a 19 July:
2002 The stock of natural gas utilities company Nicor (GAS) is downgraded by Goldman Sachs from Market Perform to Market Underperform and by Merrill Lynch from Near Term Neutral / Long Term Buy to Near and Long Term Reduce or Sell. The stock falls from its previous close of $38.01 to an intraday low of $18.00 and closes at $22.75. It had traded as high as $48.56 as recently as 18 June 2002. [5~year price chart >]
2002 The stock of healthcare facilities company Beverly Enterprises (BEV) falls from its previous close of $6.85 to an intraday low of $3.50 and closes at $4.10. It had traded as high as $17.50 ot 01 December 1997 and $12.09 as recently as 26 July 2001. [< 5~year price chart]
2002 Doctor found to have murdered 215+ patients
The chairman of an inquiry panel states that its 09 July 2002 interim 2000-page report reveals that British family physician Harold Frederick "Fred" Shipman [14 Jan 1946 – 13 Jan 2004] murdered certainly 215 of his patients, and probably up to 83 more, in 23 years as a trusted small-town practitioner, motive unknown. In only one case was there evidence that he killed for money.
Shipman was convicted on 31 January 2000 of murdering 15 of his patients all elderly women by injecting them with heroin, and of forging one will. He is already serving 15 life sentences with no possibility of parole, making any further trial futile, as the UK does not have the death sentence.
Shipman maintained his innocence.He was liked and admired by those who knew him in Hyde, a small community in northern England.
The yearlong inquiry has investigated the deaths of 494 of Shipman's patients between 1974 and 1998. It found that at least 215 of them were killed by Shipman, most of them by lethal injection. The true number is far greater and cannot be estimated. In 45 more cases there was strong but inconclusive evidence that Shipman had killed the victims. Investigators found too little evidence to determine if the deaths of 38 others were natural or not.
Shipman began his killing spree no later than 17 March 1975, a year after he entered practice, with Mrs. Eva Lyons, 70, who was suffering from terminal cancer and was in great pain. Shipman deliberately hastened her death by the administration of an excessive dose of strong opiate, probably morphine or diamorphine. His proven victims, ranging in age from 41 (Peter Lewis, 02 Jan 1985) to 93 (Miss Ann Cooper, 15 Feb 1988), included 171 women and 44 men. In a minority of the cases the killings might be considered euthanasia (which is illegal even if requested by the victim). Shipman's last murder was that of Mrs. Kathleen Grundy, 81, on 24 June 1998.
For more than 20 years Shipman was a respected member of the community in Hyde, a working-class town of 22'000 just outside Manchester in northwest England. In 1992, he set up a practice in the town. Between then and 1998 he killed certainly 143 persons, according to the report.
But his activities did not arouse suspicion until March 1998, when another doctor, who had been asked by Shipman to cosign some cremation certificates, expressed concern at the number of deaths. Police concluded there wasn't enough evidence to pursue charges.
The investigation was reopened months later after the daughter of an 81-year-old widow discovered that her mother apparently had changed her will to leave everything to Shipman. That led to exhumations and eventually to Shipman's trial and conviction. A jury found that he deliberately injected heroin into 15 elderly women -- many in good health -- during routine checkups in their homes or at his office, falsifying computer records to create fictitious symptoms to explain their deaths.
The inquiry will now consider how Shipman was able to escape detection for so long and what safeguards could prevent such a crime from happening again.Its final report would be published on 27 January 2005.
Shipman would die by hanging himself in his cell at Wakefield Prison.
In alphabetical order, the first victim seems to be Mrs. Lizzie Adams, who died on 28 February 1997 at the age of 77; and the last one Mrs Joyce Woodhead who died on 23 February 1997 at the age of 74.
2001 The prime minister of Nepal, Girija Prasad Koirala
[20 Feb 1925~] [photo >], hands his resignation to King
[07 Jul 1947~]. Koirala's most recent 15-month term was beset by a bribery
scandal involving the national airline's lease of a plane, increasing attacks
by Maoists guerrillas, and fighting for a communist republic, and the 01
June 2001 massacre of the royal family by Crown Prince Dipendra. Koirala's
government was blamed, both because soldiers assigned to protect the king
and queen failed to do so, and because of the belated, piecemeal way in
which the official version came out. —(080718)
2001 In England, best-selling novelist and disgraced former Conservative politician Lord Jeffrey Archer of Weston-Super-Mare, 61, is convicted and sentenced to four years in prison on four counts of perjury and obstructing justice in his 1987 suit against the Daily Star tabloid newspaper that reported he'd hired prostitute Monica Coghlan (she was killed on 27 April 2001 when she was struck by a stolen car driven by a fleeing robbery suspect in northwestern England). Archer was elected to the House of Commons at age 29 in 1969, but within five years was forced to resign after bad investments drove him to bankruptcy. That experience inspired his first book, Not a Penny More, Not a Penny Less. His third novel, Kane & Abel made him a multi-millionaire. He also wrote To Cut a Long Story Short, A Twist in the Tale, The Eleventh Commandment, The Prodigal Daughter, As the Crow Flies, A Matter of Honor, Shall We Tell the President?, First Among Equals, The Fourth Estate, Honor Among Thieves, A Quiver Full of Arrows, and the play The Accused.
2001 Gray and white Muffy the cat escapes from its cage in a Providence RI baggage room, darts down the tarmac and claws its way up into a Continental Airlines MD-80 jet wheel well, forcing 82 passengers off the plane bound to Newark, N.J. After eight hours of trying to coax and tempt the cat down, maintenance crews remove panels on the bottom of the wing, near its seam with the body, to pull Muffy out.
2000 President Clinton shuttled between Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and his own experts during peace talks at Camp David after delaying his departure for an economic summit in Japan.
1996 A US Food and Drug Administration advisory committee recommended, with some conditions, that the abortion-inducing drug RU-486 be approved. Bosnian Serb official Radovan Karadzic yielded to international pressure to give up all political power.
1995 End of IBM's antitrust restrictions
The Justice Department says it favors releasing IBM from antitrust restrictions imposed in 1956, which had limited the company's ability to compete in the personal computer industry. In a court filing, the Justice Department says the consent decree no longer promotes the public interest in competition. The department indicaten that it would be willing to lift restrictions on IBM's service, personal computer, and workstation businesses. Restrictions would remain on mainframes, an area where IBM still dominated.
1994 CompuServe's bimonthly CD-ROM
CompuServe offers its subscribers CD-ROMs, including album and movie previews. The company planned to sell the disk for $7.95 every other month. At the time, CD-ROMs were not yet standard issue on personal computers: The company estimated about one-third of its two million subscribers owned a CD-ROM drive at the time. In 1994 and 1995, interest in CD-ROMs as delivery devices for multimedia content grew; however, with the increased popularity of the Web in the late 1990s, many companies cut back their investment in CD-ROM publishing.
| 1991 The apartheid South African government acknowledged
that it had been giving money to the Inkatha Freedom Party, the main rival
of the African National Congress. President Bush toured the Souda Bay U.S.
naval base during a visit to Greece.
1987 El partido socialdemócrata de Cavaco Silva vence en las elecciones legislativas de Portugal.
1985 Christa McAuliffe of New Hampshire was chosen to be the first schoolteacher to ride aboard the space shuttle. (McAuliffe and six other crew members died when the "Challenger" exploded shortly after liftoff.)
1984 Geraldine A Ferraro, (Rep-D-NY), won Democratic VP nomination
1980 Inauguración de los Juegos Olímpicos de Moscú. 59 países secundan el boicot preconizado por Estados Unidos.
1979 Nicaragua Liberation Day; Managua fell to Sandinista guerrillas, two days after President Anastasio Somoza had fled the country.
1974 The US House of Representatives Judiciary Committee recommends that President Richard Nixon should stand trial in the Senate for any of the five impeachment charges against him.
1974 El dictador Francisco Franco ha de ser hospitalizado y el príncipe don Juan Carlos asume provisionalmente la Jefatura del Estado español.
| 1969 Apollo 11 and its astronauts, Neil Armstrong, Edwin
"Buzz" Aldrin and Michael Collins, went into orbit around the moon.
1966 Gov James Rhodes declares state of emergency in Cleveland (race riot)
1949 Laos becomes an associated state within French Union.
| 1942 German U-boats are withdrawn from positions off
the U.S. Atlantic coast due to effective US anti-submarine countermeasures.
1941 President Roosevelt appointed FEP Committee
1941 British Prime Minister Winston Churchill launched his "V for Victory" campaign in Europe.
1936 El general Franco llega a Tetuán y se pone al frente del sublevado Ejército español de Marruecos. Formación del decimonoveno gobierno republicano, presidido por José Giral, que decide armar al pueblo.
1918 German armies retreat across Marne River in France (WW I)
| 1870 France declares war on Prussia; the Franco-Prussian
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1862 Forrest's 1st raid
1849 Se promulga una ley para incorporar a España al intento internacional de establecer el Sistema Métrico Decimal.
1816 Survivors of French frigate Medusa rescued off Senegal after 17 days
1808 Guerra de la Independencia española. Batalla de Bailén (Jaén), en la que las tropas napoleónicas de Dupont sufren su primera derrota ante las españolas de Castaños.
1799 Rosetta Stone discovered
During French General Napoleon Bonaparte's Egyptian campaign, a group of his soldiers discovered near the town of Rosetta, north of Alexandria, a black basalt slab, 100cm high by 70cm wide by 30cm deep, inscribed with ancient writing. Experts eventually determined that the "Rosetta Stone," as it became known, was inscribed by priests of Ptolemy V with an identical text in Egyptian hieroglyphic (at the top), demotic (in the middle), and Greek (at the bottom), thus holding the key to solving the riddle of hieroglyphics.
Hieroglyphics, one of the most unique form of written language, were used by the Ancient Egyptians from 3000 B.C. to within a few hundred years of the birth of Christ. In hieroglyphics, conventionalized pictures are used to represent meanings that seem arbitrary and are seldom obvious, and the writing thus remained a mystery to modern archaeologists and linguistics until 1799, when the key to deciphering the dead written language was discovered near Rosetta, Egypt.
In 1801, the British took the Rosetta Stone from the French, and a Swedish diplomat, Johan David Akerblad, made some progress in identifying some of the phonetic letters in the cursive text. Later, the British Egyptologist Thomas Young went further, and identified some of the proper names. However, it was not until the work of the French Egyptologist Jean-François Champollion in 1821 that the two Egyptian scripts, the hieroglyphic and demotic, were recognized as belonging to the same spoken language. With his knowledge of demotic, Champollion was able to decipher the hieroglyphics on the Rosetta Stone and thus other archaeological items, and Ancient Egypt was open to scientists as never before.
Part of the writing on the stone, translated into English:
...whereas king PTOLEMY THE EVER-LIVING, THE BELOVED OF PTAH, THE GOD EPIPHANES EUCHARISTO, the son of King Ptolemy and Queen Arsinoe, the Gods Philopatores, has been a benefactor both to the temples and to those who dwell in them, as well as those who are his subjects, being a god sprung from a god and goddess (like Horus the son of lsis and Osiris, who avenged his father Osiris) and being benevolently disposed towards the gods, has dedicated to the temples revenues in money and wheat and has undertaken much outlay to bring Egypt into prosperity, and to establish the temples, and has been generous with all his own means; and of the revenues and taxes levied in Egypt some he has wholly remitted and others has lightened, in order that the people and the others might be in prosperity during his reign: and whereas he has remitted the debts to the crown being many in number which they in Egypt and in the rest of the kingdom owed: and whereas those who were in prison and those who were under accusation for a long time, he has freed of the charges against them; and whereas he has directed that the gods shall continue to enjoy the revenues of the temples and the yearly allowances given to them, both of wheat and money, likewise also the revenues assigned to the gods from vine land and from gardens and other properties which belonged to the gods in his father's time...
| 1788 Prices plunge on the Paris stock market.
1545 King Henry VIII of England watches his flagship, Mary Rose, capsize as it leaves to battle the French.
1525 The Catholic princes of Germany form the Dessau League to fight against the Reformation.
1195 Las tropas del rey castellano Alfonso VIII son derrotadas en la batalla de Alarcos por el ejército del emir almohade Abu Yaqub al-Mansur.
1068 En la Llantada, Sancho II de Castilla derrota a su hermano Alfonso VI de León en un juicio de Dios para decidir quién ocupa ambos reinos; sin embargo, Alfonso no acepta el resultado del combate y continúa las hostilidades.
0532 Start of Dionysian Pascal Cycle
1321 -BC- origin of Era of Menophres
2004 Ghalib Awali, 41, by explosion which destroys his car as leaves his Beirut, Lebanon, home at 08:30 (05:30 UT). He was a Hizbollah leader and Israel is suspected of the assassination.
2004 Ten persons including suicide fuel truck bomb driver, outside police station in Seidiyeh neighborhood of Baghdad, Iraq, at 08:05 (04:05 UT). 62 persons are wounded.
2004 Lt. Col. Nafi al-Kubaisi, murdered by the kidnappers who abducted him from the police station in Heet, Iraq, of which he was chief.
2003 Richard Goff, 34, and Lisa Goff, 34, his wife, by lightning as they were sitting on metal chairs, under trees for protection from the rain, in a mountain campground near the shore of Crystal Lake, Utah. Injured are their boy, Dakota Goff, 9, and their two girls, Makenzie Goff, 5, and Megan Goff, 18 months. [family photo >]
2003 All 14 aboard Fairchild Metro SW-4 turboprop plane (registration ZSOYI) of the South African Air-2000 charter company, which, at 18:00, crashes at 4900 m altitude into the Point Lenana peak of Mount Kenya, The dead are the 2 South African pilots and 12 US tourists, from one family, who wanted to view the 3-peaked extinct volcano Mount Kenya before heading to the Masai Mara game reserve (the altitudes of the summits of the 3 peaks are: Point Lenana 5014 m, Nelion 5218 m, Batian 5229 m): retired pediatrician Dr. George W. Brumley, 68; his wife, Jean Brumley, 67; three of their children with their spouses and four of the grandchilden: George Brumley III, 42, his wife Julia Brumley, 42, and their sons, George Brumley IV, 14, and Jordan Brumley, 12; Lois Brumley Morrell, 39, her husband Richard Morrell, 43, and their son Alex Morrell, 11; Beth Brumley Love, 41, her husband William Love, and their daughter, Sarah Love, 12. The five other grandchildren were not on the plane.
2003 Lindie Enrick, 30, and her sons Trevor Enrick, 11, Justin Enrick, 6, and Michael Enrick, 5, are found at 20:00, killed by carbon monoxide poisoning, in a car parked behind a house in the Brentwood Park suburb of Benoni, South Africa. A hose led from the exhaust pipe to the inside of the car. Lindie Enrick was divorced; she and her three sons lived with her current mate. A note is found in the car indicating that she was despondent about their future.
2002 Andrea (née Flitcraft) Floyd [< photo], and her husband from whom she wanted to be divorced, Sgt. 1st Class Brandon S. Floyd, 30, of the Headquarters Company, US Army Special Operations Command (“Delta Force”), of Fort Bragg, North Carolina, who shoots her and then, in the forehead, himself. Sergeant Nieves had been from November 2001 to January 2002 in Afghanistan, where his unit was administered the anti-malaria drug mefloquine (“Lariam”), known to produce psychotic side effects. Similar wife murders were committed near Fort Bragg by Sgt. 1st Class Rigoberto Nieves (with suicide, 11 June 2002); by Master Sgt. William Wright (29 June 2002; suicide 23 March 2003); and by Sgt. Cedric Griffin (09 July 2002). On 23 July 2002, Maj. David Shannon, of Fort Bragg, was murdered by his wife Joan Shannon.
2002 Aleksandr I. Ginzburg, 65 [< photo], in Paris, poet and human rights activist in the Soviet Union, who was repeatedly imprisoned until exchanged to the US in 1979 for two convicted spies.
2001 Mohammed Salameh Etnizi, 22, Mohammed Hilmy Etnizi, 20, and 3-month-old Amira Wael Etnizi, Palestinians shot by members of the Road Safety Group, identified with Kach, an outlaw extremist Jewish organization. Israeli settlers opened fire on the Palestinian car near the Palestinian village of Idna, west of Hebron, killing the three and wounding four. The murderers' car ran an Israeli army roadblock nearby and escaped into Israel after the shooting.
1989 112 persons, as a United Air Lines Flight 232, a DC-10, crashes at 16:00 while making an emergency landing at Sioux City, Iowa; 184 other people survived. [Last communications with the tower and comments by the surviving pilot].
1989 Dos jefes del Cuerpo de Intendencia del Ejército de Tierra de España, asesinados a tiros en las proximidades del Gobierno Militar de Madrid, por un comando de Euskadi Ta Askatasuna.
1985 Janusz Andrzej Zajdel, Warsaw Polish science fiction author born on 15 August 1938.
1981 José María Pemán, Spanish writer.
1980 Nihat Erim, born in 1912, assassinated by Dev Sol terrorists. He was the prime minister of Turkey from 26 March 1971 to 22 May 1972.
1965 Syngman Rhee, político y presidente surcoreano.
1957 Curzio Malaparte, escritor italiano.
1947 Aug San, his elder brother U Ba Win, and five other members of the Executive Council of Burma, assassinated. Aug San, born on 13 February 1915, was a Burmese nationalist who was prominent in leading Burma (now Myanmar) to independence (04 Jan 1948) from Great Britain. Before World War II Aung San was actively anti-British; he then allied with the Japanese during World War II, but switched to the Allies before leading the Burmese drive for autonomy. Aug San's political rival, U Saw [1900 – 08 May 1948], would be executed for organizing the assassination conspiracy.
1929 Fausto Zonaro, Italian artist born on 18 September 1854.
1910 Johann Gottfried Galle, German astronomer born in 1812.
1907 Theodor Pixis, German artist born on 01 July 1831.
1886 José Joaquim Verde, poeta portugués.
1878 Egor Ivanovich Zolotarev, St. Petersburg Russian mathematician, born on 12 April 1847, who produced fundamental work on analysis and number theory.
1824 Agustín de Iturbide, el depuesto emperador de México, fusilado, tras volver a su país del destierro con intención de hacerse con el poder.
1817 Jean-Antoine-Théodore Giroust, French artist born on 10 November 1753.
1770 Francis Cotes, English painter and pastelist born on 20 May 1726. MORE ON COTES AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1664 Egbert Lievensz van der Poel, Dutch painter born on 09 March 1621. MORE ON VAN DER POEL AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1545 Some 470 as Royal Navy HMS Mary Rose rolls over and sinks during battle of the Solent.
1510 38 Jews, burned at the stake, in Berlin, Prussia
0514 Saint Symmachus, 51st Pope (since 498).
— 6'997'998 BC (+ or – one million years) Tumaï Sahelanthropus-Tchadensis, hominid of whom the almost complete skull, some teeth, and a few fragments of the lower jaw would be discovered on 19 July 2001 in the Toros-Menalla region of the Djurab desert of Chad by Ahounta Djimdoumalbaye of the anthropological team led by Michel Brunet from the University of Poitiers in France.
1922 George McGovern (Sen-D-SD), presidential candidate (D-1972)
1921 Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, US medical physicist, laureate of the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1898 Herbert Marcuse, Berlin, communist philosopher (One-Dimensional Man) who died on 1979
1896 A.J. Cronin, English author (Citadel, Shining Victory) who died on 1981.
1894 Aleksandr Yakovlevich Khinchin, Russian mathematician who died on 18 November 1959.
1879 Alfred Justitz, Czech German artist who died in 1934.
1865 Charles Horace Mayo surgeon, cofounded Mayo Clinic
1860 Lizzie Borden, murderer, gave her mother forty whacks; died on 1927.
1838 José Manuel Balmaceda, político chileno
1834 Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas, French impressionist painter who died on 26 September 1917. MORE ON DEGAS AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1827 Johann Till, Austrian artist who died on 21 November 1894.
1819 Gottfried Keller, Swiss writer who died on 15 July 1890.
1817 Charles Auguste Briot, French mathematician who died on 20 September 1882.
1814 Samuel Colt, inventor of the first practical revolver, who died on 1862.
1803 Ramón de Mesonero Romanos, escritor español.
1792 Polydore Roux, French artist who died on 12 April 1833.
1789 John Martin, British painter who died on 17 February 1854. MORE ON MARTIN AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1636 Jean-Baptiste Monnoyer, Franco-Flemish flower-painter who died on 16 February 1699. MORE ON MONNOYER AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.