a 20 July:
2003 Shahazadi, 29, accompanied by her Swiss husband, returns for the first time on a visit to her native village Mariahun, India, from which, together with her sister Kishwar, she was kidnapped on 06 April 1981, by their maternal uncle. Kishwar was recovered within a week, but Shahazadi could not be found. She made it to a children's home in Kolkata, from where she was adopted by a Swiss couple and taken to Switzerland. Shahazadi's parents came to know about their daughter through an appeal published by her Swiss adoptive parents through the Delhi police. Her biological father, Mohammad Rafi, responded, and a DNA test confirmed that he was the father. Today Shahazadi was recognized all the members of her family and her house, but, now fluent in German, she has forgotten Urdu and wants to relearn it so as to communicate with her parents.
2000 The Mideast summit, resurrected only hours after its reported demise, moved forward with US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright stepping in for President Clinton, who had left for an economic summit in Japan.
2000 A federal grand jury indicted two former Utah Olympic officials for their alleged roles in paying $1 million in cash and gifts to help bring the 2002 games to Salt Lake City.
1991 Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin banned political activity in government offices and republic-run businesses, effectively curtailing the influence of the Communist Party.
1990 Justice William Brennan resigns from the Supreme Court after 36 years
1990 Saddam Hussein, presidente (dictador) de Irak, solicita apoyo al mundo árabe contra Kuwait y los Emiratos Árabes Unidos, a los que acusa de saturar de petróleo el mercado.
1989 34ºF, highest overnight low ever recorded in Phoenix Arizona
1988 Michael Dukakis selected US Democratic presidential nominee
1985 Divers find wreck of Spanish galleon Atocha
1985 John Howard of the US establishes the world bicycle speed record: 245.077 km/h (behind a towed windshield).
1982 Bombs planted by Irish Republican Army explode in 2 London parks
1979 En Nicaragua, la Junta Revolucionaria promulga el Estatuto Fundamental de la República, por el que se reconocían y garantizaban las libertades individuales básicas, hasta la elaboración de una nueva Constitución.
1979 44-kg Newfoundland dog pulls 2293-kg load, Bothell, Washington.
1973 US President Richard Milhous Nixon [09 Jan 1913 – 22 Apr 1994] is released from Bethesda Naval Hospital after a bout with viral pneumonia. Speech from Rose Garden : "What we were elected to do, we are going to do, and let others wallow in Watergate."
1969 Men walk on the Moon
At 22:56 p.m. EDT, Apollo-11 astronaut Neil Armstrong [05 Aug 1930~], 390'000 km from Earth, speaks these words to millions listening at home: "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." A moment later, he steps off the lunar module Eagle, becoming the first human to walk on the surface of the moon. Another astronaut, "Buzz" Aldrin [20 Jan 1930~], joins him a few minutes later, and together they take photographs of the terrain, plant a US flag, run a few simple scientific tests, and depart. The astronauts leave behind a plaque that reads: "Here men from the planet Earth first set foot on the Moon July 1969 A.D We came in peace for all mankind." .
The US effort to send astronauts to the moon has its origins in a famous appeal President John F. Kennedy [29 (May 1917 – 22 Nov 1963] made to a special joint session of Congress on 25 May 1961: "I believe this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to Earth." At the time, the United States was still trailing the Soviet Union in space developments, and Cold War-era America welcomed Kennedy's bold proposal.
In 1966, after five years of work by an international team of scientists and engineers, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted the first unmanned Apollo mission, testing the structural integrity of the proposed launch vehicle and spacecraft combination. Then, on 27 January 1967, tragedy struck at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida, when a fire broke out during a manned launch-pad test of the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn rocket. Three astronauts were killed in the fire.
Despite the setback, NASA and its thousands of employees forged ahead, and in October 1968, Apollo 7, the first manned Apollo mission, orbited Earth and successfully tested many of the sophisticated systems needed to conduct a moon journey and landing. In December of the same year, Apollo 8 took three astronauts to the dark side of the moon and back, and in March 1969 Apollo 9 tested the lunar module for the first time while in Earth orbit. Then in May, the three astronauts of Apollo 10 took the first complete Apollo spacecraft around the moon in a dry run for the scheduled July landing mission.
At 09:32. on 16 July, with the world watching, Apollo 11 took off from Kennedy Space Center with astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin Jr., and Michael Collins aboard. Armstrong, a 38-year-old civilian research pilot, was the commander of the mission. After traveling 400'000 km [? that might be the Earth-Moon distance in a straight line, but not, surely, as the spacecraft flies?] in 76 hours, Apollo 11 entered into a lunar orbit on 19 July. The next day, at 13:46, the lunar module Eagle, manned by Armstrong and Aldrin, separated from the command module, where Collins remained. Two hours later, the Eagle began its descent to the lunar surface, and at 16:18 the craft touched down on the southwestern edge of the Sea of Tranquility. Armstrong immediately radioed to Mission Control in Houston, Texas, a famous message: "The Eagle has landed." At 22:39, five hours ahead of the original schedule, Armstrong opened the hatch of the lunar module. As he made his way down the lunar module's ladder, a television camera attached to the craft recorded his progress and beamed the signal back to Earth, where hundreds of millions watched in great anticipation. At 22:56, Armstrong spoke his famous quote, which he later contended was slightly garbled by his microphone and meant to be "that's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind." He then planted his left foot on the gray, powdery surface, took a cautious step forward, and humanity had walked on the moon. "Buzz" Aldrin joined him on the moon's surface at 23:11, and together they took photographs of the terrain, planted a US flag, ran a few simple scientific tests, and spoke with President Richard M. Nixon via Houston. By 01:11 on 21 July, both astronauts were back in the lunar module and the hatch was closed. The two men slept that night on the surface of the moon, and at 13:54 the Eagle began its ascent back to the command module. Among the items left on the surface of the moon was a plaque that read: "Here men from the planet Earth first set foot on the moon July 1969 A.D We came in peace for all mankind." At 17:35, Armstrong and Aldrin successfully docked and rejoined Collins, and at 00:56 on 22 July Apollo 11 began its journey home, safely splashing down in the Pacific Ocean at 12:51 on 24 July. There would be five more successful lunar landing missions, and one unplanned lunar swing-by, Apollo 13. The last men to walk on the moon, astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt of the Apollo 17 mission, left the lunar surface on 14 December 1972. The Apollo program was a costly and labor intensive endeavor, involving an estimated 400'000 engineers, technicians, and scientists, and costing $24 billion (close to $100 billion in 2001's dollars). The expense was justified by Kennedy's 1961 mandate to beat the Soviets to the moon, and after the feat was accomplished ongoing missions lost their viability.
Apollo-11 fut lancé le 16 juillet 1969. Il était piloté par Neil A. Armstrong, Edwin E. Aldrin et Michael Collins. Après un vol analogue à celui d’Apollo-10 jusqu’à la mise en orbite lunaire, Armstrong et Aldrin passèrent dans le L.M., laissant Collins dans le module de commande. La descente eut lieu, et l’atterrissage sur la Lune se fit le 20 juillet par 230 5H de longitude E. et 00 64H de latitude N. Tandis que des millions de personnes regardaient l’événement à la télévision, Armstrong, dans son volumineux scaphandre spatial, descendit l’escalier du L.M. et posa le pied sur la Lune. Ses premières paroles furent alors : "C’est un petit pas pour un homme, mais un bond de géant pour l’humanité." Il indiqua que ses chaussures s’étaient enfoncées d’environ trois millimètres dans la poudre fine de la surface lunaire.
Aldrin rejoignit Armstrong, et ensemble ils passèrent près de deux heures à prendre des photographies, à ramasser environ trente kilogrammes d’échantillons de sol lunaire (y compris deux carottes témoins), à planter un drapeau américain, à mettre en place une expérience sur le vent solaire, un sismographe et un réflecteur de rayon laser. Ils marchèrent et coururent sur la Lune où règne une gravité six fois plus faible que sur la Terre. Une caméra de télévision, placée à quelque distance du module lunaire, transmettait les images à la Terre. Pendant qu’ils étaient sur la Lune, le président Richard M. Nixon félicita les astronautes par téléphone.
El módulo de exploración lunar Eagle se posa en la Luna a las 15.17 horas. A las 22.56 (ambas hora de Houston), Neil Armstrong pisa la superficie lunar y poco después lo hace Edwin Aldrin. Son los primeros pasos del hombre sobre la Luna.
1969 US plan for military escalation in Vietnam.
A top-secret study, commissioned by presidential assistant Henry Kissinger [27 May 1923~], is completed by the office of the Chief of Naval Operations. Code-named Duck Hook, the study proposed measures for military escalation against North Vietnam. The military options included a massive bombing of Hanoi, Haiphong, and other key areas of North Vietnam; a ground invasion of North Vietnam; the mining of harbors and rivers; and a bombing campaign designed to sever the main railroad links to China. A total of 29 major targets in North Vietnam were pinpointed for destruction in a series of air attacks planned to last four days and to be renewed until Hanoi capitulated. This plan represented a drastic escalation of the war and was never ordered by President Richard Nixon. However, Nixon did order certain elements of the proposal, such as the intensified bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong and the mining of North Vietnamese harbors, in response to the 1972 North Vietnamese Easter Offensive.
| 1967 Race riots in Memphis Tenn
1960 First submerged submarine to fire Polaris missile (George Washington)
1960 USSR recovered 2 dogs; first living organisms to return from space
1956 France recognizes Tunisia's independence
1950 El Parlamento belga autoriza la vuelta del rey Leopoldo III.
1949 Israel's 19 month war of independence ends
1948 Syngman Rhee es nombrado presidente de Corea del Sur.
| 1944 US invades Japanese-occupied Guam in WW II
1944 US President F. D. Roosevelt was nominated for an unprecedented fourth term of office at the Democratic convention in Chicago.
1942 The first detachment of the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps later known as WACs began basic training at Fort Des Moines, Iowa.
1922 Togo made a mandate of the League of Nations
1919 I Guerra Mundial: los aliados entregan las condiciones de paz a la delegación germano-austriaca en Saint Germain.
1917 Alexander Kerensky becomes the premier of Russia.
1903 Giuseppe Sarto elected Pope Pius X
1900 El conde Ferdinand Zeppelin realiza el primer vuelo a bordo del globo de su mismo nombre.
1864 Engagement at Rutherford's Farm, Virginia
1864 Battle of Peachtree Creek Atlanta Campaign. Confederate General John Bell Hood attacks Union forces under Major General George H. Thomas outside Atlanta.
1861 Confederate state's congress began holding sessions in Richmond, Virginia.
1861 Junto al arroyo Bull Run se da la primera gran batalla de la Guerra de Secesión de Estados Unidos.
1808 Guerra de la Independencia Española: entrada en Madrid de José I Bonaparte. El pueblo se abstuvo de hacer manifestaciones.
1648 The Westminster Larger Catechism is adopted by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland at Edinburgh. This and the Shorter Catechism have both been in regular use among Presbyterians, Baptists and Congregationalists ever since.
1500 Isabel La Católica decreta, mediante una Real Cédula, que se devuelvan a sus tierras de origen a todos los indígenas que los conquistadores habían traído consigo.
1402 Battle of Ankara. The Mongols of Tamerlane, 66, defeat at Çubukovasi near Ankara the Ottomans of sultan Bayezid I, 42, who is taken prisoner and would die in captivity the next March..
1378 Estalla la Revuelta de los Ciompi, levantamiento de los trabajadores del sector textil en Florencia.
0514 Saint Hormisdas begins his 9-year reign as Pope
2006 Brandon Wayne Hedrick, born on 23 February 1979, executed by electric chair in Virginia. for the 11 May 1997 murder of Lisa Yvonne Crider, 23. —(060808)
2005 Jalil Shaalan, security guard, shot by gunmen, outside a school compound in the Amarayah district of Baghdad, Iraq, in the presence of his family [photo >].
— Photo of a daughter screaming her despair. —(060624)
2005 Ernesto Mondragón Benítez, 33 años, shot at km 17 of the highway from Chihuahua City to Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua state, Mexico. He lived near the intersection of calle 21ª and Niños Héroes in Chihuahua City. He was a police informer connected with drug traffickers. (050907)
2003 Sarah McLain, 14, by sudden lightning while playing in a soccer tournament in Fredericton, New Brunswick, across the border from her Springfield, Maine, home.
2002:: 28 humans, 1 Bengal tiger, 1 lion, from fire at fancy but unlicensed Utopia disco, without fire extinguishers, sprinklers, or marked emergency exits, in Lima, celebrating its two months in operation by a circus party, in which a fire-eater accidentally set curtains on fire, and/or bartenders lighted gasoline in ashtrays setting the ceiling on fire. Some 50 of the 1000 persons present are injured.
2002:: 13 of 22 picnickers on bus, by landmine near Bamiyan, Afghanistan. They were headed to a park near lake Band-i-Amir, along the main road, instead of avoiding it for fear of mines as passengers had requested. 6 are injured. 5 to 10 million landmines, most of them Soviet, are left in Afghanistan after 23 years of war, and still keep adding some 3000 victims a year to the 100'000 already killed or injured.
2001 Carlo Giuliani, 23, shot by a carabiniero as he was about to throw a fire extinguisher through the windshield of a police vehicle, in Genoa, where he was among the violent protestors against the summit meeting of the Group of Eight. An anarchist born in Rome, Giuliani had a criminal record that included weapons and drug charges.
2001 Rajai Abu Rajab, in an explosion destroying the Fatah office in Hebron, West Bank. Eight passers-by are injured. Rajab was an activist in the Tanzim, Fatah's military wing. Palestinians say that an Israeli helicopter fired missiles at the office. Israelis says that it was the premature explosion of a Palestinian terrorist bomb.
1984 James Fixx, born on 23 April 1932, of a heart attack while following his own aerobics program by jogging. Author of The Complete Book of Running.
1984 Eugene Scott, on his 77th birthday, of Indianapolis, found beside an interstate highway in Indiana, murdered probably by Alton Coleman.
1982 Eleven British soldiers, by two IRA bombs in Hyde Park and Regent's Park in London. More than 40, mostly civilians, are wounded.
1977 Some 80 persons as flash flood hits Johnstown, Pa, causing $350 million damage
1974 Gaspar Gómez de la Serna, escritor español
1936 Francisco Ascaso Budría, líder anarcosindicalista español.
1923 Doroteo Arango: Muere asesinado a tiros el general Pancho Villa, en la ciudad de Parral, en el estado mexicano de Chihuahua.
1903 Leo XIII, born Vincenzo Gioacchino Pecci on 02 March 1810, elected Pope on 20 February 1878.
1902 Baldomero Galafre y Giménez (or Jiménez), Spanish artist born on 24 May 1849.
1898 Frank Reid, a Skagway, Alaska, city engineer, from wounds suffered in the 08 July gunfight in which he killed Soapy Smith.
1866 Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann, of tuberculosis, mathematician, born on 17 September 1826. Riemann's ideas concerning geometry of space had a profound effect on the development of modern theoretical physics. He clarified the notion of integral by defining what we now call the Riemann integral.
1819 John Playfair, Scottish mathematician born on 10 March 1748. He worked on geology, physics and geometry and studied at the University of Saint Andrews. His best-known contribution to mathematics is his form of Euclid's parallelism axiom.
1751 Benjamin Robins, English engineer and mathematician born in 1707 in bath... er ... make that “in Bath”. He dies of fever in Madras, India, whose defenses he had been helping to prepare. Author of A discourse concerning the nature and certainty of Sir Isaac Newton's method of fluxions and prime and ultimate ratios — Remarks on M. Euler's Treatise of Motion (1739) — New Principles of Gunnery (1742) — Rockets and the heights to which they ascend (1750).
1744 Isaac de Moucheron l'Ordonnance, Dutch painter born in 1667, son of Frederic de Moucheron. MORE ON MOUCHERON AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1609 Federico Zuccaro (or Zuccari), Italian Mannerist painter born in 1542. MORE ON ZUCCARO AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1950 William Knox Schroeder, grew up to be one of the four Kent State students shot dead by the National Guard on 04 May 1970.
1925 Jacques Delors, político socialista francés, ex presidente de la Comisión Europea.
1918 Hector Poleo, Venezuelan artist who died in 1989. — more
1900 Kurt Seligmann, Swiss painter who died on 02 January 1962. — links to images.
1899 Fritz Glarner, Swiss US painter who died in 1972. — more with link to images.
1895 László Moholy-Nagy, Hungarian US painter and photographer who died in 1946. MORE ON MOHOLY~NAGY AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1890 George II, eldest son of King Constantine I of Greece [02 Aug 1868 – 11 Jan 1923] (ruled 06 Mar 1913 - 12 Jun 1917 and 1920 - 27 Sep 1922), George was excluded from the succession during World War I for his allegedly pro-German sympathies, but he came to the throne when his father was deposed by General Nikólaos Plastíras [14 Nov 1883 – 26 July 1953] on 27 September 1922. Feeling ran high against the royal family, however, and, after a royalist coup d'état had been suppressed in October 1923, George felt compelled to leave Greece on 19 December 1922 with his queen, Elizabeth. In March 1924 the Greek National Assembly voted the end of the monarchy and proclaimed Greece a republic. The king remained in exile until the conservative Populist Party, with the support of the army, gained control of the Assembly and declared the restoration of the monarchy in October 1935; a plebiscite, which was most probably manipulated by the prime minister, General Geórgios Kondílis [1879 – 31 Jan 1936], was held in November in an effort to demonstrate that the great majority (97%) of the people favored his return. In 1936 General Ioannis Metaxas [12 Apr 1871 – 29 Jan 1941] seized power after asserting that the nation was on the verge of being taken over by the communists. The king's support of Metaxas put the throne in a controversial position, particularly after Metaxas banned political parties, dissolved Parliament, suspended constitutional rights, and even decreed the censorship of Pericles' great funeral oration to the Athenians as recorded by Thucydides. The king was forced into exile after the German invasion of Greece in April 1941, going first to Crete, then to Alexandria, and finally to London. After the war republican sentiments again threatened his throne, but he was restored by a plebiscite supervised by the Allies and returned to Greece in September 1946. Upon his 01 April 1947 death, he was succeeded by his brother Paul [14 Dec 1901 – 06 Mar 1964].
1890 Giorgio Morandi, boring Italian painter who died on 18 June 1964, specialized in Still Life. MORE ON MORANDI AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1881 Léon de Smet, Belgian artist who died on 09 September 1966.
1873 Alberto Santos Dumont, brasileño precursor de la navegación aérea.
1872 Wireless Telegraph patented by dentist Dr. Mahlon Loomis, 46, ... the radio is born. Already in October, 1866, he had conducted a demonstration before members of Congress in which he succeeded in establishing wireless 2-way communication between kite-suspended antennas 29 km apart. Loomis died in 1886 without his invention having received the support it needed.
1860 Terrick John Williams, British artist who died on his 76th birthday.
1850 John Graves Shedd, president of Marshall Field and Company, first Chicago merchant to give his employees a half-day off on Saturdays.
1847 Max Liebermann, German painter who died in 1935. MORE ON LIEBERMANN AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1785 Mahmud II Ottoman sultan, Westernizer, reformer.
1737 Nicolás Fernández de Moratín, poeta y dramaturgo español.
1686 Jacques Ignatius de Roore, Flemish artist who died on 17 July 1747. — more
From Maxim O'Ronn's Illustrated Dixshunnary: