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click for detailed invasion diagrams^  On a 17 July:

2002
At 06:21, 28 members of a Spanish special forces team drop from helicopters onto Perejil (“Leila” for the Moroccans) island, 200x550 meters, 200 m from Morocco's Meditarrenean coast, 6 km from Spain's Moroccan enclave Ceuta (which, together with the other enclave, Melilla, Morocco claims, just as Spain claims Gibraltar). The Spanish troops swiftly reach the outcrop's summit, raise the Spanish flag, and from a helicopter use megaphones to demand the surrender of the six Moroccans marines, who, the day before, had replaced the 12 Moroccan gendarmes who, on 11 July 2002, had occupied the normally uninhabited controverted island, and raised the Moroccan flag. The Moroccans surrender and are handed over to Morocco. The whole operation takes less than one hour. — [see the Reuters story]

2000
Bashar Assad, son of Hafez Assad, began a seven-year term as Syria's 16th head of state.
^ 2000 Commémoration de la rafle du Vél'd'Hiv.      
      La première journée nationale à la mémoire des crimes racistes et antisémites de l'Etat Français est célébrée le jour anniversaire de la rafle. Le ministre délégué à l'Enseignement professionnel, Jean-Luc Mélenchon, affirme que le souvenir de la rafle du Vél' d'Hiv doit être celui d'une journée de " deuil et de honte pour les Français ". La loi instaurant cette journée nationale a été votée à l'unanimité le 10 Jul 2000. Les 16 Jul et 17 Jul 1942, quelque 4500 policiers français avaient arrêté à leur domicile parisien 13'000 juifs, rassemblés ensuite dans l'ancien vélodrome avant d'être déportés.
     A l’été 1942, la puissance nazie est à son apogée : les troupes de Hitler occupent toute l’Europe et, bien qu’elles aient échoué devant Moscou et Leningrad, elles occupent une grande partie de l’Ouest de l‘URSS. En Afrique du Nord, malgré la victoire des forces de la France Libre à Bir Hakeim en juin 1942, l’issue des combats entre les Anglais et l’Afrika Korps est encore incertaine. En juillet 1942, rien n’indique encore le début d’un reflux. Malgré le coup d’arrêt à l’expansion japonaise à Midway en juin 1942, sur le front européen, ce n’est qu’en septembre que les Allemands sont arrêtés à Stalingrad et en novembre qu’a lieu le débarquement en Afrique du nord et le coup d’arrêt d’El Alamein. En France, les conditions de l’armistice prévalent encore à l’été 1942; ce n’est qu’en novembre 1942 que la zone libre sera occupée par les Allemands et leurs alliés italiens. Pétain est à la tête de l’état et son premier ministre, Laval, symbolise la collaboration: il dit souhaiter la victoire de l’Allemagne.
      La rafle du Vél'd’Hiv vit la déportation de 12800 Juifs parisiens à la demande des Allemands, tout au moins pour les adultes, les enfants ayant été livrés sur l’initiative du chef du gouvernement, Laval. Auparavant, le régime de Vichy avait promulgué en octobre 1940 le statut des Juifs, qui excluait ceux-ci de nombreuses professions et les mettait à part de la communauté nationale. De leur côté, les nazis ont décidé en janvier 1942 d’exterminer tous les Juifs d’Europe (conférence de Wannsee) et exigent des pays occupés qu’ils livrent les juifs, qui sont envoyés dans les camps d’extermination de Pologne, en particulier Auschwitz. 5 millions de Juifs seront ainsi exterminés. C’est la police française ( et non la milice, qui n’existe pas encore en juillet 1942) qui a procédé aux arrestations. En France, le bilan sera moins lourd, environ 25% de la communauté juive a péri. Le chiffre ne fut pas aussi élevé que dans le reste de l’Europe grâce à « l’action héroïque et fraternelle de nombreuses familles françaises ». Mais sur 78'000 déportés, seuls 3000 sont revenus.
     Extrait de l'allocution de Jacques Chirac:
     Je veux me souvenir que cet été 1942, qui révèle le vrai visage de la "collaboration", dont le caractère raciste, après les lois anti-juives de 1940, ne fait plus de doute, sera, pour beaucoup de nos compatriotes, celui du sursaut, le point de départ d'un vaste mouvement de résistance. Je veux me souvenir de toutes les familles juives traquées, soustraites aux recherches impitoyables de l'occupant et de la Milice, par l'action héroïque et fraternelle de nombreuses familles françaises. J'aime à penser qu'un mois plus tôt, à Bir Hakeim, les Français libres de Koenig avaient héroïquement tenu, deux semaines durant, face aux divisions allemandes et italiennes. Certes, il y a les erreurs commises, il y a les fautes, il y a une faute collective. Mais il y a aussi la France, une certaine idée de la France, droite, généreuse, fidèle à ses traditions, à son génie. Cette France n'a jamais été à Vichy. Elle n'est plus, et depuis longtemps, à Paris. Elle est dans les sables libyens et partout où se battent des Français libres. Elle est à Londres, incarnée par le Général de Gaulle. Elle est présente, une et indivisible, dans le cœur de ces Français, ces "Justes parmi les nations" qui, au plus noir de la tourmente, en sauvant au péril de leur vie, comme l'écrit Serge Klarsfeld, les trois-quarts de la communauté juive résidant en France, ont donné vie à ce qu'elle a de meilleur. Les valeurs humanistes, les valeurs de liberté, de justice, de tolérance qui fondent l'identité française et nous obligent.
1998 At the close of the three-day Rome Conference, in which more than 130 government participated, the first countries to sign the Statute of the International Criminal Court (to which the US considers itself superior) are: Bolivia, Cameroon, Congo (Brazzaville), Liberia, Mali, Malta, Niger, Samoa, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
1998 The remains of Tsar Nicholas II and his family (including Anastasia) are buried in St. Petersburg in a ceremony attended by President Boris Yeltsin.
1997 Clinton backs Web ratings. President Clinton announced his support for a voluntary ratings system for Web sites that would let parents control what their children could see on the Internet. At the same time, the Federal Trade Commission announces that it will prosecute Web sites that collect personal information from children.
^ 1996 AOL competes with MS for news and info on Internet
     America Online launches Digital Cities Inc., a new company offering local news, information, and services over the Internet. The announcement came just two days after the media reported a similar initiative by Microsoft to create local information sites in cities across the country. The Microsoft project eventually became Microsoft Sidewalk. Both ventures were part of a rush to create online news and information on a city-by-city basis. However, the venture would prove extremely costly, and by late 1998, Microsoft would eliminated much of the entertainment and cultural content on its site in favor of shopping directories.
^ 1995 Security technology for Internet shopping
      Netscape announces its Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) security product, designed to encourage Internet shopping. The company says that the technology can conceal customers' credit card numbers from Internet merchants and hackers. At the time, the theft of credit card numbers on the Internet was costing merchants $100 million a year, Netscape officials said. The race to create security standards in the mid-1990s was followed by the explosion of Internet shopping's popularity in 1998 and 1999.
1991 Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev [02 Mar 1931~] makes a personal appeal for Western aid at the conclusion of the Group of Seven economic summit in London.
1991 The US Senate voted 53-to-45 to give itself a $23'000 annual pay raise while at the same time banning outside speaking fees.
1990 Iraq's dictator Hussein's Revolutionary Day speech claims Kuwait stole oil from Iraq. His invasion of Kuwait on 02 August 1990 would lead to the Persian Gulf War.
1989 L’Autriche dépose sa candidature officielle à l'entrée dans la Communauté.Européenne
1987 “Iran-Contra” hearings: Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North [07 Oct 1943~] and rear Admiral John Poindexter [12 Aug 1936~] begin testifying to Congress.
1979 Nicaraguan dictator President Anastasio Somoza Debayle [05 December – 17 Sep 1980] resigns and flees into exile in Miami.
^ 1975 Soviet and US space crafts dock
      As part of a mission aimed at developing space rescue capability, the US spacecraft Apollo 18 and the Soviet spacecraft Soyuz 19 rendezvous and dock in space. As the hatch is opened between the two vessels, commanders Thomas P. Stafford and Aleksei Leonov shake hands and exchange gifts in celebration of the first such meeting in space between the two Cold War adversaries.
      Back on earth, UN Secretary General Kurt Waldheim congratulates the two superpowers for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, and praises their unprecedented spirit of cooperation and peace in planning and executing the mission.
      During the forty-four-hour Apollo-Soyuz embrace, the astronauts and cosmonauts conduct experiments, share meals, and hold a joint news conference. Apollo-Soyuz, which comes almost three years after the sixth and last US lunar landing and is the final Apollo program mission conducted by NASA. It was fitting that the Apollo program, which first visited the moon under the banner of "We came in peace for all mankind," should end on a note of peace and international cooperation.
[The whole story, book-length]
Arrimage des vaisseaux spatiaux américain Apollo et soviétique Soyouz-19. Cette première s’effectue à 222 Kms d’altitude. Ils naviguent conjointement pendant 48 heures. Les deux équipages se rendent visite mutuellement et réalisent de nombreuses expériences scientifiques. Cette réalisation va susciter dans le monde entier un engouement et un intérêt exceptionnel, non seulement à cause de l’aspect scientifique, mais à cause du symbole de réconciliation entre les deux grands !
^ 1972 South Vietnamese paratroopers fight for Citadel
      South Vietnamese paratroopers fight their way to within 200 meters of the Citadel in Quang Tri City, which was described by reporters who accompanied the troops as a city of rubble and ash. Citizens emerging from neighborhoods retaken by the paratroopers joined the refugees, who had been streaming south toward Hue on Route 1 to get out of the way of continued fighting in Quang Tri. North Vietnamese troops had captured Quang Tri City on 01 May as part of their Nguyen Hue Offensive (later called the "Easter Offensive"), a massive invasion by North Vietnamese forces that had been launched on 31 March. The attacking force included 14 infantry divisions and 26 separate regiments, with more than 120'000 soldiers and approximately 1200 tanks and other armored vehicles.
      The main North Vietnamese objectives, in addition to Quang Tri in the north, were Kontum in the Central Highlands, and An Loc farther to the south. Initially, the South Vietnamese defenders were almost overwhelmed, particularly in the northernmost provinces, where they abandoned their positions in Quang Tri. At Kontum and An Loc, the South Vietnamese were more successful in defending against the attacks, but only after weeks of bitter fighting. Although the defenders suffered heavy casualties, they managed to hold their own with the aid of US advisors and airpower. Fighting continued all over South Vietnam into the summer months. After months of heavy fighting, the South Vietnamese forces finally retook Quang Tri province entirely in September. With the communist invasion blunted, President Nixon declared that the South Vietnamese victory proved the viability of "Vietnamization," a program that he had instituted in 1969 to increase the combat capability of the South Vietnamese armed forces so US troops could be withdrawn.
^ 1969 Wheeler visits South Vietnam
      Gen. Earle Wheeler, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, conducts four days of conferences and inspections with US commanders in South Vietnam. This was an effort to assess the progress of the South Vietnamese armed forces and to discuss future strategy. Upon his return to Washington, Wheeler reported to President Richard Nixon that the situation in South Vietnam was "good" and that the program to improve the South Vietnamese armed forces was on schedule.
1968 In Iraq, Baathist officers led by Ahmed Hasan al-Bakr stage a coup which overthrows the government.
1967 Race riots in Cairo, Illinois
1966 Ho Chi Minh, 76, orders a partial mobilization of North Vietnam to defend against US airstrikes. — El presidente de Vietnam del Norte, Ho Chi Minh ordena la movilización parcial del país.
1962 US Senate rejects Medicare for the aged
1960 Francis Gary Powers, 30, pleads guilty to spying charges in a Moscow court after his U-2 spy plane was shot down on 1 May 1960 over the Soviet Union. Powers was sentenced to 10 years in prison. He was released in 1962, however, in exchange for the Soviet spy Rudolf Abel. Powers about the incident in Operation Overflight (1970). He died on 01 March 1977 in the crash of a helicopter that he flew as a reporter for a Los Angeles TV station.
1959 Mary Leakey, 46, discovers, at Olduvai Gorge in Kenya, the 600'000-years-old skull of an early hominid named Zinjanthropus by her husband Louis Leakey, though it is now regarded as a type of australopithecine
1959 Tibet abolishes serfdom
1954 Theodor Heuss es reelegido presidente de la República Federal Alemana, por 871 votos de la Asamblea Federal.
1954 Construction begins on Disneyland.
1951 Baudouin [07 Sep 1930 – 31 Jul 1993] becomes the fifth king of the Belgians. He was head of state since the 11 August 1950 abdication of his father King Leopold III [03 Nov 1901 – 25 Sep 1983].
1948 Proclamation of the constitution of the Republic of (South) Korea
1946 Chinese Communists begin an offensive against the Nationalist army on the Yangtze River.
^ 1945 Allied summit at Potsdam starts
      Near the end of World War II, US President Harry S. Truman, Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill meet at Potsdam outside Berlin, to discuss the continuing war against Japan and Allied policy in defeated Germany and liberated Europe. It is the first Allied conference for President Truman, who had succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon his death on 12 April.
     The issues at hand for the Big Three and their staffs were the administration of a defeated Germany; the postwar borders of Poland; the occupation of Austria; the Soviet Union's "place" in Eastern Europe; war reparations; and the continuing war in the Pacific. Various disputes broke out almost immediately, especially over the Soviet Union's demand that the western border of Poland extend into German territory, granting Poland a zone of occupation. But the four zones of occupation that had been worked out at the Yalta Conference in February were finally agreed upon, to be created in both Germany and Austria and to be controlled by the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union. A council composed of representatives of the four great powers was also established to determine the fate of Germany and Austria as nations. The council was to pursue the Five D's: demilitarization, denazification, decentralization, deindustrialization, and democratization.
      The Soviets reaffirmed their intention of declaring war against Japan. It was agreed that unconditional surrender would be demanded of Japan, despite a warning by the Japanese emperor that such a demand would be resisted. Unlike previous Allied conferences, Potsdam was marked by suspicion and defensiveness on the part of the participants. Now that the war was over in the West, each nation was more concerned with its own long-term interests than that of its partners.
      Winston Churchill in particular was greatly suspicious of Joseph Stalin's agenda for the Soviet Union's role in Eastern Europe. Stalin refused to negotiate the future of those Eastern European nations now occupied by Soviet forces and the Soviet annexation of the eastern regions of Poland was finalized. On 25 July, Churchill returned to Britain for national elections, and he was forced to resign as prime minister following the Labor Party victory. With Churchill gone from the final negotiations of the conference, the Iron Curtain could be heard descending across Eastern Europe. Clement Atlee, the new British prime minister, went to Potsdam with his Labor advisers, and on 02 August, the conference ended.
      During the first day of talks, Truman receives a coded message indicating that the atomic bomb test held in New Mexico the previous day had succeeded, and he immediately informs Churchill. On 24 July, Truman, who had commanded an artillery division during World War I that fired poison gas, would give his final approval of use of the atomic bomb against Japan. The same day, Stalin was informed of the existence of the devastating new weapon. However, as he had already been informed of the Los Alamos test from Soviet intelligence, he only feigned a casual interest in the atomic bomb.
      Four days after the end of the conference, on 06 August, the US dropped its first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, destroying the city and its military and civilian population. On 08 August, the USSR declared war against Japan, and, on 09 August, the Red Army invaded Manchuria. The same day, the United States dropped its second atomic bomb on Japan, destroying Nagasaki, a coastal city. Faced with the choice of destruction or surrender, Japan chose the latter. On 15 August, Emperor Hirohito announced the Japanese surrender on national radio, urging the Japanese people to "endure the unendurable," and the most destructive war in human history had come to an end.
1945 Se aprueba bajo el régimen de Franco el Fuero de los Españoles, carta magna de derechos individuales que no recogía los principios del pluralismo político ni los más elementales derechos de un estado democrático.
1944 Field Marshall Erwin Rommel, 52, is injured in France when his staff car rolls over under attack by a British fighter-bomber. He had almost 3 more months to live until Hitler found out that the conspirators against his life had planned to replace him with Rommel, and therefore forced Rommel to take poison on 14 October 1944.
1943 Los estadounidenses y los japoneses se envuelven en una batalla naval cerca de la isla de Bougainville en el Pacífico.
1943 Hitler convence a Mussolini para continuar con la guerra.
1941 Weygand délégué de Vichy en Afrique du Nord. Pétain nomme son ministre de la Défense nationale, le général Weygand, délégué général en Afrique du Nord. Il signera les accords qui permettront aux Américains de débarquer en 1942.
1941 El coronel cubano Fulgencio Batista anuncia la constitución de un nuevo gabinete.
^ 1938 "Wrong Way" Corrigan takes off "for California"
     Douglas Corrigan, born 22 January 1907, the last of the early glory-seeking fliers, taken off from Floyd Bennett field in Brooklyn, New York, on a flight that would finally win him a place in aviation history. Eleven years earlier, US flyer Charles A. Lindbergh had become an international celebrity by flying nonstop across the Atlantic Ocean. Corrigan came to his interest in aviation while working on the San Diego factory team that built the "Spirit of St. Louis", the aircraft in which Charles Lindbergh crossed the Atlantic solo in 1927 (as retold in the Jimmy Stewart movie.)
      In 1938, Corrigan bought for $310 a 1929 Curtiss Robin monoplane off a trash heap, which he nicknamed Lizzy. He rebuilt it, and modified it for long-distance flight. In July of 1938, Corrigan piloted the single-engine plane nonstop from California to New York. Although the transcontinental flight was far from unprecedented, Corrigan received national attention simply because the press was amazed that his rattletrap aircraft had survived the journey. Lizzy lacked any safety devices, radio, or beam finders, and the extra fuel tanks that Corrigan had put on completely obscured the pilot's forward view (just as in Lindbergh's Spirit of St. Louis), so he had to look out of the side windows to see where he was going. Almost immediately after arriving in New York he filed plans with the Bureau of Air Commerce for a transatlantic flight, but the request was denied, on the grounds that the aircraft was not safe for the planned fuel load. Instead, they would allow Corrigan to fly back to the West Coast, and on 17 July, he sets off, taking off from Floyd Bennet field ostentatiously pointed east. Lizzy was so weighed down with fuel that she traveled 1 km along the runway before achieving takeoff.
      However, a few minutes later, he made a 180-degree turn and vanished into a cloudbank to the puzzlement of a few onlookers. 5000 km and 28 hours later, Corrigan would land his plane at Baldonnel Airport, Dublin, Ireland, step out of his plane, and exclaim, "Just got in from New York. Where am I?" When asked about his deviation from his flight plan back to California, he claimed that he lost his direction in the clouds and that "My compass froze. I guess I flew the wrong way. When I came down through the clouds I noticed I had been reading the compass needle backward". He said he realised he had arrived somewhere other than California since "the place was greener and some of the houses had thatch roofs."
     The authorities didn't buy the story and suspended his license, but Corrigan stuck to it to the amusement to the public on both sides of the Atlantic. By the time "Wrong Way" Corrigan and his crated plane returned to New York by ship, his license suspension had been lifted, he was a national celebrity, a mob of autograph seekers met him at the gangway, and he got a ticker-tape parade in New York.
     Corrigan went on to fly for the US Army in World War II, and later flew as a test pilot. He also starred as himself in a Hollywood feature The Flying Irishman. He died on 09 December 1995.
“It is easier to obtain forgiveness than permission.”
1936 Début de la guerre civile en Espagne.  Elle ensanglantera tout le pays pendant près de trois ans. A la tête des nationalistes, le général Francisco Franco a pris les armes contre la République, proclamée en 1931. Il instaurera un régime totalitaire. — The Spanish Civil War begins as a series of military insurrections throughout the country. The war lasted until 28 March 1939, when the Republican armies had collapsed and the Nationalists entered Madrid. — Se inicia en Melilla el alzamiento militar contra la Segunda República Española que desencadenará la Guerra Civil Española.
1934 La Asamblea brasileña elige presidente constitucional a Getúlio Vargas.
1923 En el Instituto de Investigación del Cáncer de la Charité de Berlín se crea un nuevo departamento par la investigación celular experimental.
1922 El general español Ricardo Burguete es nombrado alto comisario de España en Marruecos.
1919 Finlandia se constituye en República constitucional.
1917 En el pueblo portugués de Fátima, tres pequeños pastores aseguran que se les aparece la Virgen María.
1917 British Royal family changes its name from Hanover to Windsor (UK is fighting Germany in WW I)
^ 1916 Farm Loan Act
      The US's cash-strapped farmers get a dose of relief as Congress passes the Federal Farm Loan Act. The legislation called for the creation of a land bank that would dole out loans to farmers who sorely needed funds to preserve and upgrade their crops. The passage of the bill was celebrated by the nation's farm owners, who had long struggled to secure equitable loans from commercial banks. The farmer's credit woes were only compounded by Federal laws, which, until 1913, had capped the maturity of commercial loans at a mere five years.
      In turn, the Farm Loan Act was something of a conscious attempt by the government to redress this situation. Indeed, the legislation was an outgrowth of a Federal investigation of the US's farm finances, as well as the agrarian credit plans used by other nations. The Farm Loan Act, which was signed by President Woodrow Wilson later in 1916, featured a number of the recommendations from the government study, including the recommendation to model the farm bank on a German cooperative credit system from the late eighteenth century. But, neither the passage of the Farm Loan Act nor the concurrent establishment of the Federal Farm Bureau could prevent the US's economy from sinking into a mild depression in 1920; the economic slump was particularly cruel to the nation's farmers and suppressed both crop prices and profits well into the decade.
1901 Bélgica renuncia a la anexión del Congo, pero conserva el derecho de explotación prioritaria.
1901 La peste llega a Turquía.
1898 Spanish American War — Spaniards surrender to US General William R. Shafter at Santiago de Cuba.
1897 1st ship arrives in Seattle carrying gold from the Yukon
^ 1864 John Bell Hood takes command of the Army of Tennessee
      CSA President Jefferson Davis replaces undefeated general Joseph E. Johnston, whom he disliked, with John Bell Hood as commander of the Army of Tennessee, in hopes of defeating Union General William T. Sherman outside Atlanta.
      Davis, impatient with Johnston's defensive strategy in the Atlanta campaign, felt that Hood stood a better chance of saving Atlanta from the forces of Union General William T. Sherman. For nearly three months, Johnston and Sherman had maneuvered around the rugged corridor from Chattanooga to Atlanta. Although there was constant skirmishing, there were few major battles; Sherman kept trying to outflank Johnston, but his advances were blocked. Though this kept losses to a minimum, there was also a limit to how long Johnston could maintain this strategy as each move brought the armies closer to Atlanta. By 17 July 1864, Johnston was backed into the outskirts of Atlanta. Johnston felt his strategy was the only way to preserve the Army of Tennessee, but Davis felt that he had given up too much territory. In a telegram informing Johnston of his decision, Davis wrote, "…you failed to arrest the advance of the enemy to the vicinity of Atlanta, far in the interior of Georgia, and express no confidence that you can defeat or repel him, you are hereby relieved from command of the Army and Department of Tennessee, which you will immediately turn over to General Hood." Davis selected Hood for his reputation as a fighting general, in contrast to Johnston's cautious nature. Hood did what Davis wanted and quickly attacked Sherman at Peachtree Creek on 20 July but with disastrous results. Hood attacked two more times, losing both and destroying his army's offensive capabilities.
1863 Engagement at Honey Springs, Indian Territory (now Oklahoma)
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1863 Battle of Honey Springs, largest battle of war in Indian Territory
1862 US President Lincoln approves the Second Confiscation Act, which declares that any slaves whose owners were in rebellion against the government, would be freed when they came into contact with the Union army.
1862 US army authorized to accept blacks as laborers
1861 US Congress authorizes paper money
1821 Andrew Jackson becomes the governor of Florida.
1821 Spain ceded Florida to the United States
1815 Napoléon Bonaparte surrenders to the British at Rochefort, France.
^ 1802 Slavery reinstated on Guadeloupe.
     By a decree of general Richepance, commander of the French expeditionary corps which crushed black resistance led by colonel Delgrès, commander of Basse-Terre. Richepance's decree is clear, though it does not mention the word "esclavage": "le titre de citoyen français ne sera porté dans l'étendue de cette colonie et dépendances que par les blancs. Aucun autre individu ne pourra prendre ce titre ni exercer les fonctions qui y sont attachées."
     Le 28 May 1802, au moment du dernier assaut français, Delgrès et 300 de ses hommes s'étaient suicidés en mettant le feu à la poudrière plutôt que de retomber en esclavage, conformément à la proclamation de Delgrès du 10 May 1802, dont voici un bref passage:
     "C'est dans les plus beaux jours d'un siècle à jamais célèbre pour le triomphe des lumières et de la philosophie, qu'une classe d'infortunés qu'on veut anéantir se voit obligée d'élever sa voix vers la postérité (...) il existe des hommes (...) qui ne veulent voir d'hommes noirs ou tirant leur origine de cette couleur, que dans les fers de l'esclavage (...) La résistance à l'oppression est un droit naturel. La divinité même ne peut être offensée que nous défendions notre cause (...) et toi postérité, accorde une larme à nos malheurs et nous mourrons satisfaits ". .
1802 El grabador valenciano Francisco de Paula Martí presenta en la Sociedad Económica Matritense su sistema de taquigrafía. producen la epidemia de cólera.
1785 France limits the importation of goods from Britain.
1775 1st US military hospital approved
1549 Jews are expelled from Ghent Belgium
1505 Twenty-one-year-old future church reformer, Martin Luther enters the Augustinian religious order, at Erfurt, Germany.
1453 France defeats England at Castillon, France, ending the 100 Years' War.
^ 1429 Charles VII sacré roi
      C'est en hâte que, la veille, on a décoré la cathédrale pour le sacre du roi qui, avec sa petite troupe, a traversé des terres peu sûres occupées encore par la soldatesque anglaise et bourguignonne. En présence de Jeanne d'Arc qui l'a convaincu de venir à Reims malgré les avis contraires de certains de ses conseillers, le roi est enfin, à vingt-six ans, définitivement légitimé par ce sacre.
      Lors de l'un de ses interrogatoires, en mars 1431, on demande à Jeanne : " Pourquoi votre étendard fut-il porté en l'église de Reims, au sacre, plutôt que ceux des autres capitaines ? " — " Il avait été à la peine, c'était bien raison qu'il fut à l'honneur. " Charles par cet acte se venge enfin et ainsi de toutes les humiliations qu'ils avaient subi, mais il lui reste à délivrer la France du goug anglais.
1328 David II [05 Mar 1324 – 22 Feb 1371], in accordance with the Anglo-Scottish peace treaty of Northampton, is married to Joanna, sister of King Edward III [13 Nov 1312 – 21 Jun 1377] of England. David II would succeeded as king of Scots at the death of his father, Robert I the Bruce [11 Jul 1274 – 07 June 1329].
1212 Moslems are crushed in the Spanish crusade.
0561 John III begins his reign as Pope
0431 Fifth session of Council of Ephesus adjourns. This third of the 21 ecumenical councils of theChurch condemned Nestorianism and Pelagianism, and defined Mary's title as 'theotokos' ('Bearer of God'). — The 7th and last session would be held on July 31 — Fin de la 5ème session du Concile d’Ephèse, au cours duquel les Pères de l’Eglise, convoqué par l’Empereur Théodose II, consacrent la Maternité Divine de la Vierge Marie.
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 17 July:
2007 All 6 six crew members; and all the passengers
Adelaide Moura, Alanis Andrade, Alejandro Camozzi, Alexandre Goes, Ana Carolina Cunha, Anderson Cassel, Andre Dona, Andrea Seiczkowski, Angela Haensel, Antonio Carlos Araujo de Souza, Arnaldo Batista Ramos, Arthur Queiroz, Atilio Sassa Bilibio, Bruna de Villi Chaccur, Bruno Ferraz, Bruno Nascimento, Caio Felipe Cunha, Carla Fioratti, Carlos Alberto Andriotti, Carlos Rockemback, Carmen Luisa Victoria Fonseca, Catilene Oliveira, Christine Souza, Ciro Numada, Claudemir Arriero, Decio Tevola, Demetrio Travessa, Denilson Lopes Costa, Deolinda Magaly Victor Fonseca, Douglas Teixeira, Edmundo Smith, Eduardo Mancia, Elcita Ramos, Elenilze Ferraz, Eliane Dornelles, Elida Dembinski, Emerson Freitag, Enrico Shiohara, Esio Freitas, Fabiana Amaral, Fabiane Ruzante, Fabiano Rosito Matos, Fabio Balsells, Fabio Marques, Fabio Velloza, Fatima Santiago, Felipe Fratezi, Fernando Antonio Laro Oliveira, Fernando Marques, Fernando Pessoa, Gabriel Correia Pedrosa, Gilmar Tenório Rocha, Gottfried Tagloehner, Guilherme Moraes, Guilherme Pereira, Gustavo Martins Heloiza Helena Lopes, Heurico Tomita, Ines Maria Kleinowski, Ivalino Bonato, Ivanaldo Cunha, Jamille Leao, Janus Silva, Jaqueline Dias, Joao Brito, Joao Caltabiano, João Valmir, Jose a Flores Amaral, José Lima Luz, José Pinto, Julia Camargo, Julia Elizabete Gomes, Julio Cesar Redecker, Katia Escobar, Katiane Lima, Jose Carlos Pierucetti, Larissa Ferraz, Leila Maria Oliveira dos Santos, Levi Leão, Lina Barbosa Cassol, Lisiane Schubert, Lucas Palomino Mattedi, Luciana Siqueira Lana Angelis, Luis Schneider, Luiz Baruffaldi, Luiz Luz, Marcelo Marthe, Marcelo Palmieri, Marcelo Pedreira, Marcelo Stelzer, Marcio Alexandre de Moraes, Marco Antonio da Silva, Maria Elizabete Caballero, Maria Isabel Gomes, Mariana Pereira, Mariana Sell, Mario Gomes, Marli Pedro Santos, Marta Almeida, Melissa Andrade, Mery Vieira, Mirtes Suda, Nadia Moyses, Nadja Soczeck, Nelly Priebe, Paulo Cassiano Feliza Oliveira, Paulo Pavi, Paulo Rogerio Amoretty Souza, Paulo Silveira, Pedro Abreu, Pedro Augusto Caltabiano, Jose Carlos de Oliveira, Priscila Bertoldi Silva, Raquel Warmiling, Rebeca Haddad, Remy Moller, Renan Klug Ribeiro, Renato Ribeiro, Renato Soares, Richard Salles Canfield, Roberto Gavioli, Rodrigo Benachio, Rodrigo Prado, Rodrigo Souza Moreale, Rogerio Laurentis, Rogerio Sato, Rosangela Maria de Avil Severo, Rospierre Vilhena, Sandro Schubert, Sergio Freitas, Silvan Stumpf, Silvania Regina de Avila Alves, Silvano Almeida, Silvia Grunewald, Sonia Machado, Soraya Charara, Sueli Fleck, Suely Fonseca, Thais Scott, Valdemarina Souza, Valdir Cordeiro de Moraes, Vanda Ueda, Vilma Klug, Vitacir Paludo, Zenilda Santos, Caio Augusto Bueno Dal Prata, Rafaela Bueno Dal Prata, Ricardo Almeida, Marcio Andrade, Cassio Vieira Servulo da Cunha, Akio Iwasaki, Andrei Melo, Clove Mendonça Junior, Janus Silva, Roberto Wilson Weiss Junior, Simone Wetrupp, Nelson Wiebbelling, Rubem Wiethaeuper, Paula Masseran de Arruda Xavier, Luiz Zacchini, Carlos Zanotto;
and 14 persons on the ground;

after, on landing late in the night at São Paulo's Congonhas airport, the Airbus-320 of TAM airline flight JJ 3054 skids off the runway, crosses avenida Washington Luís, crashes into a fuel depot and is engulfed in fire. 18 TAM employees were among the passengers.
     O secretário-executivo da Associação Brasileira da Indústria de Máquinas e Equipamentos (Abimaq), Demétrio Travessa, de 46 anos, está entre as vítimas fatais. Ele presidia o Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento da Indústria de Máquinas da Abimaq.
     A Associação Brasileira da Indústria Química (Abiquim) confirmou que o vice-presidente da entidade, Guilherme Duque Estrada de Moraes, estava entre os passageiros. Além de Moraes, a diretora-adjunta de Assuntos Regulatórios da Abiquim, Marta Laudares, morreu no vôo.
     O presidente da fabricante de estruturas metálicas Medabil, Attilio Bilibio, estava entre os passageiros do vôo 3054. O vice-presidente da holding Paludo Participações, Vitacir Paludo, também teve a morte confirmada. Vitacir - filho do fundador do grupo, Vicencio Paludo - era casado e pai de uma adolescente de 15 anos. O empresário amazonense Gabriel Correia Pedrosa Júnior, 26, franqueado da rede Habibs em Manaus, foi outra vítima fatal.
     Um diretor e um engenheiro da Companhia de Tecidos Norte de Minas (Coteminas), empresa do vice-presidente da República, José Alencar, estavam entre os passageiros do vôo 3054. Morreram o diretor da unidade de Montes Claros (MG), Fábio Vieira Marques Júnior, de 56 anos, e o engenheiro Rospierre Vilhena, 33 anos. A Coteminas informou que Rospierre era filho do vice-presidente industrial da companhia, Pedro Garcia Bastos Neto.
     Outros dois executivos figuram na lista de mortos. Da cooperativa vinícola Aurora, morreram o superintendente, Carlos Gilberto Zanotto, e o gerente financeiro, Ivalino Bonatto. Os dois trabalhavam na Aurora há 32 anos.
     As empresas Nokia, Braskem e Ipiranga confirmaram mortes de funcionários e executivos. O gerente de vendas da Nokia, Décio Tévola, estava no vôo. A direção da Braskem informou que Janus Lucas Leite Silva e de José Carlos Pierucetti, funcionários da empresa, morreram no desastre. Paulo César Pavi, da Ipiranga Química, também estava entre os passageiros.
     O grupo Gerdau tinha quatro funcionários a bordo do vôo 3054. Os funcionários eram a gerente de recursos humanos da Gerdau Sul, Andréa Rota Sieczkowski; o consultor de marketing da operação de negócios Aços Longos Brasil, Andrei François Mello; o gerente de serviços financeiros da área de serviços compartilhados Gerdau, Luiz Baruffaldi, e o assessor técnico da área de tecnologia da informação Peter Max Finzsch. Todos eram casados. Andréa deixou dois filhos e Barufaldi, três.
     O gerente comercial do Sistema Brasileiro Televisão (SBT) na Região Sul, José Luís Souto Pinto, e o diretor regional da emissora de televisão, João Roberto Brito, estavam entre os passageiros do vôo 3054 da TAM. Pinto tinha 53 anos, era casado e deixa três filhos. Brito tinha 45 anos, era casado e deixa duas filhas.
     O advogado Paulo de Tarso Dresch da Silveira, que é filho do jurista Neri da Silveira, ministro aposentado do Supremo Tribunal, também estava no vôo. Segundo a Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil (OAB), Dresch da Silveira viajou a serviço da entidade. Ele era presidente da Comissão Especial de Precatórios da OAB do Rio Grande do Sul. Além dele, estava no vôo o também advogado Paulo Rogério Amoretty, presidente da Comissão de Direito Esportivo da OAB.
     De acordo com o presidente da Comissão de Precatórios Paulista da OAB, Flávio Brando, estavam no avião a presidente do Sindicato dos Servidores Públicos Aposentados e Pensionistas do Rio Grande do Sul e da União Nacional de Credores de Precatórios (UNCP), Julia de Oliveira Camargo; a conselheira fiscal Sonia Machado; a assessora de imprensa Katia Escobar e as funcionárias Cateline Oliveira, Nelly Priebe, Mery Vieira, Suely Fonseca, Adelaide Moura e Elcita Ramos.
     A presidente do Sindicato dos Técnicos Científicos do Rio Grande do Sul (Sintergs), Nadja Maria Soczecki de Paula, e Luiz Fernando Soares Zacchini, diretor de divulgação e imprensa do sindicato, também estavam no vôo. —(070718)
2006 Frank Morrison “Mickey” Spillane, born on 09 March 1918, US writer of poorly written, violence- and sex-filled crime novels, of which many, the best known, feature the detective character Mike Hammer, starting with his first novel, I, the Jury (1947). — (060718)
2006 Some 700 persons by a tsunami following a 7.7 magnitude earthquake with epicenter 7.5 km deep some 250km south at of Java at 9º19'S 107º17'E at 15:19 (08:19 UT). — (060720)
2005 Alison Dwerryhouse, 39 (wife of Philip Dwerryhouse), back in England, of rabies from a 09 April 2005 dog bite in Goa, India. No one has contracted rabies in the UK since 1902 (except for David McRae, of Scotland, who had been bitten by a bat, and who died on 24 November 2002) but she is the 22nd Briton since 1946 to die of rabies contracted overseas. Rabies is endemic in Goa, and she ought to have been inoculated against it as a precaution soon after being bitten, since the first symptoms take weeks to appear, and by then treatment only rarely can prevent death.
2005 Edward Richard George Heath, (C) British Prime Minister (19 Jun 1970 - 06 Mar 1974) born on 09 July 1916.
2004 Three persons including suicide car bomber at Iraqi National Guard headquarters in Mahmudiyah, Iraq. 47 persons are injured.
2004 Suicide car bomber and 5 bodyguards of Iraqi Justice Minister Malik Dohan al-Hassan, who is unharmed in his convoy in Baghdad, Iraq.
2003 Walter Zapp, dies at his home in Switzerland. Born in Latvia in 1905, he invented in 1936 a miniature camera that could be hidden in a closed hand. After WWII he co-founded the Minox camera company.
2003 Two police officers and two passersby: a woman and a 5-year-girl, by a terrorist bomb attached to a motorcycle or scooter parked near the police station in Khasavyurt, Dagestan.
2002 Adrian Andres, 30, Romanian; Xu Hengyong, 39, Chinese; Boris Shamis, 25, Israeli from Tel-Aviv; and Islamic Jihad suicide bombers Mohammed Attala, 18, and Ibrahim Najie, 19, at 22:10 on Neve She'anan Street near the old central bus station in south Tel Aviv, in an area with foreign workers, including most of the 25 injured, of which two would later die of their injuries: Li Bin, 33, Chinese, on 24 July 24; and Dmitri Pundikov, 33, Israeli from Bat-Yam, on 25 July 25. The Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack.
2002 A Palestinian terrorist and Israeli Lt. Elad Grenadir, 21 [photo >], from Haifa, in 05:30-to-08:00 gun battle between Israeli army and the 3 or 4 who attacked a bus neer Immanuel enclave settlement, West Bank, the previous afternoon.
2002 Premature Israeli boy, who had been revived after 40 minutes of effort when delivered clinically dead 12 hours earlier by emergency caesarian section to save the life of the mother, Yehudit Weinberg, 22, critically injured by seven bullets in the Immanuel bus attack the previous afternoon.
2001 Omar Saadeh, his cousin Mohammed Saadeh, and Taha Aruj, and many baby chicks, by missiles from an Israeli helicopter to the Bethleem farm building where they were. Omar Saadeh and Aruj were senior activists in the Islamic militant group Hamas who Palestinian security sources said were long wanted by Israel. A fourth person is hospitalized in critical condition and dies soon afterwards. Saadeh and Aruj were senior activists of Hamas
2000 56 persons on the ground and on board a jet which crashes into two homes in Patna, India.
1998 Roger Quilliot, born on 19 Jun 1925, suicide by overdose of sleeping pills, as he is ill. He was a French university professor, mayor of Clermont-Ferrand (1973-1997), Ministre du Logement [22 May 1981 - 04 Oct 1983] under Prime Minister Pierre Mauroy [05 Jul 1928~], and senator (Socialist) of Puy-de-Dôme since 1974 who had resigned on 14 July 1998. His wife (married on 10 August 1948), Claire Quilliot [1926 – 11 Aug 2005], not wanting to live without him, attempts suicide at the same time, but is revived after a coma of several days. She would become a right-to-die activist and succeed 7 years later, taking an overdose and then drowning herself. Roger Quilliot was the author of 1956, La Mer et les prisons, avant de s’atteler à l’édition des oeuvres d’Albert Camus (La Pléiade, 1962-1965). Il a publié plusieurs livres consacrés au pouvoir municipal : Une écharpe de maire, en 1981, et Misères et grandeur des maires de France, en 1997. Il est aussi l’auteur de l’Homme sur le pavois (1976), écrit avec son épouse Claire, et d’essais de réflexion politique. Ainsi : La société de 1960 et l’avenir politique de la France (1960) et La liberté aux dimensions humaines (1967). Historiens et militants n’oublieront pas son monumental ouvrage, La SFIO et l’exercice du pouvoir 1944-1958 (1972), qui reste un ouvrage de référence sur la IVe République. and of
^ 1996 All 230 aboard as Flight 800 explodes off Long Island
      Shortly after takeoff from New York's Kennedy International Airport, a TWA Boeing 747 jetliner bound for Paris explodes over the Atlantic Ocean, killing all 230 people aboard. Flight 800 had just received clearance to initiate a climb to cruise altitude, when it exploded without warning. Because the plane was loaded with fuel for the long transatlantic journey, it vaporized within moments, creating a fireball seen almost all along the coastline of Long Island. The tragedy came just two days before the opening of the XXVI Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia, and many suspected terrorism. Suspicions of foul play seemed to be confirmed when a number of eyewitnesses reported that they had seen what appeared to be a missile shoot up toward the airlines in the instance before the explosion.
      The US Navy and the FBI, in conjunction with the National Safety Transportation Board, launched an extensive investigation of the incident, collecting the scattered wreckage of the aircraft out of the Atlantic and reconstructing the plane in utmost secrecy in a hanger. Despite continuing eyewitness reports, authorities did not come forward with any evidence of a missile or a bomb, and the investigation stretched on.
      When it was revealed that several US Navy vessels were training in the Long Island area on the night of the blast, some began to suspect that Flight 800 had been accidentally downed by a Navy test missile. US authorities promptly ruled out the possibly of an errant missile strike by the Navy, but a number of conspiracists, including former White House press secretary Pierre Salinger, continued to support the theory. The much-criticized Flight 800 investigation finally ended in late 1998, with investigators concluding that the explosion resulted from mechanical failure, not from a bomb or a missile.
1993 Adolf Andrei Pavlovich Yushkevich, Jewish Ukrainian historian of mathematics, born on 15 July 1906.
1986 Luis de Castresana, escritor español.
1984 Angela Wong, 11, murdered by drowning in a shallow creek in Massapequa, New York City suburb, by neighbor Manuel L. Pacheco, 15, whose sexual attempt she had refused. On 21 March 2002, Pacheco, then 33, would be arrested in Los Angeles for that murder.
1981 114 persons, as a pair of walkways above the lobby of the Kansas City Hyatt Regency Hotel collapses during a "tea dance."
1967 John Coltrane, une des 4 grandes figures (avec Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong et Charlie Parker), sans lesquelles le jazz eut poursuivi d’autres voies, entretenu d’autres chimères …. Il a apporté la richesse de l’invention créatrice, le foisonnement des thèmes et cette fameuse "fuite en avant" qui l’amène à de si longs et de si hallucinés "solos".
1959 Alfred James Munnings, English painter born on 08 October 1878.MORE ON MUNNINGS AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
^ 1947 Raoul Wallenberg, in a Soviet prison, rescuer of thousands of Jews from the Nazis
     Wallenberg, 34, dies in Lubyanka prison in Moscow, “of a heart attack”, according to one official Soviet version (under torture?). However some believe that he lived many more years in Soviet captivity.
   Born on 04 August 1912, Wallenberg was the Swedish businessman and diplomat who became a legendary figure through his efforts to rescue Hungarian Jews during World War II and through his disappearance while a prisoner in the Soviet Union.
      Wallenberg in 1936 became the foreign representative of a central European trading company, whose president was a Hungarian Jew. After the Nazis sent troops and SS units into Hungary in March 1944 to round up "subversives" and Jews, Wallenberg, with the help of US and Swedish Jewish and refugee organizations, persuaded the Swedish Foreign Ministry to send him to Budapest on a diplomatic passport (09 July 1944). There, several thousand Jews (diversely estimated at from 4000 to 35'000) were enlisted and sheltered by Wallenberg in "protected houses" flying the flags of Sweden and other neutral countries. (By this time, some 400'000 Hungarian Jews, including 90'000 from Budapest, had already been deported to the Nazi death camps.)
      Wallenberg also dogged the Germans at deportation trains and on "death marches," distributing food and clothing to the Jewish prisoners and trying to rescue some of them with papers and money for their passage out of the country. He was more than once threatened by Adolf Eichmann. Soon after Soviet troops reached Budapest, Wallenberg on 17 January 1945, reported to the occupying authority but was forthwith arrested for espionage — his money, radio, and dubious diplomatic status making him suspect. According to Swedish authorities, the Soviets later privately admitted that his arrest had been a mistake, during a confused period at war's end, but that their only information was that Wallenberg had died of a heart attack in a Moscow prison cell on 17 July 1947. There were a number of unconfirmed reports from freed Soviet prisoners, however, that he had since been seen alive in prison, notably in 1951, 1959, and 1975.
 
1946 Dragoljub "Draza" Mihailovic, 53, chetnik leader, executed by Tito regime, allegedly for treason (almost certainly false).
1944: 322 persons as a pair of ammunition ships explodes in Port Chicago, Calif.
1932 Joaquín Salvador Lavado "Quino", humorista argentino.
1928 General Alvaro Obregón, 48, president of Mexico, assassinated
1925 Carlos París, profesor de filosofía y escritor español.
1913 Roger Garaudy, filósofo y escritor francés.
1912 Henri Poincaré, 58, mathematician who can be said to have been the originator of algebraic topology and of the theory of analytic functions of several complex variables. He made this remark :"Science is built up with facts, as a house is with stones. But a collection of facts is no more a science than a heap of stones is a house." — La Science et l'hypothèse. — Henri Poincaré, born on 29 April 1854, was a French mathematician, theoretical astronomer, and philosopher of science who influenced cosmogony, relativity, and topology and was a gifted interpreter of science to a wide public.
1911 Rufino José Cuervo, filólogo y humanista colombiano.
1909 Pincus Marcius Simons, US artist born in 1867.
1903 James Abbott McNeill Whistler, US-born (on 14 July 1834) artist who lived mostly as an expatriate. — MORE ON WHISTLER AT ART “4” JULY 14 with links to images.
1895 Henri Pierre Picou, French artist born on 27 February 1824.
1885 Charles Thomas Stent [18 Oct 1807–], English dentist. —(090713)
1879 Maurycy Moses Gottlieb, Polish painter born on 12 (or between 21 and 28) February 1856. — more
1869 Hanno Rhomberg, German artist born in 1820.
1863 Jakob Ber Moise “Jacobber”, French artist born in 1786.
1836 William White, 88, US patriarch of the Episcopalians. First bishop of US Anglicanism, it was White who coined the name 'Protestant Episcopal' for the new denomination.
1834 Un centenar de religiosos, jesuitas, franciscanos, dominicos y mercedarios, asesinados cuando se asaltan varios conventos en Madrid ante la creencia popular fomentada por el gobierno anticlerical de que son responsables del envenenamiento de las aguas y de la epidemia de cólera. Las escenas se repiten en Madrid el 18 de Julio, en Reus el 22 de julio, y en Barcelona el 25 de julio con la quema de conventos y la muerte de 16 religiosos.
^ 1793 Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont, 24 ans, guillotinée
     Elle naquit le 27 Jul 1768 aux Champeaux, à la ferme du Ronceray, une maison de pays typique que son père avait achetée en 1765. Charlotte Corday était le quatrième enfant de petits nobles. Sa mère s'appelait Charlotte-Marie Gautier des Authieux et son père Jacques-François de Corday d'Armont. Il était l'arrière petit fils de Marie Corneille, soeur de Thomas et de Pierre Corneille, le dramaturge. Charlotte a été baptisée dans l'Eglise Saint-Saturnin de Lignerits, à côté des Champeaux, le lendemain de sa naissance.
      Elle a grandi au Manoir de Cauvigny et à la Ferme du Bois, pas très loin de l'endroit où elle est née. A l'âge de huit ans Charlotte fut placée chez son oncle, l'Abbé de Corday, qui à l'époque était le curé de Vicques. La famille s'est installée par la suite à Caen, où la mère de Charlotte décéda le 08 Apr 1782. Au printemps de cette même année, Charlotte fut admise, avec sa soeur Eléonore, à l'Abbaye aux Dames comme pensionnaire.
      En pleine Terreur, l'assassinat de Jean-Paul Marat, "l'Ami du Peuple", a fait de Charlotte Corday l'héroine de tout un peuple. Après son geste, elle a été immédiatement arrêtée et emprisonnée à la Conciergerie. Elle fut questionnée (torturée), jugée et exécutée sur moins de 3 jours. L'issue de son procès ne faisait aucun doute : elle était condamnée à mort. Le 17 juillet 1793, vers 19 heures, après avoir monté les marches de l'échafaud, elle a été guillotinée. L'exploit de Charlotte, L'Ange de l'Assassinat, est rentré dans la légende. Peu de personnages de la Révolution Française n'ont eu autant de gloire et de popularité à travers les siècles.
      Après la fermeture en 1791 de l'Abbaye aux Dames à Caen, Charlotte a vécu chez sa cousine, Madame Le Coustellier de Bretteville-Gouville, au 148 de la rue Saint-Jean. Le 09 Jul 1793, Charlotte quitta l'appartement de sa cousine et prit la diligence pour Paris. Elle descendit à l'Hôtel de Providence. Elle rédigea un long texte intitulé Adresse aux Français amis des lois et de la paix, qui expliquait le geste qu'elle allait commettre.
      Le 13 Jul 1793, à Paris, elle a demandé un rendez-vous à Marat à son domicile sis 30, rue des Cordeliers. Marat le lui a accordé; en disant qu'elle "avait des révélations à lui faire" sur un complot girondin et qu'il était à même de "rendre un grand service à la France", elle a réussi à obtenir une audience auprès de lui, en soirée. Il l'a reçue dans sa baignoire (il prenait des bains de moutarde pour une maladie de la peau). Il corrige des épreuves de son journal L'Ami du peuple. Charlotte a un couteau de table "à manche à bois brun à virole d'argent, acheté quarante sols au Palais-Royal". Alors que Marat lui demande les noms des conjurés, elle sort le couteau de son fichu rose et le lui plante dans la carotide. Marat hurle avant de mourir : "A moi, ma chère amie !"
     Trois jours plus tard, Charlotte Corday déclare devant le tribunal : "Je savais que Marat pervertissait la France. J'ai tué un homme pour en sauver cent mille, un scélérat pour sauver des innocents, une bête féroce pour donner le repos à mon pays."
      Au cours de la Révolution Française, Charlotte est devenue républicaine. Elle fut frappée par les exactions du Pouvoir contre les Girondins (la Proscription des Girondins — 02 Jun 1793), qui se réfugièrent à Caen. Charlotte ne croyait plus aux possibilités de l'instauration d'une République. Elle considérait que Jean-Paul Marat, qui réclamait de plus en plus de têtes chaque jour, était le grand responsable de tous les malheurs qui se sont abattus sur le peuple français. Marat était l'un des chefs les plus acharnés de la Révolution Française. Animé d'une pitié maladive devant les maux des petites gens, il n'en fut pas moins l'artisan de la chute des Girondins et l'instigateur des massacres de septembre.
Jean Paul Marat, one of the most outspoken leaders of the French Revolution, is stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday.
      Originally a doctor, Marat founded the journal L’Ami du Peuple in 1789, and its fiery criticism of those in power was a contributing factor to the bloody turn of the Revolution in 1792. In August of that year, with the arrest of the king, Marat was elected as a deputy of Paris to the Convention. In France’s revolutionary legislature, Marat opposed the Girondists; a faction made up of moderate republicans who advocated a constitutional government and continental war.
      In 1793, Charlotte Corday, the daughter of an impoverished aristocrat and an ally of the Girondists in Normandy, came to regard Marat as the unholy enemy of France, and plotted his assassination. Leaving her native Caen for Paris, she had planned to kill Marat at the Bastille Day parade on 14 July, but was forced to seek him out in his home when the festivities were cancelled. On 13 July, she gained an audience with Marat by promising to betray the Caen Girondists. Marat, who had a persistent skin disease, was working as usual in his bath. Charlotte Corday began giving him the names of alleged foes. Marat remarked, "We'll soon have them all guillotined in Paris!" then Corday pulled a knife from her bodice and stabbed him in his chest. He died almost immediately, and Corday waited calmly for the police to come and arrest her. Although Corday denied the existence of a conspiracy, many people refused to believe that a young woman would commit such a crime without being prompted and encouraged. She was guillotined four days after the murder.
Last letter of Charlotte Corday (to her father) (see photo of the handwritten letter):

pardonnez-moi, mon Cher papa, d'avoir disposé de mon existence
sans votre permission, j'ai vengé bien d'innocentes victimes, j'ai
prévenu bien d'autres désastres, le peuple un jour désabusé, se
réjouira d'être délivré d'un tyran. Si j'ai Cherché à vous persuadé
que je passais en angleterre Cesque jesperais garder lincognito, mais
j'en ai reconu l impossibilité. jespère que vous ne serez point tourmenté.
en tous Cas je Crois que vous auriez des defenseurs a Paris, j'ai pris
pour défenseur gustave Doulcet, un tel attentat ne permet nulle
defense Cest pour la forme, adieu mon Cher papa, je vous
prie de moublier ou plutôt de vous rejouir de mon sort la
Cause en est belle, j'embrasse ma soeur que j aime de tout
mon Coeur ainsi que tous mes parens, n oubliez pas Ce vers de
Corneille:
      le Crime fait la honte et non pas leC hafaud."

  C est demain a huit heures que lon me juge, Ce 16 juillet.
            Charlotte
^ 1791 Victimes de l'émeute du Champ-de-Mars
      Alors que des pétitionnaires qui veulent la déchéance du roi sont assemblés sur le Champ-de-Mars, A l’initiative du Club des Cordeliers, on découvre deux hommes cachés sous l'autel de la patrie où sont recueillies les signatures des pétitionnaires ; la foule égorge ces hommes que l'on croit être des royalistes. La Fayette qui commande la garde nationale est dépêché par l'Assemblée sur place. Un coup de feu part tout à coup.
      Le Marquis de La Fayette, chef de la Garde Nationale, héros populaire depuis son intervention dans la guerre d’indépendance Américaine, cet aristocrate partisan du peuple, fait donner sa Garde, et tirer sur les manifestants, aux Champs de mars. Bailly, maire de Paris, fait proclamer la loi martiale. Il envoie des troupes en renfort. Une fois encore, un coup de feu éclate. Les bataillons chargent. Lorsque la fumée se dissipe et que la poussière retombe, le sol est jonché de cadavres et de blessés.
      Selon les uns, il n'y a que quinze morts. Selon les autres, plus de cinquante. Reste que La Fayette est désormais honni par le peuple de Paris. Il perdra tout son crédit ainsi que son commandement par cet acte inconsidéré. Mais un nouveau drapeau que l'on n'a encore jamais vu apparaît en ce jour comme le signe de la révolte du peuple, le drapeau rouge. Au soir, un jeune soldat du bataillon de Saint-Nicolas écrit ces mots avant de se tirer une balle dans la tête : "J'ai juré de mourir libre, la liberté est perdue, je meurs". Mais la Révolution n’en sera guère affectée.
1790 Adam Smith, economista británico.
1790 Johann II Bernoulli, Basel Swiss lawyer, physicist, and mathematician, born on 28 May 1710, the best known of the three sons of Johann Bernoulli [27 Jul 1667 – 01 Jan 1748] and father of Johann III Bernoulli [04 Nov 1744 – 13 Jul 1809].
1762 Peter III Fyodorovich, Emperor of Russia, is killed in a brawl after his abdication and arrest. His wife, Catherine II, takes the throne.
1747 Jacques Ignatius de Roore, Flemish artist born on 20 July 1686.
1686 Nicolas-Claes-Franszoon Hals, Dutch artist born on 25 July 1628.
1632 Hendrik van Balen I, Dutch painter born in 1575. — MORE ON VAN BALEN AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
^ 1566 Bartolomé de Las Casas, 91 ans, à Madrid
     Il fut le plus célèbre défenseur de ces Indiens en qui n’avaient vu ses contemporains que des "animaux supérieurs" lors de la conquête du Nouveau Monde par les Espagnols et les Portugais. Les multiples activités de Bartolomé de Las Casas, l’abondance de ses écrits et, surtout, les controverses passionnées qu’il suscite depuis si longtemps font que son personnage est plus illustre que compris. Il n’est pas le pamphlétaire isolé qu’on a si souvent exalté ou dénigré : ses écrits et son action sont inséparables de la réflexion théologique de l’ordre dominicain tout entier et d’une conscience précise des réalités politiques de son temps. Ce qui lui appartient en propre, c’est une extraordinaire éloquence, au service d’une passion sans défaillance pour la justice et la vérité.
      Bartolomé de Las Casas est né en août (ou 11 Nov?) 1474 à Séville, d’une famille de marchands (peut-être des conversos, ou juifs convertis) en relation avec les Colomb. Son père prit part au deuxième voyage du découvreur. Bartolomé lui-même, qui avait reçu les ordres mineurs, partit chercher fortune à Hispaniola (futur Haïti) en 1502. Il y reçut une encomienda ou repartimiento , c’est-à-dire le droit d’utiliser le travail d’un groupe d’Indiens pour exploiter des terres ou des mines. Ordonné prêtre en 1512 (ou 1510?) — son ordination fut la première célébrée au Nouveau Monde — il continua à Cuba ses activités d’encomendero. Il ne mit donc pas en doute pendant dix ans la légitimité du système de l’encomienda sur lequel reposait l’économie des îles.
      De son propre aveu, il resta insensible aux efforts des religieux dominicains, qui, depuis 1510, dénonçaient avec véhémence les excès des encomenderos (sermon de Fray Antonio de Montesinos, 1511) et avaient obtenu du roi, avec les lois de Burgos (1512), une première législation pour protéger les Indiens. En même temps, des théologiens examinaient les titres de la Couronne à la possession des Indes et tentaient de codifier la doctrine de la " Juste guerre " (rédaction du Requerimiento, 1513). C’est à cette époque que se produisit la "conversion" de Las Casas. Il a lui-même raconté comment il prit conscience, en préparant un sermon pour la Pentecôte de 1514, du fait que "tout ce qui se commettait aux Indes vis-à-vis des Indiens était injuste et tyrannique". Il renonça aussitôt à son repartimiento et commença à prêcher contre l’encomienda, au grand scandale des colons.
      En 1515, il s’embarqua pour l’Espagne où il voulait agir auprès du roi, avec l’appui des dominicains d’Hispaniola. Pour convaincre les puissants et surmonter l’opposition des colons, Las Casas tenta de concilier ses projets de réforme en faveur des Indiens et les profits que les Espagnols attendaient de l’exploitation des Indes. Il présenta aux cardinaux Cisneros et Adrien d’Utrecht, régents du royaume, des plans de mise en valeur des Antilles qui prévoyaient le remplacement de l’encomienda par une association entre laboureurs castillans et Indiens. Pour arrêter le dépeuplement d’Hispaniola — les indigènes, un million peut-être en 1492, n’étaient plus que quelques milliers en 1510 –, il proposa de substituer aux travailleurs indiens des esclaves africains: mais il n’est pas l’initiateur de la traite négrière, pratique déjà ancienne acceptée par les chrétiens de l’époque. Il ne comprit que plus tard l’iniquité de l’esclavage des Noirs et s’accusa hautement de son aveuglement passé.
      De retour à Hispaniola avec le titre de procureur des Indiens, Las Casas ne put obtenir des religieux hiéronymites chargés d’enquêter sur place la condamnation formelle de l’encomienda. En 1517, en Espagne, il agit efficacement auprès de l’entourage flamand du roi Charles (Quint) contre l’influence malfaisante de l’évêque Fonseca dans les affaires des Indes. À Barcelone, il soutient avec éclat, dans une controverse publique, la thèse de la liberté naturelle des Indiens. Afin de démontrer par l’exemple la possibilité d’une évangélisation pacifique de l’Amérique, il se fit confier, par contrat (capitulaciones) avec la Couronne, la colonisation de la côte de Cumana (au nord du Venezuela), où il devait établir des laboureurs castillans (1520). L’opposition des colons, l’hostilité des Indiens Caribes et les propres erreurs de Las Casas sur le terrain firent que l’entreprise s’acheva en désastre.
      Il vit dans son échec la condamnation divine des concessions qu’il avait faites jusqu’alors aux intérêts du siècle et, après une grave crise de conscience, il prit à Saint-Domingue l’habit dominicain. Cette "seconde conversion" de Las Casas l’éloignait provisoirement du monde, mais non de sa mission, qu’il conçut de façon encore plus radicale. Cette retraite de dix ans (1522-1531) lui permit d’acquérir la formation théologique qui lui manquait et de se préparer aux grandes polémiques doctrinales. Il commença aussi à rédiger ses grands ouvrages: l’Historia de las Indias; (pour laquelle il disposa des papiers de Colomb) ; l’Apologetica Historia, défense des civilisations indigènes et un " Traité théorique de l’évangélisation pacifique ". Cependant, la conquête des grands empires du Mexique et du Pérou (1519-1534) avait entraîné, avec de multiples violences, l’extension de l’encomienda à des peuples entiers. Las Casas sortit de sa retraite pour participer au débat toujours renaissant sur l’évangélisation et la politique de la Couronne envers les Indiens.
      En 1539, il revint en Espagne. Son influence et celle de théologiens amis inspirèrent à Charles Quint les "Nouvelles Lois" de 1542 qui prévoyaient, avec l’interdiction de l’esclavage des Indiens, la suppression progressive des encomiendas. Las Casas eût voulu davantage, mais la promulgation des Leyes nuevas ; souleva dans toute l’Amérique la furieuse opposition des colons, qui alla au Pérou, jusqu’à la révolte armée contre le pouvoir royal. Las Casas avait accepté l’évêché du Chiapas, afin de soutenir l’apostolat des dominicains dans le Tezulutlan voisin, devenu "Terre de la Vraie Paix" (Vera Paz).
      Dès son arrivée aux Indes (espagnoles, c. à d. les Amériques), en 1545, il se heurta violemment aux autorités locales et à ses ouailles espagnoles, dont il exigeait l’application rigoureuse des Leyes nuevas ; en leur refusant les sacrements. L’hostilité unanime des colons et la révolte du Pérou amenèrent Charles Quint à renoncer à la suppression des encomiendas. Après des incidents dramatiques, Las Casas avait quitté son diocèse, pour prendre part au concile provincial de Mexico, dont il inspira les résolutions les plus radicales pour la protection des Indiens.
      Après son retour définitif en Espagne (1547), il se consacra à la rédaction de traités doctrinaux et à l’action politique. Un grand débat sur le problème crucial de la légitimité des guerres de conquête l’opposa au docteur Sepúlveda, qui soutenait que la barbarie des Indiens en faisait les " esclaves par nature " des nations civilisées : à cette théorie d’origine aristotélicienne, Las Casas répondit dans son Apologia, en affirmant sa thèse de la liberté naturelle de tous les hommes. La controverse n’aboutit à aucune décision officielle, mais les idées de Las Casas inspirèrent la législation postérieure, souvent mal appliquée, il est vrai .       En même temps, pour frapper l’opinion, il fit imprimer à Séville, sans licence, une série de traités polémiques, dont la Brevísima Relación de la destrucción de las Indias, promise à une immense diffusion en Europe, et il reprit la rédaction de l’Historia de las Indias. Las Casas mourut à Madrid, le 18 juillet 1566. "Le cierge en main et sur le point de quitter ce monde, il demandait encore à tous de continuer à défendre les Indiens et s’accusait de ne point avoir assez fait pour eux "
      La destinée posthume de Las Casas n’est pas moins agitée que sa vie. Les ennemis de l’Espagne trouvèrent dans son œuvre des armes contre la colonisation du Nouveau Monde par les Ibériques. L’historiographie nationaliste espagnole a accusé Las Casas, dès le XVIe siècle, d’avoir calomnié sa patrie et voit en lui le créateur de la légende noire antihispanique. Pour certains, Las Casas n’est qu’un paranoïaque dont le témoignage n’a aucune valeur ! Thèse partiale et mal fondée aisément réfutée. La légende noire a bien d’autres sources que l’œuvre de Las Casas, et les excès que dénonce ce dernier ne correspondent que trop bien aux réalités souvent sinistres de la conquête du Nouveau Monde. C’est l’honneur de l’Espagne que l’exigence de justice de Las Casas, qui heurtait tant d’intérêts et de préjugés, n’y soit jamais restée sans écho.
— According to www.Catholic-Hierarchy.org, Bartolomé de las Casas was born on 11 Nov 1474 in Sevilla, Spain; was ordained Priest Priest of “Foreign Diocese” in 1510, in 1523 became a priest of the Order of Friars Preachers, on 19 Dec 1543 was appointed Bishop of Chiapas (Ciudad Real de Chiapas), México; on 30 Mar 1544 was consecrated a bishop; on 11 Sep 1550 resigned; and on 31 Jul 1566 died.
[Citas breves]
1497 Benedetto Ghirlandaio, Florentine painter born in 1458. — a bit more with link to an image.
1321 María de Molina, reina de Castilla.
0855 Saint Leo IV, Pope .
 
< 16 Jul 18 Jul >
^  Births which occurred on a 17 July:
2002 Joel Michael Blood, by caesarean section to Diane Blood. The father, Stephen Blood, died of meningitis in 1995 at age 30, but not before sperm was taken from him while comatose, which has already given him a first posthumous son, Liam, in 1998.
^ 1955 Disneyland
      Walt Disney's amusement metropolis of sugar-coated history, fantasy, and futurism, opens. It covers 65 hectares of Anaheim, California, and cost seventeen million dollars to build. Staggering profits would lead to the opening of Disneyworld in Florida in 1971, which was built with an enormous budget of $400 million. Disneyworld and its sister-park Epcot account for almost half of Florida's tourist trade.
     The $17 million theme park was built on 65 hectares of former orange groves in Anaheim, California, and soon brought in staggering profits. Today, Disneyland hosts more than 14 million visitors a year, who spend close to $3 billion. Walt Disney, born in Chicago in 1901, worked as a commercial artist before setting up a small studio in Los Angeles to produce animated cartoons. In 1928, his short film Steamboat Willy, starring the character "Mickey Mouse," was a national sensation. It was the first animated film to use sound, and Disney provided the voice for Mickey. From there on, Disney cartoons were in heavy demand, but the company struggled financially because of Disney's insistence on ever-improving artistic and technical quality. His first feature-length cartoon, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1938), took three years to complete and was a great commercial success. Snow White was followed by other feature-length classics for children, such as Pinocchio (1940), Dumbo (1941), and Bambi (1942). Fantasia (1940), which coordinated animated segments with famous classical music pieces, was an artistic and technical achievement. In Song of the South (1946), Disney combined live actors with animated figures, and beginning with Treasure Island in 1950 the company added live-action movies to its repertoire.
      Disney was also one of the first movie studios to produce film directly for television, and its Zorro and Davy Crockett series were very popular with children. In the early 1950s, Walt Disney began designing a huge amusement park to be built near Los Angeles. He intended Disneyland to have educational as well as amusement value and to entertain adults and their children. Land was bought in the farming community of Anaheim, about 25 miles southeast of Los Angeles, and construction began in 1954.
      In the summer of 1955, special invitations were sent out for the opening of Disneyland on 17 July. Unfortunately, the pass was counterfeited and thousands of uninvited people were admitted into Disneyland on opening day. The park was not ready for the public: food and drink ran out, a women's high-heel shoe got stuck in the wet asphalt of Main Street USA, and the Mark Twain Steamboat nearly capsized from too many passengers. Disneyland soon recovered, however, and attractions such as the Castle, Mr. Toad's Wild Ride, Snow White's Adventures, Space Station X-1, Jungle Cruise, and Stage Coach drew countless children and their parents. Special events and the continual building of new state-of-the-art attractions encouraged them to visit again. In 1965, work began on an even bigger Disney theme park and resort near Orlando, Florida. Walt Disney died in 1966, and Walt Disney World was opened in his honor on 01 October 1971. Epcot Center, Disney-MGM Studios, and Animal Kingdom were later added to Walt Disney World, and it remains Florida's premier tourist attraction. In 1983, Disneyland Tokyo opened in Japan, and in 1992 Disneyland Paris — or "EuroDisney" — opened to a mixed reaction in Marne-la-Vallée. A Hong Kong Disneyland is scheduled to open in 2003.
1943 Joseph Nanven Garba, Nigerian officer, pro-democracy coup plotter (29 Jul 1975), diplomat, who died on 01 June 2002. Author of Diplomatic Soldiering (1987).
1912 Michael Francis Gilbert, English author and lawyer who died on 08 February 2006. In 1947 he married, joined the London law firm of Trower Still & Keeling (he became a partner in 1952) and published Close Quarters, his first of many detective stories, police procedural novels, espionage thrillers, puzzle mysteries, and crime-based plays for stage, radio and television. His last book was the short story collection The Curious Conspiracy and Other Crimes (2002). — (060217)
1909 Arthur Geoffrey Walker, English mathematician who died on 31 March 2001. He worked on differential geometry, relativity, and cosmology.
^ 1889 Erle Stanley Gardner, creator of crime-solving attorney Perry Mason, in Madlen, Massachusetts.
      Gardner attended college in Indiana but dropped out and moved to Southern California. He worked as a typist in a law firm for three years, then became an attorney himself. As a trial lawyer in Ventura, he started turning his law practice experience into short stories, which he successfully submitted to pulp magazines. His stories included detailed descriptions of court and the antics of trial attorneys, based on his own experience.
      In 1933, Erle Stanley Gardner created his alter ego, Perry Mason, the hero of two stories published that year, The Case of the Velvet Claws and The Case of the Sultry Girl. Soon after, he quit law to write full time and completed more than 80 Perry Mason novels, as well as writing two other detective series. Perry Mason became a radio serial in 1943. The series, part crime show, part soap opera, ran until 1955. Perry Mason then moved to television in 1957 and starred Raymond Burr; the soap opera portion of the radio series was spun off into a series, The Edge of Night, which ran on daytime television until 1984. Perry Mason ran on television until 1966 and was later revived as a series of TV movies from 1985 to 1993.
SELECTED WORKS:
The Case of the Crimson Kiss (1948), The Case of the Irate Witness (1953), The Case of the Shoplifter's Shoe (1938), The Bigger They Come (1939), The D.A. Draws a Circle (1939), The Case of the Baited Hook (1940), The Case of the Empty Tin (1941), The D.A. Cooks a Goose (1941 - 1942), Owls Don't Blink (1942), Bats Fly at Dusk (1942), The Case of the Careless Kitten (1942), The Case of the Borrowed Brunette (1946), Crows Can't Count (1946), The Case of the Hesitant Hostess (1953), The Case of the Glamorous Ghost (1955).
Dead Men's Letters: Dead Men's Letters (1926), Laugh That Off (1926), The Cat Woman (1926).
Uncollected Ed Jenkins, the Phantom Crook stories: Hell's Kettle (1930)
The Adventures of Paul Pry: The Racket Buster (1930) The Daisy-Pusher (1930) A Double Deal in Diamonds (1931) Hell's Danger Signal (1932) Dressed to Kill (1933)
The Amazing Adventures of Lester Leith: In Round Figures (1930) The Bird In The Hand (1932) Lester Leith, Magician (1939) A Thousand To One (1939) The Exact Opposite (1941)
Honest Money: The Top Comes Off (1932) Close Call (1933) Making the Breaks (1933)
The Patent Leather Kid stories The Kid Clips a Coupon (1934)
Pete Wennick stories Leg Man (1938)
Jerry Bane stories The Affair of the Reluctant Witness (1949)
Uncollected Gardner stories The House of Three Candles (1938) Flight into Disaster (1952)
1888 Shmuel Y. Agnon Israel, novelist (Day Before Yesterday — Nobel 1966)
1871 Lyonel Charles Adrian Feininger, US Cubist and Expressionist painter whose paintings and teaching activities at the Bauhaus brought a new compositional discipline and lyrical use of color into the predominantly Expressionistic art of Germany. He died on 13 January 1956. — MORE ON FEININGER AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
1863 Herbert William Richmond, English mathematician who died on 22 April 1948.
1849 Emmerich Alexius Swoboda von Wikingen, Austrian artist who died on 26 January 1914.
1841 Punch, British humor magazine, in first published [sample cartoons]
1837 Wilhelm Lexis, German mathematician who studied data presented as a series over time thus initiating the study of time series. He died on 25 October 1914.
1831 Victor-Mayer-Amédée Mannheim, French mathematician who died on 11 December 1906. He standardized the modern slide rule.
1817 Frederik Marianus Kruseman, Dutch artist who died in 1882.
1797 Hippolyte “Paul” Delaroche, French Academic painter who died on 04 November 1856. MORE ON DELAROCHE AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
1766 José Joaquín Camacho Lago, político y periodista colombiano.
1763 John Jacob Astor Germany, would become the richest man in US, banker/fur trader — Juan Jacobo Astor, comerciante de origen alemán creador de una dinastía de millonarios estadounidenses.
1718 Nicolas Desportes, French artist who died on 26 September 1787.
1693 Gerard Melder, Dutch artist who died in 1754.
1487 Isma'il I, shah (from 1501 to his 23 May 1524 death) who converted Iran from Sunni to Shi'ah, resulting in more than a century of festering conflict between the Shi'i empire he founded and the Sunni Ottomans in the west and the Sunni Uzbek tribes in the east.
 
Holidays Iraq : Revolution Day/National Day (1968) / Korea : Constitution Day / Puerto Rico : Muñoz Rivera Day (1859) / South Korea : Constitution Day (1948) / Mexico : Day of National Mourning (Alvaro Obregón, Benito Juárez)

Religious Observances RC : St Alexius, confessor (late 4th cen) / Luth(???) : Bartolomé de Las Casas, RC missionary / Ang : William White, bishop of Pennsylvania / Santos Alejo, Jacinto, León IV, Teodosio y Generoso; Santas Donata, Carolina, Marcelina y Constancia.
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Thoughts for the day:
“Lost interest? It`s so bad I`ve lost apathy.”
“Lost interest? It`s so bad I`ve lost the capital too.”
"All styles are good except the tiresome sort."
— “Voltaire” [21 Nov 1694 – 30 May 1778].
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updated Monday 13-Jul-2009 22:07 UT
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