a 24 July:
2002 James A. Traficant, 61, Democrat of Ohio in his 9th term, becomes the second member of the US House of Representatives to be expelled (420-to-1: a two-thirds majority was required)[usually a member who expects to be expelled avoids it by resigning]. After a 2-1/2 month trial, on 11 April 2002 he was convicted in federal court for trafficking in bribery, kickbacks and tax evasion, and will be sentenced on 30 July 2002 to 8 years in prison. Traficant was first elected to Congress in 1984 after successfully defending himself against federal charges that he had accepted money from organized crime while sheriff for four years. The last House member expelled (in 1980) was Rep. Michael Myers, a Pennsylvania Democrat caught taking bribes from FBI agents posing as Arab sheiks during the FBI's "Abscam" probe. The lone vote against expulsion is cast by Calfornia Democrat Gary Condit, 54, who had troubles of his own when Chandra Levy, 24, an intern wtih which he was having an affair disappeared (she was later found to have been killed on 01 May 2001).
[photo: Traficant addresses the House just before the expulsion vote >]
2002 Fox News reports that Sam Hirsch filed a lawsuit in the Bronx against several fast food companies alleging they are irresponsible and deceptive in the posting of their nutritional information, and they need to offer healthier options, and that they create a de facto addiction to consumers. The lead plaintiff is Caesar Barber, 56, who ate at fast food restaurants four to five times a week. He is obese, has diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and has had two heart attacks. He ate there because, in his own words, “I was single. It was quick. And I’m not a very good cook.” Frances Winn is a 57 year old nurse. She has eaten at fast food restaurants twice a week since 1975 and has gone from a size 6 to a size 18. She has hypertension, high cholesterol, and a hyperthyroid problem. She is filing a lawsuit through Hirsch. Another potential plaintiff is Israel Bradley, 59, who eats a pound of French fries a week. He has high blood pressure, diabetes, is obese and now has to walk with a cane. In 1993 he passed out and was rushed to an emergency room because of his continuing diet.
2002 Crooked Adelphia executives are arrested
John Rigas, 77, founder (in 1952 with $300) of Adelphia Communications Corporation, his sons Timothy Rigas, 46, a former chief financial officer, and Michael Rigas, 48, a former executive vice president of operations, are arrested at 06:00 and released on $10 million each. James Brown, 40, former vice president of finance, and Michael Mulcahey, 45, former director of internal reporting of treasury functions, are also arrested. In June 2000 all five had resigned from Adelphia, which filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.
Each of the five is charged with one count of conspiracy, one count of securities fraud, four counts of wire fraud and two counts of bank fraud. If convicted, each defendant faces a possible maximum sentence of five years in prison and a $250'000 fine on each of the conspiracy and wire fraud counts; 10 years and a $1 million fine on the securities fraud count; and 30 years and a $1 million fine on each of the bank fraud counts.
The former executives were accused by the SEC of hiding $2.3 billion in Adelphia liabilities in off-balance-sheet entities controlled by family members. The SEC also accused the company of fraudulent misrepresentations to hide extensive self-dealing by the Rigas. The Rigas family used more than $252 million in Adelphia funds to pay margin calls against loans the family had received. John Rigas received more than $67 million in undisclosed loans from Adelphia, and in 2001 and 2002 he also received undisclosed cash payments from the company of at least $1 million per month. Adelphia owned two condominium apartments in Manhattan, of which John Rigas' son-in-law had exclusive use of the apartments without paying rent from 1998 through May 2002.
Adelphia's new management said it supported the government's actions and said it has cooperated with the SEC and the US Attorneys' investigations since it took over.
| 2000 President Clinton continued to mediate the Camp
David Mideast summit, meeting with Israeli, Palestinian and US negotiators.
2000 Michael Stone, a pro-British paramilitary member, was freed from prison as part of Northern Ireland's 1998 peace accord after serving eleven years of a life sentence for murder.
1997 The same Scottish scientists who produced Dolly Finn Dorset [July 1996 – 2002] the cloned sheep announce that they have cloned a sheep with human genes.
1996 Internet credit card security. MasterCard and GTE announced a credit card security plan similar to a plan announced two days earlier by Visa International and VeriSign. The plan, named the "CyberTrust Service," is based on digital certificates protecting users from fraudulent use of their cards.
1993 Russia's central bank announces a drastic reform of the monetary system, saying all banknotes issued up to the end of 1992 would be withdrawn from circulation.
1991 Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev announced a final agreement on a treaty designed to preserve the Soviet federation while giving more power to the republics.
1991 U of Manchester scientist announce finding a planet outside of the solar system
| 1990 Irak envía 30'000 soldados a su frontera con Kuwait,
mientras EE.UU. decreta el estado de alerta de su flota en aguas del Golfo
1989 the Exxon Corporation estimated that its cleanup of the Alaskan oil spill would cost $1.28 billion.
1987 the US-escorted and re-flagged Kuwaiti oil tanker Bridgeton is damaged by an Iranian mine (first such incident in the Persian Gulf).
1987 Un Congreso Universal de Esperantistas conmemora en Varsovia el primer centenario de esta lengua, creada por el doctor polaco Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof.
1986 SF Federal jury convicts navy radioman Jerry Whitworth of espionage
1985 Gandhi signs peace accord with Sikh leader Harchand Singh Longowai
1983 Ride's ride ends: the Space Shuttle Challenger lands at Edwards Air Force Base, California, making Sally Ride the first American woman in space.
1979 El Congreso español aprueba el establecimiento del Tribunal Constitucional.
1976 Una nube de gas letal, la dioxina, escapada del complejo químico de ICMESA, causa una catástrofe ecológica en la localidad italiana de Seveso, cerca de Milán, afectando a los 15'000 habitantes de la localidad, que fueron evacuados con graves lesiones cutáneas.
1974 Konstantinos Karamanlis asume el cargo de primer ministro de Grecia, tras el abandono del general Phaedon Ghizikis, jefe del Gobierno de los coroneles.
1969 First men on the Moon are back
At 12:51 EDT, Apollo 11, the US spacecraft that had taken the first astronauts to the surface of the moon, safely returns to earth. Eight years before, speaking before a joint session of Congress, President John F. Kennedy had made a famous appeal to Congress and America. "I believe this nation," Kennedy said, "should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth." At the time, the United States was still trailing the Soviet Union in space developments, and Cold War-era America welcomed Kennedy's bold proposal.
In 1966, after five years of work by an international team of scientists and engineers, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted the first unmanned Apollo mission, testing the structural integrity of the proposed launch vehicle and spacecraft combination. Then, on 27 January 1967, tragedy struck when a fire broke out during a manned launch pad test of the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn rocket. Three astronauts were killed in the fire. Despite the setback, NASA and its thousands of employees forged ahead, and in October of 1968, Apollo 7, the first manned Apollo mission, orbited Earth and successfully tested many of the sophisticated systems needed to conduct a moon journey and landing. In December of the same year, Apollo 8 took three astronauts around the dark side of the moon, and in March of 1969, Apollo 9 tested the lunar module for the first time while in earth orbit. Then in May, the three astronauts of Apollo 10 took the first complete Apollo spacecraft around the moon in a dry run for the scheduled July landing mission.
At 09:32. on 16 July, with the world watching, Apollo 11 took off from Kennedy Space Center with astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, Jr., and Michael Collins aboard. After seventy-six hours, Apollo 11 entered into a lunar orbit on 19 July. The next day, at 13:46, the lunar module Eagle, manned by Armstrong and Aldrin, separated from the command module, where Collins remained. Two hours later, the Eagle began its descent to the lunar surface, and at 16:18 the craft touched down on the southwestern edge of the Sea of Tranquility. Armstrong immediately radioed to Mission Control in Houston, Texas, a famous message, "The Eagle has landed."
At 22:39, five hours ahead of the original schedule, Armstrong opened the hatch of the lunar module. Seventeen minutes later, at 22:56, Armstrong spoke the following words to millions listening at home: "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." A moment later, he stepped of the lunar module's ladder, becoming the first human to walk on the surface of the moon. "Buzz" Aldrin joined him on the moon's surface at 23:11, and together they took photographs of the terrain, planted a US flag, ran a few simple scientific tests, and spoke with President Richard M. Nixon via Houston.
By 01:11 on 21 July, both astronauts were back in the lunar module and the hatch was closed. The two men slept that night on the surface of the moon, and at 13:54 the Eagle began its ascent back to the command module. Among the items left on the surface of the moon was a plaque that read: "Here men from the planet Earth first set foot on the Moon July 1969 A.D We came in peace for all mankind." At 17:35, Armstrong and Aldrin successfully docked and rejoined Collins and at 00:56 on 22 July, Apollo 11 began its journey home, safely splashing down in the Pacific Ocean on 24 July.
There would be five more successful lunar landing missions, and one unplanned lunar flyby, Apollo 13. The last men to walk on the moon in the 20th century, astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt of the Apollo 17 mission, left the lunar surface on 14 December 1972.
| 1967 Charles de Gaulle says "Vive le Québec
libre!" Dans allocution prononcée au balcon de l’Hôtel de Ville
de Montréal, le général de Gaulle dit: Vive Montréal,
vive le Québec, vive le Québec libre, vive le Canada français, vive la France!.
1967 Race riot in Cambridge Maryland
1959 "Kitchen debate" in Moscow
The previous day Vice President Richard M. Nixon flew from New York to Moscow to open the US Trade and Cultural Fair in Sokolniki Park, organized as a goodwill gesture by the USS.R. Arriving in record time the same day, he meets with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, 65, at the Kremlin on 24 July.
Later that day, in front of replica of a suburban American kitchen, Nixon and Khrushchev engage in an impromptu debate about the merits and disadvantages of capitalism and communism. Watched by applauding reporters and Soviet officials, the informal exchange came to be known as the "Kitchen Debate." With American television cameras rolling, Khrushchev makes Nixon promise that his words will not be censored or miscommunicated when the film was shown in the United States. Nixon assures him that they will not, and then asks the Soviet leader to return the favor.
On 01 August, Khrushchev obliged, allowing Nixon to speak on Soviet national television. In an event unprecedented in the USS.R., Nixon was heard criticizing Communist policy while warning the Soviet people they would live in tension and fear if Khrushchev attempted to propagate communism in countries outside the Soviet Union.
Nixon's trip to Moscow helped solidify his reputation as a tough and capable US leader, and the Kitchen Debate was a definitive moment in the Cold War. In September, Khrushchev traveled to the United States and met with President Dwight D. Eisenhower. In May of 1972, Nixon returned to the Soviet Union as president.
During the grand opening ceremony of the American National Exhibition in Moscow, Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev engage in a heated debate about capitalism and communism in the middle of a model kitchen set up for the fair. The so-called "kitchen debate" became one of the most famous episodes of the Cold War. In late 1958, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed to set up national exhibitions in each other's nation as part of their new emphasis on cultural exchanges. The Soviet exhibition opened in New York City in June 1959; the US exhibition opened in Sokolniki Park in Moscow in July. On 24 July before the Moscow exhibition was officially opened to the public, Vice President Nixon served as a host for a visit by Soviet leader Khrushchev.
As Nixon led Khrushchev through the American exhibition, the Soviet leader's famous temper began to flare. When Nixon demonstrated some new American color television sets, Khrushchev launched into an attack on the so-called "Captive Nations Resolution" passed by the US Congress just days before. The resolution condemned the Soviet control of the "captive" peoples of Eastern Europe and asked all Americans to pray for their deliverance. After denouncing the resolution, Khrushchev then sneered at the US technology on display, proclaiming that the Soviet Union would have the same sort of gadgets and appliances within a few years. Nixon, never one to shy away from a debate, goaded Khrushchev by stating that the Russian leader should "not be afraid of ideas. After all, you don't know everything." The Soviet leader snapped at Nixon, "You don't know anything about communism except fear of it." With a small army of reporters and photographers following them, Nixon and Khrushchev continued their argument in the kitchen of a model home built in the exhibition. With their voices rising and fingers pointing, the two men went at each other. Nixon suggested that Khrushchev's constant threats of using nuclear missiles could lead to war, and he chided the Soviet for constantly interrupting him while he was speaking. Taking these words as a threat, Khrushchev warned of "very bad consequences."
Perhaps feeling that the exchange had gone too far, the Soviet leader then noted that he simply wanted "peace with all other nations, especially America." Nixon rather sheepishly stated that he had not "been a very good host." The "kitchen debate" was front-page news in the United States the next day. For a few moments, in the confines of a "modern" kitchen, the diplomatic gloves had come off and America and the Soviet Union had verbally jousted over which system was superior communism or capitalism. As with so many Cold War battles, however, there was no clear winner except perhaps for the US media, which had a field day with the dramatic encounter.
| 1952 Pres Truman settles 53-day steel strike. The Supreme
Court had found unconstitutional his seizure of the steel industry, in Youngstown
Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer.
1950 The US Fifth Air Force relocates from Japan to Korea.
1948 Soviets blockades Berlin from the west
1943 II Guerra Mundial: los aliados inician grandes bombardeos aéreos contra Hamburgo, que durarán seis días.
1943 El Gran Consejo Fascista italiano aprueba la retirada de Mussolini y pide que el poder vuelva a la Corona.
1943 The US submarine Tinosa fires 15 torpedoes at a lone Japanese merchant ship, none detonate.
1942 The Soviet city of Rostov is captured by German troops.
1941 The US government denounces Japanese actions in Indochina.
1937 Alabama drops charges against 5 Blacks accused of rape in Scottsboro
1936 Guerra Civil española: La Junta de Defensa Nacional dispone que Franco asuma el mando del Ejército de Marruecos y del Sur de España, y Mola, el del Ejército del Norte.
1929 Dimite el primer ministro francés, Henri Poincaré, por motivos de salud. Le sustituye Aristide Briand.
1929 Pres Hoover proclaims Kellogg-Briand Pact (signed 27 August 1928) which renounces war
1928 Se da por terminado oficialmente el movimiento del general César Augusto Sandino contra la intervención estadounidense en Nicaragua, pero la lucha guerrillera no terminó.
1925 Scopes guilty of teaching evolution in a Tn HS, fined $100 & costs
1923 Se firma el Tratado de Lausana entre los Aliados en la Primera Guerra Mundial y Turquía, por el que se revisa el Tratado de Sèvres y se devuelve a Turquía Tracia Oriental y sus territorios en Asia Menor. The Treaty of Lausanne, which settled the boundaries of modern Turkey, was concluded in Switzerland.between the Allied Powers and Turkey.
1917 Mata-Hari comparece ante un tribunal militar, que la condena a muerte por espionaje.
1911 Hallazgo de la ciudadela inca de Machu Picchu, en el Cuzco, por el estadounidense Hiram Bingham.
1871 Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla, progresista, es elegido presidente del Gobierno de España.
1870 1st trans-US rail service begins
1866 Tennessee becomes 1st Confederate state readmitted to Union
1864 Second Battle of Kernstown, Virginia
1847 Mormons settle in Salt Lake valley.
After 17 months and many miles of travel, Brigham Young leads 148 Mormon pioneers into Utah's Valley of the Great Salt Lake. Gazing over the parched earth of the remote location, Young declares, "This is the place," and the pioneers began preparations for the thousands of Mormon migrants who would follow. Seeking religious and political freedom, the Mormons began planning their great migration from the east after the murder of Joseph Smith, the Christian sect's founder and first leader. Joseph Smith was born in Sharon, Vermont, in 1805. In 1827, he declared that he had been visited by a Christian angel named Moroni, who showed him an ancient Hebrew text that had been lost for 1500 years. The holy text, supposedly engraved on gold plates by a Native American prophet named Mormon in the fifth century A.D., told the story of Israelite peoples who had lived in America in ancient times. During the next few years, Smith dictated an English translation of this text to his wife and other scribes, and in 1830 The Book of Mormon was published. In the same year, Smith founded the Church of Christ later known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Fayette, New York. The religion rapidly gained converts, and Smith set up Mormon communities in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois.
However, the Christian sect was also heavily criticized for its unorthodox practices, which included polygamy. In 1844, the threat of mob violence prompted Smith to call out a militia in the Mormon town of Nauvoo, Illinois. He was charged with treason by Illinois authorities and imprisoned with his brother Hyrum in the Carthage city jail. On 27 June 1844, an anti-Mormon mob with blackened faces stormed in and murdered the brothers. Two years later, Smith's successor, Brigham Young, led an exodus of persecuted Mormons from Nauvoo along the western wagon trails in search of a sanctuary in "a place on this earth that nobody else wants." The expedition, more than 10'000 pioneers strong, set up camp in present-day western Iowa while Young led a vanguard company across the Rocky Mountains to investigate Utah's Great Salt Lake Valley, an arid and isolated spot devoid of human presence. On 22 July 1947, most of the party reached the Great Salt Lake, but Young, delayed by illness, did not arrive until 24 July. Upon viewing the land, he immediately confirmed the valley to be the new homeland of the Latter-day Saints. Within days, Young and his companions began building the future Salt Lake City at the foot of the Wasatch Mountains. Later that year, Young rejoined the main body of pioneers in Iowa, who named him president and prophet of the church. Having formally inherited the authority of Joseph Smith, he led thousands of more Mormons to the Great Salt Lake in 1848. Other large waves of Mormon pioneers followed.
By 1852, 16'000 Mormons had come to the valley, some in wagons and some dragging handcarts. After early difficulties, Salt Lake City began to flourish. By 1869, 80'000 Mormons had made the trek to their promised land. In 1850, President Millard Fillmore named Brigham Young the first governor of the US territory of Utah, and the territory enjoyed relative autonomy for several years. Relations became strained, however, when reports reached Washington that Mormon leaders were disregarding federal law and had publicly sanctioned the practice of polygamy. In 1857, President James Buchanan removed Young, who had 20 wives, from his position as governor and sent US Army troops to Utah to establish federal authority. Young died in Salt Lake City in 1877 and was succeeded by John Taylor as president of the church. Tensions between the territory of Utah and the federal government continued until Wilford Woodruff, the new president of the Mormon church, issued his Manifesto in 1890, renouncing the traditional practice of polygamy and reducing the domination of the church over Utah communities. Six years later, the territory of Utah entered the Union as the 45th state.
After seventeen months and 2400 km, 148 Mormon pioneers under the leadership of Brigham Young reach Utah's Valley of the Great Salt Lake. Upon viewing the valley, Young declares "This is the place," and the pioneers begin preparations for the tens of thousands of Mormon migrants who would follow.
Seeking religious and political freedom, the Mormons had begu planning their great migration from the east after the murder of Joseph Smith, the sect's founder and first leader. In 1823, Smith, born in Vermont in 1805, claimed that he been visited by an angel named Moroni who told him about an ancient Hebrew text that had lost been lost for 1500 years. The holy text, supposedly engraved on gold plates by a Native-American historian in the fourth century, related the story of Jewish peoples who had lived in America in ancient times.
Over the next six years, Smith dictated an English translation of this text to his wife and other scribes, and in 1830, The Book of Mormon was published. In the same year, Smith founded the Church of Christ, later known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in Fayette, New York. The religion rapidly gained converts and Smith set up Mormon communities in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois.
However, the sect was also heavily criticized for its unorthodox practices and, on 27 June, 1844, Smith and his brother were murdered in a jail cell by an anti-Mormon mob in Carthage, Illinois.
Two years later, Smith's successor, Brigham Young, led the first exodus of persecuted Mormons from Nauvoo, Illinois, along the western wagon trails. In July of 1847, the 148 initial Mormon pioneers reached the Valley of the Great Salt Lake. By 1852, sixteen thousand Mormons had come to the valley. Young was named the first governor of the territory of Utah by US President Millard Fillmore, and the territory enjoyed relative autonomy for several years.
However, in 1857, President James Buchanan removed Young, a polygamist with over twenty wives, from his position as governor, and sent US Army troops to Utah to establish federal law. Tensions between the territory of Utah and the federal government continued until Wilford Woodruff, the president of the Mormon church, issued his Manifesto in 1890, renouncing the traditional practice of polygamy, and reducing the domination of the church over Utah's political, economic, and social life. Six years later, the territory of Utah was granted statehood.
| 1847 Rotary-type printing press patented by Richard
March Hoe, NYC
1823 Ley que declara libres a todos los esclavos de Chile y a todos los que pisen territorio nacional, con lo que este país es el primero de América que libera a los esclavos.
1791 Robespierre expels all Jacobins opposed to the principles of the French Revolution.
1783 In the Caucasus, Georgia becomes a protectorate of tsarist Russia
1766 At Fort Ontario, Canada, Ottawa chief Pontiac and William Johnson sign a peace agreement.
1704 Admiral George Rooke takes Gibraltar for Great Britain from Spain
1701 Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac establishes Fort Ponchartrain for France on the future site of the city of Detroit, Michigan, in an attempt to halt the advance of the English into the western Great Lakes region.
1683 1st settlers from Germany to US, leave aboard the Concord (not an airplane)
1679 New Hampshire became a royal colony of the British crown.
1628 Johannes Junius writes this letter to his daughter before his execution for witchcraft.
1567 Mary Queen of Scots deposed
Mary Stuart's extant literary output (all of it in French) includes: A 66-line elegy; two poems to Queen Elizabeth; sixteen sonnets; a sextain; a 100-line Méditation; a poem of two quatrains addressed to Ronsard; a poem of two quatrains addressed to the Bishop of Ross; a quatrain preserved in Anne of Lorraine's Mass Book; quatrains and fragments in a Book of Hours; a prose essay. Couplets inscribed on glass at Buxton Wells and at Fotheringay are also attributed to her, and a Tetrasticha, ou Quatrains a Son Fils is recorded as having been in the library of William Drummond of Hawthornden.
Mary spoke six languages but her first was French, which had long been widely spoken among the Scottish nobility, quite apart from the fact that Mary was herself half-French. She remained in France between the ages of five and eighteen, and the thorough education she received there acquainted her with the literature which she used as models in her own writing. Her library would eventually contain more than 300 books, and would constitute the largest collection of French and Italian poetry in Scotland.
Charles IX of France, who succeeded François II, Mary's first husband, was a weak politician, but a scholarly man who formed around him a group of poets called the Pléiade, which included Pierre de Ronsard (1524-85), who had spent three years in Scotland at the court of James V. Mary and Ronsard were good friends, and in 1583 Mary gave a casket filled with 2000 écus to the writer whom she called "L'Apollon de la Source des Muses". Charles's group would later be emulated by Mary's son James VI with his Castalian Band, which was intended to do for Scots literature what the Pléiade did for French.
Mary's own reign was a period which saw a revival of vernacular literature, as exemplified by the Maitland Manuscript. Among poets in Mary's circle was Mary Beaton (c1543-c1597), one of the Queen's "Four Mairies" who accompanied her to France.
During the last decade of Mary's life, she wrote a number of sacred poems, including the Méditation which was published in 1574, along with her sonnet L'ire de Dieu par le sang n'apaise, in an anthology edited by her friend and adviser John Leslie, Bishop of Ross (1527-96). Apart from the love sonnets in the Detectioun (whose authorship has been doubted), this was the only other work by Mary which was published during her lifetime. Various isolated works appeared during the next three centuries, but it was not until 1873 that the Poems of Mary Queen of Scots were published. The first critical edition was Queen Mary's Book (1907). A modern selection is Bittersweet Within My Heart.
| 1505 On their way to India, a group of Portuguese explorers
sack the city-state of Kilwa, East Africa, and kill the king for failing
to pay tribute.
1216 Cencio Savelli was consecrated Pope Honorius III. During his 11-year pontificate, he confirmed two well-known religious orders: the Dominicans in 1216 and the Franciscans in 1223.
1177 Se sella una paz definitiva en Venecia, por la que Federico I es absuelto de todas las censuras eclesiásticas en que había incurrido y se pone fin al Cisma eclesiástico.
1934 1st ptarmigan hatched and reared in captivity, Ithaca, NY
1945 US Navy bombers sink the Japanese battleship-carrier Hyuga in shallow waters off Kure, Japan.
which occurred on a 24 July:|
2005 Isaías Rojo Martínez, 32, and Elías Ruiz Trejo, 17, shot at 00:30 (05:30 UT) at the intersection of Tláloc y Nezahualcóyotl streets, colonia La Pastora, delegación Gustavo A. Madero, Mexico City. It is believed to be the result of a dispute among drug dealers.
2005 Some 25 persons including a suicide truck bomber at the security barriers outside a police station in the Mashtal neighborhood of Baghdad, Iraq, at 15:00 (11:00 UT). Some 35 persons are injured.
2005 Wasim Sultan Wani, 12; Bilal Khaliq Shah, 11; and Shabir Ahmad Shah, 16; Kashmiri boys on their way to a wedding in Bagargund, Kupwara district, Indian-occupied Kashmir, shot by mistake at 02:00 (20:30 UT on 23 Jul) by Indian troops who were in ambush for independentist guerillas. The boys were with a fourth one who is seriously wounded: Manzoor Ahmad Shah, younger brother of the groom Mohammad Jamal Shah. The local army camp had been notified of the wedding in advance and permission sought for an exception to the night curfew on the region.
2003 Colin McMillan, 67, suicide by shot to the head. He was chairman of Permian Exploration Corp. and had been nominated, on 07 May 2003, by USurper-President “Dubya” Bush to be Secretary of the Navy to replace Gordon England, who resigned in January 2003 to become Deputy Secretary of the phony new Department of Homeland Security. McMillan was Assistant Secretary of Defense from 1990 to 1992, during the (legitimate) presidency of George Bush Sr. [< McMillan in Permian Exploration office, May 2003]
2003 Rupert Vance Hartke, of a sudden heart attack. Born on 31 May 1919, he was a Democratic US senator from Indiana (1959-1977) best known for his criticism of the Vietnam War. Author of four books, including The American Crisis in Vietnam (1968) and You and Your Senator (1970).
2003 Kuno “the Killer”, infamous for having once swallowed a live Dachshund puppy whole. Kuno is the victim of a heat wave and low water level in the Volksgarten park's lake where he lived, in Moenchengladbach, Germany. Kuno weighed 35kg and was a 1m50-long catfish.
2002 David Harris, 44, run over three times by his wife Clara Harris, 44, in her Mercedes Benz, in the evening, in the parking lot of a Houston hotel in the lobby of which she had found him with his mistress, Gail Bridges, 39, after a private investigator hired by her confirmed her suspicions that her husband was being unfaithful. Clara demanded that David choose between her and Gail, and he chose Gail. Clara is a dentist, David was an orthodontist. It was not his first marriage. Clara Harris would be convicted of murder on 13 February 2003 and sentenced to 20 years in prison on 14 February 2003. [in court, 12 Feb 2003 >].
2002 Li Bin, 33, Chinese, from injuries suffered on 17 July in double suicide bombing in Tel Aviv, Israel, which caused 5 immediate and 2 delayed deaths, including this one.
1998 Two police officers in the US Capitol, shot by Russell Weston Jr. Diagnosed as a paranoid schizophrenic, he would be found incompetent to stand trial. A tourist is wounded by Weston, who is wounded by police shots.
1996: 64 civilians by two bombs blamed on Tamil separatists, on a commuter train near Colombo, Sri Lanka. More than 400 are wounded.
1995 Five persons and a Palestinian suicide bomber, in a Tel Aviv suburb in Israel.
1991 Isaac Bashevis Singer, 87, in Miami, Nobel prize winning author Isaac Bashevis Singer, escritor estadounidense de origen polaco. Nobel de Literatura.
1984 Erica Lafferty, aged 15 months, and her mother Brenda Lafferty, 24, whose brothers-in-law Ron(ald Watson) Lafferty and Dan Lafferty stab them in American Fort, Utah. Ronald Watson Lafferty was raised in Orem, Utah, the oldest son in a family of eight children. He was brought up in a strictly religious family, and was himself an active member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS Church). At nineteen years of age, he served for two years as a volunteer missionary for the LDS Church in Florida. Approximately six months after he returned from his mission, Ron Lafferty married Diana Sayer. They are the parents of six children. Acquaintances who knew Ron Lafferty prior to 1982 described him as a strong family man. He was also a prominent member of his community, serving for a time on the city council in Highland, Utah.
During the period between 1982 and 1983, Ron Lafferty began to change. He started spending increasingly large amounts of time with his brother Dan Lafferty. Dan had been in constant trouble with law enforcement for years for failing to pay taxes and disobeying licensing regulations. As Dan and Ron Lafferty conversed, Ron Lafferty became increasingly converted to Dan's philosophies on government intervention. His appearance changed markedly. He went from being very clean cut and well groomed to wearing long hair and an unkempt beard and having the appearance of a "mountain man."
Ron Lafferty began to meet regularly with Dan, as well as with brothers Tim, Mark, and Watson, to discuss politics and religion. Ron Lafferty became increasingly critical of the LDS Church. Those who knew him well remarked that he seemed to have changed drastically not only in his beliefs, but in his personality as well. He began to stray further and further from mainstream society and was excommunicated from the LDS Church in 1983.
The following year, Ron Lafferty's wife Diana filed for and obtained a divorce and moved with their six children to Florida. Ron Lafferty felt his excommunication was unjust and was distraught over the dissolution of his marriage.
The brothers continued to meet together and opened their religious and political discussions to others with similar viewpoints. Through this process, they met Robert Crossfield, a man from Canada claiming to be a prophet. Crossfield asserted that he had directions from God to teach the Lafferty brothers how to receive revelation and organize themselves into what he called the "School of the Prophets." The brothers claimed they began to receive communications from God and would meet as a group to discuss these "revelations."
It was during this time that Ron Lafferty first told his brothers that he had received a revelation that his ex-wife Diana had been the wife of the devil in a previous world. Ron Lafferty believed their union angered the devil, who in turn caused him trouble in this world out of jealousy. In the spring of 1984, Ron Lafferty claimed to have received another revelation from God (the "removal revelation") ordering that four people were to be "removed." Among those to be "removed" were his brother Allen's wife Brenda, their fifteen-month-old daughter Erica, Richard Stowe, and Chloe Low.
Prior to this time, Ron Lafferty had expressed negative feelings to other family members and friends about the four persons named in the removal revelation. Ron Lafferty believed that all four in some way had either helped his wife obtain a divorce or played a part in his excommunication from the LDS Church. Ron Lafferty thought Brenda had encouraged Diana to leave and divorce him. On several occasions before the removal revelation, Ron Lafferty called Brenda a "bitch" and told Allen that Brenda "had better stop talking to Diana" and that "he didn't want her meddling in their affairs." After the removal revelation, Ron Lafferty stated that Erica needed to be removed as well because "she would grow up to be a bitch just like her mother." Chloe Low was also a friend of Diana's who helped and encouraged Diana to leave Ron Lafferty. Richard Stowe was Ron Lafferty's and Diana's ecclesiastical leader in the LDS Church and was a member of the church council that decided to excommunicate Ron Lafferty. He also counseled Diana during the divorce proceedings as her ecclesiastical leader and helped her obtain financial aid from the LDS Church.
In conjunction with the removal revelation, Ron Lafferty claimed to have received another revelation on 13 March 1984, commanding that he and the School of the Prophets "consecrate" an "instrument" to be used in the removal of the four named individuals.(6) When he discussed this new revelation, only Dan and Watson agreed to such an action; the others involved with the School of the Prophets felt that this and the removal revelation were not of God and disassociated themselves from the revelations. The School of the Prophets disbanded because of disagreement over this issue, but Dan and Ron Lafferty continued in their belief that the revelations needed to be fulfilled.
On the morning of 24 July 1984, Ron Lafferty and friends Charles Carnes ("Chip") and Ricky Knapp planned to go to Salt Lake City for the day Before leaving, Ron Lafferty told the group he felt impressed that they should go to his brother Mark's house to pick up a rifle. Once they arrived there, Mark asked what they were going to do with the gun, because Ron Lafferty had quit hunting years earlier. Ron Lafferty replied that he was going hunting for "[a]ny fucking thing that gets in my way." The men then headed to Allen's apartment, apparently to look for another rifle. On the way, Dan and Ron Lafferty began discussing whether the removal revelation was to be fulfilled that day.
When the four reached the apartment, Ron Lafferty got out of the car and knocked on the front door. The three other men remained in the car. When no one answered, Ron Lafferty returned to the car and drove away, heading toward Salt Lake City. Before they had driven far, Dan said he felt impressed to turn around and return to Allen's apartment. When they arrived, Dan went to the door and knocked. This time, Brenda Lafferty answered the door.
Dan pushed past Brenda into the apartment and was inside alone with Brenda for a few minutes when the men in the car heard the two fighting inside the apartment. Ron Lafferty then left the car and entered the apartment as well. Chip testified at trial that once Ron Lafferty entered the apartment, he could hear Ron Lafferty calling Brenda a "bitch" and a "liar," and could hear Brenda being physically beaten. From where he sat in the car in the driveway, Chip heard Brenda screaming, "Don't hurt my baby. Please don't hurt my baby." He could also hear the baby crying, "Mommy, mommy, mommy." The apartment then became quiet. A few minutes later, Dan and Ron Lafferty emerged from the rear of the apartment and entered the car, their clothes covered in blood.
The men next drove to the Low residence. On the way, Ron Lafferty commented that Chloe Low would be an easy target because of her small size. When they reached Low's house and determined no one was there, the men broke into the house and took numerous items. As they left Low's house, Ron Lafferty began talking about going on to Richard Stowe's home.
After accidentally missing the turnoff to the Stowe residence, Dan and Ron Lafferty decided to abandon trying to fulfill the rest of the revelation. They stopped at a service station and then headed toward Wendover. Chip testified that on the way, Ron Lafferty pulled a knife out of his boot, started to bang it on his knee, and said, "I killed her. I killed her. I killed the bitch. I can't believe I killed her." He then handed the knife to Dan, and said, "Thank you, Brother, for doing the baby because I don't think I had it in me." Dan replied, "It was no problem."
Once in Wendover, the group rented a small kitchenette apartment where they cleaned up, ate, and spent the night. The next night, afraid of what the Lafferty brothers had said they had done, Ricky and Chip quietly left the apartment and drove away in the car. While traveling along Interstate 80, they found the knife in the car, rolled it in a towel, and threw it out the window. Later in Twin Falls, Idaho, they disposed of a bag of bloody clothing and other personal effects belonging to Ron Lafferty and Dan. They then proceeded to Chip's brother's house in Cheyenne, Wyoming, where they were arrested on July 30, 1984. Ron Lafferty and Dan were arrested by the FBI in Reno, Nevada, on 17 August 1984.
On the evening of 24 July 1984, Allen Lafferty came home from work to find his wife Brenda and baby Erica lifeless in their apartment. Brenda was in the kitchen lying in a pool of blood. She had sustained a severe beating and had contusions and bruises on her face, head, shoulders, arms, thigh, knees, and back. There was evidence of strangulation where a vacuum cord had been tightly and repeatedly wrapped around her neck. Her throat was cut; a six-inch-long incision sliced through her trachea, both jugular veins, and both carotid arteries and left a cut on her spinal column. Blood was smeared on the walls, drapes, door, and light switches, and there was other evidence throughout the apartment of a major struggle.
Fifteen-month-old Erica was found in a puddle of her own blood, propped up against the back of her crib with her head slumped over. Her throat was cut cleanly from ear to ear; the wound measured five and one-half inches. The incision sliced through both her carotid arteries, both jugular veins, and her esophagus and cut her cervical spinal column. All that attached her head to her body was bone and a little tissue. The medical examiner's report indicated that both Brenda and Erica were alive at the time their throats were slit. — Complete opinion of Utah Supreme Court, 23 Feb 2001. —(081015)
1974 Sir James Chadwick, English physicist, born on 20 October 1891, who won the 1935 Nobel Prize for discovering the neutron.
1974 Chris Chubbock, newscaster, shoots self on air.
1971 Josef Sima, French artist born on 19 March 1891.
1964 Erwin “Finlay” Freundlich, German astronomer and mathematician, born on 29 May 1885. He went into voluntary exile during the Hitler years because of his family ties to Jews. He worked with Einstein on measurements of the orbit of Mercury to confirm the general theory of relativity
1957 Sacha Guitry, actor y dramaturgo francés.
1951 Abdullah, rey de Jordania.
1934 Hans Hahn, Viennese mathematician born on 27 September 1879. He was a pioneer in set theory and functional analysis and is best remembered for the Hahn-Banach theorem. He also made important contributions to the calculus of variations, developing ideas of Weierstrass.
1919 Six persons in race riot in Washington DC (100 wounded)
1915 Marya Adamkiewics, 19; Klemens Zuchowski, 20; and 842 others (between them in alphabetical order) of some 2500 aboard docked excursion ship Eastland which capsizes in the Chicago River shortly before it was to get under way, because its ballast tanks had not been filled properly. — the known names — more
1908 Walter Leistikow, Russian German artist born on 25 October 1865. — more
1900 Two white policemen in race riot in New Orleans.
1896 Kaspar Karsen, Dutch artist born on 02 April 1810.
1874 Luis de Eguílaz, poeta y dramaturgo español.
1862 Martin Van Buren, 79, eighth president of the United States, in Kinderhook NY.
1861 Georgius Jacobus Johannes van Os, Dutch artist born on 20 November 1782. — more
1842 John Sell (Snell?) Cotman, English painter born on 16 May 1782. MORE ON COTMAN AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1804 Martin Knoller, Austrian artist born on 08 November 1725.
1802 Joseph Ducreux, French painter born on 26 June 1735. MORE ON DUCREUX AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1781 Étienne Aubry, Versailles French painter born on 10 January 1745. — more
1701 (or any day in 1688?) Jacob Gillig, Dutch artist born in 1636.
1680 (burial) Ferdinand Janszoon van Bol, Dutch born on 24 June 1616. MORE ON VAN BOL AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1603 Santi di Tito, Italian artist born on 06 October 1536.
which occurred on a 24 July:
2003 Joshua Abram Wilson, 2313 g; Madison Nicole Wilson, 1701 g; identical twins Zachary John Wilson, 2013 g, and Dalton Robert Wilson, 1905 g; Dillon Thomas Wilson, 1627 g; quintuplets, about 5 weeks premature, delivered (in order named) by Caesarean section, from 10:15 to 10:23, to Rebecca Wilson, 37, and construction worker Rob Wilson, 36, of Cresco, Pennsylvania. The quintuplets resulted from the artificial implantation of four in-vitro-fertilized eggs.
1964 Banana Yoshimoto, Japanese author. —(080723)
1945 Cristina Almeida, abogada y política española.
1935 Manuel Hermoso Rojas, político español.
1935 Adnan Khashnoggi Saudi businessman/financier
1935 Pat Oliphant, political cartoonist.
1932 William D Ruckelshaus, would head US Environmental Protection Agency
1935 Manuel Hermoso Rojas, político español.
1927 Alex Katz, US Pop Artist. MORE ON KATZ AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1925 Ignacio Aldecoa, escritor español.
1923 Christine Mary Hamill, English mathematician who became ill with polio on 22 March 1956 and died of it on 24 March 1956.
1920 Bella Abzug (Rep-D-NY), the first Jewish woman elected to the US House of Representatives.
1916 John D MacDonald novelist (Deep Blue Goodbye)
1905 Severo Ochoa, bioquímico español, premio Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología.
1898 Amelia Earhart, the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic, disappeared in the South Pacific while trying to fly around the world.
1895 Robert Graves England, poet/historical novelist (I, Claudius) GRAVES ONLINE: Country Sentiment Fairies and Fusiliers
1892 Marcel Gromaire, French painter and designer who died in 1971. — more
1880 Ernest Bloch Geneva, Switzerland, composer (MacBeth)
1878 Lord Edward Dunsany, Ireland, dramatist/poet (Mirage Water) DUNSANY ONLINE: The Book of Wonder If [all the following zipped >] Fifty-One Tales Five Plays The Gods of Pegana Plays of Gods and Men Time and the Gods
1871 Epstein, mathematician.
1871 Giacomo Balla, Italian Futurist painter who died on 05 March 1958. MORE ON BALLA AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1868 Max Alfred Buri, Swiss artist who died on 21 May 1915. — more
1857 Henrik Pontoppidan Denmark, realist writer (Nobel 1971)
1856 Charles Émile Picard, Parisian mathematician who died on 11 December 1941. He worked in algebraic geometry as well as elasticity, heat and electricity. Author of Traité d'analyse (3 volumes, 1891-1896).
1851 Friedrich Hermann Schottky, German mathematician who died on 12 August 1935. Author of Abriss einer Theorie der Abel'schen Functionen von drei Variablen (1880).
1848 Francisco Pradilla y Ortiz, Spanish Realist painter who died on 01 November 1921. MORE ON PRADILLA AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1843 Eugen von Blaas, Austrian Academic painter who died in 1931. — links to images.
1842 Ambrose Bierce Ohio, writer (Nuggets & Dust) BIERCE ONLINE: Can Such Things Be? Can Such Things Be? The Devil's Dictionary Fantastic Fables My Favorite Murder An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge
1832 Antonio García Cubas, historiador y geógrafo mexicano.
1703 Justus Juncker, German artist who died in 1767.
1695 Martin Mytens II, Swedish artist who died on 23 March 1770.
1623 Matheus van Helmont, Flemish artist who died in 1679. — link to an image.