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Events, deaths, births, of JUL 26
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ANR price chart^  On a 26 July:

Annuity & Life Reassurance Holdings Ltd. (ANR), incorporated in Bermuda, did not reassure its investors the previous evening when it announced that it will report a loss for the second 2002 quarter, due to charges on its Transamerica RE Annuity Reinsurance contract. Today Fitch Ratings lowers ANR's financial strength rating (Watch: Negative). On the New York Stock Exchange, ANR stock drops from its previous close of $12.87 to an intraday low of $5.75 and closes at $6.30. It had traded as high as $37.25 on 03 August 2001. [3~year price chart >]

MXT price chart2002 (Friday) The stock of consumer finance company Metris (MXT) rises on the New York Stock Exchange from its previous close of $1.61 to an intraday high of $3.00 and closes at $2.85. It had traded as high as $42.56 on 25 September 2000 and $37.05 on 02 August 2001. — In the next trading session, Monday 29 July 2002, MXT recovers further, to an intraday high of $4.94, and closes at $4.20. [< 3~year price chart]

A federal judge in New York approved a $1.25 billion settlement between Swiss banks and more than a half million plaintiffs who alleged the banks had hoarded money deposited by Holocaust victims.

Italy becomes the 4th country (preceded by Senegal, Trinidad and Tobago, and San Marino) to ratify the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (which has not been ratified nor even signed by the US)
^ 1997 Online programming from Viacom and MCA      
      Newspapers report that both Viacom and MCA will develop entertainment programming for online services and the World Wide Web. MCA said it would develop online adaptations of television shows, like Exosquad, an animated science-fiction series. Meanwhile, Viacom announced the creation of Paramount Digital Entertainment to develop programming for 1996. The company said it would produce online adaptations of Star Trek and Entertainment Tonight.
^ 1996 Simulacra, supercomputer
      US President Bill Clinton announces that the Department of Energy has handed IBM a handsome computer development contract. For a fee of $93 million, IBM's top team of developers are set to spend two years developing a custom "supercomputer." But, as details of the deal are released to the press, it becomes clear that this would be no ordinary supercomputer; rather, IBM is to build the world's speediest computer, capable of finishing tasks 300 times faster than any previous computer.
      The Department of Energy intended to harness the machine's zippy processing power to conduct nuclear test simulations. Though the concept sounded as though it had been ripped from a Tom Clancy novel (the supercomputer even came complete with a stealthy code name, "DOE Option Blue"), the faux weapons tests were in fact a key plank of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The deal also called for the supercomputer to be swiftly converted to civilian duty, to perform tasks including the replication of hurricanes and wind tunnels in tests on space ships and airplanes.
^ 1994 "IBM vice-president" title restricted
      Newspapers report that about 25 IBM executives will be stripped of the prestigious title "IBM vice president" or "IBM senior vice president." The coveted "IBM" would be removed from the titles of any vice presidents who did not hold direct corporate responsibility. An IBM spokesman said the change was part of chairman Lou Gerstner's attempt to shift the focus of IBM executives from internal career concerns to sales and customers.
1994 El presidente de Rusia, Boris Yeltsin, acuerda la retirada de las tropas rusas de Estonia.
1990 Comienza la operación dragón, que pone fin a veinte años de presencia de armas químicas estadounidenses en la RFA.
1990 Americans with Disabilities Act is signed by US president Bush Sr. It forbids on-the-job discrimination against the disabled and mandates accessibility for the disabled to most public places such as restaurants, stores, and businesses. It mandates that public buildings have wheelchair ramps and restrooms equipped for use by the handicapped.
^ 1989 Student indicted for computer virus
      On this day in 1989, a federal grand jury indicted a Cornell University student for releasing a computer virus. Robert Morris, 24, of Arnold, Maryland, was the first person to be prosecuted under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986. Morris had allegedly created a virus that raced across computer networks and shut down computers at NASA, UC Berkeley, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, MIT, and other sites on 02 November 1988. Morris said he had not expected the virus to behave so aggressively and act so quickly. In 1990, a jury found Morris guilty of federal computer tampering; the student was charged a $10'000 fine, and was sentenced to three years of probation and 400 hours of community service.
1984 El Gobierno militar uruguayo rehabilita a la casi totalidad de la izquierda del país, excepto a Wilson Ferreira Aldunate.
1981 NY Mayor Ed Koch is given Heimlich maneuver in a Chinese restaurant
1979 Estimated 109 cm (43") of rain falls in Alvin, TX (national record)
1975 El Movimiento de las Fuerzas Armadas de Portugal acuerda concentrar el poder en un triunvirato formado por el presidente de la República, general Costa e Gomes; el primer ministro, general Vasco Gonçalves, y el general Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho.
1975 Los presidentes de Bolivia, Hugo Banzer, y de Uruguay, Juan María Bordaberry, firman un acta de entendimiento bilateral.
^ 1972 South Vietnamese troops raise flag over Quang Tri
      Although South Vietnamese paratroopers hoist their flag over Quang Tri Citadel, they prove unable to hold the Citadel for long or to secure Quang Tri City. Fighting outside the city remained intense. Farther to the south, South Vietnamese troops under heavy shelling were forced to abandon Fire Base Bastogne, which protected the southwest approach to Hue. North Vietnamese troops had captured Quang Tri City on 01 May as part of their Nguyen Hue Offensive (later called the "Easter Offensive"), a massive invasion by North Vietnamese forces that had been launched on 31 March. The attacking force included 14 infantry divisions and 26 separate regiments, with more than 120'000 soldiers and approximately 1200 tanks and other armored vehicles. The main North Vietnamese objectives, in addition to Quang Tri in the north, were Kontum in the Central Highlands, and An Loc farther to the south. Initially, the South Vietnamese defenders were almost overwhelmed, particularly in the northernmost provinces, where they abandoned their positions in Quang Tri. At Kontum and An Loc, the South Vietnamese were more successful in defending against the attacks, but only after weeks of bitter fighting. Although the defenders suffered heavy casualties, they managed to hold their own with the aid of US advisors and US airpower. Fighting continued all over South Vietnam into the summer months. The heavy fighting would continue in the area of Quang Tri and Hue until September, when the South Vietnamese forces finally succeeded in recapturing Quang Tri. With the communist invasion blunted, President Nixon declared that the South Vietnamese victory proved the viability of his "Vietnamization" program, which he had instituted in 1969 to increase the combat capability of the South Vietnamese armed forces so US troops could be withdrawn.
^ 1968 South Vietnamese opposition leader tried and sentenced
      Truong Dinh Dzu, a candidate who ran on a peace platform in the September 1967 presidential elections in South Vietnam, is sentenced to five years of hard labor for urging the formation of a coalition government as a step toward ending the war. This was the first time that a major political figure was tried and convicted under a 1965 decree that ordered the prosecution of persons "who interfere with the government's struggle against communism."
1965 Republic of Maldives gains independence from Britain (Nat'l Day)
1964 Teamsters president Jimmy Hoffa and six others were convicted of fraud and conspiracy in the handling of a union pension fund.
1961 Cuba unifica todas las fuerzas políticas en el Partido Unido de la Revolución Socialista.
1957 USSR launches 1st intercontinental multistage ballistic missile
^ 1956 Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal
      In Egypt, President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal Company, formerly under joint Anglo-French control, and the Suez Canal Crisis begins. The Suez Canal, which stretches 163 km across the Isthmus of Suez, connecting the Mediterranean and Red seas, was first completed under the direction of French diplomat Ferdinand de Lesseps in 1869.
      The canal rapidly became one of the world's most heavily traveled shipping lanes, and, in 1882, British troops invaded Egypt, beginning a forty-year occupation of the country and a seventy-five-year occupation of the Suez Canal Zone. During the early 1950s, Egyptian nationalists rioted in the Canal Zone and organized attacks on British troops, and on 26 July 1956, Egyptian President Gamal Abdal Nasser nationalizes the canal, and subsequently would bar British, French, and Israeli shipping.
      In response, Israel launched an attack on Egypt and its Arab allies on 29 October. In a lightning attack, Israeli forces under General Moshe Dayan seized the Gaza Strip drove through the Sinai to the east bank of the Suez Canal. Two days later, Britain and France, whose diplomats were expelled from Egypt and ships also barred from the Suez, entered the conflict in a coalition with Israel, demanding the immediate evacuation of Egyptian forces from the Suez Canal. US and UN pressure forced the coalition to halt the hostilities and a UN emergency force was sent to occupy the Canal Zone, eventually leaving the canal in Egypt's hands in the next year.
1953 El Gobierno húngaro disuelve los campos de trabajo y ordena una amplia amnistía.
1948 Succeeding Robert Schuman [29 Jun 1886 – 04 Sep 1963], André Marie [03 Dec 1897 – 12 Jun 1974] becomes Président du Conseil of France. His government will last only until 05 September 1948, when Robert Schuman will again take the post (for only 6 days!)..
1948 Pres Truman issues Executive Order No. 9981 directing "equality of treatment & opportunity" in the armed forces and another one which does the same for federal employees.
^ 1947 Truman signs the National Security Act
      President Harry S. Truman signs the National Security Act, which becomes one of the most important pieces of Cold War legislation. The act established much of the bureaucratic framework for foreign policymaking for the next 40-plus years of the Cold War. By July 1947, the Cold War was in full swing. The United States and the Soviet Union, once allies during World War II, now faced off as ideological enemies. In the preceding months, the administration of President Truman had argued for, and secured, military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey to assist in their struggles against communist insurgents. In addition, the Marshall Plan, which called for billions of dollars in US aid to help rebuild war-torn Western Europe and strengthen it against possible communist aggression, had also taken shape. As the magnitude of the Cold War increased, however, so too did the need for a more efficient and manageable foreign policymaking bureaucracy in the United States. The National Security Act was the solution.
      The National Security Act had three main parts. First, it streamlined and unified the nation's military establishment by bringing together the Navy Department and War Department under a new Department of Defense. This department would facilitate control and utilization of the nation's growing military. Second, the act established the National Security Council (NSC). Based in the White House, the NSC was supposed to serve as a coordinating agency, sifting through the increasing flow of diplomatic and intelligence information in order to provide the president with brief but detailed reports. Finally, the act set up the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The CIA replaced the Central Intelligence Group, which had been established in 1946 to coordinate the intelligence-gathering activities of the various military branches and the Department of State. The CIA, however, was to be much more — it was a separate agency, designed not only to gather intelligence but also to carry out covert operations in foreign nations.
      The National Security Act formally took effect in September 1947. Since that time, the Department of Defense, NSC, and CIA have grown steadily in terms of size, budgets, and power. The Department of Defense, housed in the Pentagon, controls a budget that many Third World nations would envy. The NSC rapidly became not simply an information organizing agency, but one that was active in the formation of foreign policy. The CIA also grew in power over the course of the Cold War, becoming involved in numerous covert operations. Most notable of these was the failed Bay of Pigs operation of 1961, in which Cuban refugees, trained and armed by the CIA, were unleashed against the communist regime of Fidel Castro. The mission was a disaster, with most of the attackers either killed or captured in a short time. Though it had both successes and failures, the National Security Act indicated just how seriously the US government took the Cold War threat.
^ 1945 Winston Churchill resigns
      In the eleventh hour of World War II, Winston Churchill was forced to resign as British prime minister following his party's defeat against the Labour party. The same day, Clement Attlee, the Labour leader, was sworn in as the new British leader. It was the first general election held in Britain in over a decade.
      Born at Blenheim Palace in 1874, Churchill joined the British Fourth Hussars upon his father's death in 1895. Over the next five years, he enjoyed an illustrious military career, serving in India, the Sudan, and South Africa, and distinguishing himself several times in battle. In 1899, he resigned his commission to concentrate on his literary and political career, and in 1900 was elected to Parliament as a Conservative MP from Oldham. In 1904, he joined the Liberals, serving in a number of important posts before being appointed Britain's first lord of the admiralty in 1911, where he worked to bring the British Navy to a readiness for the war that he foresaw. In 1915, in the second year of World War I, Churchill was held responsible for the disastrous Dardanelles and Gallipoli campaigns and he was excluded from the war coalition government.
      However, in 1917, he returned to the politics as a cabinet member in the Liberal government of Lloyd George. From 1919 to 1921 he was secretary of state for war, and in 1924 returned to the Conservative party, where two years later played he a leading role in the defeat of the General Strike of 1926.
      Out of office from 1929 to 1939, Churchill issued unheeded warnings of the threat of Nazi and Japanese aggression. After the outbreak of World War II in Europe, Churchill returned to his post as first lord of the admiralty, and eight months later replaced Neville Chamberlain as prime minister of a new coalition government.
      In the first year of his administration, Britain stood alone against Nazi Germany, and Churchill promised his country and the world that the British people would "never surrender." During World War II, Churchill became the great leader of the Allies, inspiring the Royal Air Force to victory in Battle of Britain, securing US support for the British war effort, devising the successful strategy at El Alamein in North Africa, and forging the grand alliance between Britain, the US, and the USSR that crushed the Axis powers.
      In July of 1945, ten weeks after Germany's defeat, Churchill's Conservative government suffered a defeat against Clement Attlee's Labour party. However, Churchill became leader of the opposition and in 1951 was again elected prime minister. In 1953, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his six-volume historical study of World War II and for his oratory, and in the same year was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II. In 1955, he retired from the post of prime minister, but remained in Parliament until 1964, the year before his death.
1945 Reunión constituyente de las Naciones Unidas en Nueva York.
^ 1942 William Faulkner begins a screenwriting stint
      US novelist and short-story writer (who would receive the 1949 Nobel Prize for Literature) William Faulkner starts a five-month stint with Warner Brothers.
     Born on 25 September 1897 in New Albany, Mississipi, as William Cuthbert Falkner [no U], he died on 06 July 1962, in Byhalia, Mississipi.
      Faulkner had already published several literary novels, including The Sound and the Fury (1929), Light in August (1932), and Absalom, Absalom (1936), but his novels were not commercial successes. Faulkner wrote two critically acclaimed films, both starring Humphrey Bogart: To Have and Have Not was based on an Ernest Hemingway novel, and The Big Sleep was based on a mystery by Raymond Chandler. Screenwriting provided income for many novelists from the 1930s through the 1950s. With the development of talking pictures, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, the demand for writers to create convincing movie dialogue and story lines brought many novelists to Hollywood. Other prominent writers who did their time in Hollywood include Raymond Chandler, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Tennessee Williams, Lillian Hellman, Dorothy Parker, and Nathanael West. West's novel The Day of the Locusts is considered one of the best novels about Hollywood in the '40s.
     Many of Faulkner's stories are set in fictional Yoknapatawpha County .
NOVELS: summaries [YOK] indicates the setting is Yoknapatawpha
Soldiers Pay  (1926)
Mosquitoes  (1927)
[YOK]Sartoris  (1929)
[YOK]The Sound and the Fury  (19291007)
[YOK]As I Lay Dying  (19301006)
[YOK]Sanctuary  (1931)
[YOK]Light in August  (1932)
Pylon  (1935)
[YOK]Absalom, Absalom!  (19361026)
[YOK]The Unvanquished  (1938)
If I Forget Thee Jerusalem [The Wild Palms]  (1939)
[YOK]The Hamlet  (1940)
[YOK]Go Down, Moses  (19420511)
[YOK]Intruder in the Dust  (1948)
[YOK]Requiem for a Nun  (1951)
A Fable  (1954)
[YOK]The Town  (1957)
[YOK]The Mansion  (1959)
[YOK]The Reivers  (1962)
[YOK]Flags in the Dust  (1973)  
New Orleans Sketches
These 13
Doctor Martino and Other Stories
The Portable Faulkner
Knight's Gambit
Collected Stories of William Faulkner
Big Woods: The Hunting Stories
Three Famous Short Novels
Selected Short Stories of William Faulkner
The Wishing Tree
A Faulkner Miscellany
Uncollected Stories of William Faulkner
1942 II Guerra Mundial: La aviación británica bombardea Hamburgo y Duisburg.
^ 1941 United States freezes Japanese assets
      President Franklin Roosevelt seizes all Japanese assets in the United States in retaliation for the Japanese occupation of French Indo-China.
      On 24 July, Tokyo decided to strengthen its position in terms of its invasion of China by moving through Southeast Asia. Given that France had long occupied parts of the region, and Germany, a Japanese ally, now controlled most of France through Petain's puppet government, France "agreed" to the occupation of its Indo-China colonies. Japan followed up by occupying Cam Ranh naval base, 1300 km from the Philippines, where the US had troops, and the British base at Singapore.
     President Roosevelt reacts by freezing all Japanese assets in America. Britain and the Dutch East Indies follow suit. The result: Japan losen access to three-fourths of its overseas trade and 88 percent of its imported oil. Japan's oil reserves were only sufficient to last three years, and only half that time if it went to war and consumed fuel at a more frenzied pace.
      Japan's immediate response was to occupy Saigon, again with Vichy France's acquiescence. If Japan could gain control of Southeast Asia, including Malaya, it could also control the region's rubber and tin production-a serious blow to the West, which imported such materials from the East. Japan was now faced with a dilemma — back off of its occupation of Southeast Asia and hope the oil embargo would be eased — or seize the oil and further antagonize the West, even into war.
1937 Guerra Civil española: concluye la Batalla de Brunete, con el triunfo de las fuerzas nacionales.
1933 Pacificada Cuba, el presidente Gerardo Machado otorga una amnistía y restablece las garantías constitucionales.
1933 El Gobierno del Reich promulga una ley de esterilización con el fin de mejorar la raza alemana.
1922 Francia recibe de la Sociedad de Naciones un mandato sobre Siria e Inglaterra otro sobre Palestina.
1920 The 19th Amendment to the US Constitution, prohibiting discrimination in voting on the basis of sex, is ratified.
1918 Race riot in Philadelphia (3 whites & 1 black killed)
1918 Britain's top war ace, Edward Mannock, is shot down by ground fire on the Western Front.
1914 Sunday : in the war crisis following the June 28 assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand:
  • A copy of the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia is wired to Poincaré aboard the French battle cruiser France. [view text of the ultimatum]
  • Russia enters state of pre-mobilization.
  • Conrad informs Berchtold that he will not be ready for full military action before 15-Aug-1914. Shelling would have to do until then.
  • 1887 1st Esperanto book published
    1886 William Gladstone is replaced by Lord Salisbury as prime minister of England.
    1869 In England, the Disestablishment Bill is passed, officially dissolving the Church of Ireland. (Organized opposition to this legislation coined one of longest words in theEnglish language: antidisestablishmentarianism.)
    1865 Patrick Francis Healy is 1st US Black awarded PhD (Louvain Belgium)
    1864 Union General George Stoneman leaves the Atlanta area with his cavalry forces on the unsuccessful Macon and Andersonville Raid
    1863 John Hunt Morgan & 364 troops surrender at Salineville, Ohio
    1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
    ^ 1863 John Hunt Morgan is captured
          Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and 360 of his men are captured at Salineville, Ohio, during a spectacular raid on the North. Morgan made four major raids on Northern or Northern-held territory starting in July 1862. Although they were of limited strategic significance, they served as a boost to Southern morale and captured much-needed supplies. Morgan's fourth raid began on 02 July 1863, when he and 2400 troopers left Tennessee and headed for the Ohio River. Morgan hoped to divert the attention of William Rosecrans, who was driving for Chattanooga. He reached the river on 08 July, using stolen steamboats to ferry his force across to Indiana.
          For the next two and a half weeks, Morgan rampaged through Indiana and Ohio, feigning toward Cincinnati, then riding across southern Ohio. His force met little resistance, but scattered some local militias who faced them. With Union cavalry in hot pursuit, Morgan headed for Pennsylvania. For more than a week they spent 21 hours per day in the saddle. At Pomeroy, Ohio, Morgan lost over 800 men when the Yankees caught up with him and captured a large part of his force. He and the remaining members of his command were forced further north, and on 26 July the exhausted men were forced to surrender. In the end, only 400 of Morgan's troopers made it safely back to the South. Those captured were scattered around Northern prison camps. Morgan and his officers were sent to the newly opened Ohio State Penitentiary. He and his men tunneled out on 26 November 1863, but he was killed in battle a year later.
    1861 Federals evacuate Fort Fillmore, New Mexico Territory
    1861 George McClellan assumes command of the Army of the Potomac after the disaster at Bull Run five days prior. McClellan built the army into a powerhouse in the winter of 1861-62, although he proved to be a weak field commander.
    1848 The French army suppresses the Paris uprising.
    1848 1st Woman's Rights Convention (Senecca Falls NY)
    1835 1st sugar cane plantation started in Hawaii
    1830 King Charles X of France issues five ordinances limiting the political and civil rights of citizens.
    ^ 1794 — 8 thermidor an II — Le tyran Robespierre a horreur de la tyrannie      
         "Mais elle existe, je vous en atteste, âmes sensibles et pures, elle existe cette passion tendre, impérieuse, irrésistible, tourment et délices des coeurs magnanimes, cette horreur profonde de la tyrannie, ce zèle compatissant pour les opprimés, cet amour sacré de la patrie, cet amour plus sublime et plus saint de l'humanité, sans lequel une grande révolution n'est qu'un crime éclatant qui détruit un autre crime : elle existe cette ambition généreuse de fonder sur la terre la première république du monde, cet égoisme des hommes non dégradés qui trouve une volupté céleste dans le calme d'une conscience pure et dans le spectacle ravissant du bonheur public. Vous la sentez en ce moment qui brûle dans vos âmes ; je la sens dans la mienne". dit Maximilien Robespierre, dans son dernier discours, deux jours avant d'être guillotiné, suite au complot qui le 8 thermidor est ourdi contre lui par Billaud-Varenne, Collot d’Herbois, Barère, Tallien et d’anciens Dantonistes.
    1794 Battle of Fleurus in France. The French defeat an Austrian army.
    1790 US passes Assumption bill making US responsible for state debts
    1790 An attempt at a counter-revolution in France is put down by the National Guard at Lyons.
    1788 New York becomes 11th state to ratify US constitution
    1775 The Continental Congress establishes a postal system for the colonies with Benjamin Franklin as the first postmaster general.
    1759 The French relinquish Fort Ticonderoga in New York to the British under General Jeffrey Amherst.
    1758 British capture France's Fortress of Louisbourg on Ile Royale (Cap Breton Island, Nova Scotia) after a seven-week siege, thus gaining control of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River.
    1603 James VI of Scotland is crowned King James I of England. He then 'authorized'an English translation of the Scriptures, first published in 1611 and known since as the'King James Version' of the Bible.
    1529 Francisco Pizarro receives a royal warrant in Toledo, Spain, to "discover and conquer" Peru. — Capitulación entre Carlos I y Francisco Pizarro por la que éste es nombrado gobernador y capitán general de Nueva Castilla, actual territorio de Perú.
    1526 The Spaniard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon and his colonists leave Santo Domingo in the Caribbean for Florida.
    0920 Los musulmanes de al-Andalus, dirigidos por el emir omeya Abd al-Rahman III, derrotan a las tropas aliadas de Sancho Garcés de Pamplona y Ordoño II de León en la Batalla de Valdejunquera.
    0711 Rodrigo I, rey de los visigodos en España, es derrotado por las tropas árabes que invadían la península en la batalla de Guadalete.
    0657 Battle of Siffin in Mesopotamia: Mu'awiyan defeats Caliph Ali.
    < 25 Jul 27 Jul >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 26 July:

    2006 Kevin Hanson, 39, struck on the head by the metal coupling of a hydraulic hose which bursts in the evening as he works alone taking oil samples deep underground at Centennial Coal's Angus Place Colliery north-west of Lithgow, New South Wales, Australia. He was a contractor employed by Fuchs Lubricants that supplies hydraulic fluid to the mine for use in the operation of heavy equipment. —(060728)
    2005 Juan Zaragoza, by seven 9mm-caliber bullets fired by two attackers on a motorcycle, in the colonia Bachilleres of Apatzingán, Michoacán state, Mexico. He was chief of the Intermunicipal Police of Apatzingán, Parácuaro, Buena Vista, and Aguililla. —(050917)
    2005 Thierry Jean-Pierre (surname: Jean-Pierre), of cancer, born on 27 July 1955, French former juge d'instruction and member of the European Union parliament. On 08 January 1991 his investigation of a workplace death gave him information which led to the investigation, for which he became well known, which he started on 07 April 1991 into the corrupt financing of the socialist party (Affaire Urba) and his 1992 discovery of the corruption of prime minister Pierre Bérégovoy [23 Dec 1925 – 01 May 1993], who died apparently by suicide. Jean-Pierre wrote books about political corruption, including: Bon appétit, Messieurs! (30 Sep 1991), Lettre ouverte à ceux que les petits juges rendent nerveux (04 Nov 1994), Crédit Lyonnais: L'Enquête (Sep 1997), L'Etat en délire (08 Apr 2002), Taïwan connection, scandales et meurtres au coeur de la République (2003), Vergès et Vergès: de l'autre côté du miroir (06 Apr 2000), L'Argent des fonctionnaires (12 Sep 1999), Le droit des plus forts (12 Sep 1999).
    2004 An Iraqi woman, her child, an Iraqi guard, an a suicide car bomber, outside a US base near Mosul, Iraq. Three US soldiers and two Iraqi guards are injured.
    2004 Two bodyguards and Mussab al-Awadi, deputy chief of tribal affairs at the Iraqi Interior Ministry, shot as they left his house in Baghdad.
    2004 Two women who worked as cleaners for US firm Bechtel in Basra, Iraq, shot as, with three other cleaner women, of which two are wounded, they were on their way to work. The lone unhurt of the five is Montaha Khalil, who played dead.
    2003 John William Higham, of a cerebral aneurysm, US cultural historian born on 26 October 1920. Author of Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860-1925 (1955) — From boundlessness to consolidation; the transformation of American culture, 1848-1860 (1969) — History: Professional Scholarship in America (1983) — The Reconstruction of American History (1962) — Writing American history; essays on modern scholarship (1970) — Norwegian-American Studies — Pebbles from the Path: A Guide to Meditation and Visions — Send These to Me: Jews and Other Immigrants in Urban America (1975) — Indian Princess and Roman Goddess: The First Female Symbols of America — Hanging Together: Unity and Diversity in American Culture (2001)
    Cassandra Williamson2003 Pfc. Wilfredo Perez Jr., 24, and two other US soldiers, by grenade attack while they were guarding a children's hospital in Baquouba, Irak.
    2002 Elazar Leibovitz, 21; Rabbi Yosef Dickstein, 45, his wife Hannah Dickstein, 42, and their son Shuv'el Zion Dickstein, 9; and shot in their cars, at about 18:00, by gunmen in ambush at the Zif Junction (3 km north of the Carmel enclave settlement in the West Bank), who fire on the car driven by Staff Sergeant Leibovitz, from the Jewish enclave Avraham Aveinu in Hebron, then shoot at the car of the Dicksteins from Psagot (wounding Shlomo Dickstein, 12, and his brother, Shirel Dickstein, 18 months).
    2002 Cassandra “Casey” Williamson, born in November 1995 [photo >], murdered at 07:20 by Johnny Johnson, 24, a drifter and a burglar on probation, who at 07:15 takes her away riding on his back from the kitchen of the Valley Park (25 km west of St. Louis) home (while her father had gone to the bathroom) where he, Cassandra, both her separated parents (Ernie and Angela Williamson), and her three siblings had spent the night (the home of a friend who shares it with Ernie, across the street from the home of Cassandra's grandma where Angela and the children live). Johnson attempts rape, kills the girl with blows to the head, hides her body in an abandoned factory little more than 1 km away from her home, goes swimming in the nearby Meramec River, and returns to the vicinity of the home by 07:45, where the police, by now searching for Cassandra, start questioning him. He eventually confesses and the body (stripped of the nightgown she was wearing) is found at about 15:00.
    2002 Tashima “Tata” Billingslea, 7, after being repeatedly stabbed with a kitchen knife at 11:30, in her basement apartment in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, by her quarreling mother Yolanda Billingslea, 27, high on drugs, who had recently lost her job at cable television provider RCN, and had argued with the girl's father the previous evening. Yolanda then stabs 15 times a friend, Iashia Byrd, 24, (who tried to protect Tashima) pursuing her onto the sidewalk. Yolanda drops the knife when a passer-by throws a crate at her. She goes back inside and stabs herself with scissors.
    2002 Daniella Torres, 4, shot at 21:50 while watching TV in her apartment at 21st Avenue and Lincoln Street, by four men armed with a rifle and a handgun.
    2001 Syafiuddin Kartasasmita, Indonesian Supreme Court judge, shot by four men on motorcycles. On 7 August 2001, Rolan and Noval confess to being two of them, acting for the son of former dictator Suharto, "Tommy" Hutomo Mandala Putra, 38, a fugitive since November 2000, two months after the judge sentenced him to 18 months in prison for a multimillion-dollar land scam. Tommy lent them a Beretta 9 mm pistol. After they shot the judge they gave the gun back to Tommy and he paid them $10'500."
    1998 Jesús Manuel Serrano, Colombian Catholic priest, shot by two gunmen.
    El 26 de julio de 1998, el sacerdote Jesús Manuel Serrano fue asesinado a balazos por dos delincuentes.
    1987 Más de mil personas en una ola de calor sahariano que afecta al sur de Europa.
    1986 Averell Harriman, 94. statesman, in Yorktown Heights, NY
    1959 Manuel Altolaguirre, poeta español.
    1956: 51 die as Italian Line ocean liner Andrea Doria is rammed by liner Stockholm and sinks in Long Island Sound.
    1953 Dozens of dead in failed attack on Moncada Barracks in Santiago de Cuba by Fidel and Raul Castro, who are taken prisoner. It is the beginning of the Castro revolution against Fulgencio Batista.— 30 de los rebeldes encabezado por Fidel Castro, en su asalto frustrado al cuartel Moncada, cercano a Santiago de Cuba, para derrocar al dictador Fulgencio Batista.
    1953 Nikólaos Plastíras born on 14 November 1883, Greek general who (while a colonel) forced the second abdication of King Constantine I of Greece [02 Aug 1868 – 11 Jan 1923] (ruled 06 Mar 1913 - 12 Jun 1917 and 1920 - 27 Sep 1922) on 27 September 1922. Plastíras was Prime Minister 03 Jan 1945 - 09 Apr 1945, 15 Apr 1950 - 21 Aug 1950, 01 Nov 1951 - 11 Oct 1952.
    1952 Eva “Evita” Duarte de Perón, of cancer, Argentina's 1st lady, in Buenos Aires. She was born on 07 May 1919.
    ^ 1950 Hundreds of Korean civilians at No Gun Ri, massacred by US troops, it is alleged,. during this day and the two following days, when a column of refugees was strafed from the air.
         South Korea and US defense officials undertook parallel investigations into the alleged mass killings after the Associated Press reported in September 1999 that hundreds of Korean refugees were gunned down by US soldiers under a railroad bridge on 26 July 1950. Local reports said the main issues of contention were how many civilians had been killed in the incident, whether financial compensation should be offered to the victims and whether the US military had ordered the shootings. South Korean investigators determined 248 people were killed, wounded or missing with about 170 of them killed. Relatives of some of the victims estimate 300 were killed by ground troops and 100 others died in an attack by US aircraft.
          The Washington Post
    , citing a Pentagon report “to be released soon”, reported, on 6 December 2000, that members of the US 7th Cavalry Regiment opened fire on unarmed refugees in the midst of a chaotic retreat, fearing North Korean infiltrators were passing through their lines. According to the Pentagon's report (see below), the US investigators found no conclusive evidence that the soldiers had orders to open fire, and were unable to determine exactly how many civilians died in the incident, the newspaper said.
          The Pentagon notified Seoul that the Post report does not represent the US government's official position. Anti-US feelings have recently increased in South Korea, a strong US ally, because of some crimes committed by US GIs, and environmental problems caused by US troops. More than 200 civic group members and the massacre survivors held an anti-US rally on 6 December 2000 in front of the War Memorial, chanting slogans such as ''Yankee go home,'' and blowing whistles. The protesters demanded that the US government reveal the truth about No Gun Ri. US-led United Nations Forces fought against Chinese-backed North Korea in the Korean war... uh ... “police action” (as the US called it at the time), which ended in an armed truce that has yet to be replaced by a peace agreement. The US maintains 37'000 troops at more than 90 military bases and installations throughout South Korea.
         The Pentagon investigation concluded that US soldiers panicked and shot a crowd of unarmed refugees near No Gun Ri village in the Korean War, but found no conclusive evidence that they had orders to open fire, a US defense official said on 6 December 2000. The Pentagon's still-unpublished draft report, based on more than 100 interviews with US veterans and a review of more than a million pages of documents, would be the first formal acknowledgment by the US military of its involvement in the massacre at No Gun Ri.
          The massacre occurred after members of the US 7th Cavalry Regiment, in the midst of a chaotic retreat and fearing North Korean infiltrators were passing through their lines, opened fire on refugees under a railroad bridge on 26 July 1950. The draft report, first reported by The Washington Post, says that Army investigators were unable to determine exactly how many civilians died in the incident. While the report comes to no conclusion about the number of people killed at No Gun Ri, members of the advisory panel said they believed the number probably was between 50 and 300. Relatives of some of the victims have estimated that 300 were killed by ground troops and that 100 others died in an attack by US aircraft.
         Defense Secretary William Cohen, who ordered the probe after the Associated Press reported the massacre in a Pulitzer Prize-winning article in September 1999, hoped it could be concluded before he leaves office on Jan. 20, the official said.
         In the spring of 2000, one of the key sources for the AP story was found to have fabricated his account, and some other veterans quoted by the AP acknowledged that their memories may have been faulty. Those revelations called into question whether US soldiers actually shot “hundreds” of civilians on orders from their superiors, as some of the veterans originally asserted. One member of the advisory panel, former Rep. Pete McCloskey, a California Republican, said: “There is no question that there were orders.”
          On 30 May 2006 AP reported on undated new evidence that a massacre of civilians in the early days of the Korean War resulted from policy, not panic. A letter dated the day that scores of civilians were shot by US troops at No Gun Ri in 1950 shows they were under orders to shoot civilians who approached US lines. A letter from the US ambassador to South Korea, written to superiors in Washington, said that if refugees appear from the north, they would be given warning shots, and if they persist, “will be shot.” The letter only recently came to light, and is the first evidence of a general policy to shoot civilians.
         The letter--dated the day of the Army's mass killing of South Korean refugees at No Gun Ri in 1950--is the strongest indication yet that such a policy existed for all U.S. forces in Korea, and the first evidence that that policy was known to upper ranks of the U.S. government. "If refugees do appear from north of US lines they will receive warning shots, and if they then persist in advancing they will be shot," Ambassador John Muccio wrote in his message to Assistant Secretary of State Dean Rusk, who later was secretary of state during the Vietnam War. The letter reported on decisions made at a high-level meeting in South Korea on July 25, 1950, the night before the 7th U.S. Cavalry Regiment shot the refugees at No Gun Ri. Estimates vary on the number of dead at No Gun Ri. American soldiers' estimates ranged from less than 100 to "hundreds" dead; Korean survivors say about 400, mostly women and children, were killed at the village 100 miles southeast of Seoul. Hundreds more refugees were killed in later, similar episodes, survivors say. The No Gun Ri killings were documented in a Pulitzer Prize-winning story by The Associated Press in 1999, which prompted a 16-month Pentagon inquiry. The Pentagon concluded that the No Gun Ri shootings, which lasted three days, were "an unfortunate tragedy"--"not a deliberate killing." It suggested that panicky soldiers, acting without orders, opened fire because they feared that an approaching line of families, baggage and farm animals concealed enemy troops. But Muccio's letter indicates the actions of the 7th Cavalry were consistent with policy, adopted because of concern that North Koreans would infiltrate via refugee columns. And in subsequent months, U.S. commanders repeatedly ordered refugees shot, documents show. The Muccio letter, declassified in 1982, is discussed in a new book by American historian Sahr Conway-Lanz. "With this additional piece of evidence, the Pentagon report's interpretation [of No Gun Ri] becomes difficult to sustain," Conway-Lanz argues in his book, "Collateral Damage." The Army report's own list of sources for the 1999-2001 investigation shows its researchers reviewed microfilm containing the Muccio letter. But the 300-page report did not mention it. Asked about that, Pentagon spokeswoman Betsy Weiner would say only that the Army inspector general's report was "an accurate and objective portrayal of the available facts." No Gun Ri survivors said U.S. soldiers first forced them from nearby villages on July 25, 1950, and then stopped them in front of U.S. lines the next day when they were attacked without warning by aircraft as hundreds sat atop a railroad embankment. Troops of the 7th Cavalry followed with ground fire as survivors took shelter under a railroad bridge.
    From US Army NO GUN RI REVIEW released 11 January 2001:
         The Korean villagers stated that on 25 July 1950, US soldiers evacuated approximately 500 to 600 villagers from their homes in Im Gae Ri and Joo Gok Ri. The villagers said the US soldiers escorted them towards the south. Later that evening, the US soldiers led the villagers near a riverbank at Ha Ga Ri and ordered them to stay there that night. During the night, the villagers witnessed a long parade of US troops and vehicles moving towards Pusan. On the morning of 26 July 1950, the villagers continued south along the Seoul-Pusan road. According to their statements, when the villagers reached the vicinity of No Gun Ri, US soldiers stopped them at a roadblock and ordered the group onto the railroad tracks, where the soldiers searched them and their personal belongings. The Koreans state that, although the soldiers found no prohibited items (such as weapons or other military contraband), the soldiers ordered an air attack upon the villagers via radio communications with US aircraft. Shortly afterwards, planes flew over and dropped bombs and fired machine guns, killing approximately 100 villagers on the railroad tracks. Those villagers who survived sought protection in a small culvert underneath the railroad tracks. The US soldiers drove the villagers out of the culvert and into the larger double tunnels nearby (this report subsequently refers to these tunnels as the “double railroad overpass”). The Koreans state that the US soldiers then fired into both ends of the tunnels over a period of four days (26 July to 29 July 1950), resulting in approximately 300 additional deaths.
    1945 Josefa María “María Piera” de Micheli [11 Nep 1890–], Italian Sister of the Congregation of the Immaculate Conception of Buenos Aires. On 19 May 2008 a Vatican decree recognized her heroic virtues. —(080522)
    1941 Marx Dormoy French socialist, killed by a time bomb
    1941 Henri Lebesgue, mathematician who formulated the theory of measure in 1901 and the following year he gave the definition of the Lebesgue integral that generalizes the notion of the Riemann integral.
    ^ 1932 Frederick S. Duesenberg, in Johnstown, Pennsylvania.
         He dies of complications from injuries suffered in an automobile accident on 2 July 1932.
          Frederick and his brother Augie created the Duesenberg Automobile and Motors Company. Born in Lippe, Germany, Frederick moved to the US in 1885. In 1897 he started a bicycle business, and in 1899 he built a highly efficient gasoline engine to be used for motorcycles. This was the beginning of his automotive career. He took a job with the Rambler Motor Company and worked there, learning the business, until 1905, when he convinced his brother Augie to go into business selling engines.
          The two brothers designed the Mason engine, with its famous “walking beam” overhead valve design, and started the Mason Motor Car Company, and when they sold the business in 1913, they were mature players in the automotive industry. In 1913, the brothers opened a business in St. Paul, Minnesota, building engines for cars, boats, and airplanes. The Duesenbergs spent much of the next ten years developing a high-performance straight-eight engine for luxury cars.
          In 1920, they opened Duesenberg Motors in order to release the Duesenberg Model A, the first car equipped with both a straight-eight and hydraulic front-wheel brakes. In spite of the car’s quality, the Model A floundered in sales and the company failed in 1924 without ever having got off the ground. Financier E.L. Cord entered the scene, purchasing and financing Duesenberg Motors while allowing the brothers to continue their work.
          In the mid-1920s Duesenberg made handcrafted, extremely powerful luxury cars. The Model J, the company’s flagship car, boasted a 265-horsepower engine and could cost up to $25'000 with a custom body. Duesenberg ran simple ads, exhibiting no pictures of their cars while the text read, “He drives a Duesenberg.” But the pinch of the Depression doomed Duesenberg’s future as a luxury car manufacturer. Then in 1932, Frederick died, ending the brothers’ career together as innovators. In 1937 Cord’s empire collapsed and the Duesenberg Company disappeared.
    1932 Kellogg, mathematician
    ^ 1925 William Jennings Bryan:
          5 days after his legal victory and ideological defeat in the infamous "Monkey Trial," three-time presidential candidate and fundamentalist hero William Jennings Bryan lies down for a Sunday afternoon nap, in , Dayton, Tennessee, and never wakes up. Bryan dominated the Democratic party in turn-of-the-century US, and in 1913, was appointed secretary of state by President Woodrow Wilson [28 Dec 1856 – 03 Feb 1924]. However, two years later, Bryan resigned this post when Wilson's policies conflicted with his pacifist beliefs. He later became an advocate of Christian Fundamentalism, and argued against the teaching of evolution in the widely publicized Scopes trial. The defense ridiculed his literal interpretation of the Bible.
         Born on 18 March 1860 in Salem, Illinois, Bryan was a Democratic and Populist leader and a magnetic orator who ran unsuccessfully three times for the US presidency (1896, 1900, 1908). His enemies regarded him as an ambitious demagogue, but his supporters viewed him as a champion of liberal causes. He was influential in the eventual adoption of such reforms as popular election of senators, income tax, creation of a Department of Labor, Prohibition, and woman suffrage. Throughout his career, his Midwestern roots clearly identified him with agrarian interests, in opposition to those of the urban East. Reared in Illinois, Bryan practiced law at Jacksonville (1883–87) before moving to Lincoln, Nebraska, where he was elected to the US Congress in 1890. Renowned as a gifted debater, he opposed high tariffs and came to be considered the national leader of the Free Silver Movement (bimetallism) as opposed to the “hard money” policy of the Eastern bankers and industrialists, who favored the gold standard. Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born on 28 December 1856, in Staunton, Virginia, and died on 03 February 1924, in Washington DC. He was 28th president of the United States (1913–21), a US scholar and statesman best remembered for his legislative accomplishments and his high-minded idealism. Wilson led his country into World War I and became the creator and leading advocate of the League of Nations, for which he was awarded the 1919 Nobel Prize for Peace. During his second term the Nineteenth Amendment to the US Constitution, giving women the right to vote, was passed and ratified. He suffered a paralytic stroke while seeking US public support for the Treaty of Versailles (October 1919), and his incapacity, which lasted for the rest of his term of office, caused the worst crisis of presidential disability in US history.
    1925 Gottlob Frege, mathematician who was one of the founders of modern symbolic logic putting forward the view that mathematics is reducible to logic.
    1921 El comandante Vázquez y 15 hombres más, últimos heroicos defensores de la posición de Sidi-Dris, durante la Guerra de Marruecos.
    1919 Sir Edward John James Poynter, English Classicist painter born on 20 March 1836. — MORE ON POYNTER AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1918 Carlos Guido Spano, poeta argentino.
    1909 Los muertos del primer día de la Semana Trágica de Barcelona, al cabo de la cual el Ejército sofocó la sangrienta revuelta.
    1863 Sam Houston, 70. He had been president of Texas after leading the Texans to victory in their struggle for independence against Mexico in 1837. Houston had opposed Texas' secession from the Union.
    1844 John Dalton, químico inglés.
    1802 Rose Adélaïde Ducreux, French Neoclassical painter, born in 1761. — link to an image.
    1728 Paolo di Matteis, Italian painter born on 09 February 1662.. — link to images.
    1702 Vincent Laurenszoon van der Vinne, Dutch or Flemish painter born on 11 October 1629 — MORE ON VAN DER VINNE AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1671 Cornelis Baellieur, Flemish painter born on 05 February 1607. — more
    1533 Atahualpa, último emperador inca.
    < 25 Jul 27 Jul >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 26 July:

    1947 US Department of Defense established by the National Security Act.
    1947 The CIA is created by the National Security Act.
    ^ 1940 Mary Jo Kopechne, who would become well known almost 29 years later, when she drowned at Chappaquiddick      
          On 18 July 1969, after leaving a party on Chappaquiddick Island, Mary Jo was riding in a car driven by Senator Edward M. Kennedy of Massachusetts when he took a sharp right turn off the paved road and plunged off the narrow Dike Bridge into a pond. Kennedy, suffering a mild concussion, managed to escape the automobile, Mary Jo Kopechne, drowned in the back seat of the overturned car. The senator did not report her death nor the accident for ten hours.
          In the evening of 18 July 1969, while most people in the US were at home watching television reports on the progress of Apollo 11, a party was being held on Chappaquiddick Island for volunteers who had worked on the presidential campaign of late Senator Robert F. Kennedy. A Kennedy cousin who owned a summer home on the affluent island off Cape Cod, Massachusetts, was hosting the gathering, which was marred only by the sad memory of Bobby Kennedy's assassination the year before.
          In attendance was Mary Jo Kopechne, a young woman who had once thought of becoming a nun before becoming interested in politics and working on Bobby's campaign. Also in attendance was Senator Ted Kennedy, Bobby's younger brother and a likely candidate for the US presidency in 1972. At about 23:00, Mary Jo got into an Oldsmobile with Kennedy, apparently en route to the ferry landing for a return trip to Martha's Vineyard. While driving down the main roadway, Kennedy took a sharp turn onto a dirt road and the car plunged into a pond.
          Why he took the turn and what happened next is not entirely clear, but Kopeche drowned, Kennedy survived, and then he left the scene of the accident. It is likely that the senator was drunk and dazed and sought the advice of family and friends, but some saw more sinister implications in the fact that he did not report the death for ten hours. Was the delay, some speculated, the result of an effort to protect Kennedy from any criminal charges? Was Kennedy simply attempting to sleep off an excess of alcohol in his system, or was he perhaps planning to claim that Kopechne had died alone, instead of in suspicious circumstances with a married senator?
          Kennedy finally reported the accident the morning of 19 July, and, on 25 July, he pleaded guilty to leaving the scene of an accident, received a two-month suspended sentence, and had his driver's license suspended for a year. That evening, in a televised statement, he called the delayed reporting of the accident "indefensible," but vehemently denied that he been involved in any improprieties with Kopechne. He also asked his constituents to help him decide whether to continue his political career. Receiving a positive response, he resumed his senatorial duties at the end of a month. Although the incident on Chappaquiddick Island derailed his presidential hopes forever, Kennedy continued to serve as a Massachusetts senator into the twenty-first century.
    1929 Jean Shepherd humorist (Playboy satire Award 1966, 1967, 1969)
    1926 Ana María Matute, escritora española.
    ^ 1908 Office of the Chief Examiner (future FBI).
          The Office of the Chief Examiner, an organization that would later become the Bureau of Investigation and then the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), is created by US Attorney General Charles J. Bonaparte. Meant to serve as the investigative arm of the Department of Justice, the Bureau of Investigation was initially opposed by Congress, who feared that its extensive powers could lead to abuse of power. During and after World War I, the Bureau investigated draft resisters, violators of the Espionage Act of 1917, and immigrants suspected of radicalism.
          J. Edgar Hoover, a lawyer and former librarian, joined the Department of Justice in 1917, and within two years had become special assistant to Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. Deeply anti-radical in his ideology, Hoover came to the forefront of federal law enforcement during the so-called "Red Scare" of 1919 to 1920. Hoover set up a card index system listing every radical leader, organization, and publication in the United States, and by 1921 had amassed some 450'000 files. More than ten thousand suspected Communists were also arrested during this period, although the vast majority of these people were briefly questioned and then released. Although the attorney general was criticized for abusing his authority during the so-called "Palmer Raids," Hoover emerged unscathed, and on 10 May 1924, was appointed acting director of the Bureau of Investigation.
          During the 1920s, with congressional approval, Director Hoover drastically restructured and expanded the Bureau. He built the corruption-ridden agency into an efficient crime-fighting machine, establishing a centralized fingerprint file, a crime laboratory, and a training school for agents. In the 1930s, the Bureau of Investigation launched a dramatic battle against the epidemic of organized crime brought on by Prohibition. Notorious gangsters such as George "Machine Gun" Kelly and John Dillinger met their ends looking down the barrels of Bureau-issued guns, while others, like Louis "Lepke" Buchalter, the elusive head of Murder, Incorporated, were successfully investigated and prosecuted by Hoover's "G-men." Hoover, who had a keen eye for public relations, participated himself in a number of these widely publicized arrests, and the Federal Bureau of Investigations, as it was known after 1935, was highly regarded by Congress and the US public.
          With the outbreak of World War II, Hoover revived his anti-espionage techniques developed during the first Red Scare, and domestic wiretaps and other electronic surveillance expanded dramatically. After World War II, Hoover focused on the threat of radical, especially Communist, subversion. The FBI compiled files on millions of US citizens suspected of dissident activity, and Hoover worked closely with the House Un-American Activities Committee and Senator Joseph McCarthy, the architect of America's second Red Scare.
          In 1956, Hoover initiated COINTELPRO, a secret counter-intelligence program that initially targeted the US Communist Party but later was expanded to infiltrate and disrupt any radical organization in America. During the 1960s, the immense resources of COINTELPRO were used against dangerous groups such as the Ku Klux Klan, but also against African-American civil rights organizations and liberal anti-war organizations. One figure especially targeted was civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr., who endured systematic harassment from the FBI, including the leaking of sensitive information gathered by the FBI to his enemies in Memphis, Tennessee, and elsewhere.
          By the time Hoover entered service under his eighth president in 1969, the media, the public, and Congress had grown suspicious of the FBI's abuses of authority. For the first time in his bureaucratic career, Hoover endured widespread criticism and Congress responded by passing laws requiring Senate confirmation of future FBI directors and limiting their tenure to ten years.
          On 02 May 1972, with the Watergate affair about to explode on to the national stage, J. Edgar Hoover died of heart disease at the age of seventy-seven. The Watergate affair subsequently revealed that the FBI had illegally protected President Richard Nixon from investigation, and the agency was thoroughly investigated by Congress. Revelations of the FBI's abuses of power and unconstitutional surveillance motivated Congress and the media to become more vigilant in future monitoring the FBI.
         The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is born when US Attorney General Charles Bonaparte orders a group of newly hired federal investigators to report to Chief Examiner Stanley W. Finch of the Department of Justice. One year later, the Office of the Chief Examiner was renamed the Bureau of Investigation, and in 1935 it became the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
          When the Department of Justice was created in 1870 to enforce federal law and coordinate judicial policy, it had no permanent investigators on its staff. At first, it hired private detectives when it needed federal crimes investigated and later rented out investigators from other federal agencies, such as the Secret Service, which was created by the Department of the Treasury in 1865 to investigate counterfeiting. In the early part of the 20th century, the attorney general was authorized to hire a few permanent investigators, and the Office of the Chief Examiner, which consisted mostly of accountants, was created to review financial transactions of the federal courts.
          Seeking to form an independent and more efficient investigative arm, in 1908 the Department of Justice hired 10 former Secret Service employees to join an expanded Office of the Chief Examiner. The date when these agents reported to duty — 26 July 1908 — is celebrated as the birthday of the FBI. By March 1909, the force included 34 agents, and Attorney General George Wickersham, Bonaparte's successor, renamed it the Bureau of Investigation.
          The federal government used the bureau as a tool to investigate criminals who evaded prosecution by passing over state lines, and within a few years the number of agents had grown to more than 300. The agency was opposed by some in Congress, who feared that its growing authority could lead to abuse of power. With the entry of the United States into World War I in 1917, the bureau was given responsibility in investigating draft resisters, violators of the Espionage Act of 1917, and immigrants suspected of radicalism.
          Meanwhile, J. Edgar Hoover, a lawyer and former librarian, joined the Department of Justice in 1917 and within two years had become special assistant to Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. Deeply anti-radical in his ideology, Hoover came to the forefront of federal law enforcement during the so-called "Red Scare" of 1919 to 1920. He set up a card index system listing every radical leader, organization, and publication in the United States and by 1921 had amassed some 450'000 files. More than 10'000 suspected communists were also arrested during this period, but the vast majority of these people were briefly questioned and then released. Although the attorney general was criticized for abusing his power during the so-called "Palmer Raids," Hoover emerged unscathed, and on 10 May 1924, he was appointed acting director of the Bureau of Investigation. During the 1920s, with Congress' approval, Director Hoover drastically restructured and expanded the Bureau of Investigation. He built the agency into an efficient crime-fighting machine, establishing a centralized fingerprint file, a crime laboratory, and a training school for agents. In the 1930s, the Bureau of Investigation launched a dramatic battle against the epidemic of organized crime brought on by Prohibition. Notorious gangsters such as George "Machine Gun" Kelly and John Dillinger met their ends looking down the barrels of bureau-issued guns, while others, like Louis "Lepke" Buchalter, the elusive head of Murder, Inc., were successfully investigated and prosecuted by Hoover's "G-men." Hoover, who had a keen eye for public relations, participated in a number of these widely publicized arrests, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, as it was known after 1935, became highly regarded by Congress and the US public. With the outbreak of World War II, Hoover revived the anti-espionage techniques he had developed during the first Red Scare, and domestic wiretaps and other electronic surveillance expanded dramatically.
          After World War II, Hoover focused on the threat of radical, especially communist, subversion. The FBI compiled files on millions of US citizens suspected of dissident activity, and Hoover worked closely with the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) and Senator Joseph McCarthy, the architect of the US's second Red Scare. In 1956, Hoover initiated COINTELPRO, a secret counterintelligence program that initially targeted the US Communist Party but later was expanded to infiltrate and disrupt any radical organization in America. During the 1960s, the immense resources of COINTELPRO were used against dangerous groups such as the Ku Klux Klan but also against African American civil rights organizations and liberal anti-war organizations. One figure especially targeted was civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr., who endured systematic harassment from the FBI. By the time Hoover entered service under his eighth president in 1969, the media, the public, and Congress had grown suspicious that the FBI might be abusing its authority. For the first time in his bureaucratic career, Hoover endured widespread criticism, and Congress responded by passing laws requiring Senate confirmation of future FBI directors and limiting their tenure to 10 years. On 02 May 1972, with the Watergate affair about to explode onto the national stage, J. Edgar Hoover died of heart disease at the age of 77. The Watergate affair subsequently revealed that the FBI had illegally protected President Richard Nixon from investigation, and the agency was thoroughly investigated by Congress. Revelations of the FBI's abuses of power and unconstitutional surveillance motivated Congress and the media to become more vigilant in the future monitoring of the FBI.
    1908 Salvador Allende Gossens, Chile's last elected president before Pinochet(1970-73)
    1903 Mahler, mathematician
    1895 Robert Graves, poet and novelist who wrote I Claudius
    1895 Jankel Adler, Polish artist who died in 1949.
    1894 Aldous Huxley England, author (Brave New World)
    1893 George Grosz, German painter who died on 06 July 1959.MORE ON GROSZ AT ART “4” JULY 06 with links to images.
    1892 Pearl S Buck US, novelist (The Good Earth)
    1875 Dr. Carl Gustav Jung Switzerland, founded analytic psychology, identified the introvert and extrovert types.
    1875 Antonio Machado, poeta español.
    (or 26 June?) 1870 Ignacio Zuloaga y Zabaleta, Basque artist who died on 31 October 1945. — Ignacio Zuloaga, herriak emandako pertsonaia ezagunena. Pintore moduan, zeharo espainola: toreroak eta señoritak marrazten nabarmendu zen. Bere pintura tonu ilunegatik eta bere lanean eratutako errealismo handiagatik bereizten da. MORE ON ZULOAGA AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    ^ 1856 George Bernard Shaw , dramatist, critic, social reformer      
          Shaw is born in Dublin, Ireland, and left school at the age of 14 to work in a land agent's office. In 1876, he quit and moved to London, where his mother, a music teacher, had settled. He worked various jobs while trying to write plays. He began publishing book reviews and art and music criticism in 1885. Meanwhile, he became a committed reformer and an active force in the newly established Fabian Society, a group of middle-class socialists. His first play, Widowers' House, was produced in 1892.
          Shaw became the theater critic for the Saturday Review in 1895, and his reviews over the next several years helped shape the development of drama. In 1898, he published Plays Pleasant and Unpleasant, which contained Arms and the Man, The Man of Destiny, and other dramas. In 1904, Man and Superman was produced.
          On 28 October 1905, Shaw's play Mrs. Warren's Profession, which dealt frankly with prostitution, was performed at the Garrick Theater in New York. The play, Shaw's second, had been banned in Britain. After only one performance, puritanical authorities in New York had the play closed. On October 31, the producer and players were arrested for obscenity, but a court case against the play failed to convict playwright, producer, or actors. Although some private productions were held, the show wasn't legally performed in Britain until 1926.
          In his work, Shaw supported socialism and decried the abuses of capitalism, the degradation of women, and the ill effects of poverty, violence, and war. His writing was filled with humor, wit and sparkle, as well as reformist messages.
          His play Pygmalion, produced in 1912, later became the hit musical and movie My Fair Lady. In 1925, Shaw won the Nobel Prize for literature and used the substantial prize money to start an Anglo-Swedish literary society. He advocated the simplification of English spelling (which in its present form could spell "ghoti" for "fish"). He lived simply, abstained from alcohol, caffeine, and meat, declined most honors and awards, and continued writing into his 90s. He produced more than 40 plays before his 02 November 1950 death.

  • Man and Superman
  • Man and Superman
  • Pygmalion
  • You Never Can Tell
  • Misalliance
  • Mrs. Warren's Profession
  • Mrs. Warren's Profession
  • Major Barbara, with an Essay as First Aid to Critics
  • The Perfect Wagnerite: A Commentary on the Niblung's Ring
  • An Unsocial Socialist
  • ^ 1847 Liberia
         Liberia declares independence from American Colonization Society, the first African colony to become an independent state.
         The Republic of Liberia, formerly a colony of the American Colonization Society, proclaims its independence. Under pressure from Great Britain, the United States hesitantly accepts Liberian autonomy, making the West African nation the first independent democratic republic in African history. A Liberian constitution modeled after the US Constitution was approved, and in 1848, Joseph Jenkins Roberts was elected the country's first president.
          The American Colonization Society was founded in 1816 by Robert Finley of the US to return freed US slaves to Africa. In 1820, the first former slaves arrived at the British colony of Sierra Leone from the United States, and in the next year, the American Colonization Society founded the colony of Liberia south of Sierra Leone as a homeland for former slaves outside of British jurisdiction.
          Most Blacks in the US were not enthusiastic to abandon their native lands in the US for the West African coast. The American Colonization Society also came under attack from US abolitionists, who charged that the removal of freed slaves from the US strengthened the institution of slavery.
          However, between 1822 and the US Civil War, some 15'000 US Blacks settled in Liberia. Liberia, which was involved in efforts to end the West African slave trade, was granted official US diplomatic recognition in 1862.
    FONDATION de la République du LIBÉRIA La constitution de ce petit pays africain, sur la côte Ouest, s'inspire de celle des États Unis. Cette république a été fondée par les esclaves noirs libérés par abolition de l'esclavage en Angleterre (1833) et aux États Unis (1865). Le Libéria s'étend sur 110'000 kilomètres carrés.
    1846 Hermann Kaulbach, German artist who died on 09 December 1909.
    1829 Auguste Beernaert Belgium (Nobel Peace Prize-1909)
    1800 Octave Nicolas François Tassaert, French painter and printmaker who died on 24 April 1874. — more
    1796 George Catlin US, author / painter portraits and of Western US and Amerindian scenes. He died in 1872. — Reproductions of paintings by CATLIN ONLINE: LINKSFire in a Missouri Meadow and a Party of Sioux Indians Escaping from It, Upper Missouri (1871) — Catlin and Indian Attacking a BuffaloThe Dakota Chief One~HornBear DanceSun DanceDog Feastunnamed (Chief Painted Face)Buffalo Bull: A Grand Pawnee Warrior (Three Amerindians) Buffalos Fighting in the Running SeasonBull Buffalo GrazingJames Porter Clark
    1749 John “Warwick” Smith, English painter who died on 22 March 1831. — more with links to images.
    1739 George Clinton, NY, (D-R) 4th VP (1805-1812). On 20 Apr 1812, he became the first US Vice-President to die in office.
    Holidays Athens, Texas : Black-Eyed Peas Jamboree starts (07181986) / Cuba : Anniversary of Moncada Barracks attack (1953) / Liberia : Independence Day (1847) / Maldives : National Day (1965) / New York : Ratification Day (1788) / Sweden : Bellman Day- honoring Carl Michael Bellman

    Religious Observances RC : St Bartolomea Capitania, Italian foundress / RC : SS Joachim & Anne, parents of Virgin Mary / Santos Joaquín y Ana, padres de la Virgen María; Doroteo y Jacinto y santas Exuperia, Ciriaca, Eusebia y Cristina.
    DICTIONNAIRE TICRANIEN GÉOGRAPHIQUE FRANÇAIS-ANGLAIS: LANGUEDOC: ce qu'un enfant appelle un cygne ou une oie, quand c'est la première fois qu'il voit un de ces oiseaux, et qu'il ne connait que les canards. Exemples: (1) DANSER LANGUEDOC, C'EST GOUSSE: ne dit pas “long canard”, dit: “oie”. (2) DONNE AIME HISSE SOIGNE, NATTE LANGUEDOC: le nom est “cygne”, pas “long canard”.
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    Thought for the day:
    “There are two sides to every question, politicians take both.” {but there is another side to that...}
    “Government is too big and important to be left to the politicians.” — Chester Bowles, US diplomat, businessman, author,... and politician [05 Apr 1901 – 25 May 1986].
    “Diplomacy, business, literature, and politics are too important to be left to those who dabble in all four fields.”
    updated Thursday 22-May-2008 18:13 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.60 Tuesday 24-Jul-2007 23:42 UT
    v.6.60 Friday 28-Jul-2006 20:07 UT
    Wednesday 27-Jul-2005 14:44 UT
    Monday 26-Jul-2004 16:14 UT

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