• USSR vs. China... • (Innocent?) immigrants convicted... • B&O strike... • Byron back in England... • Nurses murdered... • Billy the Kid killed... • Battle of Tupelo... • NY draft riots... • Taking of the Bastille... • Philippe Auguste meurt... • Crusaders massacre Jerusalemites... • The Karmann~Ghia coupe...
a 14 July:
2001 Fidel Castro [13 Aug 1926~] inaugurates a new exhibit in the Oscar Maria de Rojas Museum in Cardenas, Cuba, hometown of Elián González [06 Dec 1993~], about whom the exhibit is, but more about Castro's so-called Battle of Ideas (the propaganda campaign he won and milked during and after the dispute about whether young Elián should stay in the US to where he had fled with his mother Elisabet Brotón Rodríguez [10 Sep 1969 – 23 Nov 1999] (who drowned in the attempt).
.2000 A Florida jury ordered five major tobacco companies to pay smokers a record $145 billion in punitive damages.
2000 The 13th International AIDS Conference comes to a close in Durban, South Africa.
1996 Fire crews were battling blazes covering more than 60 square kilometers in California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon and Utah.
1996 In Northern Ireland, a car bomb ravaged a country hotel soon after the building was evacuated. (A shadow group calling itself Continuity claimed responsibility for the blast.)
1991 US and Soviet negotiators in Washington continued work on trying to complete a treaty slashing long-range nuclear arsenals.
1988 200'000 demonstrate in Soviet Armenia for incorporation of Nagorno-Karabak
1987 Taiwan ends 37 years of martial law
1987 Greyhound Bus buys Trailways Bus for $80 million
1987 Lt Col Oliver North concludes 6 days of Congressional testimony concerning his central role in the Iran-Contra affair while he was on the National Security Council..
| 1978 In the USSR Anatoly Shcharansky is convicted
of treason and espionage. He is sentenced to 13 years at hard-labor. He
would be released in a prisoner exchange, on 11 February 1986, and settle
in Israel. Shcharansky's memoir of his arrest and imprisonment would be
first published in 1988 in English as Fear No Evil.
1976 Jimmy Carter won the Democratic presidential nomination at the party's convention in New York.
1969 "Futbol War" between El Salvador & Honduras begins
| 1964 The United States sends 600 more soldiers to Vietnam.
|1963 In the parish church of Santiago Atitlán,
Angélico Melotto Mazzardo [20 Mar 1911 – 11 May 1999], first
Bishop of Sololá, Guatemala, ordains the first Subdeacon of the diocese.
1959 1st atomic powered cruiser, the Long Beach, Quincy Mass
1958 Iraqi army overthrows monarchy; republic replaces Hashemite dynasty
1952 Les derniers maréchaux: Les généraux Alphonse Juin, de Lattre de Tassigny et Philippe de Hauteclocque (Leclerc), héros de la guerre et de la Libération de l'occupant allemand sont nommés Maréchaux de France, à titre posthume pour Leclerc.
1946 La République libre des Philippines est proclamée.
1945 US battleships and cruisers bombard the Japanese home islands for the first time.
1941 Vichy French Foreign Legionaries sign an armistice in Damascus, allowing them to join the Free French Foreign Legion. A Tale of Two Legions.
1940 A force of German Ju-88 bombers attack Suez, Egypt, from bases in Crete.
1940 Lithuania becomes the Lithuanian SSR
1933 All German political parties, except the Nazi Party, were outlawed.
1900 European Allies retake Tientsin, China, from the rebelling Boxers.
1863 Confederate General Lee re-crosses the Potomac into West Virginia.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues.
1862 Secession of the western counties of Virginia recognized by US Senate as State of West Virginia.
1861 Union troops try to force a crossing at Seneca Falls on the Potomac, northwest of Washington but are repulsed by the Confederates. A company of the Louisiana Tiger Rifles helped defend the line.
1853 Commodore Matthew Perry gives to Japanese officials a letter from former US President Fillmore, requesting trade relations.
1850 1st public demonstration of ice made by refrigeration.
1833 Anglican clergyman John Keble preached his famous sermon on national religious apostasy. It marked the beginning of the Oxford Movement, which sought to purify and revitalize the Church of England.
1832 Opium exempted from US federal tariff duty.
1798 The Sedition Act the last of four pieces of legislation known as the Alien and Sedition Acts is passed by Congress, making it unlawful to write, publish, or utter "false, scandalous & malicious" statements about the US government or president, among other things
1538 Entrevue d'Aigues-Mortes. Un an plus tôt, Charles Quint et François Ier ont conclu une trêve de dix ans. En ce jour, à Aigues-Mortes, ils se réconcilient et signent un traité qui garde la Savoie au roi de France et donne le Milanais à l'empereur.
1536 France and Portugal sign the naval treaty of Lyons, aligning themselves against Spain.
1456 Hungarians defeat the Ottomans at the Battle of Belgrade, in present-day Yugoslavia. The 1456 Siege of Belgrade decided the fate of Christendom.
1430 Joan of Arc, taken prisoner by the Burgundians in May, is handed over to Pierre Cauchon, the bishop of Beauvais.
2006 A suicide car bomber, a civilian, and his relative Allama Hassan Turabi, in Karachi, Pakistan. Turabi was a prominent Shiite Muslim cleric, leader of the Shiite party, Islamic Tehreek Pakistan, and chief of the southern province of Sindh for Mutahida Majlis-e-Amal or United Action Forum, a hard-line opposition religious coalition. He had narrowly escaped an attempt on his life in April 2006. — (060714)
2004 Stephen Vrabel, 47, a schizophrenic, by lethal injection at 10:14 (14:14 UT) in Ohio. The bodies of his mate Susan Clemente and of their daughter Lisa Clemente [1985 >03 Mar–], had been found in his refrigerator several weeks after he murdered them on 03 March 1989.
2004 Three persons including Ussama Kachmula, governor of city Mosul, Iraq, by grenade and gunfire at the car Kachmula drives in a convoy of vehicles 110 km south of Mosul in the T'lul al-Baj region, headed toward Baghdad.
2004 Four Iraqi national guardsmen, seven civilians, and suicide car bomber, at 09:15 near puppet government headquarters in Baghdad. Many of the dead civilians and of the 40 wounded were job applicants waiting in line.
2002 Joaquín Vidella Balaguer y Ricardo, at 04:30, of a bleeding ulcer, president of the Dominican Republic (1960-1962, 1966-1978, 1986-1996). Born on 01 September 1907, he was a lawyer, writer, diplomat, then puppet Vice-President (1957-1960) under puppet President General Hector Bienvenido Trujillo Molina, brother of dictator-since-1930 General Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina [24 Oct 1891 30 May 1961]. Upon the resignation of Hector Trujillo due to illness, Balaguer became puppet President. After Rafael Trujillo's assassination, Balaguer's efforts at reform were thwarted by violent disturbances and he was ousted by a coup in 1962. On 20 December 1962, Juan Emilio Bosch Gaviño [30 Jun 1909 01 Nov 1996], founder of the leftist Partido Revolucionario Dominicano (PRD), was elected president in the first democratic elections for nearly 40 years, but he too was deposed in a military coup, on 25 September 1963. After the 1964-1965 US military intervention, Balaguer was elected President (center-right Partido Reformista Social Cristiano). He lost the 1978 (to Silvestre Antonio Guzmán, PRD) and 1982 (to Jorge Blanco, PRD) elections but was elected again in 1986, re-elected in 1990 (over Bosch), and in 1994 when, accused of fraud, he agreed to limit his term to 2 years. Balaguer campaigned in the 2000 election [Feb 2000 photo >] but lost to Leonel Fernández Reyna of the leftist Partido de Liberación Dominicana]. Among Balaguer's many books: La Realidad Dominicana (1947) Historia de la Literatura Dominicana (1955)
2002 David Rosenzweig, 49, Hasidic Jew (beard, kippa skull cap), stabbed by skinhead Christopher Steven McBride, 20, outside a Jewish-owned pizzeria in Toronto's Jewish neighborhood, just after 01:00.
2002 Qi Qi, 25, of diabetes, stomach problems, and old age, at the Institute of Hydrobiology in Wuhan, China, where he was since 1980 (after being injured by fishermen), the only Baiji (Yangtze River dolphin) in the world to survive long in captivity. Less than 100 Baiji dolphins (normal life span 25 to 30 years) are believed to survive in their only natural habitat, the lower half of the Yangtze River, where industrial waste, boat propellers and entanglement in fishing nets is expected to cause their extinction by 2025. [photo: a Yangtze River dolphin >]
The Baiji has a stocky body about the same size as a human. It has tiny eyes and a long, narrow beak, like other river dolphins. Close up the Baiji's coloring appears dark blue-gray on its back fading to grayish white on its stomach. The triangular dorsal fin is set low, and the flippers are broad and somewhat rounded. The Baiji is most active between early evening and early morning. This species is quiet, reserved, and difficult to approach. When seen they are usually alone or in groups of up to six where tributaries join the river, especially around shallow sand banks. In calm conditions the Baiji's blow may be heard as a high-pitched sneeze. Many times Finless dolphins are spotted and mistaken for Baiji, since Finless dolphins are much more numerous on the Yangtze River. China declared the Baiji a National Treasure and began protection for it in 1975. Parts of the river were also declared a natural reserve but this effort has had little success in protecting the Baiji because of continual boat traffic, fishing, and industrial development (including the construction of the world's largest dam, the Three Gorges dam) along what is one of the world's busiest waterways. The genus name for the Baiji is Lipotes (Greek "left behind", referring to its limited range)
2001 Mikel Uribe, 44, shot twice in the head while inside his car on his way to have dinner with friends in the town of Leaburu, Spain, in the evening. The gunmen fled in a car which they abandoned and destroyed in a bomb explosion near the town. Uribe was the head of Basque police's investigation unit in San Sebastian.
2001 José Javier Mugica, 50, by a bomb attached to the underside of his van, which exploded as he started the engine at about 09:50, in Leiza, a farming town of 3000 in Navarra.
2001 At least 15 sea lions, 4 females and 11 males, off San Cristobal Galapagos island, killed by poachers for their teeth and male genitals to be sold as aphrodisiacs in Asia. [< photo: 7 of the dead sea lions]
^ 1974 Carl Spaatz, 83, in Washington, D.C. US Army General
Carl Spaatz was a fighter pilot and the first chief of staff of an independent US Air Force.
Spaatz was born in 1891 in Boyertown, Pennsylvania, and graduated from the Military Academy at West Point in 1914. He was a combat pilot during World War I, and at the outbreak of World War II went to England to help evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the German military. (During the Blitz, the air raids on England by the German Luftwaffe, Spaatz would sit on rooftops to better observe German air tactics.)
In July 1942, he became commander of the US Eighth Air Force and inaugurated daylight bombing runs against German-occupied territory in Europe. Two years later, Spaatz was made commander of US Strategic Air Forces in Europe and continued the practice of daylight bombing, the target now being Germany itself, especially its fuel-oil plants. Since Germany had already lost access to oil in Romania after that country's occupation by the Soviet Union, the destruction of its native oil production proved particularly devastating to Germany's ability to keep up aircraft production.
In 1945, with the war in the West over (Spaatz was present at the formal German surrender at Reims on 08 May), his focus shifted to the Pacific and the Japanese. Although he initially opposed the use of atomic weapons against Japan, he eventually acquiesced and directed the bomb drops on order from President Truman. In fact, his telegraph to Washington stating that there were no Allied prisoner of war camps in Hiroshima resulted in that city becoming the first target of the atom bomb. In September 1947, General Spaatz, an illustrious combat career behind him, was named the first chief of staff of the now independent US Air Force, which previously had been a unit of the Army. But a desk job was not for him. He retired in 1948.
1957: 270 die as Soviet ship Eshghabad runs aground in the Caspian.
1956 John Wishart, Scottish mathematical statistician born on 28 November 1898. In 1928 he derived the generalized product-moment distribution which is now named the Wishart Distribution
1953 Richard von Mises, applied mathematician, born on 19 April 1883, who worked on fluid mechanics, aerodynamics, aeronautics statistics and probability theory. He gave the first university course on powered flight in 1913.
1939 Alfons Maria Mucha, Czech Art Nouveau painter, illustrator, poster artist, and designer, born on 24 August 1860. MUCHO ON MUCHA AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
^ 1865 Benjamin Gompertz, 86, in London (where he was born on 05 March 1779)
Gompertz was a self-educated mathematician, reading Newton and Maclaurin, since he was denied admission to universities as he was Jewish.
He applied the calculus to actuarial questions and he is best remembered for Gompertz's Law of Mortality. Gompertz, in 1825, showed that the mortality rate increases in a geometric progression. Hence, when death rates are plotted on a logarithmic scale, a straight line known as the Gompertz function is obtained.
Gompertz also wrote about scientific instruments, writing Theory of astronomical instruments (1822), A new instrument called the differential sextant (1825) and On the converted pendulum (1829). He became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1819.
1865 Michel Croz, Douglas Hadow, Charles Hudson, and Francis Douglas,
19, coming down from the first ascent of the Matterhorn (4478m),
which is led by the English artist Edward
Whymper [27 Apr 1840 – 16 Sep 1911]. It was Whymper's 8th attempt
to scale the Matterhorn; this time he had made the ascent by the Swiss ridge.
When they reached the steep traverse off the ridge that had been their only difficulty on the way up, Douglas Hadow began to have trouble keeping his footing. Michael Croz stood below Hadow, placing the young climber's feet into the toeholds afforded by the sheer rock wall. Then, Hadow slipped and fell against Croz, knocking him off the cliff. At the tail end of the rope were the guides Peter Taugwalder Sr. and Jr., with Whymper between them.
The event is recorded in Whymper's Scrambles Amongst the Alps (1871), which is illustrated with his own engravings:
“In another moment Hudson was dragged from his steps, and Lord F. Douglas immediately after him. All this was the work of a moment.... Immediately we heard Croz's exclamation, old Peter and I planted ourselves as firmly as the rock would permit: the rope was taut between us, and the jerk came on both of us as one man. We held; but the rope broke midway between Taugwalder and Lord Francis Douglas. For a few seconds we saw our unfortunate companions sliding downwards on their backs, and spreading out their hands, endeavoring to save themselves. They passed from our sight uninjured, disappeared one by one, and fell from precipice to precipice on to the Matterhorn glacier below, a distance of nearly 4000 feet.... From the moment the rope broke it was impossible to help them.”
Whymper then discovers to his horror that the rope was an old worn out one that they ought never to have used. The next day, after the four mangled bodies are discovered, Hadow's boots are found to have the hobnails on their soles worn almost smooth, and ought not to have been worn on such a dangerous climb.
1827 Augustin Fresnel, French engineer and mathematical physicist, born on 10 May 1788, who did important work on optics by which he was one of the founders of the wave theory of light. In 1822 he invented the Fresnel lens, for lighthouses.
1800 Lorenzo Mascheroni, Lombard Catholic priest, poet, and geometer, born on 13 May 1750, who proved in Geometria del compasso (in verse, 1797) that all Euclidean constructions can be made with compasses alone, so that a straight edge is not needed. He is also the author of Adnotationes ad calculum integrale Euleri (1790) and Nuove ricerchi su l'equilibrio delle vòlte (1785).
1789 Marquis Bernard-Jordan de Launay,
gouverneur de la Bastille, des gardes suisses, une centaine d'émeutiers.
En France, cet événement déclencha d'immenses répercussions. La prise de la Bastille (une forteresse quasiment vide) par le peuple de Paris est surtout la chute d'un symbole de l'absolutisme. Elle donna le signal à la révolution. Soutenue et guidée par de nombreux bourgeois que la royauté avaient exaspérés, la foule en colère avait déclenché ce mouvement historique. La veille, 28'000 fusils et 20 canons ont été pris par le peuple de Paris aux Invalides. Il manque de la poudre et des munitions. Certains pensent que l'on peut en trouver à la Bastille qui est, qui plus est, le symbole de l'arbitraire royal: Richelieu avait fait de cette forteresse, construite en 1370 par Charles V le Sage, une prison d'Etat.
De Launay, gouverneur de la prison, refuse au peuple l'accès aux magasins. Les défenseurs, quelques Suisses et quelques invalides tirent malencontreusement sur la foule. En début d'après-midi, la foule en colère force les portes et s’empare de la forteresse. Les prisonniers, un aristocrate fou, un complice du régicide Damien qui est là depuis trente ans, quatre faussaires et un dernier criminel sont libérés et portés en triomphe. On pille, on détruit les archives. De Launay est assassiné. Sa tête fixée au bout d’une pique est promenée devant le Palais- Royal.
Le soir, le duc de La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt fait réveiller le roi et lui annonce la prise de la forteresse. "C'est une révolte?" "Non, Sire, c'est une révolution." Quelques heures plus tôt, le roi a noté dans son journal à la date du 14 juillet : "Rien."
La prise de la Bastille constitue un symbole pour toute la France et probablement aussi pour beaucoup de nations. Il faut dire que les Historiens lui ont attribué une grande importance. C’est le symbole de la chute de l’ancien régime. Le Roi, de droit divin, pouvait emprisonner, d’une seule signature (les fameuses lettres de cachet) n’importe quel citoyen, du plus humble au plus puissant . Homme ou femme, au secret, ou traité comme un prince, les deux conditions alimentant paradoxalement la colère populaire.
Mais dans la Grande Histoire, cette prise de la Bastille n’est qu’une péripétie peu importante dans la Chronologie de la Révolution Française.
Le 11 Jul 1789, Louis XVI renvoie le ministre des finances et chef du gouvernement, Necker, le banquier, financier, fort bien vu par la bourgeoisie et le peuple. Ce qui crée une onde de choc et de nombreuses agitations. A tel point qu’un régiment royal (le Royal-Allemand) tire sur la foule et exaspère au plus haut point l’ensemble de la population.
Le lendemain, les électeurs réunis aux Etats Généraux élisent une commission permanente chargée essentiellement d’assurer l’approvisionnement de la ville (pour échapper aux spéculateurs très actifs) ainsi que le maintien de l’ordre, mais dans un sens non militaire. Les états généraux créent une milice civique (qui deviendra plus tard "Garde Nationale").
Après la prise de la Bastille, le Roi devra rappeler Necker et reconnaître le principe de la Garde Nationale à la tête de laquelle il nomme le Marquis de La Fayette. La prise de la Bastille représente surtout le fait que "le peuple" est apparu ce jour plus fort que le roi ! Ce fut la cinquième et la dernière prise de la Bastille de l'Histoire.
| The Bastille was a royal fortress in Paris,
but revolutionaries gave it an inflated notoriety by declaring it a state
prison. On 14 July 1789, militant Parisian workers stormed the fortress
and dismantled it. Although they claimed they were releasing prisoners,
their real purpose was to acquire weapons. This event triggered a three-year
reign of terror and political turmoil in which King Louis XVI was overthrown
and 1000 people, including the king and his wife Marie Antoinette, were
Parisian revolutionaries and mutinous troops storm and dismantle the Bastille, a royal fortress that had come to symbolize the tyranny of the Bourbon monarchs. This dramatic action signaled the beginning of the French Revolution, a decade of political turmoil and terror in which King Louis XVI was overthrown and tens of thousands of people, including the king and his wife Marie Antoinette, were executed. The Bastille was originally constructed in 1370 as a bastide, or "fortification," to protect the walled city of Paris from English attack. It was later made into an independent stronghold, and its name bastide was corrupted to Bastille.
The Bastille was first used as a state prison in the 17th century, and its cells were reserved for upper-class felons, political troublemakers, and spies. Most prisoners there were imprisoned without a trial under direct orders of the king. 30 meters high and surrounded by a moat 25 meters wide, the Bastille was an imposing structure in the Parisian landscape.
By the summer of 1789, France was moving quickly toward revolution. There were severe food shortages in France that year, and popular resentment against the rule of King Louis XVI was turning to fury. In June, the Third Estate, which represented commoners and the lower clergy, declared itself the National Assembly and called for the drafting of a constitution. Initially seeming to yield, Louis legalized the National Assembly but then surrounded Paris with troops and on 11 July dismissed (for the 2nd time) Jacques Necker, a popular minister of state who had supported reforms. In response, mobs began rioting in Paris at the instigation of revolutionary leaders.
Bernard-Jordan de Launay, the military governor of the Bastille, feared that his fortress would be a target for the revolutionaries and so requested reinforcements. A company of Swiss mercenary soldiers arrived on 07 July to bolster his garrison of 82 soldiers. The Marquis de Sade, one of the few prisoners in the Bastille at the time, was transferred to an insane asylum after he attempted to incite a crowd outside his window by yelling: "They are massacring the prisoners; you must come and free them." On 12 July, royal authorities transferred 250 barrels of gunpowder to the Bastille from the Paris Arsenal, which was more vulnerable to attack. Launay brought his men into the Bastille and raised its two drawbridges.
On 13 July, revolutionaries with muskets began firing at soldiers standing guard on the Bastille's towers and then took cover in the Bastille's courtyard when Launay's men fired back. That evening, mobs stormed the Paris Arsenal and another armory and acquired thousands of muskets. At dawn on 14 July a great crowd armed with muskets, swords, and various makeshift weapons began to gather around the Bastille.
Launay received a delegation of revolutionary leaders but refused to surrender the fortress and its munitions as they requested. He later received a second delegation and promised he would not open fire on the crowd. To convince the revolutionaries, he showed them that his cannons were not loaded. Instead of calming the agitated crowd, news of the unloaded cannons emboldened a group of men to climb over the outer wall of the courtyard and lower a drawbridge. Three hundred revolutionaries rushed in, and Launay's men took up a defensive position. When the mob outside began trying to lower the second drawbridge, Launay ordered his men to open fire. One hundred rioters were killed or wounded.
Launay's men were able to hold the mob back, but more and more Parisians were converging on the Bastille. At about 15:00, a company of deserters from the French army arrived. The soldiers, hidden by smoke from fires set by the mob, dragged five cannons into the courtyard and aimed them at the Bastille. Launay raised a white flag of surrender over the fortress. Launay and his men were taken into custody, the gunpowder and cannons were seized, and the seven prisoners of the Bastille were freed. Upon arriving at the Hôtel de Ville, where Launay was to be arrested by a revolutionary council, the governor was pulled away from his escort by a mob and murdered.
The capture of the Bastille symbolized the end of the ancien régime and provided the French revolutionary cause with an irresistible momentum. Joined by four-fifths of the French army, the revolutionaries seized control of Paris and then the French countryside, forcing King Louis XVI to accept a constitutional government. In 1792, the monarchy was abolished and Louis and his wife Marie-Antoinette were sent to the guillotine for treason in 1793. By order of the new revolutionary government, the Bastille was torn down. On 06 February 1790, the last stone of the hated prison-fortress was presented to the National Assembly. Today, 14 July Bastille Day is celebrated as the most important national holiday in France.
| 1720 Alexander van Bredael, Flemish artist born on 01
1716 Jan-Baptist Huysmans, Flemish artist born on 07 October 1654. — links to images.
1643 (or 21 March 1644) Hans Jordaens III lange Jan, Antwerp Flemish painter born in 1595.
(or 08 Oct) 1455 Antonio Pisan(ell)o di Puccio, Italian painter, draftsman, and medallist, born in 1395 before 27 November. MORE ON PISANELLO AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1992 Garrett Bardsley, who, on 20 August 2004, while fishing with his father Kevin Bardsley in the Uinta Mountains of Utah, went to change his wet shoes and to eat breakfast at their camp site, 200 meters away, and was not seen since. Presumably he wandered off, lost his way back, and must have died about 24 August 2004. —(070320)
1991 Chelsea Paige Smith, who, together with her brother Zachary Stratton Smith [16 Aug 1988–], was abducted from their home in Antioch, California, on 16 December 1997, by their non-custodial mother Elizabeth Stratton [03 Nov 1958~] who may be using the last name of Gould, Pugh, or Twain. —(070407)
1904 Isaac Bashevis Singer Yiddish novelist (Enemies Nobel 1978)
1890 Ossip Zadkine, Jewish Belorussian-born, English-raised French sculptor, draftsman, and printmaker, who died on 25 November 1967.
1874 'Abbas II, last khedive (Ottoman viceroy) of Egypt (1892-1914)
1866 Juliette Trulemans Wytsman, Belgian artist who died on 08 March 1925.
1862 Gustav Klimt, Austrian painter and draftsman who died on 06 February 1918. MORE ON KLIMT AT ART 4 FEBRUARY with links to images.
1857 Washing machine invented by Maytag.
1834 James Abbott McNeill Whistler, US-born artist who lived mostly as an expatriate and died on 17 July 1903. Author of Ten O'Clock Lecture (1885) and The Gentle Art of Making Enemies (1890). MORE ON WHISTLER AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1816 Edward Matthey Ward, English painter who died on 15 January 1816. MORE ON WARD AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1775 Jean-Louis Ducis, French painter who died on 03 March 1847. MORE ON DUCIS AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1750 Pieter Faes, Flemish artist who died on 22 December 1814.
1602 Giulio Raimundo Mazarini, is born a subject of the Pope, in the Kingdom in Naples. He would be known as “Jules Mazarin”, cardinal, French First Minister from 1642 to his 09 Mar 1661 death.
Fête à Liège
Depuis la Révolution Française, depuis les destructions (comme la célèbre Cathédrale Saint-Lambert) et les manifestations de soutien de la France à la Belgique et à Liège en particulier, la ville de Liège a toujours célébré le 14 Juillet comme une fête "nationale". Le mouvement de résistance à la Flandre n’a pas atténué ce souvenir, au contraire.
La recrudescence au XXème siècle de cet engouement séculaire s'explique en partie par l’attribution à la Ville de Liège de La Légion d’Honneur (c’est la seule ville qui l'ait reçu) pour son attitude courageuse et sa défense héroïque lors de l’agression allemande d’Août 1914, ce qui permit de retarder l’attaque à la France et donc à celle-ci de préparer son armée et d'éviter la défaite.. De nombreux liégeois y célèbrent leur désir de "rattachisme" à la France.