a 15 July:
2002 The euro trades above $1 for the first time since February 2000.
2001 In the state of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, police stop a speeding car with US licence plates driven by Eduardo del Refugio. In the trunk they find a 7-kg Siberian tiger cub. There are only some 200 Siberian tigers in the wild. They are a highly protected endangered species.
2000 The United Nations launched a successful military operation to help 222 Indian peacekeepers and 11 military observers break out of a rebel stronghold in Sierra Leone
1991 Group of Seven leaders opened their 17th annual economic summit in London, plunging into debate over aid to the Soviet Union.
1987 John Poindexter testifies at Iran-Contra hearings
1976 36-hr kidnap of 26 schoolchildren & their bus driver in Calif
| 1976 A 36-hour kidnap ordeal begins
for 26 schoolchildren and their bus driver as they are abducted near Chowchilla,
Calif., by three gunmen and imprisoned in an underground cell. (The captives
would escape unharmed.)
1954 1st commercial jet transport plane built in US tested (Boeing 707)
1952 1st transatlantic helicopter flight begins
1948 Pres Truman nominated for another term
1941 Florey & Heatley present freeze dried mold cultures (Penicillin).
1933 Wiley Post began 1st solo flight around the world
1922 1st duck-billed platypus publicly exhibited in US, at NY zoo
1918 2nd Battle of Marne began during WW I
1893 Commodore Perry arrives in Japan
1888 Bandai volcano (Japan) erupts for 1st time in 1000 years
1870 Georgia became the last Confederate state readmitted to the Union.
1870 Hudson's Bay & Northwest Territories transferred to Canada
1870 Manitoba becomes 5th Canadian province & NW Territories created.
1863 Confederate raider, Bill Anderson, and his Bushwackers attack Huntsville MI, where they steal $45'000 from the local bank.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues.
1815 Napoléon Bonaparte captured
1662 Charles II grants charter to establish Royal Society in London
2006 Dr. Nicholas Bartha M.D., from injuries suffered in the 10 July 2006 gas explosion by which he attempted suicide and destroyed his $6.4 million 4-story house on 62nd Street between Park and Madison avenues in the Upper East Side of Manhattan, so that it could not be sold to pay for a $4 million judgment in favor of his Jewish, Dutch-born ex-wife, Cordula Bartha, whom he hated. 10 firefighters and 4 other persons were injured as a result of the explosion. Nicolae (= Miklos in Hungarian) Bartha was born on 16 January 1940 in Romania, in a family of Hungarian origin. — Nicholas Bartha s-a nascut in 1940 la Rosia Montana, Veres Patak, Transylvania, a inceput scoala primara la bunica sa din Cluj, iar cand avea 12 ani tatal lui a fost arestat pentru a spune unde a ascuns mai multe kilograme de aur si a fost condamnat la doi ani de inchisoare. In 1960 a intrat la Medicina si a fost exmatriculat doi ani mai tarziu, din cauza aceleiasi probleme. In 1964 a putut sa paraseasca tara. A plecat intai in Israel, iar dupa ce tatal sau a fost eliberat din inchisoare, s-au intalnit la Roma, prin intermediul unui preot de la Vatican, si un an mai tarziu au emigrat in SUA, unde pana la urma a ajuns si mama Ethel Bartha [25 Apr 1918 – 25 Jun 1997], sa. — Bartha's bitterly autobiographical final E-mail — (060716).
2002 Samantha Runnion, 5 [photo >], sexually abused, and murdered by suffocation after being abducted kicking and screaming by Alejandro Avila who drove up making a U-turn and asked for help finding his dog, as Samantha was sitting on a wall 50 m from her townhouse complex home in Stanton, California, playing a board game with a friend, Sarah Ahn, 5, who would give police an amazingly accurate description of the abductor and of his car. Samantha's nude body, would be found the next day 120 km away, on the edge of the Cleveland National Forest. Avila would be arrested on 19 July 2002. In 2000 Avila was acquitted by a jury of molesting two girls in Riverside County. One of the girls, the 9-year-old daughter of Avila's ex-girlfriend Mrs. Elizabeth Veglahn Coker, lived in the same townhouse complex as the Runnions.
2001 Ramesh Narayanan, 38, his wife Kanchana, 34, and their three daughters, ages 10, 9, 1.
Their bodies are found early the next morning on a bed in their home in the Anna Nagar neighborhood of Chennai, India. A couple of soft drink bottles, five empty glasses and a vial with an insecticide label are found on a nearby table. A suicide note by Narayanan implies that police harassment drove him to kill himself. Suicide or murder masquerading as suicide? Narayanan was a wealthy civil contractor and a close associate of Chennai Mayor M.K. Stalin.
2000 John O. Pastore, 93, former Rhode Island governor and longtime U.S. senator.
1961 Nina Karlovna Bari, hit by a Moscow subway train in front of which she fell (or jumped?), Russian mathematician born on 19 November 1901.
1948 John J. Pershing, 87, US General (WW I)
1931 Ladislaus Josefovich Bortkiewicz, Russian mathematician born on 07 August 1868.
1916 (05 July?) Georges Lemmen, Belgian Art Nouveau painter born on 25 November 1865. MORE ON LEMMEN AT ART 4 JULY with links to many images.
1881 William "Billy the Kid" Bonney killed by Pat Garrett.
1875 Jean Charles Joseph Remond, French artist born on 19 April 1795.
1869 A. J. Hayne, Black captain of Arkansas militia, assassinated.
1841 Félix Savary, French mathematician, astronomer, physicist, born on 04 October 1797. He worked on electromagnetism and electrodynamics; he wrote Mémoire sur l'application du calcul aux phenomènes élecro-dynamique (1823). He proved Savary's theorem on the curvature of a roulette (curve traced out by a point on a curve which rolls on another curve). He wrote on the rotation of magnets, applied the laws of gravity to determine the orbits of double stars in close orbit round each other (1827), and studied the intensity of magnetism through an electrical discharge (1827).
1823 St Paul's Outside the Walls, destroyed by a fire. The original church was erected in Rome in AD 324 by emperor Constantine.
1821 (25 July?) John Lewis Krimmel, US painter born German on 30 May 1786. MORE ON KRIMMEL AT ART 4 JULY with links to many images.
1765 Charles André van Loo, French artist born on 15 February 1705. — more
1609 Annibale Carracci, Italian painter born on 03 November 1560. MORE ON CARRACCI AT ART 4 JULY with links to many images.
1099 Un massacre marque la fin "officielle" de la première Croisade, après que les Infidèles eussent restitué les Lieux Saints (Tombeau du Christ) aux Croisés, sous l’autorité de Godefroy de Bouillon (selon le poète italien Le Tasse). The Muslim citizens of Jerusalem surrender their city to the armies of the First Crusade. The Crusaders then proceeded, through misguided religious zeal (??!!), to massacre thousands of unarmed men, women and children.
0998 Mohammad Abu'l-Wafa al-Buzjani, Persian mathematician and astronomer born on 10 June 940.
1996 MSNBC debut, all-news cable TV channel, a joint venture between Microsoft and NBC. A companion Web site scheduled for simultaneous launch appears online several hours late due to technical problems.
1946 Hassanal Bolkiah, who would become the 29th Sultan of Brunei in 1968. (National holiday).
1930 Stephen Smale, mathematician who received the Fields medal in 1966 for his work on differential geometry
1909 William Gemmell Cochran, Scottish US mathematical statistician who died on 29 March 1980.
1906 Adolf Andrei Pavlovich Yushkevich, Jewish Ukrainian historian of mathematics, who died on 17 July 1993.
1898 Mead Schaeffer, US artist who died in 1980.
1895 Ernst Huber, Austrian artist who died in 1960.
1875 Rudolf Lévy, Orthodox Jewish German painter who died deported in northern Italy, in January 1944 after the 13th. — more
1873 Hendrik Jan Wolter, Dutch artist who died in 1952.
1869 Margarine, patented in Paris, for use by French Navy.
1868 Bert Greer Phillips, US artist who died in 1956. — links to images.
1865 Wilhelm Wirtinger, Ybbs-an-der-Donau Austrian mathematician with wide-ranging interests, who died on 15 January 1945.
1861 Karl Hartmann, German artist who died in 1927.
1854 Jacek Malczewski, Polish painter who died on 08 October 1929. MORE ON MALCZEWSKI AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
>1850 Maria Francesca “Frances Xavier” Cabrini [–22 Dec 1917], Italian-born, first US citizen to be declared a saint. She was born two months prematurely, the 10th of 11 siblings, of which only 4 lived long enough to become adults. She was frail and in poor health all her life, which is why she was refused admission to several religious orders, including the Daughters of the Sacred Heart, from whose school she graduated in 1868 as a teacher. — firstname.lastname@example.org — wikibio —(091113)
1796 Thomas Bulfinch mythologist (Bulfinch's Mythology)
1779 Clement Clarke Moore US, Episcopal educator. His fame endures today, not as a theologian, but as the author of a completely mythical poem: 'Twas the Night Before Christmas' [A Visit from St. Nicholas] (1823).
1718 Alexander Roslin, Swedish painter who died on 05 July 1793. MORE ON ROSLIN AT ART 4 JULY 05 with links to images.
1701 Pierre Joubert (Sr.) [–1766], who would become a cobbler, and who would be confused with his son, also named Pierre Joubert (Jr.) [09 Mar 1732 – 16 Nov 1814], who would therefore be believed to be the oldest known Canadian, at his death, 113 years and 124 days after the birth of Pierre Joubert Sr. The matter was further complicated by the fact that Pierre Joubert Jr. had a son Pierre François Joubert [11 Aug 1775–]. —(081113)
1600 Jan Cossiers, Flemish painter who died on 04 July 1671. MORE ON COSSIERS AT ART 4 JULY 04 with links to images.
1490 Francesco Maria Rondani, Italian artist who died in November 1548. — more
Tous les 15 juillet, dans la Rome Antique, défilé de l’Ordre Equestre, les "Chevaliers", un corps d’élite au niveau militaire, aristocratique au niveau social et "dirigeant" au niveau politique. Comme c’était chaque citoyen romain qui payait son propre équipement militaire et l’entretenait, y compris son cheval, l’appartenance à ce corps n’était possible qu’aux citoyens fortunés. Le défilé partait d’une des portes de la ville et remontait jusqu’au Capitole en s’arrêtant au Temple de Castor sur le Forum. Castor était considéré comme le Patron des Cavaliers. Il faut noter que si en Grèce, le jumeau de Castor, Pollux, est vénéré au mêm titre que son frère (les Dioscures), à Rome, Pollux ne connaît aucun culte particulier.