a 22 July:
2007 Legislative elections in Turkey. Islamic moderates get 47% of the votes. —(080721)
2002 (Monday) The stock of natural gas utilities Williams Companies (WMB) is downgraded by Merrill Lynch from Near and Long Term Strong Buy to Near and Long Term Neutral. On the New York Stock Exchange, WMB drops from its previous close of $5.16 to an intraday low of $1.99 and closes at $2.01. It had traded as high as $48.77 ot 07 January 1999. WMB would drift down further during the rest of the week, reaching a low of $0.84 on 25 July. But, after closing on Friday 26 July at $1.06, it would recover on Monday 29 July to close at its intraday high of $1.99. [5~year price chart >]
2002 Peepers, who lives with Brad and Cheryl Moureau in Des Moines, Iowa, is taking a peaceful walk on SW 2nd Street. Suddenly a woman grabs Peepers and drives away in a van. Neighbors put up a $100 reward for information leading to the arrest of the woman. When the woman, Rita Kane, 62, reads about this in the Des Moines Register, she notifies the police that Peepers seemed lost and possibly in danger from traffic, so she took him to the animal shelter, Peepers being a duck.
Early on 25 July 2002, the police notifies the Moureaus that he can get the duck back by paying $41 to the shelter. Bill Robertson, regional sales coordinator for AFLAC (American Family Life Assurance Company of Columbus), learns of this and that Peepers resembles the duck in the company's ads [< photo], and that passers-by often call out Aflac, Aflac when they see Peepers. So Robertson gets some inexpensive publicity by paying the shelter's fee. Ah... and the Moureaus are told that it is illegal to let any pet roam freely within Des Moines. So Peepers will have to be caged, and his friend the dog Duffy kept on a leash. [It does not seem likely that cats obey that law, but then perhaps they don't consider themselves pets, but rather divinities.] [AFLAC motto: The duck shops here.]
2001 In Sweden, Tassilla, 6, the bullterrier bitch of Ms. Gunilla Gonon-Sabelstrom swallows two 500-crown bills (equal to $47 each). The bills would be excreted the next day, smelly, yellowed, and wrinkled, but still valid. (reported by the Dagens Nyheter on 24 July 2001)
1998 New president at Microsoft
Bill Gates, chairman and chief executive of Microsoft, names Steve Ballmer president of Microsoft. Gates says that he intends to delegate responsibility for operations to Ballmer, while he himself will focus more on product and technology development. Ballmer, a friend from Gates' Harvard days, had joined the company as its 20th employee.
^ 1997 Upgraded Mac operating system
Apple launches Mac OS 8, the biggest upgrade of the Macintosh operating system to hit the market since 1991. Apple had lost its technological lead to Windows 95 and Intel machines and had seen its sales, profit, and market share plummet since 1995. Among other features, the new system adds increased stability and better Internet access.
| 1987 US began escorting re-flagged Kuwaiti tankers
in Persian Gulf
1983 -89ºC recorded, Vostok, Antarctica (world record)
1983 Poland's PM Januzelski lifts martial law
1981 Turkish terrorist Mehmet Ali Agca, 23, is sentenced to life imprisonment for his attempted assassination of Pope John Paul II in May of this year.
1975 US Congress restores the citizenship of the Confederate Civil War leader Robert E. Lee.
1966 B-52 bombers hit the Demilitarized Zone between North and South Vietnam for the first time.
1952 Polish constitution adopted (National Day)
1947 -13ºC, Charlotte Pass, NSW (Australian record)
1944 Soviets set up Polish Committee of National Liberation
| 1942 US gasoline rationing with coupons begins along
the Atlantic seaboard,. during WW II
1938 The Third Reich issues special identity cards for Jewish Germans.
1937 Senate rejects FDR proposal to enlarge Supreme Court
1937 The US Senate rejects President Franklin D. Roosevelt's proposal to add more justices to the Supreme Court.
1926 42ºC, Troy, New York (state record)
1917 Alexander Kerensky becomes Russian PM
1862 President Lincoln presents to the Cabinet the Emancipation Proclamation which he would issue the next 1 January.
1847 The first large company of Mormon immigrants enters the Salt Lake Valley, in what is still Mexican territory. Soon after, Mormon leader Brigham Young would found Salt Lake City,Utah.
1814 Five Indian tribes in Ohio make peace with the United States and declare war on Britain.
1812 Battle of Salamanca, Spain: a British army under the Duke of Wellington defeats the French .
1796 General Moses Cleaveland draws the plan for the town of Cleaveland, Ohio (In 1832 an a in Cleaveland was dropped to shorten a newspaper's masthead.)
1775 George Washington takes command of the troops
1691 (12 July Julian) Battle of Aughrim (Aghrim) England, William III defeats James II and the allied Irish and French armies
1652 Prince Conde's rebels narrowly defeat Chief Minister Mazarin's loyalist forces at St. Martin, near Paris.
1620 A small congregation of English Separatists, led by John Robinson, began their emigration to the New World. Today, this historic group of religious refugees has come to be known as the 'Pilgrims.' which is what William Bradford called them in Mourt's Relation: A Journal of the Pilgrims at Plymouth
The Merchant of Venice is registered
William Shakespeare's play The Merchant of Venice is entered on the Stationers' Register. By decree of Queen Elizabeth, the Stationers' Register licensed printed works, giving the Crown tight control over all published material. Although its entry on the register licensed the printing of The Merchant of Venice, its first version would not be published for another two years.
The publication of Shakespeare's plays was a haphazard matter. Playwrights at the time were not interested in publication: They sold their plays to theater companies, which tried to prevent rivals from literally stealing the show. The writer produced only one complete written script for a play, and the players received only their own lines and cues, not the entire play. Sometimes, however, disgruntled actors would prepare their own version of the play from notes cribbed during performances.
Among other plays, there are pirated versions, or "bad quartos," for Henry VI and Hamlet. Scholars believe, however, that the first printing, in 1600, of The Merchant of Venice came from a clean manuscript of the complete play. During his lifetime, no authorized versions of Shakespeare's plays were printed. However, his sonnets were published in 1609, seven years before his death
Shakespeare search engine
A Shakespeare site
Another collection of Shakespeare's works on line:
| 1515 Emperor Maximillian and Vladislav of Bohemia forge
an alliance between the Habsburg and Jagiello dynasties in Vienna.
1298 Battle of Falkirk: English King Edward I combines bowmen and cavalry to defeat William Wallace's Scots at Falkirk.
0260 St Dionysius begins his reign as Pope.
2003 Norman Lewis, 95, travel writer and novelist. Among his books are Sand and Sea in Arabia (1938), Naples '44 (1978), The Honored Society: A Searching Look at the Mafia (1964), The Changing Sky: Travels of a Novelist (1959), A Dragon Apparent: Travels in Indochina (1951), Golden Earth: Travels in Burma (1952), one of his suspense novels is Cuban Passage (1982), his autobiography is Jackdaw Cake (1985).
2003 Murasi Jibali, 28, Israeli Arab, shot by Israeli Border Police patrolling in a jeep outside Taibeh, after Jibali failed to stop his car at their checkpoint and then ignored warning shots they fired in the air. Jibali was trying to evade the roadblock because he was driving without a valid license.
2003 Odai Hussein, 39; Qusai Hussein, 37, and his son Mustafa Hussein, 14; and a bodyguard, in 10:00-to-16:00 attack by US troops from the 101st Airborne Division on a palatial villa in Mosul, Iraq, with small arms and rocket propelled grenades that heavily damage the villa and two adjoining houses. Odai and Qusai were the sons of Saddam Hussein and the highest ranking officials, after him, in his dictatorship.
2003 A senior officer, 7 jawans and the 3 attackers, armed with guns and handgrenades, in 05:30 attack on Indian army camp at Tanda, in Indian-occupied Kashmir near the Pakistan-held part. Some 12 Indian soldiers are wounded.
1967 Carl Sandburg, 89, poet (Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years)
1950 Vyacheslaw Vassilievich Stepanov, Russian mathematician born on 04 September 1889. He investigated new classes of the almost periodic functions introduced by Harald Bohr [22 Apr 1887 – 22 Jan 1951]. In the theory of differential equations Stepanov extended work by Poincaré [29 Apr 1854 – 17 Jul 1912] on the general theory of dynamical systems studied by G D Birkhoff [21 Mar 1884 – 12 Nov 1944].
1946, 91 persons as a wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem is blown up by the Zionist extremists of the Irgun, led by Menachem Begin
1943 Osgood, mathematician.
1934 John Dillinger, gunned down by the Feds
After breaking jail in Indiana with a wooden pistol, notorious bank robber John Dillinger was targeted by FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover [01 Jan 1895 – 02 May 1972] as "public enemy number one." The FBI hunt forced him to get a face-lift and eradicate his fingerprints with acid. However, on 22 July 1934, after escaping two previous shootouts, Dillinger steps out of the Biograph movie theater in Chicago and is killed in a hail of bullets fired by Federal agents.
In a fiery bank-robbing career that lasted just over a year, Dillinger and his associates robbed 11 banks for more than $300'000, broke jail and narrowly escaped capture multiple times, and killed seven police officers and three federal agents.
John Herbert Dillinger was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, on 28 June 1902 (or 22 June 1903?). A juvenile delinquent, he was arrested in 1924 after a botched mugging. He pleaded guilty, hoping for clemency, but was sentenced to 10 to 20 years at Pendleton Reformatory. While in prison, he made several failed escapes and was adopted by a group of professional bank robbers led by Harry Pierpont [–17 Oct 1934 electric chair], who taught him the ways of their trade. When his friends were transferred to Indiana's tough Michigan City Prison, he requested to be transferred there too.
In May 1933, Dillinger was paroled, and he met up with accomplices of Pierpont. Dillinger's plan was to raise enough funds to finance a prison break by Pierpont and the others, who then would take him on as a member of their elite robbery gang. In four months, Dillinger and his gang robbed two grocery stores; a drug store; and, on 17 July 1933, $3500 from the Commercial Bank, Daleville, Indiana; on 04 August 1933, $6700 from Montpelier National Bank, Montpelier, Indiana; on 14 August 1933, $6000 from Bluffton Bank, Bluffton, Ohio; and on 06 September 1933, $21000 from Massachusetts Avenue State Bank, Indianapolis. Dillinger gained notoriety as a sharply dressed and athletic gunman who at one bank leapt over the high teller railing into the vault.
With the help of two of Pierpont's women friends, Dillinger set up the jailbreak. Guns were bought and arranged to be smuggled into Michigan City Prison. Prison workers were bribed, and a safe house was set up. On 22 September, however, just days before the jailbreak was scheduled to occur, Dillinger was arrested in Dayton, Ohio. On 26 September 1933, Pierpont and nine others (of which Joseph Jenkins was killed by citizens of Bean Blossom IN on 30 Sep 1933, and John Hamilton died on 27 April 1934 from wounds inflicted by Saint-Paul police; while the seven others were all recaptured: James Clark, Ed Shouse, Walter Dietrich, Russell Clark, Charles Makley, John Burns, Joseph Fox being the last on 04 Jun 1935) broke out of Michigan City (John Burns shoots and wounds prison clerk Finley Carson). Pierpont's gang robbed $11'000 from a bank in Ohio and, on 12 October 1933, came to Ohio to free Dillinger from the Lima city jail. The Lima sheriff, Jesse Sarber, was killed by Pierpont during the successful breakout.
The Pierpont / Dillinger gang robbed, on 23 October 1933 $76'000 from Central National Bank, Greencastle, Indiana. On 30 October 1933, the gang robbed a police arsenal, acquiring weapons, ammunition, and bulletproof vests. They went on to rob, on 20 November 1933 $28'000 from American Bank & Trust, Racine, Wisconsin (wounding Sergeant Wilbur Hansen and cashier H. J. Graham); and on 13 December 1933 $8700 from Unity Trust & Savings Bank, Chicago (Police Sergeant William T. Shanley was shot by John Hamilton and died the next day). Dillinger and Hamilton robbed, on 15 January 1934 $20'000 from First National Bank, East Chicago, Indiana, where Dillinger killed policeman William Patrick O’Malley.
In January 1934, the gang headed to Tucson, Arizona, to lay low. By this time, four police officers had been killed and two wounded, and the Chicago police had established an elite squad to track down the fugitives. They were recognized in Tucson and on 25 January captured without bloodshed.
Dillinger was extradited to Indiana, arraigned for his 15 January 1934 murder of Indiana police officer William Patrick O'Malley, and held at Crown Point prison. On 03 March, while still awaiting trial, he made his most celebrated escape. That morning, he brandished a gun and methodically began locking up the prison officials. The legend is that the weapon was a wooden gun carved by Dillinger and blackened with shoe polish, but it may also have been a real gun smuggled into the prison by an associate. Whatever the case, Dillinger raided the prison arsenal, where he found two sub-machine guns, and then enlisted the aid of another prisoner, Herbert Youngblood, a Black. Dillinger and Youngblood then made their way to the prison garage, where they stole a sheriff's car and calmly drove off, after pulling the ignition wires from the other vehicles parked there.
Parting ways with Youngblood (who was killed by police at Port Huron, Michigan, on 16 March 1934), Dillinger traveled to Chicago and formed a new gang featuring "Baby Face" Nelson [–27 Nov 1934 from wounds by FBI agents in Barrington, Illinois], a psychopathic killer who used to work for Al Capone. The new Dillinger gang robbed banks, at Sioux Falls, South Dakota, on 06 March 1934 (wounding policeman Hale Keith); and at Mason City, Iowa, on 13 March 1934 (wounding R. H. Mason); netting $101'500 total in the two banks. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) joined the manhunt for Dillinger after he escaped from Crown Point, and on 31 March 1934 two FBI agents closed in on him at an apartment in St. Paul, Minnesota. Dillinger and an accomplice shot their way out.
In April, the Dillinger gang went to hide out at the Little Bohemia resort in Wisconsin, but the FBI was tipped off. On 22 April, the FBI stormed the resort. In a disastrous operation, three civilians were mistakenly shot by the FBI, one of whom, Eugene Boiseneau, a CCC worker, died, and the other two, John Morris and John Hoffman, were wounded; Baby Face Nelson killed Federal Agent W. Carter Baum, shot FBI Agent J. C. Newman, and critically wounded constable Carl Christensen. The entire Dillinger gang escaped.
With two other gang members, Dillinger traveled to Chicago, surviving a shoot-out with Minnesota police along the way. In Chicago, he lived in a safe house and got a facelift to conceal his identity. At some point, he also used acid to burn off his fingerprints. On 30 June, he participated in his last robbery, in South Bend, Indiana. The gang got away with about $30'000 after gang member Van Meter [–23 Aug 1934 by police in Saint-Paul] killed policeman Howard Wagner, civilians Perry G. Stahley and Delos M. Coen, bank officials, and Jacob Solomon and Samuel Toth, citizens of South Bend, were wounded; and one gang member was shot.
In July, Anna Sage, a Romanian-born brothel madam in Chicago and friend of Dillinger's, agreed to cooperate with the FBI in exchange for leniency in an upcoming deportation hearing. She also hoped to cash in on the $10'000 bounty that had been put on his head. On 22 July Sage and Dillinger went to see the gangster movie Manhattan Melodrama at the Biograph Theatre around the corner from her house. Twenty FBI agents and police officers staked out the theater and waited for him to emerge with Sage, who would be wearing an orange dress to identify herself.
At 22:40, Dillinger came out. Sage's orange dress looked red under the Biograph's lights, which would earn her the nickname "the lady in red." Dillinger was ordered to surrender, but he took off running. He made it as far as an alley at the end of the block before he was gunned down, allegedly because he pulled a gun. Two bystanders were wounded in the gunfire. Public Enemy No. 1 was dead.
Some researchers have claimed that another man, not Dillinger, was killed outside the Biograph, citing autopsy findings on the corpse that allegedly contradict Dillinger's known medical record.
— much more
| 1918:: 504 sheep by lightning in Utah's Wasatch National
1889 Adèle Evrard, Flemish artist born in 1792.
1802 Marie-François-Xavier Bichat, born on 11 November 1771, French anatomist and physiologist whose systematic study of human tissues helped found the science of histology.
1719 Giovanni Gioseffo dal Sole, Italian painter born on 10 October 1654. MORE ON DAL SOLE AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1696 Hendrich van Minderhout, den groenen Ridder van Rotterdam, Dutch artist born in 1632. — more
1684 Josefa de Óbidos de Ayala, Spanish Portuguese Baroque Era painter born in 1630. MORE ON ÓBIDOS AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1645 Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimental, conde-duque de Olivares, duque de Sanlúcar de Barrameda, born on 16 January 1587, prime minister (1623–1643) and valido (court favorite) of King Philip IV [08 Apr 1605 – 17 Sep 1665] of Spain. He attempted to impose a strong centralizing policy and eventually provoked rebellion and his own fall.
1639 Rutilio di Lorenzo Manetti, Italian artist born on 01 January 1571.
1559 Saint Lawrence of Brindisi, born Cesare De Rossi on 22 July 1559. He became a Capuchin in 1575, taking the name Lorenzo. He mastered several languages including Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Syriac. Under Popes Gregory XIII and Clement VIII he was appointed apostolic preacher to the Roman Jews. During the Battle of Stuhlweissenburg, Hung. (09 Oct to 14 Oct 1601), Lawrence accompanied Emperor Rudolf II's forces to victory against the Turkish army of Sultan Mehmed III; this victory was attributed in great part to the the saint communicating his ardor and confidence to the Christian troops. He fought against the rise of German Protestantism and founded Capuchin houses at Madrid and at Munich, where he took part in the political discussions preceding the Thirty Years' War. Lawrence died near Lisbon while on a mission to King Philip III of Spain for the Neapolitans, who were being oppressed by the Duke of Osuna, Italy. He was beatified by Pope Pius VI [25 Dec 1717 – 29 Aug 1799] in 1783, canonized by Leo XIII [02 Mar 1810 – 20 Jul 1903] on 08 December 1881, and declared a doctor of the church by John XXIII [25 Nov 1881 – 03 Jun 1963] in 1959. Lawrence's works were published in nine volumes (1928–1945).
1575 Maurolico, mathematician.
1461 Charles VII, born on 22 February 1403, king of France (from 1422), who succeeded, partly with the aid of Joan of Arc [1412 – 30 May 1431], in driving the English from French soil and in solidifying the administration of the monarchy.
1998 Mei Xiang (= Beautiful Fragrance) [photo grown-up>], female giant panda (tiny at birth), at the Research and Conservation Center for the Giant Panda in Wolong, China. She came to the US in December 2000 together with male giant panda Tian Tian (=More and More, born on 27 August 1997) on loan for 10 years to the National Zoo in Washington DC, for $10 million. So, assuming that the two pandas work 40 hours a week of regular time and 16 hours of overtime, they each earn for China $150 an hour for regular time and $225 an hour for overtime, and they don't have any income tax, social security, or health insurance withheld. If you wanted a deal like that, you should have been born a member of a cute species of which there are not much more than 1000 left in the world.
1948 Susan Eloise Hinton, US novelist.
1948 Ana de Palacio del Valle-Lersundi, Spanish politician.
1931 Guido De Marco, Maltese politician.
1923 Robert Joseph “Bob” Dole (Sen-R-Ks), 1996 Republican candidate for president of the United States.
1909 Franz-Josef Röder, Saarland German politician who died on 26 June 1979.
^ 1908 Fisher Body Company
Albert Fisher and his nephews, Frederic and Charles Fisher, establish the Fisher Body Company to manufacture carriage and automobile bodies. Albert Fisher personally supplied $30'000 of the company’s total of $50'000 in initial capital. Charles and Frederic had been trained in their father’s carriage building shop and supplied the technical know-how required at the company’s inception.
Fisher Body quickly abandoned carriage building to concentrate on car frames. By 1910, Fisher supplied some car bodies for General Motors (GM), and in 1919 GM purchased controlling interest in the company to shore up a supplier for its car bodies. At that time, Fisher was the largest supplier of car bodies in the world. The Fisher brothers were early advocates of closed-body, steel and wood frames, and they pre-empted their competition by creating more closed-bodied cars than open-bodied. They were also early in their adoption of aluminum and steel frames.
Fisher Body completed a total merger in 1924 after their initial contracted agreement to supply bodies to GM had expired. On 30 June, 1926 GM traded 667'720 shares of its own stock, at a market value of $136 million, for the remaining 40% of Fisher Body. The firm became the Fisher Body Division of GM, and was still headed by the Fisher family. The Fisher family remained in control of the Fisher Body Division until 1944, though brothers Lawrence and Edward were on the Board of Directors until 1969. The Fisher family’s impact on the automotive industry is second only to that of the Ford family. Every GM body between 1919 and 1944 passed the approval of a Fisher man.
1908 Amy Vanderbilt authority on etiquette (Complete Book of Etiquette), who died on 27 December 1974.
1904 Otto Rombach, German writer who died on 09 May 1984.
1902 Reinhold Baer mathematician whose work was wide ranging; topology, abelian groups and geometry. His most important work, however, was in group theory, on the extension problem for groups, finiteness conditions, soluble and nilpotent groups.
1898 Alexander Sandy Calder, US kinetic artist, painter, sculptor and printmaker, in love with the color red, who died on 11 November 1976. MORE ON CALDER AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1898 Stephen Vincent Benét, poet and short-story writer, who died on 13 March 1943. Author of John Brown's Body (1928), Ballad of William Sycamore 1790–1880 (1923), and other books.
1893 Karl Augustus Menninger, US psychiatrist who died on 18 July 1990; son of Dr. Charles Frederick Menninger [11 Jul 1862 – 28 Nov 1953]. With Karl's brother Dr. William Claire Menninger [15 Oct 1899 – 06 Sep 1966], they founded in 1941 the Menninger Foundation, which studies mental health problems.
1892 Arthur Seyss-Inquart Austrian chancellor and Nazi collaborator (1930s)
1888 Raymond Chandler Chic, mystery writer (The Long Goodbye)
1887 Gustav Hertz German quantum physicist (Nobel 1925 jointly with J. Franck), who died on 30 October 1975.
1882 Knopp, mathematician
1882 Edward Hopper, US Scene painter who died on 15 May 1967. MORE ON HOPPER AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1881 Ludwig Heinrich Jungnickel, German artist who died in 1965. — more
1881 The first volume of The War of the Rebellion: A compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, is published.
1878 Janusz Korczak, Polish physician who died in August 1942 in the Treblinka concentration camp.
1876 Walter Ufer, US painter who died in 1936, specialized in the US West MORE ON UFER AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1860 Paul Gustav Fischer, Danish painter who liked fish. He died in 1934. — a bit more with links to images.
1823 Godfried Egide Guffens, Belgian artist who died on 11 July 1901. MORE ON GUFFENS AT ART 4 JULY 11 with links to images.
1822 Johann “Gregor” Mendel, Austrian monk/geneticist, discoverer of the laws of heredity, who died on 06 January 1884. Il se fit moine et devint plus tard abbé du monastère de Brünn, il étudia et enseigna la biologie dans ce monastère. Il découvrit les lois de l'hérédité, en observant le résultat des croisements de plantes.
1821 Cesare Felix Georges dell'Acqua, Italian artist who died in 1904. — link to an image.
1803 Louis Gabriel Eugène Isabey, French artist who died on 27 April 1886. MORE ON ISABEY AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1795 Gabriel Lamé, mathematician who worked on a wide variety of different topics. His work on differential geometry and contributions to Fermat's Last Theorem are important. He proved the theorem for n=7 in 1839 (i.e. that there are no integers >1, x, y, z, such that x^7 + y^7 = z^7) .
1784 Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel , German astronomer and mathematician who died on 17 March 1846. He determined the positions and proper motions of stars and discovered the parallax of 61 Cygni. He also used a method of mathematical analysis involving what is now known as the Bessel function.
1755 de Prony, mathematician.
1559 Giulio Cesare Guglielmo De Rossi, in Brindisi, Kingdom of Naples. He would become San Lorenzo Da Brindisi and die on his 60th birthday. (See above)
1519 Innocent IX 230th pope, for 2 months (29 October – 30 December 1591)
1478 Philip I (the Handsome) 1st Habsburg king of Spain (1506)