• Stalin released from jail... • Radzilow pogrom... • Samantha goes to USSR... • Mathematician W.H.Young dies... • Germans take Fort Vaux... • Nazis to sterilize Jews... • Chagall is born... • Carson terrorizes Amerindians... • The first Plymouth car... • Impeachment of Senator Blount... • Lincoln conspirators hanged... • Fluctuat nec mergitur...
a 07 July:
2000 Major General Larry Smith submits his resignation from the US Army, having been accused by Lieutenant General Claudia Kennedy of sexual harassment because he once grabbed her, held her against her will, and kissed her. It's her word against his, but the Army believes her because she has no motive for lying
2000 US President Clinton postponed the first federal execution since 1963 so that death row inmate Juan Raul Garza could ask for clemency under guidelines being updated by the government. (Garza would be executed on 19 June 2001, after Bush Jr. becomes US president).
1998 Newspapers report that the creators of the popular PalmPilot will leave 3Com, where they have developed the device. Jeff Hawkins and Donna Dubinsky say they planned to create their own company.
1996 US President Clinton delivered more Whitewater trial testimony before video cameras, this time testifying in case of two Arkansas bankers accused of making political contributions with bank funds. (A jury later acquitted Herby Branscum Jr. and Robert M. Hill of four counts and deadlocked on seven other counts; Whitewater prosecutor Kenneth Starr decided against retrying the bankers.)
| 1987 Lt Col Oliver North begins public testimony at
1986 IBM-PC DOS Version 3.2 (updated) released
1986 Supreme Court struck down Gramm-Rudman deficit-reduction law
1958 US President Eisenhower signs Alaska statehood bill
1930 Construction begins on Boulder Dam, later renamed Hoover Dam.
1905 53ºC, Parker Ariz (state record)
1904 Fermez les écoles religieuses! Toutes les congrégations religieuses, y compris celles qui jusque-là étaient autorisées, se voient interdire de dispenser un enseignement. La promulgation de cette loi entraînera la fermeture de 2400 écoles.
1898 US President McKinley signs resolution of annexation of Hawaiian Islands.
1863 first military draft by US (exemptions cost $100)
1789 In Paris, a company of Swiss mercenary soldiers arrives at the Bastille to bolster its garrison of 82 soldiers, at the request of Bernard-Jordan de Launay, the military governor of the Bastille, who feared that his fortress would be a target for the revolutionaries. There were severe food shortages in France that year, and popular resentment against the rule of King Louis XVI was turning to fury. In June, the Third Estate, which represented commoners and the lower clergy, had declared itself the National Assembly and called for the drafting of a constitution. Initially seeming to yield, Louis legalized the National Assembly but then surrounded Paris with troops and dismissed Jacques Necker, a popular minister of state who had supported reforms. In response, mobs began rioting in Paris at the instigation of revolutionary leaders.
1768 Firm of Johann Buddenbrook founded, in Thomas Mann's 1900 novel
1668 Isaac Newton receives MA from Trinity College, Cambridge
2006 Elias Hrawi, born on 04 September 1926, Syrian-puppet President of Lebanon from 24 November 1989 to 24 November 1998. —(060716)
2006 Raja Rao, born on 08 November 1908, of India, writer of English language novels and short stories. —(060716)
2005 !Lee Baisden, 34; !Benedetta Ciaccia 30; !Richard Ellery, 21; !Anne Muffat; !Fiona Stevenson, 29; !Carrie Taylor, 24;
#James Adams, 32; #Samantha Badham, 36; #Phil Beer, 22; #Anna Brandt, 42 (born in Poland); #Ciaran Cassidy, 22; #Elizabeth Daplyn, 26; #Arthur Edlin Frederick, 60; #Karolina Glueck, 29 (from Poland); Emily Jenkins, 24; Helen Jones, 28; #Susan Levy, 53; Shelley Marie Mather, 26 (Irish New Zealander); Michael Matsushita, 37 (born in Vietnam, grew up in New York); #James Stuart Mayes, 28; #Behnaz Mozakka, 47 woman (from Iran); #Mihaela “Michelle” Otto, 37; #Christian “Njoya” Small, 28; #Rachelle Lieng Siong Chung For Yuen, 27 (from Mauritius); probably #Ojara Ikeagwu, woman 55;
^Michael Stan Brewster, 53; ^Jon Downey, 34; ^David Foulkes, 22; ^Colin Morley, 52, ^Jennifer Nicholson, 24; ^Laura Webb, 29;
*Anthony Fatayi-Williams, 26 (from Nigeria); *Jamie Gordon, 30; Gamze Gunoral, woman 24 (born in Turkey); *Giles Hart, 55; Marie Hartley, 34; *Miriam Hyman, 32; *Shahara Akhter Islam, 20; *Neetu Jain, woman 37; *Sam Ly, 28 (from Australia); *Shayanuja Parathasangary, woman 30; *Anat Rosenberg, 55 (Israeli woman); *Philip Stuart Russell, 29; *Monika Suchocka, 23 (born in Poland); *William Wise, 54; *Gladys Wyndowa, 51;
?(undisclosed location): Michael Minh, 37 (from the US)
probably (at ?locations unknown to me): ?Philip Duckworth; ?Slimane Ihab, 19 (from France); ?Richard Gray, 41; ?Adrian Johnson, 37;
and three suicide bombers from Leeds: #Shahzad Tanweer, 22; *Hasib Hussain, 18; and ^Mohammad Sidique Khan, 30; and one suicide bomber born in Jamaica, !Lindsey Germaine, are believed to be among the (probably) 60 persons killed by 4 terrorist explosions in London, the first 3 almost simultaneous at 08:51 (07:51 UT) in the Underground, and the 4th on a bus [photo >]. One subway explosion is on an Aldgate Circle line train 100 meters from Liverpool Street station (! probably 9 dead), another on a Piccadilly line train near King's Cross and Russell Square stations (# probably 25 dead), the third at the Edgware Road station (^ probably 9 dead). The bus explosion was at Upper Woburn Square near Tavistock Place at 09:47 (* probably 17 dead); the bomb was possibly being taken to an Underground station and exploded accidentally in the rear of the top deck (where it caused less damage than if it had been on the bottom deck) of double-decker bus #30 which had taken an alternate route between Hackney Wick and Marble Arch. In all some 700 persons are injured, including, superficially, the Cretan-born bus driver, George Psaradakis, 49. Among the injured, #Lee Harris, 30, comatose, mate (since 09 Jul 1991) of Samantha Badham; dies on 16 July 2005, at which time another 50 of the injured were still hospitalized, 6 of them in a critical condition. Matsushita was from the Bronx in New York, which he had left after the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks.
2005 Lauren Pilkington-Smith, 10, abducted at 19:15 (18:15 UT) and murdered near her home on Twist Lane, in the Leigh suburb of Manchester, England, to which she was walking after playing with friends in nearby Firs park. Her parents are Alison Pilkington and Glen Smith.
2005 John Pennington, 68, a farmer, after being attacked and thrown into the air by a bull, at Yew Tree Farm, Dunham Massey, near Altrincham, England.
2003 Mazal Afari, 63, Israeli grandmother, and Ahmed Yehiya, 22 [< photo], Palestinian suicide bomber, at 21:00 (18:00 UT), in Afari's house in moshav Kfar Yavets, in the Sharon area north of Tel Aviv, Israel. 3 grandchildren of Afari are slightly injured.
2002:: 35 miners in fire in a mine in Donetsk, Ukraine.
2001 Khalil Ibrahim Al-Mugrabi, 11, by Israeli machine gun fire from a tank 300 m from where he had been playing soccer with some 30 other Palestinian children near the Yibneh refugee camp in the Gazan town of Raffah which borders Egypt. He was shot in the head. Ibrahim Abu Sussin, 10, was seriously wounded in the stomach. Suleiman Ibn Rijal,, 12, was hit in his left knee. The Israeli army conducted a cover-up that exonerated the soldiers. MORE from Ha'aretz
1995 Those killed as the siege of Srebrenica ends with its occupation by Bosnian Serb forces led by general Ratko Mladic [12 Mar 1942~]. During the civil war between Bosnian Serbs and Muslims, the UN had in 1993 obtained, on paper, the agreement of both sides to demilitarize the city and make it a safe enclave for Muslim refugees, under the protection of 600 Dutch peacekeepers (who are now taken hostage by the troops of Mladic). However Muslims forces under Naser Oric [03 Mar 1967~] had violated the agreement by remaining armed in Srebrenica and continuing their nighttime murderous raids against Serb civilians in nearby villages. On 11 July 1995 the occupying forces of Mladic would commit the Srebrenica Massacre of some 8000 Muslim men and boys.
1975 William Vallance Douglas Hodge, Scottish mathematician born on 17 June 1903. He developed the relationship between geometry, analysis and topology and is best remembered for his theory of harmonic integrals.
1967 Anatoly Ivanovich Malcev (or Maltsev) dies during a topology conference, Russian mathematician born on 27 November 1909. In 1955 he introduced Malcev algebras, natural generalizations of Lie algebras.
1956 7 Army trucks loaded with dynamite explode in the middle of Cali, Columbia killing 1100-1200, destroyimg 2000 buildings.
1897 Édouard Joseph Dantan, French painter born on 26 August 1848. MORE ON DANTAN AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1817 Pierre-Jean Boquet, French artist born in 1751.
1658 (buried) Adriaen Ivan Nieulandt, Flemish painter, draftsman, engraver, and broker, born in 1587.
1647 Thomas Hooker, on his 61st birthday, English clergyman, who emigrated to Massachusetts in 1633, then moved to Connecticut in 1636, where, without wanting to separate Church and State, he said that, not just church members, but the people have the God-given right to choose their magistrates, for which he is called the father of American democracy.
1959 Jessica Hahn evangelist rape victim/model (playboy)/actress
1954 T.A.N.U. party founded in Tanzania
1952 Li Hongzhi, founder of Falun Gong in 1992. In 1994 he started claiming as his date of birth 13 May (birthday of Sakyamuni, the founder of Buddhism) 1951. He worked on an army farm and as a trumpet player in a band before being discharged from the military in 1982 and finding work as a low-level official in his home town of Changchun. In 1991 he quit his job and began developing Falun Gong.
1933 David McCullough, historian-author.
Chrysler's Plymouth debuts
The Chrysler Corporation introduces the Plymouth as its newest car. The Plymouth project had taken three years to complete, as Chrysler engineers worked to build a reliable and affordable car to compete with the offerings of Ford and General Motors (GM). The Plymouth debutes with renowned aviator Amelia Earhart behind the wheel.
The publicity blitz brings 30'000 people to the Chicago Coliseum for a glimpse of the new car. With a delivery price of $670, the Plymouth is an attractive buy, and will sell over 80'000 units in its first year, forcing Chrysler to expand its production facilities drastically.
Chrysler is still negotiating its purchase of Dodge at the time, and the Plymouth plays a key role in winning over the confidence of Dodge shareholders. When Chrysler releases the DeSoto Six later in the year, it scores another important coup in the mid-range market, assuring its position as a competitor to Ford and GM.
Chrysler’s great success in the late twenties, along with its purchase of Dodge, gave the company momentum that would carry it through the Depression. Chrysler was the only car company to pay dividends to its shareholders throughout the Depression. While other companies were drowning from stifled cash flow, Chrysler managed to increase sales. In 1933 Chrysler became the only car company to best its sales of the 1929 boom year. All the while Chrysler continued to allocate resources to research and development, and by 1935 Chrysler had surpassed Ford to become the nation’s second largest car company.
| 1923 Jean Kerr Scranton Pa, novelist (Please Don't Eat
1922 Pierre Cardin Paris France, fashion designer (Unisex)
1922 Vladimir Alexsandrovich Marchenko, Ukrainian mathematician.
1919 William Kunstler (prosecutor: Watergate, Bernard Goetz)
1911 Gian Carlo Menotti Italy, (Pulitzer prize-winning opera composer: The Consul , The Saint of Bleeker Street , Amahl and the Night Visitors)
1908 Harriette Arnow Wayne Co, Ky, novelist (The Dollmaker)
1907 Robert A Heinlein sci-fi author (Stranger in a Strange Land)
1906 William Feller, Jewish Croatian US mathematician who died on 14 January 1970. [click on the name: more about that definitely non-fallow fellow Feller follows]
1893 Vladimir Mayakovsky Soviet Georgia, poet (Ode to Revolution)
1891 Lasar Segall, German Brazilian painter who died on 02 August 1957. — a bit more with links mostly to sea gull pictures rather than Segall pictures.
1887 Marc Chagall, Belorussian French painter and designer who died on 28 March 1985. MORE ON CHAGALL AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1860 Gustav Mahler Kalischat Bohemia Austria, composer/conductor (music used in 1971 movie: Death in Venice - of which he was the subject) (Titan)
1847 Robert Russ, Austrian artist who died on 16 March 1922.
1843 Hugo Fredrik Salmson, Swedish artist who died on 01 August 1894. — more
1843 Camillo Golgi, Italian physician and cytologist (Nobel 1906) who died on 21 January 1926.
1833 Félicien Joseph Victor Robs, Belgian artist who died on 22 August 1898.
1827 William Montegue Brown
1816 Johann Rudolf Wolf, Swiss mathematician who died on 06 December 1893.
1807 George Willem Opdenhoff, Dutch artist who died on 23 September 1873.
1775 Johann-Jakob Dorner II, German artist who died on 14 December 1852. Not to be confused with (his father? uncle?) the painter of The Hard Landlady, Johann-Jakob Dorner I [18 Jul 1741 – 22 May 1813].
From Maxim O'Ronn's Illustrated Dixshunnary: