of 1921, when Canadians Frederick Banting, 29, and Charles Best, 22, successfully isolate insulin from canine test subjects, producing diabetic symptoms in the animals, and then begin a program of insulin injection that returned the dogs to normalcy. On 14 November 1921, the discovery of insulin was announced to the world.
      In January of 1922, with the support of J. J. R. MacLeod, 45, of the University of Toronto, the two scientists began preparations for an insulin treatment of a human subject. Enlisting the aid of biochemist J. B. Collip, they were able to extract a reasonably pure formula of insulin from the pancreas of cattle from slaughterhouses, and, on 23 January, began treating fourteen-year-old Leonard Thompson. The diabetic teenager improved dramatically and the University of Toronto immediately gave pharmaceutical companies license to produce insulin free of royalties. By 1923, insulin had become widely available, saving countless lives around the world, and Banting and Macleod were awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine.
1916 I Guerra Mundial: Los rusos invaden Turquía Oriental y ocupan Erzincan.
1914 British troops invade the streets of Dublin, Ireland, and begin to disarm Irish rebels.
^ 1914 Monday: in the war crisis following the June 28 assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand:      
  • Kaiser Wilhelm cuts short his cruise and returns to Potsdam.
  • The British fleet has just completed its summer maneuvers and is preparing to return to routine duty. Churchill orders the fleet to proceed to war stations. The fleet would be ready if the crisis got out of hand.
  • Germany officially and publicly advises Austria against British mediation.
  • Grey feels out the British cabinet by posing the hypothetical question of Great Britain's entering into a war if France were attacked by Germany.
  • The French Chief of Staff, Joffre, and the French War Minister, Adolphe Messimy, express their hopes through the military attaché in St. Petersburg that should war break out, the Russians would immediatly take the offensive in East Prussia.
  • The French issue standby mobilization orders.
  • 1909 Orville Wright tests 1st US Army airplane, flying 1h12m
    1909 Guerra de Marruecos: jornada aciaga para las tropas españolas, denominada Desastre del Barranco del Lobo.
    ^ 1904 First Buick sold
         Dr. Herbert Hills of Flint, Michigan, purchases the first Buick automobile ever to be sold. Founder David Buick initially made his mark as an inventor and mechanic in the plumbing industry, but had sold out of his business in order to pursue building motor cars. Buick was a man with an innate gift for inventing and tinkering, but who cared little for financial matters. He reputedly was unable to sit still unless he was concentrating on some kind of mechanical problem. None of his contemporaries would have been surprised that his company eventually became more successful than he did.
          In 1902, after years of fiddling with an automobile design, Buick agreed to a partnership with the Briscoe Manufacturing Company, wherein Briscoe would write off Buick’s debts while in turn establishing a $100'000 capitalization for Buick’s car company. Buick ceded $99'700 of the company’s stock to Briscoe until he repaid his standing debt of $3500, at which point he could buy controlling interest in the stock. Still, Buick had yet to complete an automobile.
          When it became clear to Briscoe that Buick would neither be able to pay his debts nor complete his vehicle soon, they sold their interest in the company to the Flint Wagon Works for $10'000. Buick and his son were given stock, but their managerial roles shrunk. Finally, in July of 1904, the first Buick made its initial test run. During the test run, the Buick averaged thirty miles per hour on a trip around Flint, going so fast at one point that the driver, “couldn’t see the village six-mile-an-hour sign.”
          Sixteen Buicks were sold in the next few months, but Flint Wagon Works remained troubled by the Buick venture. They had purchased the company in order to help the city of Flint adjust to a new economy of automobile production, but Buick was already heavily in debt to a number of Flint banks. At this point, David Buick owned only a small share of stock and held none of the business responsibilities, and the Wagon Works decided to bring in Flint whiz kid William Durant to turn the business around. Durant kept Buick on as a manager, a position he held with little impact until 1908. Durant turned Buick into a major player in the automotive industry before incorporating it into his General Motors project.
    1898 Start of Sherlock Holmes' The Adventure of The Dancing Men
    1890 Feeling that he is a burden on his brother Théo and others, Vincent Van Gogh (evidencing that there is PAIN in PAINting) shoots himself in the chest. He would die two days later.
    1880 Battle of Maiwand, at which Dr. Watson was wounded.
    ^ 1866 Atlantic Cable completed
          The laying of the Atlantic Cable (2713 km long) is successfully completed, allowing transatlantic telegraph communication to commence. An earlier attempt to establish a transatlantic telegraph cable in 1858 was only moderately successful. Although the cable worked, the signal was weak, and service was quickly abandoned.
          Cyrus W. Field finally succeeded, after two failures, in laying the first underwater telegraph cable between North America and Europe.
    1864 Engagement at Darbytown (Deep Bottom), Virginia.
    1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues.
    1861 Lincoln replaces General Irwin McDowell with General George B. McClellan in command of the Army of the Potomac.
    1861 Major Isaac Lynde surrenders his command to Confederates at San Augustine Springs, New Mexico Territory.
    1844 Fire destroys the US mint at Charlotte, NC.
    1837 US Mint opens in Charlotte, NC.
    1830 Jornadas revolucionarias en París, de donde huye el rey Carlos X.
    1816 Fort Blount on Apalachicola Bay Fla, attacked by US troops.
    1809 Wellington, à la tête d'une armée anglaise venue au secours de l'Espagne envahie par Napoléon remporte la Victoire de Talavera. L'intervention de Wellington sera décisive et les armées de Napoléon devront finalement abandonner l'Espagne. A sa mort, en 1852, Welligton fut inhumé dans la cathédrale Saint Paul, à Londres. — Se produce la batalla de Talavera, combate librado durante la Guerra de Independencia española de resultado incierto, pues los franceses han de retirarse hacia Madrid y Wellington se ve obligado a replegarse sobre Badajoz.
    ^ 1794 — 9 thermidor an II — Complot contre Robespierre
    Depuis la veille un complot contre Robespierre est ourdit par Billaud-Varenne, Collot d’Herbois, Barère, Tallien et d’anciens Dantonistes. Billaud-Varenne s’exclame à la Convention: "nous mourrons tous ou le tyran mourra". Robespierre n’a pas la possibilité de se défendre; un décret d’accusation est voté contre lui ainsi que contre son frère Augustin Robespierre, Saint-Just, Couthon et Lebas.
    Robespierre     Maximilien Robespierre, the architect of the French Revolution's Reign of Terror, is overthrown and arrested by the National Convention. As the leading member of the Committee of Public Safety from 1793, Robespierre encouraged the execution, mostly by guillotine, of more than 17'000 “enemies of the Revolution”. The day after his arrest, Robespierre and 21 of his followers were guillotined before a cheering mob in the Place de la Révolution in Paris.
    [< Robespierre portrait by Adélaïde Labille~Guiard]
          Maximilien Robespierre was born in Arras, France, in 1758. He studied law through a scholarship and in 1789 was elected to be a representative of the Arras commoners in the Estates General. After the Third Estate, which represented commoners and the lower clergy, declared itself the National Assembly, Robespierre became a prominent member of the Revolutionary body. He took a radical, democratic stance and was known as "the Incorruptible" for his dedication to civic morality. In April 1790, he presided over the Jacobins, a powerful political club that promoted the ideas of the French Revolution.
          He called for King Louis XVI to be put on trial for treason and won many enemies, but the people of Paris consistently came to his defense. In 1791, he excluded himself from the new Legislative Assembly but continued to be politically active as a member of the Jacobin Club. In 1792, he opposed the war proposal of the Girondins — moderate leaders in the Legislative Assembly — and lost some popularity. However, after the people of Paris rose up against the king in August 1792, Robespierre was elected to the insurrectionary Commune of Paris. He then was elected to head the Paris delegation to the new National Convention. In the National Convention, he emerged as the leader of the Mountain, as the Jacobin faction was known, and opposed the Girondins. In December 1792, he successfully argued in favor of Louis XVI's execution, and in May 1793 he encouraged the people to rise up in insurrection over military defeats and a food shortage. The uprising gave him an opportunity to finally purge the Girondins.
          On 27 July 1793, Robespierre was elected to the Committee of Public Safety, which was formed in April to protect France against its enemies, foreign and domestic, and to oversee the government. Under his leadership, the committee came to exercise virtual dictatorial control over the French government. Faced with the threat of civil war and foreign invasion, the Revolutionary government inaugurated the Reign of Terror in September. In less than a year, 300'000 suspected enemies of the Revolution were arrested; at least 10'000 died in prison, and 17'000 were officially executed, many by guillotine in the Place de la Révolution. In the orgy of bloodshed, Robespierre succeeded in purging many of his political opponents.
          On 04 June 1794, Robespierre was almost unanimously elected president of the National Convention. Six days later, a law was passed that suspended a suspect's right to public trial and to legal assistance. In just a month, 1400 enemies of the Revolution were guillotined. The Terror was being escalated just when foreign invasion no longer threatened the republic, and an awkward coalition of the right and the left formed to oppose Robespierre and his followers.
          On 27 July 1794 (9 Thermidor in the Revolutionary calendar), Robespierre and his allies are placed under arrest by the National Assembly. Robespierre is taken to the Luxembourg prison in Paris, but the warden refuses to jail him, and he flees to the Hôtel de Ville. Armed supporters arrive to aid him, but he refuses to lead a new insurrection. When he receives word that the National Convention has declared him an outlaw, he shoots himself in the head but only succeeds in wounding his jaw. Shortly thereafter, troops of the National Convention attack the Hôtel de Ville and seize Robespierre and his allies. The next evening — 28 July — Robespierre and 21 others would be guillotined without a trial in the Place de la Révolution. During the next few days, another 82 Robespierre followers would be executed. The Reign of Terror is at an end.
          In the aftermath of the coup, the Committee of Public Safety lost its authority, the prisons were emptied, and the French Revolution became decidedly less radical. The Directory that followed saw a return to bourgeois values, corruption, and military failure. In 1799, the Directory was overthrown in a military coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte, who wielded dictatorial powers in France as first consul and, after 1804, as French emperor.
    1793 In France, Robespierre becomes a member of the Committee of Public Safety.
    1778 First Battle of Ushant: British and French fleets fight to a standoff.
    1777 The marquis of Lafayette arrives in New England to help the rebellious colonists fight the British.
    1663 British Parliament passes a second Navigation Act, requiring all goods bound for the colonies be sent in British ships from British ports.
    1661 British Parliament confirms the Navigation Act
    1586 Sir Walter Raleigh brings 1st tobacco to England from Virginia
    1245 Already excommunicated, Emperor Frederick II is deposed by pope Innocent IV and the First Council of Lyons, which found Frederick guilty of sacrilege. The deposition never really took effect. Frederick II died on 13 December 1250, undeposed and unrepentant.
    < 26 Jul 28 Jul >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 27 July:

    2005 Jatama Greene, 2, drowned in the Grand Calumet River after being catapulted 12 meters down into it at 20:45 (01:45 UT on 28 July) from the back seat of the SUV which her mother, Jacqueline Greene, is driving, which hits the retaining wall on the Cline Avenue off-ramp from the eastbound Indiana Toll Road, near Gary/Chicago International Airport. There was a second adult and two 11-year-old girls in the vehicle.
    2005 Kevin A. Conner [27 Mar 1965–], by lethal injection in Indiana for the 26 January 1988 murder of Anthony Moore, 24; Steven Wentland, 19; and Bruce Voge, 19, in Indianapolis. Conner had asked that efforts to delay his execution be stopped.
    2005 Spc. Adrian J. Butler, 28; Spc. John O. Tollefson, 22; of the US Army Military Police, by a roadside bomb exploding near their HMMWV during a patrol in Ashraf, Iraq.
    Bob Hope
    2003 Leslie Townes “Bob” Hope
    , born on 29 May 1903, famous US comedian, dies of pneumonia.

          With his daughter Linda he wrote My Life in Jokes (2003).

    Read Chapter 1 about his birth and early childhood.

    “Though I was born in England, I left at the age of four…Actually, the minute I started to talk, they deported me.”

    Photographs of 7 pages of typed and handwritten Bob Hope jokes
    2003 Rev. Harold C. Bennett, 78, of pancreatic cancer. He was president and treasurer of the US Southern Baptist Convention (1979-1992) when conservatives took control from moderates.
    2002:: 83 persons at an air show in Lviv, Ukraine, as a Su-27 fighter plane crashes into the crowd of spectators, apparently due to engine failure, 2 minutes after take-off, and explodes into a ball of fire. 23 of the dead are children. The two airmen aboard the plane eject and survive. Some 125 persons are injured.
    2002 At least 50 persons on boat which capsizes on lake Vembanad, Kerala, India, early in the morning. It was carrying about 400 passengers from Muhama to Kumarakom.
    1999 Aleksandr Danilovich Aleksandrov, Russian mathematician and physicist born on 04 Aug 1912.
    ^ 1996 Alice Hawthorne and Melih Uzunyol, in bombed Centennial Olympic Park, Atlanta.
         At the Centennial Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia, a homemade pipe bomb, left in a knapsack in a park near the main Olympic sites, explodes amid tens of thousands of people. Alice Hawthorne is killed by the blast, and Turkish photojournalist Melih Uzunyol dies of a heart attack while running to cover it; 111 are injured.
          In Atlanta, Georgia, the XXVI Summer Olympiad was disrupted by the explosion of a nail-laden pipe bomb in Centennial Olympic Park. The bombing, which occurred during a free concert, killed a mother who had brought her daughter to hear the rock music and injured more than one hundred others, including a Turkish cameraman who suffered a fatal heart attack after the blast. Police were warned of the bombing in advance, but the bomb exploded several minutes before the anonymous caller said it would, leading authorities to suspect that the law enforcement officers who descended on the park were indirectly targeted. Within a few days, Richard Jewell [17 Nov 1962~], a security guard at the concert, was charged with the crime. However, evidence against him was ineffectual at best, and in October he was fully cleared of all responsibility in the bombing.
          On 16 January 1997, a bomb exploded outside an abortion clinic, blowing a hole in the building's wall. An hour later, while police and ambulance workers were still at the scene, a second blast went off near a large trash bin, injuring seven people. As at Centennial Park, a nail-laden bomb was used and authorities were targeted.
          Then, only five days later, also in Atlanta, a nail-laden bomb exploded near the patio area of a crowded gay and lesbian nightclub, injuring five people. A second bomb in a backpack was found outside after the first explosion, but police safely detonated it. Federal investigators linked the three bombings, but no suspect was found until late January 1998.
          On 29 January 1998, an abortion clinic was bombed in Birmingham, Alabama, killing off-duty police officer Robert Sanderson and critically wounding nurse Emily Lyons. An automobile reported at the crime scene was later found abandoned near the Georgia state line, and investigators traced it to Eric Robert Rudolph [19 Sep 1966~], a carpenter.
          Although Rudolph could not be found, authorities positively identified him as the bomber, and an extensive manhunt began. He was believed to be an experienced woodsman, hiding in the rugged, mountainous wilderness in western North Carolina where he grew up. FBI and state and local agents looked for him for several years. The FBI posted a reward of up to $1'000'000 for information leading to his arrest, which eventually took place on 31 May 2003. Rudolph would plead guilty and, on 18 July 2005, be sentenced to life in prison.
    1994 José Manuel Olarte, empresario donostiarra, asesinado por ETA en San Sebastián.
    1994 Rosa Chacel, escritora española.
    1990: 42 militares en Nigeria, fusilados por intento de golpe de Estado.
    ^ 1980 Muhammad Reza Pahlevi, 60, former shah of Iran, of cancer, in exile in Cairo.
         On day 267 of the Iranian hostage crisis, the deposed Shah of Iran dies at a military hospital outside Cairo.
          The ruler of Iran from 1941 to 1979, Pahlevi had become increasingly repressive during the 1970s, and fundamentalist Muslims in the country resented his pro-Western policies. Support for the exiled religious leader Ruhollah Khomeini grew, and on January 16, 1979, massive protests and rioting forced the shah to flee the country. The same day, Khomenini returned and took power as the Ayatollah.
          On October 22, US authorities allowed Pahlevi to travel to New York City for cancer treatment — a decision that precipitated the Iran hostage crisis. Less than two weeks later, on November 4, militant Iranian students stormed the US embassy in Teheran, demanding the deportation of the shah back to Iran to stand trial. The Ayatollah Khomeini took over the hostage situation, refusing all appeals to release the hostages, even after the UN Security Council demanded an end to the crisis in an unanimous vote.
          However, two weeks after the storming of the embassy, the Ayatollah began to release all non-US captives, and all female and minority Americans, citing these groups as among the people oppressed by the government of the United States. The remaining fifty-two captives remained at the mercy of the Ayatollah for the next fourteen months.
          US President Jimmy Carter was unable to diplomatically resolve the crisis, and on 24 April 1980, he ordered a disastrous rescue mission in which eight US military personnel were killed and no hostages were rescued.
          Three months later, the shah dies of cancer in exile, but the crisis continues. In November of 1980, Carter lost the presidential election to Republican Ronald Reagan, and soon after, with the assistance of Algerian intermediaries, successful negotiations began between the US and Iran. On the day of Reagan's inauguration, the US freed almost $8 billion in frozen Iranian assets, and the hostages were released after 444 days. The next day, Jimmy Carter flew to West Germany to greet the freed US hostages on their way home.
    1976 Ray Brennan becomes 1st to die of "Legionnaire's Disease"
    1976 Some 240'000 Chinese in 8.2 Tangshan earthquake.
    1976 Ray Brennan, US Air Force veteran, became the first person to die of what came to be known as Legionnaire's Disease following an American Legion convention in Philadelphia.
    1972 Se confirma la muerte del dirigente chino Lin Piao, en accidente de avión según fuentes oficiales.
    1970 Antonio Oliveira Salazar, estadista portugués.
    1946 Gertrude Stein, escritora estadounidense.
    1945 Juan Antonio Ríos, político y presidente de Chile.
    1931 Jacques Herbrand, French mathematician born on 12 February 1908. Herbrand's theorem establishes a link between quantification theory and sentential logic.
    1925 Léon Augustin L'hermitte (or Lhermitte), French Realist draftsman, printmaker, painter, and illustrator, born on 31 July 1844. MORE ON L'HERMITTE AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    ^ 1919 A black youth, stoned by whites and drowned, as he was swimming in Chicago, in Lake Michigan and drifted into an area whites considered reserved for them.
          When police refused to arrest the white man whom black observers held responsible for the incident, indignant crowds began to gather on the beach, and the disturbance began. Distorted rumors swept the city as sporadic fighting broke out between gangs and mobs of both races. Violence escalated with each incident, and for 13 days Chicago was without law and order despite the fact that the state militia had been called out on the fourth day. By the end, 38 were dead (23 blacks, 15 whites), 537 injured, and 1000 Black families made homeless. This Chicago race riot was the worst of the race riots that marked the summer of 1919, including some in Washington DC; Knoxville, Tennessee.; Longview, Texas; Phillips County, Arkansas, and in Omaha, Nebraska.
    1901 B.F. Westcott, 76, English N.T. scholar. In 1881, he and colleague F.J.A.Hort published the most precise critical text of the Greek New Testament ever compiled — still in use today.
    1870 Pierre-Joseph-Étienne Finck, French mathematician born on 15 October 1797.
    ^ 1863 William Lowndes Yancey, murderous pro-slavery fanatic
          Confederate William Lowndes Yancey dies of kidney disease in Montgomery, Alabama. Yancey, whose militant stand on the expansion of slavery contributed dramatically to the growing sectional tensions of the era, epitomized the rise of Southern nationalism in the years before the war. The term "fire-eater" was applied to radical secessionists like Yancey, and their rise significantly altered the debate over slavery. Yancey's road to secession was an unusual one. Born on a Georgia plantation, his father died when he was young. His mother married a Presbyterian minister from New York, who moved the family there when Yancey was nine. Educated in the North, he moved back to the South and became a staunch Unionist. He lived in South Carolina during the nullification crisis of the 1830s, a political dispute in which South Carolina, led by Vice President John C. Calhoun, asserted states' rights by ignoring a federal tariff. It was the beginning of a debate that eventually led to the war. Within a few years, the circumstances of Yancey's life dramatically changed his political views. He married a slaveholder and moved to Alabama. In 1838, he killed his wife's uncle in a street fight and served a few months in jail for manslaughter.
          Yancey suffered financially during the Panic of 1837, and most of his slaves died when a neighbor tried to kill his overseer by poisoning a well on Yancey's plantation. These events—coupled with the rise of his stepfather, whom he hated, to a prominent position as an abolitionist—helped form Yancey's political opinions. In 1841, Yancey began a political career that led him to Congress by 1844. Known as a fiery orator, his words sparked at least one duel, albeit a bloodless one. Yancey, a Democrat, often lashed out against Whigs and even moderate members of his own party, such as Illinois Senator Stephen Douglas. He vehemently opposed the Compromise of 1850 and became an avowed secessionist. He served only two terms in Congress but was an important figure in the growing crisis of the 1850s. When the war broke out, Yancey headed a diplomatic mission to Great Britain and France to secure recognition of the Confederate States of America. These efforts were unsuccessful. Later, as a senator from Alabama in the Confederate Congress, Yancey openly clashed with President Jefferson Davis and was often critical of the new Confederate government's encroachment on the power of the states. His sudden death in 1863 silenced one of the strongest voices of states' rights.
    ^ 1841 (15 July Julian) Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov, in a duel.
         He was the leading Russian Romantic poet and author of the novel A Hero of Our Time (18), which was to have a profound influence on later Russian writers (The hero is a cynical person of superior accomplishments who, having experienced everything else, devotes himself to experimenting with human situations). In 1828 he wrote the poems Circassians and Prisoner of the Caucasus in the vein of Lord Byron. His verse Spring, was published in 1830. His drama A Strange Man (1831) reflected hatred of the tsarist regime and of serfdom. Hhis critical observations of aristocratic life formed the basis of his play Masquerade. An unreciprocated love inspired Duchess Ligovskaya. He also wrote the romantic poem A Song About Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich, His Young Bodyguard, and the Valiant Merchant Kalashnikov (1837), the realistic satirical poems The Tambov Paymaster's Wife (1838), and Sashka (written 1839, published 1862), the Caucasian poems Mtsyri (1840) and Demon. His last notebook contains such masterpieces of Russian lyric poetry as "Utes" ("The Cliff"), "Spor" ("Argument"), "Svidanye" ("Meeting"), "Listok" ("A Leaf"), "Net, ne tebya tak pylko ya lyublyu" ("No, It Was Not You I Loved So Fervently"), "Vykhozhu odin ya na dorogu . . . " ("I go to the Road Alone . . . "), and "Prorok" ("Prophet"), his last work.
    ONLINE in English translations: A Hero of Our Time, A Hero of Our Time (different site), A Hero of Our Times (different translation)
    ^ 1806 One or two Blackfoot horse thieves.
          Attempting to stop a band of young Blackfoot Indians from stealing his horses, Meriwether Lewis shoots an Indian in the stomach. The voyage of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the West began in May 1804 when the two captains and 27 men headed up the Missouri River. They reached the Pacific Ocean the following year, and on 23 March 1806, began the return journey. After crossing the worst section of the Rocky Mountains, the expedition split up. Clark took most of the men and explored the Yellowstone River country to the south. Lewis, with nine men, headed west to the Great Falls of the Missouri River where he split the small party still further. Six men remained behind to make the portage around the Great Falls. Lewis took the remaining three and headed north to explore the Marias River country of present-day northwestern Montana. It was a risky, perhaps even irresponsible, decision. Lewis knew the Marias River country was the home of the Blackfoot Indians, one of the fiercest tribes of the Great Plains. Lewis hoped he could meet peacefully with the Blackfoot and encourage their cooperation with the United States. Yet, if they met a hostile Blackfoot band and a fight began, the four explorers would be badly outnumbered.
          On 26 July, Lewis encountered a party of eight young Blackfoot braves. At first, the meeting went well, and the Indians seemed pleased with Lewis' gifts of a medal, flag, and handkerchief. Lulled into a false sense of security, Lewis invited the Indians to camp with them. In the early morning of this day in 1806, Lewis awoke to the shouts of one his men — the Indians were attempting to steal their rifles and horses. Lewis sped after two Indians who were running off with several of the horses, calling out for them to stop or he would shoot. One Indian, armed with an old British musket, turned toward Lewis. Apparently fearing that thee Indian was about to shoot, Lewis fired first and hit him in the stomach. The Indians retreated, and the men quickly gathered their horses. Lewis then learned that one of his men had also fatally stabbed another of the Blackfoot. Fearing the survivors would soon return with reinforcements, Lewis and his men immediately broke camp. They rode south quickly and managed to escape any retribution from the Blackfoot. Lewis' diplomatic mission, however, had turned into a debacle. By killing at least one Indian, and probably two, Lewis had guaranteed that the already hostile Blackfoot would be unlikely to deal peacefully with US invaders in the future.
    1769 Jan Christian Vollerdt, German artist born in 1708.
    1759 Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, French mathematician and physicist born on 28 September 1698. He is most famous for formulating the principle of least action. — [Lazy people of the world, unite in praise of Maupertuis!]
    ^ 1689 Viscount "Bonnie" Dundee, and thousands of English, Dutch, and Scot soldiers at the Battle of Killiecrankie Pass, Perthshire.
        In the first of the Jacobite wars, the cause of deposed and exiled Catholic King James VIII of Scotland, II of England, was being defended by Viscount "Bonnie" Dundeeand his forces, who stationed themselves at the pass of Killiecrankie and waited. On 27 July General MacKay, on behalf of King William III and Mary II of England and Scotland, appeared on the scene with 4000 English and Dutch soldiers. Dundee's men used the famous "highland charge" against MacKay's troops, killed over half of them and routed the rest. They were defeated before they could even fix their bayonets. However Dundee himself was killed whilst ordering a charge, and his army fell into disarray. Robert Burns wrote this song "The Braes O' Killiecrankie" about it (Poems and Songs of Robert Burns):
    Whaur hae ye been sae braw, lad?
    Whaur hae ye been sae brankie-o?
    Whaur hae ye been sae braw, lad?
    Cam' ye by Killiecrankie-o?

    An' ye had been whaur I hae been
    Ye wadna been sae cantie-O
    An' ye had seen what I hae seen
    I' the braes o' Killiecrankie-O.

    2. I faught at land, I faught at sea,
    At hame I faught my Auntie-O;
    But I met the Devil an' Dundee,
    On the braes o' Killiecrankie-O.

    3. The bauld Pitcur fell in a furr,
    An' Clavers gat a crankie-O
    Or I had fed an Atholl gled
    On the braes o' Killiecrankie-O.

    4. Oh fie, MacKay, What gart ye lie
    I' the brush ayont the brankie-o?
    Ye'd better kiss King Willie's loof
    Than come tae Killiecrankie-o

    5. It's nae shame, it's nae shame
    It's nae shame t' shank ye-o
    There's sour slaes on Athol braes
    An the De'ils at Killiecrankie-o

    1214 The dead of the Battle of Bouvines in France: decisive victory of Philip II Augustus of France over an international coalition of the Holy Roman emperor Otto IV, King John of England, and the French vassals — Ferdinand (Ferrand) of Portugal, count of Flanders, and Renaud (Raynald) of Dammartin, count of Boulogne. The victory enhances the power and the prestige of the French monarchy in France and in the rest of Europe.
    0432 Saint Celestine I, Pope since 10 September 422.He condemned the heresy of Nestorius and sent Saint Patrick to Ireland.
    < 26 Jul 28 Jul >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 27 July:

    1951 Joseba Irazu Garmendia, escritor vasco, máximo exponente de la narrativa en euskera
    1951 Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba, político español.
    1939 Manuel Vázquez Montalban, escritor español.
    1929 Jean Baudrillard, sociólogo y escritor francés.
    ^ 1916 Elizabeth Hardwick, Novelist and essayist, in Lexington, Kentucky.      
          Hardwick attended the University of Kentucky and later Columbia University in New York. New York's liberal intellectual bent inspired her, and she began contributing perceptive, well-written analytic essays to the Partisan Review. She published her first novel, The Ghostly Lover, in 1945.
          In 1949, Hardwick married future Pulitzer Prize-winning poet Robert Lowell, with whom she had a daughter in 1962. Despite Lowell's manic-depression, frequent breakdowns, and heavy drinking, Hardwick stayed with him until he left her in 1972 to marry Lady Caroline Blackwood of England. He later returned to Hardwick, with whom he stayed until he died of a heart attack in 1977.
          In the meantime, Hardwick had published a second novel, The Simple Truth (1955), written an essay collection, and edited a volume of William James' letters. She also helped found the New York Review of Books in 1963, to which she was a frequent contributor (e.g. review of Uncollected Stories of William Faulkner [1979]). Her 1999 book, Sight-Readings, takes a close look at Katherine Anne Porter, Joan Didion, Edith Wharton (e.ge about her House of Mirth), TV evangelists, and many other topics.
    1895 William L. Hawkins, self-taught US painter who died in 1989. MORE ON HAWKINS AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1881 Hans Fischer, German organic chemist, laureate of the 1930 Nobel Prize for Chemistry, who died on 31 March 1945.
    1877 Ernst von Dohnányi Hungary, composer (Msg to Posterity)
    1874 Francis Luis Mora, Uruguayan US painter who died in 1940. MORE ON MORA AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1871 Ernst Friedrich Ferdinand Zermelo, German mathematician who died on 21 May 1953. In 1908 Zermelo published his axiomatic system of set theory despite his failure to prove consistency. He gave seven axioms : Axiom of extensionality, Axiom of elementary sets, Axiom of separation, Power set axiom, Union axiom, Axiom of choice and Axiom of infinity.
    ^ 1870 Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc, France.
          Catholic poet, historian, and essayist who was among the most versatile English writers of the first quarter of the 20th century. He is most remembered for his light verse, particularly for children, and for the lucidity and easy grace of his essays, which could be delightfully about nothing or decisively about some of the key controversies of the Edwardian era.
         Hilaire Belloc was educated in England, then worked as a journalist, did his French military service, studied at Oxford, married a woman from the US, was naturalized British in 1902, member of Parliament (1906-1910), first as a Liberal and then as an Independent.
         Some of his works are Verses and Sonnets (1895), The Bad Child's Book of Beasts (1896), Cautionary Tales (1907) humorous verse for children.
         Historical books: Danton (1899), Robespierre (1901), Europe and the Faith (1920), History of England, 4 vol. (1925-31), James II (1928), Wolsey (1930)
         Satire: Lambkin's Remains (1900), Mr. Burden (1904).
          The Path to Rome (1902) his travel on foot to Rome with comments on Europe. The Four Men (1912) his walk through Sussex.
          The Cruise of the "Nona" (1925) shows his love of sailing..
          Light verse: The Modern Traveller (1898), Heroic Poem in Praise of Wine (1932).
    Europe and the Faith
    , First and Last The Great Heresies On Nothing and Kindred Subjects On Something The Path to RomeSurvivals and New Arrivals
    1869 Charles Sydney Hopkinson, US artist who died in 1962.
    1867 Enrique Granados Lérida Spain, composer (Maria del Carmen) — Enrique Granados, compositor y músico español.
    1857 José Celso Barbosa Puerto Rico, would found Federalist Party in 1900.
    1856 Arturo Faldi, Italian artist who died on 30 May 1911.
    1852 George Foster Peabody, philanthropist and namesake of the Peabody awards for excellence in broadcasting
    1848 Lóránd baron von Eötvös, Budapest mathematician who died on 08 April 1919.
    1835 Giosuè Carducci Italy, poet (Nobel 1906) — CARDUCCI ONLINE: (both zipped) Odi BarbareRime e Ritmi
    1826 Gerardina Jacoba Sande van Bakhuyzen, Dutch artist who died on 19 September 1895.
    ^ 1824 Alexandre Dumas fils, French playwright and novelist, who died on 27 November 1895. He was one of the founders of the “problem play” (middle-class realistic drama treating some contemporary ill and offering suggestions for its remedy).
          Dumas fils, the illegitimate son of Alexandre Dumas père [24 Jul 1802 – 05 Dec 1870], possessed a good measure of his father'sliterary fecundity, but the work of the two men could scarcely be more different. His first success was a novel, La Dame aux camélias (1848), but he found his vocation when he adapted the story into a play, known in English as Camille, first performed in 1852. (Giuseppe Verdi based his 1853 opera La Traviata on this play.)
          Although his father had written colorful historical plays and novels, Dumas fils specialized in drama set in the present. The unhappy witness of the ruin brought on his father by illicit love affairs, Dumas fils devoted his plays to sermons on the sanctity of the family and of marriage; Le Demi-Monde (1855), for example, dealt with the threat to the institution of marriage posed by prostitutes. Modern audiences usually find Dumas's drama verbose and sententious, but in the late 19th century eminent critics praised his plays for their moral seriousness. He was admitted to the French Academy in 1875. Among his most interesting plays are Le Fils naturel (1858) and Un Père prodigue (1859), a dramatization of Dumas's interpretation of his father's character.

    En Français:  La Dame aux CaméliasL'Ami des Femmes + Le Fils naturel (1858) + Tristan le Roux  
    La boîte d'argent + Un Paquet de lettres + Le Prix de Pigeons + Le Pendu de la Piroche + Ce que l'on voit tous les jours + Césarine
    — In English translation: Camille (La Dame Aux Camélias)
    1821 Ángel Fernández de los Ríos, político español.
    1809 Gottfried Johan Pulian, German artist who died on 04 March 1875.
    1801 George Biddell Airy. He was Lucasian professor at Cambridge and Astronomer Royal. He made many major contributions to mathematics and astronomy. He died on 02 January 1892.
    1789 The US Department of Foreign Affairs, forerunner of the Department of State, is establisged by Congress..
    ^ 1768 Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont,
    aux Champeaux, à la ferme du Ronceray, une maison de pays typique que son père avait achetée en 1765. Charlotte était le quatrième enfant de petits nobles. Sa mère s'appelait Charlotte-Marie Gautier des Authieux et son père Jacques-François de Corday d'Armont. Il était l'arrière petit fils de Marie Corneille, soeur de Thomas et de Pierre Corneille, le dramaturge. Charlotte a été baptisée dans l'Eglise Saint-Saturnin de Lignerits, à côté des Champeaux, le lendemain de sa naissance.
          Elle a grandi au Manoir de Cauvigny et à la Ferme du Bois, pas très loin de l'endroit où elle est née. A l'âge de huit ans Charlotte fut placée chez son oncle, l'Abbé de Corday, qui à l'époque était le curé de Vicques. La famille s'est installée par la suite à Caen, où la mère de Charlotte Corday décéda le 08 avril 1782. Au printemps de cette même année, Charlotte fut admise, avec sa soeur Eléonore, à l'Abbaye aux Dames comme pensionnaire.
          En pleine Terreur, l'assassinat de Jean-Paul Marat, "l'Ami du Peuple", a fait de Charlotte Corday l'héroine de tout un peuple. Après son geste, elle a été immédiatement arrêtée et emprisonnée à la Conciergerie. L'issue de son procès ne faisait aucun doute : elle était condamnée à mort. Le 17 Jul 1793, vers 19 heures, après avoir monté les marches de l'échafaud, elle a été guillotinée. L'exploit de Charlotte, L'Ange de l'Assassinat, est rentré dans la légende. Peu de personnages de la Révolution Française n'ont eu autant de gloire et de popularité à travers les siècles.
          Quand Après la fermeture en 1791 de l'Abbaye aux Dames à Caen, Charlotte a vécu chez sa cousine, Madame Le Coustellier de Bretteville-Gouville, au 148 de la rue Saint-Jean. Le 09 Jul 1793, Charlotte quitta l'appartement de sa cousine et prit la diligence pour Paris. Elle descendit à l'Hôtel de Providence. Elle rédigea un long texte intitulé Adresse aux Français amis des lois et de la paix, qui expliquait le geste qu'elle allait commettre.
          Le 13 juillet 1793, à Paris, elle a demandé un rendez-vous à Marat à son domicile sis 30, rue des Cordeliers. Marat le lui a accordé; en disant qu'elle "avait des révélations à lui faire" et qu'il était à même de "rendre un grand service à la France", elle a réussi à obtenir une audience auprès de lui. Il l'a reçue dans sa baignoire. C'est là qu'elle l'assassina avec un couteau de table "à manche à bois brun à virole d'argent, acheté quarante sols au Palais-Royal". Pourquoi Au cours de la Révolution Française, Charlotte est devenue républicaine. Elle fut frappée par les exactions du Pouvoir contre les Girondins (la Proscription des Girondins - 02 Jun 1793), qui se réfugièrent à Caen. Charlotte ne croyait plus aux possibilités de l'instauration d'une République. Elle considérait que Jean-Paul Marat, qui réclamait de plus en plus de têtes chaque jour, était le grand responsable de tous les malheurs qui se sont abattus sur le peuple français. Elle a résolu d'en débarrasser le pays.
    1768 Joseph Anton Koch, Austrian painter who died on 12 January 1839. MORE ON KOCH AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1694 Bank of England chartered.
    1683 Jan-Peter van Bredael II, Flemish artist who died in 1735.
    1667 Johann Bernoulli — Among the topics Johann Bernoulli studied: reflection and refraction of light, orthogonal trajectories of families of curves, quadrature of areas by series and the brachystochrone. He died on 01 January 1748. He was the brother of Jacob Bernoulli [27 Dec 1654 – 16 Aug 1705] and father of Johann II Bernoulli [28 May 1710 – 17 Jul 1748] and of Daniel Bernoulli [08 Feb 1700 – 17 Mar 1782].
    1451 Hernán Pérez del Pulgar, militar e historiador español. — {NO lo llamen “Pulgarcito”}
    Holidays Puerto Rico : José Celso Barbosa Birthday (1857)

    Religious Observances RC : St Pantaleon, martyr/patron of medicine / Orth : Vladimir, evangelizer of Russia (7/15 OS) / Ang : William Reed Huntington, priest / Santos Pantaleón, Conrado, Nemesio y Mauro. Santas Julia y Natalia.
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    Thoughts for the day:
    Politics is either passing the buck or passing the dough.”
    "When a diplomat says `yes' he means perhaps; when he says `perhaps' he means no; when he says `no' he is no diplomat."
    updated Friday 25-Jul-2008 21:09 UT
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    v.7.60 Thursday 26-Jul-2007 23:48 UT
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