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^  On a 16 July:
2002 A.P.J. Abdul Kalam is elected India's (ceremonial) President by 4386 of the votes cast by 4896 members of the national Parliament and the state legislatures. Missile scientist Kalam advocates nuclear weapons as a war deterrent.
1999 The Vatican publishes (in Latin) the 4th edition of Enchiridion Indulgentiarum, which explains and lists the pious means of obtaining indulgences, which purge the soul of remnants of forgiven sins, which otherwise would make it impossible to enjoy Heaven unless purged, much more painfully, by acts of heroic virtue in this life, or by the severe pains of Purgatory in the next. —(080216)
^ 1998 Medicare fraud        
      A dark and costly day for the Health Care Services Corporation, as the giant Medicare subsidiary agrees to settle a pack of felony charges by paying the federal government roughly $140 million. The Medicare carrier for both Illinois and Michigan, Health Care Services had been charged with eight different counts of felony, including the mishandling, and even shredding, of claims, and various attempts to manipulate and obscure evidence. On top of the hefty civil settlement, the Medicare giant also copped to charges that it had blocked government attempts to audit company records; the price tag for this confession was a mere $4 million. In the wake of these settlements, the government pledged to keep a close watch on Health Care Services and even locked the company into a "strict corporate integrity agreement."
1998 Spam damages awarded. Newspapers reported that a Seattle man collected $200 under Washington's anti-spam law, which bans unsolicited e-mail that disguises its source. The man was the first person to collect damages under the law.
1996 US President Clinton told the National Governors Association he was granting states new powers to deny benefits to recipients who refuse to move from welfare to work.
1996 Russian President Boris Yeltsin met a day late with US Vice President Al Gore, easing some of the concerns about his fragile health.
^ 1992 Ken Olsen, founder of DEC, resigns        
      Ken Olsen, founder and president of Digital Equipment Corporation, astounds the computer industry by announcing his resignation. Olsen started Digital in 1957 in an old textile mill, backed by $70'000 from George Doriot, who started the first non family-owned venture capital firm in the United States. The company developed minicomputers, which were smaller and easier to use than mainframes. By the 1970s, Digital ranked behind IBM as the world's second-largest computer company. However, by the early 1990s, the company had fallen on hard times, and Olsen was beset by criticism. The company continued to struggle until 1998 when it was purchased by Compaq.
1991 Leaders of the Group of Seven nations holding their economic summit in London issued a communique calling for a "new spirit of cooperation" in the international community.
1980 Ronald Reagan is nominated for President by Republicans in Detroit.
^ 1973 US Senate learns about Nixon tapes        
     Former White House aide Alexander P. Butterfield tells the Senate select Watergate committee that President Nixon has been routinely taping all his conversations and meetings in the Oval Office and cabinet room of the White House, in his Executive Office Building office and on four of his personal telephones
      Butterfield, now the Federal Aviation Administration administrator, testifies that the tape recording began in the spring of 1971 and was intended "to record things for posterity, for the Nixon library." Most participants in conversations with the President did not know they were being taped, Butterfield says, because only a few members of the White House inner circle were told about the several hidden recording devices.
^ 1969 Apollo 11 departs from Earth      
      At 09:32 EDT, Apollo 11, the first US lunar landing mission, is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a historic journey to the surface of the moon. Eight years before, speaking before a joint session of Congress, President John F. Kennedy had made a famous appeal to Congress and America. "I believe this nation," Kennedy said, "should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth." At the time, the United States was still trailing the Soviet Union in space developments, and Cold War-era America welcomed Kennedy's bold proposal.
      In 1966, after five years of work by an international team of scientists and engineers, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted the first unmanned Apollo mission, testing the structural integrity of the proposed launch vehicle and spacecraft combination. Then, on 27 January 1967, tragedy struck when a fire broke out during a manned launch pad test of the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn rocket. Three astronauts were killed in the fire. Despite the setback, NASA and its thousands of employees forged ahead, and in October of 1968, Apollo 7, the first manned Apollo mission, orbited earth and successfully tested many of the sophisticated systems needed to conduct a moon journey and landing.
      In December of the same year, Apollo 8 took three astronauts to the dark side of the moon and back, and in March of 1969, Apollo 9 tested the lunar module for the first time while in earth orbit. Then in May, the three astronauts of Apollo 10 took the first complete Apollo spacecraft around the moon in a dry run for the scheduled July landing mission.
      On 16 July 1969, with the world watching, Apollo 11 takes off from Kennedy Space Center with astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, Jr., and Michael Collins aboard. After traveling nearly 400'000 km in seventy-six hours, Apollo 11 entered into a lunar orbit on 19 July. The next day, at 1:46 p.m., the lunar module Eagle, manned by Armstrong and Aldrin separated from the command module, where Collins remained. Two hours later, the Eagle began its descent to the lunar surface, and at 16:18 p.m. the craft touched down on the southwestern edge of the Sea of Tranquility. Armstrong immediately radioed to Mission Control in Houston, Texas, a famous message, "The Eagle has landed."
      At 22:39, five hours ahead of the original schedule, Armstrong opened the hatch of the lunar module. Seventeen minutes later, at 22:56, Armstrong spoke the following words to millions listening at home: "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." A moment later, he stepped of the lunar module's ladder, becoming the first human to walk on the surface of the moon. "Buzz" Aldrin joined him on the moon's surface at 23:11, and together they took photographs of the terrain, planted a US flag, ran a few simple scientific tests, and spoke with President Richard M. Nixon via Houston.
      By 01:11 on 21 July both astronauts were back in the lunar module and the hatch was closed. The two men slept that night on the surface of the moon, and at 13:54 the Eagle began its ascent back to the command module. Among the items left on the surface of the moon was a plaque that read: "Here men from the planet Earth first set foot on the Moon — July 1969 A.D — We came in peace for all mankind." At 17:35, Armstrong and Aldrin successfully docked and rejoined Collins and at 00:56 on 22 July, Apollo 11 began its journey home, safely splashing down in the Pacific Ocean at 12:51 on 24 July.
      There would be five more successful lunar landing missions, and one unplanned lunar flyby, Apollo 13. The last men to walk on the moon, astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt of the Apollo 17 mission, left the lunar surface on 14 December 1972.
1964 In accepting the Republican presidential nomination in San Francisco, Barry M. Goldwater says: “extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice” and: “moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue.”
1957 Marine Major John Glenn sets transcontinental speed record (03:28:08)
1956 Last Ringling Bros, Barnum & Bailey Circus under a canvas tent
^ 1951 Le roi Léopold III de Belgique, 49 ans, abdique en faveur de son fils Baudouin, 20 ans.        
      Déjà en 1950, le roi Léopold III, très controversé du côté francophone pour son attitude pendant la guerre, éloignement du sol belge, remariage peu accepté avec la "nurse de ses jeunes enfants privés accidentellement d’une mère adorée", avait fait voter une loi attribuant ses prérogatives royales à son fils Baudouin. Léopold, Roi des Belges de 1934 à 1951, fils du roi Albert Ier, accomplit une partie de ses études au collège d’Eton en Angleterre. Il effectue ensuite de nombreux voyages en Amérique, en Afrique et en Asie. Il monte sur le trône le 17 Feb 1934, à la suite du décès accidentel de son père.
      L’année suivante, il perd son épouse, Astrid de Suède (dont l’immense popularité l’a rendue légendaire), dans un accident de voiture en Suisse le 29 août 1935. De leur mariage, le 10 novembre 1926, étaient nés trois enfants : le 11 octobre 1927 Joséphine-Charlotte, épouse du grand-duc Jean de Luxembourg, le 07 septembre 1930 Baudouin Ier, qui régna de 1951 à 1993, et le 6 juin 1934 Albert II, qui lui succéda sur le trône.
      En politique étrangère le but principal de Léopold III est de maintenir avant tout la neutralité de la Belgique, selon son serment constitutionnel. C’est ainsi qu’il s’oppose à la prolongation de la ligne Maginot jusqu’à Dunkerque, selon sa déclaration du 14 octobre 1936.
      En mai 1940, il prend la direction des opérations contre l’invasion allemande; mais, devant l’ampleur des forces ennemies et en tant que commandant suprême de l’armée, il signe la capitulation sans conditions, contre l’avis du président du Conseil, Pierlot, et de l’ensemble des ministres, et sans prévenir le commandement allié. Il est interné à Laeken et le ministère Pierlot continue la résistance à Londres. En novembre 1940, le roi entreprend une démarche auprès du Führer, à Berchtesgaden, en vue de libérer les prisonniers.
      En octobre 1941, il épouse Liliane Baels, fille de l’ancien ministre et gouverneur de la Flandre-Occidentale, qui, par son mariage, devient princesse de Réthy. Cette union posera des problèmes sur les plans constitutionnel, juridique et sentimental, les Belges ne pardonnant pas à leur souverain d’avoir oublié sa première femme pour cette "intrigante". Le 07 Jun 1944, le roi est déporté en Allemagne avec sa famille, et son frère Charles est nommé régent de Belgique.
      L’attitude du souverain pendant la guerre donne naissance à une longue controverse, la "question royale", une partie de l’opinion reprochant au souverain d’avoir capitulé en 1940 et même favorisé la collaboration. Cette question passionnera l’opinion publique belge et étrangère après la guerre ; elle n’est pas sans rapport avec la question Pétain en France.
      Après la libération de la Belgique par les Alliés, le gouvernement Van Acker, à la suite d’une campagne menée par la gauche, s’oppose au retour du roi. Le roi se retire en Suisse et la régence de Charles est prolongée. Le parti catholique veut le retour du roi et, aux élections de 1949, auxquelles les femmes participent pour la première fois, le gouvernement Eyskens accepte un projet de référendum. Les socialistes, dirigés par Spaak, exigent 66 % des voix. Le 12 mars 1950, à la suite d’un plébiscite sur la "question royale", la reprise des pouvoirs par le roi est acceptée à 57,68 % des voix. Aux élections de juin 1950, le Parti social-chrétien obtient la majorité absolue et le Premier ministre Duvieusart veut le retour du souverain.
      Le roi rentre le 22 Jul 1950. Mais une vague de grèves et de manifestations violentes se déclenche, offensive des gauches et de la Wallonie. Face à la menace d’une marche sur Bruxelles, le 1er août 1950, Léopold III fait voter une loi attribuant ses prérogatives royales à son fils Baudouin, 19 ans. Il abdique en sa faveur le 16 juillet 1951. Désormais, il se tient à l’écart de la politique et il quitte le château de Laeken en 1959, sa présence, interprétée comme le maintien d’une tutelle sur le roi son fils, risquant de provoquer un mouvement d’hostilité contre la dynastie. Il se consacre alors à des voyages et à des études scientifiques en Amérique du Sud et en Afrique. Il meurt le 25 septembre 1983 à Bruxelles. Baudoin règnera jusqu'à sa mort le 31 juillet 1993, quand lui succèdera son frère Albert II, 59 ans.
1946 Son condenados a pena de muerte los 43 miembros de las SS acusados de haber fusilado a prisiones de guerra de estadounidenses durante la ofensiva de las Ardenas.
^ 1945 Première explosion nucléaire, dans le cadre du “Manhattan Project”      
      Ce nom de Manhattan Project désigne le premier programme américain de réalisations scientifique et technique destinées à la fabrication de bombes atomiques à uranium 235 et à plutonium, élaboré par les autorités américaines en 1943. Les travaux entrepris, qui mobilisèrent un grand nombre de savants de différents pays, constituent un phénomène unique dans l’histoire des sciences. Toute l’histoire du Manhattan Project débute le 02 Aug 1939 par une lettre d’Albert Einstein adressée au président Roosevelt lui expliquant l’intérêt du phénomène de fission de l’uranium récemment découvert en Allemagne par O. Hahn et F. Strassmann, et son application possible à la fabrication d’une bombe atomique.
      Le Comité consultatif pour l’uranium, créé alors par Franklin D. Roosevelt et présidé par L. J. Briggs, directeur du National Bureau of Standards, comprend plusieurs savants, parmi lesquels E. Fermi, L. Szilard et E. Wigner; dans un mémorandum, le Comité demande au gouvernement des États-Unis la somme de 100'000 dollars pour faire démarrer le projet (14 Aug 1940). Mais, à partir de 1941, les militaires décident de passer du stade expérimental à la réalisation industrielle. C’est le Manhattan Project, placé sous l’autorité du général L. R. Groves qui dispose de pouvoirs et de crédits pratiquement illimités. Deux villes laboratoires sont construites dans l’État du Tennessee, à Clinton et à Oak Ridge, où les savants les plus éminents d’Europe et des Etats-Unis travaillent dans le plus grand secret, totalement isolés du reste du monde.
      Une pile atomique de 1000 kilowatts, refroidie à l’air, commence à fonctionner en novembre 1943 ; un mois plus tard, la première fournée d’uranium est dirigée vers les usines de séparation, et, en mars 1944, des quantités de plutonium de l’ordre du gramme sont obtenues. Surmontant ses hésitations, le général Groves décide de passer au stade industriel et des piles refroidies à l’eau sont installées à Hanford (Washington) tandis qu’un nouveau laboratoire est créé à Los Alamos (Nouveau-Mexique) en mars 1943, sous la direction du jeune et brillant physicien Robert Oppenheimer, alors âgé de trente-huit ans, secondé par quatre lauréats du prix Nobel (N. Bohr, J. Chadwick, E. Fermi et I. Rabi) et par une équipe de physiciens unique dans les annales de la science, travaillant dans le laboratoire le mieux équipé du monde (2 milliards de dollars y sont dépensés).
      En deux ans, les innombrables problèmes scientifiques et techniques sont résolus, et la première explosion expérimentale a lieu le 16 juillet 1945, au sommet d’une tour de la base aérienne d’Alamogordo, télécommandée à 17 kilomètres de distance. Moins d’une minute plus tard, l’onde de choc parvient aux observateurs tandis qu’un nuage champignon s’élève à 13 kilomètres d’altitude. Trois semaines plus tard, c’est l’explosion de la bombe de Hiroshima (matinée du 06 Aug 1945) : on dénombre 78'150 morts, 13'983 disparus, 9428 blessés graves, 27'957 blessés légers et de 62'000 à 90'000 maisons détruites. Ensuite c’est Nagasaki (09 Aug 1945) puis la paix ; la guerre froide lui succède et la menace nucléaire pèse sur l’humanité tout entière. Le 01 janvier 1947, le Manhattan Engineer District du 13 Aug 1942 est remplacé par la Commission américaine à l’énergie atomique (A.E.C.).
"Trinity", the first atomic bomb test is successful. At 05:29:45, the Manhattan Project comes to an end as the first atom bomb is secretly tested in Alamogordo, New Mexico.
      Plans for the creation of a uranium bomb by the Allies were established as early as 1939, when Italian émigré physicist Enrico Fermi met with US Navy department officials at Columbia University to discuss the use of fissionable materials for military purposes. That same year, Albert Einstein wrote to President Franklin Roosevelt supporting the theory that an uncontrolled nuclear chain reaction had great potential as a basis for a weapon of mass destruction.
      In February 1940, the federal government granted a total of $6000 for that research. But in early 1942, with the United States now at war with the Axis powers, and fear mounting that Germany was working on its own uranium bomb, the War Department took a more active interest, and limits on resources for the project were removed. Brigadier-General Leslie R. Groves, himself an engineer, was now in complete charge of a project to assemble the greatest minds in science and discover how to harness the power of the atom as a means of bringing the war to a decisive end.
      The Manhattan Project (so-called because of where the research began) would wind its way through many locations during the early period of theoretical exploration, most importantly, the University of Chicago, where Enrico Fermi successfully set off the first fission chain reaction. But the Project took final form in the desert of New Mexico, where, in 1943, Robert J. Oppenheimer began directing Project Y at a laboratory at Los Alamos, along with such minds as Hans Bethe, Edward Teller, and Fermi.
      Here theory and practice came together, as the problems of achieving critical mass-a nuclear explosion-and the construction of a deliverable bomb were worked out. Finally, on the morning of 16 July at the Alamogordo air base, 190 km south of Santa Fe, the first atomic bomb is detonated. The scientists and a few dignitaries have removed themselves 9 km away to observe as the first mushroom cloud of searing light stretches 12'000 m into the air and generate the destructive power of 15'000 to 20'000 tons of TNT. The tower on which the bomb sat when detonated is vaporized. The question now becomes — on whom is the bomb to be dropped? Germany was the original target, but the Germans have already surrendered. The only belligerent remaining is Japan. A footnote: The original $6000 budget for the Manhattan Project finally ballooned to a total cost of $2 billion.
      The detonation of the deadly new weapon would not be made public until three weeks later, when two others like it devastate the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
1944 Soviet troops occupy Vilna, Lithuania, in their drive towards Germany.
^ 1942 Rafle du Vel'd'Hiv.      
           Au petit matin, à Paris, les autobus sont réquisitionnés. Les détachements de la police parisienne commencent de frapper aux portes des Juifs qui ont été contraints au port de l'étoile jaune et dû se faire recenser en tant que Juif dans les mairies d'arrondissement. Parmi les 13'000 Juifs parqués au Vel'd'Hiv sans eau, on compte 4051 enfants. Quelques jours plus tard, des trains de wagons à bestiaux bondés de juifs, s'ébranlent vers les camps de la mort. En 1945, après l'ouverture des camps de concentration nazis, seules 30 personnes parmi celles qui auront été raflées en 1942, descendront des trains à la gare de l'Est...
     Dans la nuit du 16 au 17 Jul 1942 eu lieu ce qu'on a appelé "La Rafle du Vel'd'Hiv". Cette opération montée par les nazis après des négociations avec le gouvernement de Pétain et avec l'aide de la police française avait comme nom de code "Vent printanier". A l'origine, seuls les juifs âgés de plus de 16 ans devaient être arrêtés et livrés aux nazis. C'est sur proposition du ministre Laval que les enfants de moins de 16 ans furent également arrêtés. Toutes les arrestations furent faites par la police française et conduite sous l'autorité d'officier de police français. Plus de 12800 personnes (3031 hommes, 5802 femmes et 4051 enfants) furent rassemblées au Vélodrome d'Hiver et y restèrent cinq jours sans aucun soins ou nourriture.
      Ils furent conduits à Drancy, Beaune-la-Rolande ou Pithiviers avant d'être déportés vers Auschwitz. Les enfants furent séparés de leur parents par les policiers français dés leur arrivée à Drancy. Les parents furent transférés en Allemagne en premier. Les enfants restèrent plusieurs jours, quelquefois des semaines, sans soins et sans nourriture adaptée. Ils étaient logés par 100 dans des baraques inachevées. De nombreux enfants à Drancy moururent de maladie ou de faiblesse. Finalement, ils furent tous transférés en Allemagne et immédiatement gazés. En tout, près de 6000 enfants venant de toutes les régions de France furent transférés en Allemagne et exterminés entre le 17 juillet et le 30 septembre 1942.
1941 Las fuerzas alemanas ocupan Smolensko. Hitler planifica el desmembramiento de la Unión Soviética
1940 Adolf Hitler orders the preparations to begin on the invasion of England, Operation Sea Lion.
1937 Durante la Guerra Civil Española se impone la obligatoriedad semanal, en la zona nacional, del "día del plato único" y del "día sin postre".
1936 El periodista escocés Andrew MacMahon atenta en Londres contra el rey Eduardo VIII.
1935 1st automatic parking meter in US installed, Oklahoma City, Ok
1931 Haile Selasie se proclama emperador de Etiopía y promulga la primera Constitución del país.
1927
César Augusto Sandino begins 5+-year war against US occupation of Nicaragua
1914 Thursday : in the aftermath of the June 28 assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand:      
  • Both the Italian and Russian ambassadors in Vienna warn the Russian government in St. Petersburg: Austria is considering decisive action against the Serbs.
  • Word of the planned Austrian action against Serbia has hit the diplomatic circuit. The British are now aware that something is up in Austria.
  • 1898 Se produce la rendición de Santiago de Cuba en la guerra hispano-estadounidense.
    1894 Treaty of Aoki-Kimberley signed between Japan & England.
    1875 The French constitution of the Third Republic is finalized.
    1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues.
    1862 David G. Farragut became the first rear admiral in the United States Navy.
    1862 The Sperryville outrage: two Union soldiers and their servant ransack a house and rape a slave in Sperryville, Virginia.
    1862 Confederate representative meets with Louis Napoleon III of France to discuss foreign aid.
    1835 Los generales Espartero y Fernández de Córdoba derrotan a las tropas carlistas en la batalla de Mendigorría.
    1798 US Public Health Service established & US Marine Hospital authorized.
    ^ 1793 Charlotte Corday comparait devant le tribunal révolutionnaire.      
         Trois jours après avoir poignardé Jean-Paul Marat, elle déclare : "Je savais que Marat pervertissait la France. J'ai tué un homme pour en sauver cent mille, un scélérat pour sauver des innocents, une bête féroce pour donner le repos à mon pays."  Le lendemain elle est guillotinée.
         Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont. naquit le 27 Jul 1768 aux Champeaux, à la ferme du Ronceray, une maison de pays typique que son père avait achetée en 1765. Charlotte était le quatrième enfant de petits nobles. Sa mère s'appelait Charlotte-Marie Gautier des Authieux et son père Jacques-François de Corday d'Armont. Il était l'arrière petit fils de Marie Corneille, soeur de Thomas et de Pierre Corneille, le dramaturge. Charlotte a été baptisée dans l'Eglise Saint-Saturnin de Lignerits, à côté des Champeaux, le lendemain de sa naissance.
          Elle a grandi au Manoir de Cauvigny et à la Ferme du Bois, pas très loin de l'endroit où elle est née. A l'âge de huit ans Charlotte fut placée chez son oncle, l'Abbé de Corday, qui à l'époque était le curé de Vicques. La famille s'est installée par la suite à Caen, où la mère de Charlotte décéda le 8 avril 1782. Au printemps de cette même année, Charlotte fut admise, avec sa soeur Eléonore, à l'Abbaye aux Dames comme pensionnaire.
          En pleine Terreur, l'assassinat de Jean-Paul Marat, "l'Ami du Peuple", a fait de Charlotte Corday l'héroine de tout un peuple. Après son geste, elle a été immédiatement arrêtée et emprisonnée à la Conciergerie. L'issue de son procès ne faisait aucun doute : elle était condamnée à mort. Le 17 Jul 1793, vers 19 heures, après avoir monté les marches de l'échafaud, elle a été guillotinée. L'exploit de Charlotte, L'Ange de l'Assassinat, est rentré dans la légende. Peu de personnages de la Révolution Française n'ont eu autant de gloire et de popularité à travers les siècles.
          Quand Après la fermeture en 1791 de l'Abbaye aux Dames à Caen, Charlotte a vécu chez sa cousine, Madame Le Coustellier de Bretteville-Gouville, au 148 de la rue Saint-Jean. Le 09 Jul 1793, Charlotte quitta l'appartement de sa cousine et prit la diligence pour Paris. Elle descendit à l'Hôtel de Providence. Elle rédigea un long texte intitulé Adresse aux Français amis des lois et de la paix, qui expliquait le geste qu'elle allait commettre.
          Le 13 Jul 1793, à Paris, elle a obtenu une audience auprès de Marat à son domicile sis 30, rue des Cordeliers, en disant à la compagne de Marat qu'elle "avait des révélations à lui faire" sur un complot girondin.et qu'il était à même de "rendre un grand service à la France". Il la reçois alors qu'il prend son bain pour apaiser la maladie de peau qui le ronge. Il corrige des épreuves de son journal L'Ami du peuple. Charlotte a un couteau de table "à manche à bois brun à virole d'argent, acheté quarante sols au Palais-Royal". Alors que Marat lui demande les noms des conjurés, elle sort le couteau de son fichu rose et le lui plante dans la carotide. Marat hurle avant de mourir : "A moi, ma chère amie !"
          Au cours de la Révolution Française, Charlotte est devenue républicaine. Elle fut frappée par les exactions du Pouvoir contre les Girondins (la Proscription des Girondins - 02 Jun 1793), qui se réfugièrent à Caen. Charlotte ne croyait plus aux possibilités de l'instauration d'une République. Elle considérait que Jean-Paul Marat, qui réclamait de plus en plus de têtes chaque jour, était le grand responsable de tous les malheurs qui se sont abattus sur le peuple français. Marat était l'un des chefs les plus acharnés de la Révolution Française. Animé d'une pitié maladive devant les maux des petites gens, il n'en fut pas moins l'artisan de la chute des Girondins et l'instigateur des massacres de septembre.
         Born on 24 May 1743, at Boudry, near Neuchâtel, Switzerland, Marat became known as a French politician, physician, and journalist, a leader of the radical Montagnard faction during the French Revolution. He was assassinated in his bath by Charlotte Corday, a young Girondin conservative.
          Marat, after obscure years in France and other European countries, Marat had become a well-known doctor in London in the 1770s and published a number of books on scientific and philosophical subjects. His Essay on the Human Soul (1771) had little success, but A Philosophical Essay on Man (1773) was translated into French and published in Amsterdam (1776). His early political works included The Chains of Slavery (1774), an attack on despotism addressed to British voters, in which (according to some) he first expounded the notion of an "aristocratic," or "court," plot; it would become the principal theme of a number of his great speeches and articles.
          Marat founded the journal L’Ami du Peuple in 1789, and its fiery criticism of those in power was a contributing factor to the bloody turn of the Revolution in 1792. In August of that year, with the arrest of the king, Marat was elected as a deputy of Paris to the Convention. In France’s revolutionary legislature, Marat opposed the Girondists; a faction made up of moderate republicans who advocated a constitutional government and continental war.
          In 1793, Charlotte Corday, the daughter of an impoverished aristocrat and an ally of the Girondists in Normandy, came to regard Marat as the unholy enemy of France, and plotted his assassination. Leaving her native Caen for Paris, she had planned to kill Marat at the Bastille Day parade on 14 July, but was forced to seek him out in his home when the festivities were cancelled. On 13 July, she gained an audience with Marat by promising to betray the Caen Girondists. Marat, who had a persistent skin disease, was working as usual in his bath when Corday pulled a knife from her bodice and stabbed him in his chest. He died almost immediately, and Corday waited calmly for the police to come and arrest her. She was guillotined four days later.
    1791 Louis XVI is suspended from office until he agrees to ratify the constitution
    1790 US Congress establishes the District of Columbia as the seat of the United States government.
    1779 Carlos III de España declara la guerra a Inglaterra.
    1775 John Adams graduates from Harvard
    1774 Russia and the Ottoman Empire sign the treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji, ending their six-year war.
    1765 Prime Minister of England Lord Greenville resigns and is replaced by Lord Rockingham.
    1535 Répis pour les huguenots. Par l'édit de Concy, François Ier, parce qu'il devenu alors l'allié des protestants allemands qui guerroient contre Charles Quint, suspend les répressions qui avaient été déclenchées contre les huguenots.
    ^ 1465 Bataille de Montléry      
          La forteresse de Montlhéry avec son donjon de 32 mètres de hauteur, est le théâtre d'une bataille qui oppose Louis XI à la coalition de la Ligue du bien public, Charles le Téméraire. La bataille est violente et l'issue en est indécise. Reste que, dans la panique, selon Philippe de Commines "un seigneur du roi s'enfuit à Lusigan en Poitou et un seigneur de la Ligue jusqu'à Quesnoy-en-Hainaut". L'un et l'autre de ces seigneurs se sont, dans leur fuite, simplement trompés de direction :-(((
    1439 Kissing is banned in England
    1344 Pedro IV, rey de Aragón, arrebata el reino de Mallorca a Jaime II.
    1212 Los ejércitos unidos de Castilla, Aragón, Navarra y Portugal comandados por Alfonso VIII vencen a los almohades en la batalla de las Navas de Tolosa e impiden la expansión del Islam en la Península. — Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa; end of Moslem power in Spain
    1054 The 'Great Schism' between the Western and Eastern churches began over rival claims of universal pre-eminence. (In 1965, 911 years later, Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras I met in spite of the schism.)
    ^ 0622 Premier jour de l’Hégire,      
          C'est le premier jour de l'Hégire selon la tradition musulmane et les conversions des savants oulémas. C’est le 1er Mouharram An 1 du calendrier musulman. L’anniversaire de la "migration" de Mahomet de La Mecque, capitale de l’Arabie vers Yatrib, qui n’est encore qu’une oasis dans le désert et qui deviendra la Ville la plus célèbre, "La" Ville" du prophète (Médinet-al-Nâbi). Après avoir tenté de rallier les habitants de "La Mecque" à sa nouvelle doctrine, Mahomet, dont la tête est mise à prix par le parti des commerçants et de l’immobilier, est obligé de s’enfuir à Médine. Là il reçoit un accueil plus chaleureux et la nouvelle religion monothéiste se répand rapidement ; elle va conquérir une partie du monde !
    0463 Start of Lunar Cycle of Hilarius.
    TO THE TOP
    < 15 Jul 17 Jul >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 16 July:
    2005 Lee Harris, 30, who was left comatose on 07 July 2005 by the terrorist explosion in London on the Piccadilly line Underground train near King's Cross and Russell Square stations, which had killed some 25 persons, including his mate (since 09 Jul 1991), Samantha Badham, 36.
    2004 Kanaka Priya, 7; Kirtivasan, 12; V. Selva Ganesh, 7; and 85 other children, most aged 8 to 10, by 11:00 fire and stampede mostly in five third-floor classrooms of middle school section of Sri Krishna School in Kumbakonam, Thanjavur district, Tamil Nadu, India, which had some 900 students. 75 die there, 13 later in the day in hospitals. Two die the next morning, and some more the following days. Many of the children were trapped in a large classroom which had only one exit, dying after the blazing roof collapsed on top of them and blocked their way out. More than 100 are injured. The fire was caused by a short circuit that ignited the thatched roof of an outside kitchen. It then spread to the second floor of the main building, which also had a thatched roof.
    2005 Peng Xiangmei and 15 other miners trapped underground since the 12:10 (04:10 UT) 14 July 2005 flooding of the small Fusheng Coal Mine in Xingning, Guangdong province, China. The flooding resulted from an intentional explosion, which was imprudent, considering that small floods had been caused by similar explosions several days earlier.
    2004 R. Satyanarayana; his wife Pushpa, 45; her son Rakesh, 17; and Laxmamma, 70; in Gouthamnagar, Hyderabad, India, in the early hours, with sickles and rocks, by R. Suman 21, and his brother Sandeep, grandsons of Laxmamamma and sons of R. Satyanarayana, whom they accused of mistreating his first wife, their mother, Suman.
    2003 Cindy Palacios Valladares, 3; Gloria Olivera González, 32; Lynne Weaver, 47; Leroy Lattier, 55; Movsha “Michael” Hoffman, 78; Molok Ghoulian Nabatian, 62, and his grandson Brandon Esfahani Davidi, 7 months; Kevin McCarthy, 50, and his wife Diana McCarthy,: 41; and Theresa Breglia, 50; when George Russell Weller, 86, accelerates his car through the Farmers Market in Santa Monica, California, mistaking the accelerator pedal for the brake's after a minor collision. —(060930)
    2002 Yehonatan Gamliel, 16, Keren Kashani, 20, Ilana Siton, 40, Galila Adas, 43; Tiferet Sarah Shilon, 9 months, her father Gal Shilon, 30, all of them from Immanuel, and Shilon's mother-in-law Zilpah Kashi, 67, from Givatayim, shortly after 15:00 when a roadside explosions hit bulletproof Dan company bus #189 bus, blowing out its front tires, and three attackers in Israeli army uniforms fire on it, a few hundred meters from the entrance to the West Bank ultra-Orthodox (Haredi) enclave settlement Emmanuel between Nablus and Qalqilya. The bus had departed at about 14:15 from the ultra-Orthodox Bnei Brak neighborhood, near Tel Aviv. At least 20 are injured, one of whom, Yehudit Weinberg, 22, is delivered by emergency caesarian section of a premature boy who dies 12 hours later. Another wounded, Yocheved Ben-Hanan, 21, would die on 18 July 2002. Sarah Shilon's twin, Galia Esther Shilon, escapes unscathed. The attack took place near the spot where 10 persons were killed in an attack on another $189 bus on 12 December 2001.
    Details: — Three Palestinians in Israeli army uniforms, lying bushes by the road, detonate a roadside bomb as the bus arrives, blowing out its front tires, which makes it stop a short distance ahead. The bus' security doors lock automatically, trapping the passengers inside.
         The attackers throw grenades and fire on the bus and on a pickup truck approaching in the opposite direction. Then they flee and an Israeli police car arrives shortly afterwards, followed by first aid workers who force open the doors of the bus with a “Jaws of Life” tool, and by Israeli soldiers who begin a manhunt for the terrorrists.
    Keren Kashani
    Zilpah Kashi
    Gal Shilon
    Keren Kashani
    Zilpah Kashi
    Gal Shilon

    Galila Adas

    Ilana Siton

    Yehonatan Gamliel
    Galila Adas
    Ilana Siton
    Yehonatan Gamliel
    2001 Nidal Shadouf, 21, suicide bomber, and two Israeli soldiers: Avi Ben-Haroush and Hanit Hason-Armi (one of them a woman), near the Binyamina train station, Israel, at about 19:40. Four others are wounded. Shadouf was an Islamic Jihad militant from the West Bank village of Burkin.
    ^ 1999 John F. Kennedy Jr., 38, his wife of less than 3 years Carolyn Bessette Kennedy, 33, her sister Lauren Bessette, 34.      
         At 21:41, a Piper Saratoga II HP private plane piloted by John F. Kennedy Jr., carrying his wife Carolyn Bessette Kennedy and her sister Lauren Bessette, crashes into the waters off Martha's Vinyard, Massachusetts. After JFK Jr. took off from New York he met weather is which he did not have flying experience, and he became disoriented in the fog as he approached his Martha's Vinyard destination. The US Navy conducted a search for the wreckage and the bodies. The subsequent investigation ruled that the crash was due to pilot error.
         JFK Jr.'s father, president John F. Kennedy, was assassinated just three days before the boy's third birthday. The boy grew up to be a Manhattan Assistant District Attorney, and then, in 1995 founded George magazine ("Not just politics as usual"), of which he was editor-in-chief at the time of his death.
         John F. Kennedy, Jr.; his wife, Carolyn Bessette Kennedy; and her sister, Lauren Bessette, die when the single-engine plane that Kennedy was piloting crashes into the Atlantic Ocean near Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Jr., was born on November 25, 1960, just a few weeks after his father and namesake was elected the 35th president of the United States. On his third birthday, "John-John" attended the funeral of his assassinated father and was photographed saluting his father's coffin in a famous and searing image. Along with his sister, Caroline, he was raised in Manhattan by his mother, Jacqueline.
          After graduating from Brown University and a very brief acting stint, he attended New York University Law School. He passed the bar on his third try and worked in New York as an assistant district attorney, winning all six of his cases. In 1995, he founded the political magazine George, which grew to have a circulation of more than 400'000. Unlike many others in his famous family, he never sought public office himself. Always in the media spotlight, he was celebrated for the good looks that he inherited from his parents. In 1988, he was named the "Sexiest Man Alive" by People magazine. He was linked romantically with several celebrities, including the actress Daryl Hannah, whom he dated for five years. In September 1996, he married girlfriend Carolyn Bessette, a fashion publicist. The two shared an apartment in New York City, where Kennedy was often seen inline skating in public. Known for his adventurous nature, he nonetheless took pains to separate himself from the more self-destructive behavior of some of the other men in the Kennedy clan.
          On 16 July 1999, however, with about 300 hours of flying experience, Kennedy took off from Essex County airport in New Jersey and flew his single-engine plane into a hazy, moonless night. He had turned down an offer by one of his flight instructors to accompany him, saying he "wanted to do it alone." To reach his destination of Martha's Vineyard, he would have to fly 300 km — the final phase over a dark, hazy ocean — and inexperienced pilots can lose sight of the horizon under such conditions. Unable to see shore lights or other landmarks, Kennedy would have to depend on his instruments, but he had not qualified for a license to fly with instruments only. In addition, he was recovering from a broken ankle, which might have affected his ability to pilot his plane. At Martha's Vineyard, Kennedy was to drop off his sister-in-law Lauren Bessette, one of his two passengers. From there, Kennedy and his wife, Carolyn, were to fly on to the Kennedy compound on Cape Cod's Hyannis Port for the marriage of Rory Kennedy, the youngest child of the late Robert F. Kennedy.
          The Piper Saratoga aircraft never made it to Martha's Vineyard. Radar data examined later showed the plane plummeting from 670 m to 335 m in 14 seconds, a rate far beyond the aircraft's safe maximum. It then disappeared from the radar screen. Kennedy's plane was reported missing by friends and family members, and an intensive rescue operation was launched by the Coast Guard, the navy, the air force, and civilians. After two days of searching, the thousands of people involved gave up hope of finding survivors and turned their efforts to recovering the wreckage of the aircraft and the bodies. The US mourned the loss of the "crown prince" of one of the country's most admired families, a sadness that was especially poignant given the relentless string of tragedies that have haunted the Kennedy family over the years.
          On 21 July, navy divers recovered the bodies of JFK Jr., his wife, and sister-in-law from the wreckage of the plane, which was lying under 35 m of water about 12 km off the Vineyard's shores. The next day, the cremated remains of the three were buried at sea during a ceremony on the USS Briscoe, a navy destroyer. At a memorial mass for JFK Jr. and Carolyn on 23 July, Senator Edward M. Kennedy of Massachusetts, delivered a moving eulogy: "From the first day of his life, John seemed to belong not only to our family, but to the US family. He had a legacy, and he learned to treasure it. He was part of a legend, and he learned to live with it."
          Investigators studying the wreckage of the Piper Saratoga found no problems with its mechanical or navigational systems. In their final report released in 2000, the National Transportation Safety Board concluded that the crash was caused by an inexperienced pilot who became disoriented in the dark and lost control.
    1995 Stephen Spender, escritor y periodista británico.
    1991 Robert Motherwell, US painter born on 24 January 1915. MORE ON MOTHERWELL AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1989 Nicolás Guillén, poeta cubano.
    1981 Jacob Wolfowitz, mathematician who worked on nonparametric statistical inference with Wald and also collaborated on sequential analysis.
    1953 Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc, English Catholic writer born on 27 July 1870. — BELLOC ONLINE: Europe and the Faith, First and Last The Great Heresies On Nothing and Kindred Subjects On Something The Path to RomeSurvivals and New Arrivals
    1949 Arthur Wardle, British artist born on 05 February 1864.MORE ON WARDLE AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1937 John Melhuish Strudwick, British Pre-Raphaelite painter born on 06 May 1849. MORE ON STRUDWICK AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1924 Marius Borgeaud, Swiss artist born on 21 September 1861. MORE ON BORGEAUD AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    from a movie1918 Tsar Nicholas II, 49        
    tsarina Alexandra Fedorovna, his wife, 45 [born Alix of Hesse 06 Jun 1872]
    his children: 1. Grand Duchess Olga, 22 [15 Nov 1895–]
    2. Grand Duchess Tatiana, 21 [10 Jun 1897–]
    3. Grand Duchess Maria, 19 [26 Jun 1899–]
    4 Grand Duchess Anastasia, 17 [18 Jun 1901–]
    5. tsarevich Aleksey, 13 [25 Aug 1904–]
    their servants: Nagorny, a sailor, at the service of Alexis,
    3 other servants,
    also Jimmy, the dog of Alexis
         After having been held prisoners by the Bolsheviks, they are are executed, formally ending three centuries of the Romanov dynasty. They are taken to a cellar under the pretense of having their photograph taken when Bolshevik troops storm in and shoot them to death.
          Born on 18 May 1868, crowned on 26 May 1894, married on 26 November 1894, and succeeding his father as emperor on 01 November 1894, Nicholas was neither trained nor inclined to rule, which did not help the autocracy he sought to preserve in an era desperate for change. The disastrous outcome of the Russo-Japanese War led to the Russian Revolution of 1905, which the czar only defused after signing a manifesto promising representative government and basic civil liberties in Russia.
          However, Nicholas, influenced by his wife and the monk Rasputin, soon retracted most of these concessions, and the Bolsheviks and other revolutionary groups won wide support. In 1914, Nicholas again led his country into another costly war, and discontent in Russia grew as food became scarce, soldiers became war-weary, and devastating defeats on the Eastern Front demonstrated the czar's ineffectual leadership.
    the last Romanovs      In March of 1917, the army garrison at Petrograd joined striking workers in demanding socialist reforms, and on 15 March, Czar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate. Nicholas and his family were first held at the Czarskoye Selo palace, then in the Yekaterinburg palace near Tobolsk. In July of 1918, the advance of counterrevolutionary forces caused the Yekaterinburg soviet — a local coalition of workers and soldiers — to fear that Nicholas might be rescued. After a secret meeting, a death sentence was passed on the tsar and his family, and on the night of 16 July Nicholas, his wife and children, and several of their servants are shot to death.
    Assassinat du tsar et de sa famille. Le tsar Nicolas II, sa famille, et des serviteurs, sont assassinés par les révolutionnaires bolchéviks à Ekatérinenbourg. Le tsar avait succédé à son père en 1894. A la fois faible et despotique, influencé par Raspoutine, il n'avait pas su prévoir que les troubles de 1905 mènerait à la Révolution de 1917. — http://www.angelfire.com/biz5/romanovs
    PHOTO BELOW (taken taken in same session as the one at right):
    The Tsar and his family.
    Standing in back, from left: Marie, tsaritsa Alexandra
    Seated, from left: Olga, tsar Nicholas, Anastasia, Alexis, Tatiana
    the last Romanovs
    1910 Albert Anker, Swiss painter, specialized in Children, born on 01 April 1831. — {About that painter Albert Anker: / When his wife showed him a tanker at anchor; / He could see no reason to thank her, / And he said: “That subject doesn't suit Anker.”}— MORE ON ANKER AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1894 Many Negro miners in Alabama killed by striking White miners
    ^ 1863 The victims of the last day of the New York City Draft Riots      
          During the Civil War, major riots break out in New York City against the implementation of the first wartime draft of US civilian in US history. The majority of the rioters are Democratic Irish laborers outraged that exemptions from the draft can be legally bought for $300, a small fortune out of reach of the average worker. Many of the rioters are also opposed to the Union war effort because of fears of losing their jobs to emancipated Black slaves.
          The conscription act, passed by Congress on 03 March, called for registration of all males between the ages of twenty and forty-five years by 01 April. On 11 July, the first names of draftees were drawn in New York City. Two days later, a mob swarmed into the draft office at 3rd Avenue and 45th Street in Manhattan, set it on fire, and nearly beat the superintendent to death. Within an hour, the entire block was burning, the riot was spreading, and looting had begun. The Federal troops usually stationed in the city had not yet returned from Gettysburg, so New York City police faced the enraged mobs alone. Well-dressed men on the street were beaten, a police captain was killed, and several Protestant churches were burned. The mob then turned it anger against Blacks, and eleven people were lynched, burned alive, or beaten to death.
          By 15 July, several dozen protesters had been killed along with another policeman, and the first troops hastily marching back from Gettysburg arrived. Before the riot was suppressed the next day, eight soldiers and scores of rioters had been killed. In total, over one hundred people perished during the four days of violence. Protests and riots against the draft also erupted elsewhere, but none as costly as those that occurred in New York. New York’s city council later announced that city funds would pay the $300 commutation fee for any man too poor to pay it himself, and in August, the draft act was suspended all across the Union.
    1896 Edmond-Louis-Antoine Huot de Goncourt. Edmond, born on 26 May 1822, and his brother Jules [17 Dec 1830 – 20 Jun 1870], were writers and constant collaborators who, despite and partly because of neurotic sensibility, contributed solidly to the Naturalistic novel, social history, and art criticism. Above all, they are remembered for their perceptive, revealing Journal and for Edmond's legacy, the Académie Goncourt, which annually awards a prize to the author of an outstanding work of French literature. The brothers covered the world of journalism and literature in Charles Demailly (1860); that of medicine and the hospital in Soeur Philomène (1861); upper middle-class society in Renée Mauperin (1864); and the artistic world in Manette Salomon (1867). The most lasting of their novels, Germinie Lacerteux (1864), was based on the double life of their ugly, seemingly impeccable servant, Rose, who stole their money to pay for nocturnal orgies and men's attentions.— GONCOURT ONLINE: Madame Gervaisais — and the two titles cited above.
    1848 Carlos Casar de Molina, de 53 años, litógrafo y grabador español.
    1833 baron Pierre-Narcisse Guérin, French Neoclassical painter born on 13 March 1774.MORE ON GUÉRIN AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1779 Hundreds of British and US soldiers, as General Anthony Wayne captures Stony Point, N.Y., with a loss to the British of more than 600 killed or captured.
    1747 Giuseppe-Maria Crespi “lo Spagnolo”, Bolognese painter born on 16 March 1665. — MORE ON CRESPI AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1216 Inocencio III, Papa.
     
    < 15 Jul 17 Jul >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 16 July:

    1959 Ángeles Caso, escritora española.
    ^ 1951 Catcher in the Rye, J.D. Salinger's only novel, is published by Little, Brown.      
          The book, about a confused teenager disillusioned by the adult world, is an instant hit and will be taught in high schools for half a century. The 31-year-old Salinger had worked on the novel for a decade. His stories had already started appearing in the 1940s, many in The New Yorker. The book took the country by storm, selling out and becoming a Book of the Month Club selection. Fame did not agree with Salinger, who retreated to a hilltop cabin in Cornish, New York, but he continued to publish stories in The New Yorker periodically. He published Franny and Zooey in 1963, based on two combined New Yorker stories. Salinger stopped publishing work in 1965, the same year he divorced his wife of 12 years, whom he had married when he was 32. In 1999, journalist Joyce Maynard published a book about her affair with Salinger, which had taken place more than two decades earlier.
    ^ 1951 Dan Bricklin      
         He invented the spreadsheet while enrolled at Harvard Business School. Bricklin, who had worked as a computer programmer, wanted a simple way to compute different financial scenarios, and he developed a program called "VisiCalc" to run on the Apple II computer in 1979. The program was a runaway success, and many industry experts say the application drove companies to purchase personal computers for the first time. By 1983,VisiCalc was a top selling software program, with annual revenues of $40 million. Unfortunately, VisiCalc was slow to adapt to the new IBM PC, and Lotus 1-2-3 quickly pushed VisiCalc out of the market. Lotus purchased Bricklin's company in 1985 and promptly discontinued the product.
    1903 Flügge-Lotz, mathematician
    1896 Trygve Lie 1st UN Secretary-General (1946-52)
    1888 Frits Zernike invented phase-contrast microscope (Nobel 1953)
    1872 Roald Amundsen Norway, explorer, discovered South Pole.
    1866 Lodovico Tommasi, Italian artist who died in 1941.
    1830 Charles Meer Webb, British artist who died on 9, 10, or 11 December 1895.
    ^ 1821 Mary Baker, founds Christian Science.      
        It is neither Christian, nor science, nor healthy. She became Mary Baker Eddy after marriage in 1877 to believer Asa G. Eddy (however his “faith” may have been weak: he died five years later!). She died on 03 December 1910..
    EDDY ONLINE:
  • Christian Healing
  • Christian Science versus Pantheism
  • The First Church of Christ, Scientist, and Miscellany Part 1   Part 2   Part 3   Part 4
  • Manual of the Mother Church
  • Message to the First Church of Christ, Scientist, or The Mother Church
  • Message to the Mother Church, Boston, 1900
  • Message to the Mother Church, Boston, 1901
  • Miscellaneous Writings, 1883-1896   Part 1   Part 2   Part 3   Part 4   Part 5   Part 6
  • No and Yes
  • The People's Idea of God: Its Effect on Health and Christianity
  • Published Writings.
  • Pulpit and Press
  • Retrospection and Introspection
  • Rudimental Divine Science
  • Science and Health, With Key to the Scriptures
  • Unity of Good
  • 1819 Aronhold, mathematician
    1796 Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, who would grow up to be a French Realist painter, noted primarily for his landscapes, who inspired and to some extent anticipated the landscape painting of the Impressionists. He died on 22 February 1875. — MORE ON COROT AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1778 Las bodas de Camacho, el rico de Juan Meléndez Valdés, se estrena, una de las obra de mayor relieve del teatro neoclásico español.
    ^ 1769 First Catholic Mission in California dedicated      
          Father Junipero Serra, 55, a Spanish Franciscan missionary, founds the first Catholic mission in California on the site of present-day San Diego. After Serra blesses his new outpost of Christianity in high mass, the royal standard of Spain is unfurled over the mission, which is named San Diego de Alcala in honor of the Catholic saint.
          Serra had first come to Spanish America two decades earlier, and engaged in missionary work with Amerindians while alternately living in Mexico City. Winning a large following through his passionate religious teachings, he was appointed a member of the second Spanish land expedition to California in 1769. When the party reached San Diego, Serra remained with a few followers to found California's first mission.
          The rest of the expedition continued on in search of Monterrey harbor, which had been previously used by Spanish sailors. Although the explorers failed in their aim, Serra succeeded in finding Monterrey in 1770, and there he founded his second mission — San Carlos Barromeo. Appointed president of the Alta California presidios, Serra eventually founded a total of nine missions, stretching from San Diego to present-day San Francisco.
          The Franciscan fathers built flourishing communities around their missions, teaching Christianized Amerindians to farm and tend cattle, and overseeing the work. These agricultural communities enjoyed a considerable autonomy from the Spanish colonial authorities and then the Mexican government, but with the coming of US settlers in the mid-nineteenth century most were abandoned.
         — Fray Junípero Serra funda la misión de San Diego de Alcalá, la primera de las nueve que creó en California.
    1723 Joshua Reynolds, British painter who died on 23 February 1792. — MORE ON REYNOLDS AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1719 Gerrit Zegelaar, Dutch artist who died on 24 June 1794.
    1678 Hermann, mathematician.
    1548 La Paz, Bolivia, is founded.
    1486 Andrea Lanfranchi d'Agnolo di Francesco “del Sarto”, son of a tailor, he would grow up to be a Florentine painter and draftsman whose works of exquisite composition and craftsmanship were instrumental in the development of the Florentine-Roman school in the first half of the 16th century. His most striking among other well-known works is the series of frescoes on the life of St. John the Baptist (started about 1511 and completed in 1526). He died of the plague on 28 September 1530. — MORE ON DEL SARTO AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
     
    Holidays Bolivia : La Paz Day (1548) / Wash DC : District of Columbia Day (1790)

    Religious Observances RC : Virgin Mary of Mt Carmel (opt) / Nuestra Señora del Carmen; santos Valentín, Fausto y Sisenando.
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “Two wrongs or two lefts do not make a right, it usually takes three.”
    “Two rights do not make a wrong, but three rights make a left.”
    “Justice in the pursuit of moderation is no small virtue.”
    “Liberty in the defense of extremism is no small vice.”
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    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
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    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4jul/h4jul16.html
    http://www.geocities.com/johncanu/history/h4jul/h4jul16.html
    updated Friday 29-Aug-2008 16:25 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.60 Monday 16-Jul-2007 3:32 UT
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