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2007 Legislative elections in Turkey. Islamic moderates get 47% of the votes. —(080721)

2002 (Monday) The stock of natural gas utilities Williams Companies (WMB) is downgraded by Merrill Lynch from “Near and Long Term Strong Buy” to Near and Long Term Neutral”. On the New York Stock Exchange, WMB drops from its previous close of $5.16 to an intraday low of $1.99 and closes at $2.01. It had traded as high as $48.77 ot 07 January 1999. WMB would drift down further during the rest of the week, reaching a low of $0.84 on 25 July. But, after closing on Friday 26 July at $1.06, it would recover on Monday 29 July to close at its intraday high of $1.99. [5~year price chart >]

2002
Peepers, who lives with Brad and Cheryl Moureau in Des Moines, Iowa, is taking a peaceful walk on SW 2nd Street. Suddenly a woman grabs Peepers and drives away in a van. Neighbors put up a $100 reward for information leading to the arrest of the woman. When the woman, Rita Kane, 62, reads about this in the Des Moines Register, she notifies the police that Peepers seemed lost and possibly in danger from traffic, so she took him to the animal shelter, Peepers being a duck.
"Aflac"      Early on 25 July 2002, the police notifies the Moureaus that he can get the duck back by paying $41 to the shelter. Bill Robertson, regional sales coordinator for AFLAC (American Family Life Assurance Company of Columbus), learns of this and that Peepers resembles the duck in the company's ads [< photo], and that passers-by often call out “Aflac, Aflac” when they see Peepers. So Robertson gets some inexpensive publicity by paying the shelter's fee. Ah... and the Moureaus are told that it is illegal to let any pet roam freely within Des Moines. So Peepers will have to be caged, and his friend the dog Duffy kept on a leash. [It does not seem likely that cats obey that law, but then perhaps they don't consider themselves “pets”, but rather “divinities”.] — [AFLAC motto: “The duck shops here.”]

2001
In Sweden, Tassilla, 6, the bullterrier bitch of Ms. Gunilla Gonon-Sabelstrom swallows two 500-crown bills (equal to $47 each). The bills would be excreted the next day, smelly, yellowed, and wrinkled, but still valid. (reported by the Dagens Nyheter on 24 July 2001)
1998 New president at Microsoft
      Bill Gates, chairman and chief executive of Microsoft, names Steve Ballmer president of Microsoft. Gates says that he intends to delegate responsibility for operations to Ballmer, while he himself will focus more on product and technology development. Ballmer, a friend from Gates' Harvard days, had joined the company as its 20th employee.
^ 1997 Upgraded Mac operating system
      Apple launches Mac OS 8, the biggest upgrade of the Macintosh operating system to hit the market since 1991. Apple had lost its technological lead to Windows 95 and Intel machines and had seen its sales, profit, and market share plummet since 1995. Among other features, the new system adds increased stability and better Internet access.
^ 1996 Secure online payments
      Visa International and VeriSign, an Internet-security company, saf that they have developed a system for secure payment over the Internet. The system enables shoppers to make purchases without providing their actual credit card number. Visa officials say that the system is vastly more secure than mail- or telephone-order methods.
^ 1992 Gruesome murderer arrested
      In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, two policemen enter the home of Jeffrey Dahmer, 31, accused of sexually abusing another man, and find a collection of severed heads, body parts preserved in formaldehyde, and photographs of victims at various stages of their deaths. Dahmer attempts to escape, but he is subdued and placed under arrest.
      Over a thirteen-year period beginning in 1982 (???), Dahmer, who lived primarily in the Midwest, murdered at least seventeen young men and boys. Most of his victims were young, homosexual, African Americans, whom Dahmer lured to his home, promising to pay them to pose for nude photographs. He would then drug and strangle them to death, often mutilating, and occasionally cannibalizing, their bodies afterwards.
       When, after several missed opportunities, Dahmer is finally arrested on 22 July 1991, he confesses seventeen murders to the police. In his subsequent criminal trial, he would plead guilty but insane to fifteen of the murders. On February 12, 1992, a Wisconsin jury pronounced guilty and sane in each of the fifteen murders, and five days later he was sentenced to fifteen consecutive life sentences.
      Two years later, Dahmer was beaten to death by fellow inmate Christopher Scarver while performing cleaning duty in a bathroom at the Columbia Correctional Institute gymnasium in Portage, Wisconsin. Scarver, a convicted murderer, also fatally beat the third man on their work detail, inmate Jesse Anderson, who was serving a life sentence for brutally killing his wife. Scarver's motive in killing the two men was not entirely clear; however, in his subsequent criminal trial Scarver maintained that God had told him to kill Dahmer and Anderson.
1988 500 US scientists pledge to boycott Pentagon germ-warfare research
^ 1987 Gorbachev accepts ban on intermediate-range nuclear missiles
      In a dramatic turnaround, Soviet leader Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev [02 Mar 1931~]indicates that he is willing to negotiate a ban on intermediate-range nuclear missiles without conditions. Gorbachev's decision paved the way for the groundbreaking Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty with the United States. Since coming to power in 1985, Gorbachev had made it clear that he sought a less contentious relationship with the United States. His American counterpart, President Ronald Reagan, was a staunch anticommunist and initially harbored deep suspicions about Gorbachev's sincerity. After meeting with Gorbachev in November 1985, however, Reagan came to believe that progress might be made on a number of issues, including arms control. In subsequent summit meetings, the two leaders focused on the so-called intermediate-range nuclear missiles that both nations had massed in Europe and around the world. In late 1986, it appeared that the two nations were close to an agreement that would eliminate the weapons from Europe. Negotiations stumbled, however, when Gorbachev demanded that the elimination of the missiles be accompanied by U.S. abandonment of its development of the strategic defense initiative (the "Star Wars" plan). The talks broke down while Reagan and Gorbachev traded accusations of bad faith. On 22 July 1987, Gorbachev dramatically announced that he was ready to discuss the elimination of intermediate-range missiles on a worldwide basis, with no conditions. By dropping his objection to the strategic defense initiative (which was one of Reagan's pet projects), Gorbachev cleared the way for negotiations, and he and Reagan agreed to meet again. Gorbachev's change of mind was the result of a number of factors. His own nation was suffering from serious economic problems and Gorbachev desperately wanted to cut Russia's military spending. In addition, the growing "no-nukes" movement in Europe was interfering with his ability to conduct diplomatic relations with France, Great Britain, and other western European nations. Finally, Gorbachev seemed to have a sincere personal trust in and friendship with Ronald Reagan, and this feeling was apparently reciprocal. In December 1987, during a summit in Washington, the two men signed off on the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, which eliminated an entire class of nuclear weapons.
1987 US began escorting re-flagged Kuwaiti tankers in Persian Gulf
1983 -89ºC recorded, Vostok, Antarctica (world record)
1983 Poland's PM Januzelski lifts martial law
1981 Turkish terrorist Mehmet Ali Agca, 23, is sentenced to life imprisonment for his attempted assassination of Pope John Paul II in May of this year.
1975 US Congress restores the citizenship of the Confederate Civil War leader Robert E. Lee.
1966 B-52 bombers hit the Demilitarized Zone between North and South Vietnam for the first time.
1952 Polish constitution adopted (National Day)
1947 -13ºC, Charlotte Pass, NSW (Australian record)
1944 Soviets set up Polish Committee of National Liberation
^ 1944 Bretton Woods conference ends
      During the summer of 1944, representatives from forty-four nations gathered at a resort hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, to hash out the global finances for the remaining half of the twentieth century. Cast against the backdrop of World War II, the three-week conference was a striking display of the United States' swelling political and fiscal might. For one, the U.S. used Bretton Woods as a stage to promote the dollar as the standard currency for international transactions. Though some European leaders initially blanched at the idea, American officials stood their ground and the dollar eventually won the day.
      But, the United States' victories at Bretton Woods didn't end there: by the time the conference closed on 22 July the delegates had voted to create both the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF), institutions which, in the minds of some historians, sealed America's role as the leader of the post-war economic order. Though U.S. leaders positioned the World Bank and IMF as "financial institutions" shorn of political entanglements, both bodies bore the traces of American influence. The brainchild of American officials, the IMF was charged with stabilizing exchange rates and enforcing the dollar-centric currency standard. Likewise, the World Bank, which was devised to dole out international loans, received good chunks of its fiscal resources from the United States.
1943 Palermo, Sicily surrenders to General George S. Patton's Seventh Army.
^ 1942 Deportations from Warsaw ghetto to Treblinka begin
      The systematic deportation of Jews from the Warsaw ghetto begins, as thousands are rounded up daily and transported to a newly constructed concentration/extermination camp at Treblinka, in Poland.
      On 17 July, Heinrich Himmler, head of the Nazi SS, had arrived at Auschwitz, the concentration camp in eastern Poland, in time to watch the arrival of more than 2000 Dutch Jews and the gassing of almost 500 of them, mostly the elderly, sick, and very young. The next day, Himmler promoted the camp commandant, Rudolph Hoess, to SS major and ordered that the Warsaw ghetto, (the Jewish quarter constructed by the Nazis upon the occupation of Poland, enclosed first by barbed wire and then by brick walls), be depopulated — a "total cleansing," as he described it — and the inhabitants transported to what was to become a second extermination camp constructed at the railway village of Treblinka, 100 km northeast of Warsaw.
      Within the first seven weeks of Himmler's order, more than 250'000 Jews would be taken to Treblinka by rail and gassed to death, marking the largest single act of destruction of any population group, Jewish or non-Jewish, civilian or military, in the war. Upon arrival at "T. II," as this second camp at Treblinka was called, prisoners were separated by sex, stripped, and marched into what were described as "bathhouses," but were in fact gas chambers.
      T.II's first commandant was Dr. Irmfried Eberl, 32, the man who had headed up the euthanasia program of 1940 and had much experience with the gassing of victims, especially children. He compelled several hundred Ukrainian and about 1500 Jewish prisoners to assist him. They removed gold teeth from victims before hauling the bodies to mass graves. Eberl was relieved of his duties for "inefficiency." It seems that he and his workers could not remove the corpses quickly enough, and panic was occurring within the railway cars of newly arrived prisoners.
      By the end of the war, between 700'000 and 900'000 would die at either Treblinka I or II. Hoess was tried and sentenced to death by the Nuremberg Tribunal. He was hanged in 1947.
1942 US gasoline rationing with coupons begins along the Atlantic seaboard,. during WW II
1938 The Third Reich issues special identity cards for Jewish Germans.
1937 Senate rejects FDR proposal to enlarge Supreme Court
1937 The US Senate rejects President Franklin D. Roosevelt's proposal to add more justices to the Supreme Court.
^ 1933 First solo round-the-world flight
      Just before midnight, US aviator Wiley Post completes the first solo around-the-world flight when he returns to Floyd Bennett Field in New York after seven days, eighteen hours, and forty-nine minutes. Post had begun the journey on July 15, flying nonstop to Berlin, Germany, in just under twenty-six hours. After a brief rest, he flew on to the Soviet Union, where he made several stops as he made his way across Asia. Then he returned to America with a stop in Alaska, another in Canada, and finally a triumphant landing at his starting point on 22 July.
      Two years earlier, Post had won fame when he successfully flew around the northern part of the earth with aviator Harold Gatty. For his solo around-the-world flight in 1933, he flew a slightly greater distance — 25'100 km — in less time. For both flights he used the Winnie Mae, a Lockheed Vega monoplane that was equipped with a Sperry automatic pilot and a direction radio for Post's solo journey. On August 16, 1935, he was flying across the North Pole to the U.S.S.R. on a promotional trip with American humorist Will Rogers when he was killed in a crash near Point Barrow, Alaska.
1926 41ºC, Waterbury, Connecticut (state record)
1926 42ºC, Troy, New York (state record)
1917 Alexander Kerensky becomes Russian PM
1914 Friday : in the aftermath of the June 28 assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand:
  • After viewing the text of the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia, German Undersecretary Arthur Zimmermann comments that "the note is too sharp." [view text of the ultimatum]
  • 1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
    1862 President Lincoln presents to the Cabinet the Emancipation Proclamation which he would issue the next 1 January.
    1847 The first large company of Mormon immigrants enters the Salt Lake Valley, in what is still Mexican territory. Soon after, Mormon leader Brigham Young would found Salt Lake City,Utah.
    1814 Five Indian tribes in Ohio make peace with the United States and declare war on Britain.
    1812 Battle of Salamanca, Spain: a British army under the Duke of Wellington defeats the French .
    1796 General Moses Cleaveland draws the plan for the town of Cleaveland, Ohio (In 1832 an a in Cleaveland was dropped to shorten a newspaper's masthead.)
    ^ 1793 Alexander Mackenzie reaches the Pacific Ocean
          More than a decade before Lewis and Clark, Alexander Mackenzie reaches the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first Euro-American to complete a transcontinental crossing north of Mexico. A young Scotsman engaged in the fur trade out of Montreal, Mackenzie made his epic journey across the continent without any of the governmental financial backing and support given to Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. In 1787, he was assigned to the British North West Company's fur trading post in what is now northern Alberta. Two years later, he led a small expedition north to the Great Slave Lake where he discovered the westward flowing river that now bears his name. To Mackenzie's disappointment, he discovered that the river soon turned north and led to the Arctic Ocean rather than the Pacific. The following year, he tried to reach the Pacific again. This time, he followed the Peace River west accompanied by a party of nine men. In June 1793, the expedition crossed the Continental Divide over an easily portaged pass of 3,000 feet. From there, they moved south down the Fraser River, which Mackenzie hoped was a tributary of the Columbia River. The Fraser River eventually proved impassable, however, and the expedition struck out overland to the west. On this day in 1793, Mackenzie reached the Pacific Ocean across from what is today called Vancouver Island. Using a paint he concocted from grease and vermilion, he wrote on a rock: "Alexander Mackenzie, from Canada, by land, the twenty-second of July, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-three." With this inscription, Great Britain staked its first tenuous claim on the northwest. Aside from the Spanish explorers who had previously crossed the comparatively narrow Mexican land mass, Mackenzie was the first Euro-American to cross the North American continent to reach the Pacific Ocean. Yet, he considered his achievement to be "at least in part a failure" because he had failed to find a passable commercial route. Mackenzie later returned to Scotland and never returned to Canada. Twelve years later, the discoveries he made on his "failed" voyage played a key role in President Thomas Jefferson's decision to send Lewis and Clark on their two-year journey to the Pacific.
    1789 Thomas Jefferson becomes the first head of the U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs.
    1775 George Washington takes command of the troops
    1691 (12 July Julian) Battle of Aughrim (Aghrim) England, William III defeats James II and the allied Irish and French armies
    1652 Prince Conde's rebels narrowly defeat Chief Minister Mazarin's loyalist forces at St. Martin, near Paris.
    1620 A small congregation of English Separatists, led by John Robinson, began their emigration to the New World. Today, this historic group of religious refugees has come to be known as the 'Pilgrims.' which is what William Bradford called them in Mourt's Relation: A Journal of the Pilgrims at Plymouth
    Shakespeare1598 The Merchant of Venice is registered      
          William Shakespeare's play The Merchant of Venice is entered on the Stationers' Register. By decree of Queen Elizabeth, the Stationers' Register licensed printed works, giving the Crown tight control over all published material. Although its entry on the register licensed the printing of The Merchant of Venice, its first version would not be published for another two years.
          The publication of Shakespeare's plays was a haphazard matter. Playwrights at the time were not interested in publication: They sold their plays to theater companies, which tried to prevent rivals from literally stealing the show. The writer produced only one complete written script for a play, and the players received only their own lines and cues, not the entire play. Sometimes, however, disgruntled actors would prepare their own version of the play from notes cribbed during performances.
          Among other plays, there are pirated versions, or "bad quartos," for Henry VI and Hamlet. Scholars believe, however, that the first printing, in 1600, of The Merchant of Venice came from a clean manuscript of the complete play. During his lifetime, no authorized versions of Shakespeare's plays were printed. However, his sonnets were published in 1609, seven years before his death

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    1515 Emperor Maximillian and Vladislav of Bohemia forge an alliance between the Habsburg and Jagiello dynasties in Vienna.
    1298 Battle of Falkirk: English King Edward I combines bowmen and cavalry to defeat William Wallace's Scots at Falkirk.
    0260 St Dionysius begins his reign as Pope.
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    < 21 Jul 23 Jul >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 22 July:
    2003 Norman Lewis, 95, travel writer and novelist. Among his books are Sand and Sea in Arabia (1938), Naples '44 (1978), The Honored Society: A Searching Look at the Mafia (1964), The Changing Sky: Travels of a Novelist (1959), A Dragon Apparent: Travels in Indochina (1951), Golden Earth: Travels in Burma (1952), one of his suspense novels is Cuban Passage (1982), his autobiography is Jackdaw Cake (1985).
    2003 Murasi Jibali, 28, Israeli Arab, shot by Israeli Border Police patrolling in a jeep outside Taibeh, after Jibali failed to stop his car at their checkpoint and then ignored warning shots they fired in the air. Jibali was trying to evade the roadblock because he was driving without a valid license.
    2003 Odai Hussein, 39; Qusai Hussein, 37, and his son Mustafa Hussein, 14; and a bodyguard, in 10:00-to-16:00 attack by US troops from the 101st Airborne Division on a palatial villa in Mosul, Iraq, with small arms and rocket propelled grenades that heavily damage the villa and two adjoining houses. Odai and Qusai were the sons of Saddam Hussein and the highest ranking officials, after him, in his dictatorship.
    2003 A senior officer, 7 jawans and the 3 attackers, armed with guns and handgrenades, in 05:30 attack on Indian army camp at Tanda, in Indian-occupied Kashmir near the Pakistan-held part. Some 12 Indian soldiers are wounded.
    1967 Carl Sandburg, 89, poet (Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years)
    ^ 1962 Mariner I spacecraft, done in by a software bug
         The Mariner I spacecraft, the first US unmanned probe designed to visit another planet, begins flying erratically several minutes after it is launched, and it has to be destroyed in the air
          The potential dangers presented by software bugs become clear to the public when a software error is later found to be responsible. Investigators would discover that the problem resulted from a single incorrect character in the guidance program.
    1959 David van Dantzig, Dutch mathematician born on 23 September 1900. He studied differential geometry, electromagnetism and thermodynamics. His most important work was in topological algebra; he studied metrisation of groups, rings and fields. After the WW II, he worked on probability and statistics.
    1950 Vyacheslaw Vassilievich Stepanov, Russian mathematician born on 04 September 1889. He investigated new classes of the almost periodic functions introduced by Harald Bohr [22 Apr 1887 – 22 Jan 1951]. In the theory of differential equations Stepanov extended work by Poincaré [29 Apr 1854 – 17 Jul 1912] on the general theory of dynamical systems studied by G D Birkhoff [21 Mar 1884 – 12 Nov 1944].
    1946, 91 persons as a wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem is blown up by the Zionist extremists of the Irgun, led by Menachem Begin
    1943 Osgood, mathematician.
    ^ 1934 John Dillinger, gunned down by the Feds
          After breaking jail in Indiana with a wooden pistol, notorious bank robber John Dillinger was targeted by FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover [01 Jan 1895 – 02 May 1972] as "public enemy number one." The FBI hunt forced him to get a face-lift and eradicate his fingerprints with acid. However, on 22 July 1934, after escaping two previous shootouts, Dillinger steps out of the Biograph movie theater in Chicago and is killed in a hail of bullets fired by Federal agents.
         In a fiery bank-robbing career that lasted just over a year, Dillinger and his associates robbed 11 banks for more than $300'000, broke jail and narrowly escaped capture multiple times, and killed seven police officers and three federal agents.
          John Herbert Dillinger was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, on 28 June 1902 (or 22 June 1903?). A juvenile delinquent, he was arrested in 1924 after a botched mugging. He pleaded guilty, hoping for clemency, but was sentenced to 10 to 20 years at Pendleton Reformatory. While in prison, he made several failed escapes and was adopted by a group of professional bank robbers led by Harry Pierpont [–17 Oct 1934 electric chair], who taught him the ways of their trade. When his friends were transferred to Indiana's tough Michigan City Prison, he requested to be transferred there too.
          In May 1933, Dillinger was paroled, and he met up with accomplices of Pierpont. Dillinger's plan was to raise enough funds to finance a prison break by Pierpont and the others, who then would take him on as a member of their elite robbery gang. In four months, Dillinger and his gang robbed two grocery stores; a drug store; and, on 17 July 1933, $3500 from the Commercial Bank, Daleville, Indiana; on 04 August 1933, $6700 from Montpelier National Bank, Montpelier, Indiana; on 14 August 1933, $6000 from Bluffton Bank, Bluffton, Ohio; and on 06 September 1933, $21000 from Massachusetts Avenue State Bank, Indianapolis. Dillinger gained notoriety as a sharply dressed and athletic gunman who at one bank leapt over the high teller railing into the vault.
          With the help of two of Pierpont's women friends, Dillinger set up the jailbreak. Guns were bought and arranged to be smuggled into Michigan City Prison. Prison workers were bribed, and a safe house was set up. On 22 September, however, just days before the jailbreak was scheduled to occur, Dillinger was arrested in Dayton, Ohio. On 26 September 1933, Pierpont and nine others (of which Joseph Jenkins was killed by citizens of Bean Blossom IN on 30 Sep 1933, and John Hamilton died on 27 April 1934 from wounds inflicted by Saint-Paul police; while the seven others were all recaptured: James Clark, Ed Shouse, Walter Dietrich, Russell Clark, Charles Makley, John Burns, Joseph Fox being the last on 04 Jun 1935) broke out of Michigan City (John Burns shoots and wounds prison clerk Finley Carson). Pierpont's gang robbed $11'000 from a bank in Ohio and, on 12 October 1933, came to Ohio to free Dillinger from the Lima city jail. The Lima sheriff, Jesse Sarber, was killed by Pierpont during the successful breakout.
         The Pierpont / Dillinger gang robbed, on 23 October 1933 $76'000 from Central National Bank, Greencastle, Indiana. On 30 October 1933, the gang robbed a police arsenal, acquiring weapons, ammunition, and bulletproof vests. They went on to rob, on 20 November 1933 $28'000 from American Bank & Trust, Racine, Wisconsin (wounding Sergeant Wilbur Hansen and cashier H. J. Graham); and on 13 December 1933 $8700 from Unity Trust & Savings Bank, Chicago (Police Sergeant William T. Shanley was shot by John Hamilton and died the next day). Dillinger and Hamilton robbed, on 15 January 1934 $20'000 from First National Bank, East Chicago, Indiana, where Dillinger killed policeman William Patrick O’Malley.
          In January 1934, the gang headed to Tucson, Arizona, to lay low. By this time, four police officers had been killed and two wounded, and the Chicago police had established an elite squad to track down the fugitives. They were recognized in Tucson and on 25 January captured without bloodshed.
          Dillinger was extradited to Indiana, arraigned for his 15 January 1934 murder of Indiana police officer William Patrick O'Malley, and held at Crown Point prison. On 03 March, while still awaiting trial, he made his most celebrated escape. That morning, he brandished a gun and methodically began locking up the prison officials. The legend is that the weapon was a wooden gun carved by Dillinger and blackened with shoe polish, but it may also have been a real gun smuggled into the prison by an associate. Whatever the case, Dillinger raided the prison arsenal, where he found two sub-machine guns, and then enlisted the aid of another prisoner, Herbert Youngblood, a Black. Dillinger and Youngblood then made their way to the prison garage, where they stole a sheriff's car and calmly drove off, after pulling the ignition wires from the other vehicles parked there.
          Parting ways with Youngblood (who was killed by police at Port Huron, Michigan, on 16 March 1934), Dillinger traveled to Chicago and formed a new gang featuring "Baby Face" Nelson [–27 Nov 1934 from wounds by FBI agents in Barrington, Illinois], a psychopathic killer who used to work for Al Capone. The new Dillinger gang robbed banks, at Sioux Falls, South Dakota, on 06 March 1934 (wounding policeman Hale Keith); and at Mason City, Iowa, on 13 March 1934 (wounding R. H. Mason); netting $101'500 total in the two banks. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) joined the manhunt for Dillinger after he escaped from Crown Point, and on 31 March 1934 two FBI agents closed in on him at an apartment in St. Paul, Minnesota. Dillinger and an accomplice shot their way out.
          In April, the Dillinger gang went to hide out at the Little Bohemia resort in Wisconsin, but the FBI was tipped off. On 22 April, the FBI stormed the resort. In a disastrous operation, three civilians were mistakenly shot by the FBI, one of whom, Eugene Boiseneau, a CCC worker, died, and the other two, John Morris and John Hoffman, were wounded; Baby Face Nelson killed Federal Agent W. Carter Baum, shot FBI Agent J. C. Newman, and critically wounded constable Carl Christensen. The entire Dillinger gang escaped.
          With two other gang members, Dillinger traveled to Chicago, surviving a shoot-out with Minnesota police along the way. In Chicago, he lived in a safe house and got a facelift to conceal his identity. At some point, he also used acid to burn off his fingerprints. On 30 June, he participated in his last robbery, in South Bend, Indiana. The gang got away with about $30'000 after gang member Van Meter [–23 Aug 1934 by police in Saint-Paul] killed policeman Howard Wagner, civilians Perry G. Stahley and Delos M. Coen, bank officials, and Jacob Solomon and Samuel Toth, citizens of South Bend, were wounded; and one gang member was shot.
          In July, Anna Sage, a Romanian-born brothel madam in Chicago and friend of Dillinger's, agreed to cooperate with the FBI in exchange for leniency in an upcoming deportation hearing. She also hoped to cash in on the $10'000 bounty that had been put on his head. On 22 July Sage and Dillinger went to see the gangster movie Manhattan Melodrama at the Biograph Theatre around the corner from her house. Twenty FBI agents and police officers staked out the theater and waited for him to emerge with Sage, who would be wearing an orange dress to identify herself.
          At 22:40, Dillinger came out. Sage's orange dress looked red under the Biograph's lights, which would earn her the nickname "the lady in red." Dillinger was ordered to surrender, but he took off running. He made it as far as an alley at the end of the block before he was gunned down, allegedly because he pulled a gun. Two bystanders were wounded in the gunfire. Public Enemy No. 1 was dead.
          Some researchers have claimed that another man, not Dillinger, was killed outside the Biograph, citing autopsy findings on the corpse that allegedly contradict Dillinger's known medical record.
    much more
    1918:: 504 sheep by lightning in Utah's Wasatch National Park
    ^ 1916 Ten persons killed by the Preparedness Day Bombing
          In San Francisco, California, a bombing during a Preparedness Day parade kills ten people and wounds forty. The bomb had been hidden in a suitcase. The parade, which had been traveling up Market Street, was organized by the city's chamber of commerce and business leaders in support of America's possible entrance into World War I. San Francisco had been suffering through several years of labor strife at the time, and most suspected that anti-war labor radicals were responsible for the bombing.
          Labor leader Tom Mooney, his wife Rena, his assistant Warren K. Billings, and two others were soon charged by District Attorney Charles Fickert with the crime. The case attracted international interest because all evidence, with the exception of a handful of questionable witness accounts, seemed to point unquestionably to their innocence. Even after confessions of perjured testimony were made in the courtroom, the trial continued, and in 1917 Mooney and Billings were convicted of first-degree murder, with Billings sentenced to life imprisonment and Mooney sentenced to hang. The other three defendants were acquitted.
          Responding to international outrage at the conviction, President Woodrow Wilson set up a "mediation commission" to investigate the case, and no clear evidence of their guilt was found. In 1918, Mooney's sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. Over the next two decades, many groups and individuals petitioned California to grant the two men a new trial. By 1939, when evidence of perjury and false testimony at the trial had become overwhelming, newly elected Governor Culbert Olson pardoned Mooney and commuted Billing's sentence to time served. Billings was not officially pardoned until 1961.
    1914 Charles Maurin, French painter born on 01 April 1856. — MORE ON MAURIN AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1889 Adèle Evrard, Flemish artist born in 1792.
    ^ 1864 McPherson, Union general, and many other Yanks and Rebs as the Battle of Atlanta continues
          Confederate General John Bell Hood [01 Jun 1831 – 30 Aug 1879] continues to try to drive General William T. Sherman [08 Feb 1820 – 14 Feb 1891] from the outskirts of Atlanta when he attacks the Yankees on Bald Hill. The attack failed, and Sherman tightened his hold on Atlanta. Confederate President Jefferson Davis [03 Jun 1808 – 06 Dec 1889] had appointed Hood commander of the Army of Tennessee just four days before the engagement at Atlanta. Davis had been frustrated with the defensive campaign of the previous commander, Joseph Johnston [03 Feb 1807 – 21 Mar 1891], so he appointed Hood to drive Sherman back North.
          Hood attacked Peachtree Creek on 20 July, but he could not break the Federals. Two days later, Hood tried again at Bald Hill. The Union force under Sherman consisted of three armies: Army of the Tennessee commanded by James McPherson, John Schofield's Army of the Ohio, and the Army of the Cumberland commanded by George Thomas [31 Jul 1816 – 28 Mar 1870]. Thomas' force pressed on Atlanta from the north, at Peachtree Creek, while McPherson swung to Atlanta's eastern fringe to cut the Georgia Railroad, which ran to Decatur.
          Hood strikes at McPherson on 22 July but several problems blunt the Confederate attack. The broken, rugged terrain makes coordination difficult, and the attack, which had been planned for dawn, does not begin until after noon. Most important, and unbeknownst to Hood, McPherson extends his line east. The Confederates had assembled along a line, which they thought was behind the Union flank, but is now directly in front of fortified Federal soldiers. Hood's men briefly breach the Union line, but cannot hold the position. The day ends without a significant change in the position of the two armies. For the second time in three days, Hood failed to break the Union hold on Atlanta. His already-outnumbered army fared poorly. He lost more than 5000 men, while the Union suffered 3700 casualties. Among them was General McPherson, who had been killed by a Confederate skirmisher while scouting the lines during the battle. He was one of the most respected and promising commanders in the Union army. General Ulysses S. Grant [27 Apr 1822 – 23 Jul 1885] commented, “The country has lost one of its best soldiers, and I have lost my best friend.”
         James Birdseye McPherson was born on 14 November 1828. After graduation from West Point at the head of the class of 1849, McPherson was commissioned in the Corps of Engineers and held minor army assignments until the outbreak of the Civil War (1861). Following several months with General H.W. Halleck [16 Jan 1815 – 09 Jan 1872] in Missouri, he was assigned to General Grant's staff as chief engineer in the Tennessee campaign and, after distinguished service at the battles of Shiloh, Tennessee, and Corinth, Mississippi, was promoted to major general of volunteers. He participated in the second advance on Vicksburg, Mississippi (1863), and, after the city fell, was promoted to brigadier general in the regular army. In March 1864 he took command of the Army of the Tennessee.
    1853 Christoffer-Wilhelm Eckersberg, Danish artist born on 02 January 1783.
    1802 Marie-François-Xavier Bichat, born on 11 November 1771, French anatomist and physiologist whose systematic study of human tissues helped found the science of histology.
    1719 Giovanni Gioseffo dal Sole, Italian painter born on 10 October 1654. — MORE ON DAL SOLE AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1696 Hendrich van Minderhout, “den groenen Ridder van Rotterdam”, Dutch artist born in 1632. — more
    1684 Josefa de Óbidos de Ayala, Spanish Portuguese Baroque Era painter born in 1630. — MORE ON ÓBIDOS AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1645 Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimental, conde-duque de Olivares, duque de Sanlúcar de Barrameda, born on 16 January 1587, prime minister (1623–1643) and valido (court favorite) of King Philip IV [08 Apr 1605 – 17 Sep 1665] of Spain. He attempted to impose a strong centralizing policy and eventually provoked rebellion and his own fall.
    1639 Rutilio di Lorenzo Manetti, Italian artist born on 01 January 1571.
    1559 Saint Lawrence of Brindisi, born Cesare De Rossi on 22 July 1559. He became a Capuchin in 1575, taking the name Lorenzo. He mastered several languages including Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Syriac. Under Popes Gregory XIII and Clement VIII he was appointed apostolic preacher to the Roman Jews. During the Battle of Stuhlweissenburg, Hung. (09 Oct to 14 Oct 1601), Lawrence accompanied Emperor Rudolf II's forces to victory against the Turkish army of Sultan Mehmed III; this victory was attributed in great part to the the saint communicating his ardor and confidence to the Christian troops. He fought against the rise of German Protestantism and founded Capuchin houses at Madrid and at Munich, where he took part in the political discussions preceding the Thirty Years' War. Lawrence died near Lisbon while on a mission to King Philip III of Spain for the Neapolitans, who were being oppressed by the Duke of Osuna, Italy. He was beatified by Pope Pius VI [25 Dec 1717 – 29 Aug 1799] in 1783, canonized by Leo XIII [02 Mar 1810 – 20 Jul 1903] on 08 December 1881, and declared a doctor of the church by John XXIII [25 Nov 1881 – 03 Jun 1963] in 1959. Lawrence's works were published in nine volumes (1928–1945).
    1575 Maurolico, mathematician.
    1461 Charles VII, born on 22 February 1403, king of France (from 1422), who succeeded, partly with the aid of Joan of Arc [1412 – 30 May 1431], in driving the English from French soil and in solidifying the administration of the monarchy.
     
    < 21 Jul 23 Jul >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 22 July:
    Mei Xiang in Chinese1998 Mei Xiang (= “Beautiful Fragrance”) [photo grown-up>], female giant panda (tiny at birth), at the Research and Conservation Center for the Giant Panda in Wolong, China. She came to the US in December 2000 together with male giant panda Tian Tian (=“More and More”, born on 27 August 1997) on loan for 10 years to the National Zoo in Washington DC, for $10 million. So, assuming that the two pandas “work” 40 hours a week of regular time and 16 hours of overtime, they each earn for China $150 an hour for regular time and $225 an hour for overtime, and they don't have any income tax, social security, or health insurance withheld. If you wanted a deal like that, you should have been born a member of a cute species of which there are not much more than 1000 left in the world.
    1948 Susan Eloise Hinton, US novelist.
    1948 Ana de Palacio del Valle-Lersundi, Spanish politician.
    1931 Guido De Marco, Maltese politician.
    1923 Robert Joseph “Bob” Dole (Sen-R-Ks), 1996 Republican candidate for president of the United States.
    1909 Franz-Josef Röder, Saarland German politician who died on 26 June 1979.
    ^ 1908 Fisher Body Company
          Albert Fisher and his nephews, Frederic and Charles Fisher, establish the Fisher Body Company to manufacture carriage and automobile bodies. Albert Fisher personally supplied $30'000 of the company’s total of $50'000 in initial capital. Charles and Frederic had been trained in their father’s carriage building shop and supplied the technical know-how required at the company’s inception.
          Fisher Body quickly abandoned carriage building to concentrate on car frames. By 1910, Fisher supplied some car bodies for General Motors (GM), and in 1919 GM purchased controlling interest in the company to shore up a supplier for its car bodies. At that time, Fisher was the largest supplier of car bodies in the world. The Fisher brothers were early advocates of closed-body, steel and wood frames, and they pre-empted their competition by creating more closed-bodied cars than open-bodied. They were also early in their adoption of aluminum and steel frames.
          Fisher Body completed a total merger in 1924 after their initial contracted agreement to supply bodies to GM had expired. On 30 June, 1926 GM traded 667'720 shares of its own stock, at a market value of $136 million, for the remaining 40% of Fisher Body. The firm became the Fisher Body Division of GM, and was still headed by the Fisher family. The Fisher family remained in control of the Fisher Body Division until 1944, though brothers Lawrence and Edward were on the Board of Directors until 1969. The Fisher family’s impact on the automotive industry is second only to that of the Ford family. Every GM body between 1919 and 1944 passed the approval of a Fisher man.
    1908 Amy Vanderbilt authority on etiquette (Complete Book of Etiquette), who died on 27 December 1974.
    1904 Otto Rombach, German writer who died on 09 May 1984.
    1902 Reinhold Baermathematician whose work was wide ranging; topology, abelian groups and geometry. His most important work, however, was in group theory, on the extension problem for groups, finiteness conditions, soluble and nilpotent groups.
    1898 Alexander “Sandy” Calder, US kinetic artist, painter, sculptor and printmaker, in love with the color red, who died on 11 November 1976. MORE ON CALDER AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1898 Stephen Vincent Benét, poet and short-story writer, who died on 13 March 1943. Author of John Brown's Body (1928), Ballad of William Sycamore 1790–1880 (1923), and other books.
    1893 Karl Augustus Menninger, US psychiatrist who died on 18 July 1990; son of Dr. Charles Frederick Menninger [11 Jul 1862 – 28 Nov 1953]. With Karl's brother Dr. William Claire Menninger [15 Oct 1899 – 06 Sep 1966], they founded in 1941 the Menninger Foundation, which studies mental health problems.
    1892 Arthur Seyss-Inquart Austrian chancellor and Nazi collaborator (1930s)
    1888 Raymond Chandler Chic, mystery writer (The Long Goodbye)
    1887 Gustav Hertz German quantum physicist (Nobel 1925 jointly with J. Franck), who died on 30 October 1975.
    1882 Knopp, mathematician
    1882 Edward Hopper, US Scene painter who died on 15 May 1967.MORE ON HOPPER AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1881 Ludwig Heinrich Jungnickel, German artist who died in 1965. — more
    1881 The first volume of The War of the Rebellion: A compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, is published.
    1878 Janusz Korczak, Polish physician who died in August 1942 in the Treblinka concentration camp.
    1876 Walter Ufer, US painter who died in 1936, specialized in the US West MORE ON UFER AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1860 Paul Gustav Fischer, Danish painter who liked fish. He died in 1934. — a bit more with links to images.
    ^ 1849 Emma Lazarus, poet
          Raised in a wealthy Jewish family in New York, Emma Lazarus devoted herself to Zionist and Marxist causes after hearing about the pogroms in Russia in the 1880s. She translated several important Jewish works, and on the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty is inscribed "The New Colossus," her famous sonnet (written in aid of Bartholdi Pedestal Fund, 1883.) that welcomes immigrants to the United States with sentiments all too rarely shared by the majority of those already comfortably installed in the US
    — LAZARUS ONLINE: Admetus and Other PoemsAdmetus and Other Poems (page images) — The Poems of Emma Lazarus volume I, . volume II
    THE NEW COLOSSUS
    NOT like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
    With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
    Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
    A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
    Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
    Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
    Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
    The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
    “Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she
    With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor,
    Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
    The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
    Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
    I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”
    1844 Rev. William Archibald Spooner, in London, from whose transpositions of sounds of words would be named Spoonerisms. Bridge wings us to Roonerspisms and Spore Moonerisms. He became at 18 a scholar of Queue Knowledge at Oxford, and dose to wreak'em bean. He had a habit of spewing up screech but this was a finer malt and he was well miked by everyone who let him. Dooner spied in 1390, on ninety-twine August.
    1823 Godfried Egide Guffens, Belgian artist who died on 11 July 1901. — MORE ON GUFFENS AT ART “4” JULY 11 with links to images.
    1822 Johann “Gregor” Mendel, Austrian monk/geneticist, discoverer of the laws of heredity, who died on 06 January 1884. Il se fit moine et devint plus tard abbé du monastère de Brünn, il étudia et enseigna la biologie dans ce monastère. Il découvrit les lois de l'hérédité, en observant le résultat des croisements de plantes.
    1821 Cesare Felix Georges dell'Acqua, Italian artist who died in 1904. — link to an image.
    1803 Louis Gabriel Eugène Isabey, French artist who died on 27 April 1886. — MORE ON ISABEY AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1795 Gabriel Lamé, mathematician who worked on a wide variety of different topics. His work on differential geometry and contributions to Fermat's Last Theorem are important. He proved the theorem for n=7 in 1839 (i.e. that there are no integers >1, x, y, z, such that x^7 + y^7 = z^7) .
    1784 Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel , German astronomer and mathematician who died on 17 March 1846. He determined the positions and proper motions of stars and discovered the parallax of 61 Cygni. He also used a method of mathematical analysis involving what is now known as the Bessel function.
    1755 de Prony, mathematician.
    1559 Giulio Cesare Guglielmo De Rossi, in Brindisi, Kingdom of Naples. He would become San Lorenzo Da Brindisi and die on his 60th birthday. (See above)
    1519 Innocent IX 230th pope, for 2 months (29 October – 30 December 1591)
    1478 Philip I (the Handsome) 1st Habsburg king of Spain (1506)
     
    Holidays Pakistan : Bank Holiday / Poland : Liberation Day (1944) / Swaziland : King's Birthday

    Religious Observances RC, Ang, Luth : St Mary Magdalen, penitent
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    Thoughts for the day : “The best way to cheer yourself up is to try to cheer up someone else. Better yet if you succeed.”
    “The best way to cheer up someone else is to have a greater misfortune yourself.”
    “Conclusion: the best way to cheer yourself up is to have greater and greater misfortunes.”
    “Do ‘syllogisms’ use ‘silly logic’?”
    “The love we give away is the only love we keep.”
    Elbert Hubbard, US author [19 Jun 1856 – 07 May 1915].
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    updated Tuesday 18-Aug-2009 1:06 UT
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