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Events, deaths, births, of 06 JUL
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• Anne Frank hides... • Biafra fights for life... • Smog control... • Dupont diversifies... • Dalai Lama is born... • Pasteur  sauve un enfant de la rage... • Rebs take Hagerstown... • Chechen puppet mayor killed... • Satchmo dies... • Jaruzelski nait...
click for more images^  On a 06 July:
2003 Elections in Mexico for the 500 diputados federales, 6 governors, and many other state and local offices. Most of the 11 contending political parties are of recent creation and just hope to receive at least 2% of the votes each, so as to retain their official recognition. Only 41% of registered voters bother to cast a ballot. The PAN, with 30.5% of the votes, ends up losing 49 of its 202 diputados federales. The PRI, with 34% of the vote, adds 17 diputados to its 207. The PRD, with 17% of the vote adds 39 to its 56 diputados.
2002 Por segunda ocasión, el Tribunal Estatal Electoral del estado de Chihuahua resuelve anular las elecciones para Alcalde en Ciudad Juárez, en las que el panista Jesús Alfredo Delgado había obtenido por segunda vez el triunfo. Contra el voto del magistrado Jesús Salcido, el magistrado presidente del TEE, José Rodríguez Anchondo, resolvió la impugnación hecha por la Alianza Unidos por Juárez, de mayoría priísta. Con este fallo, el PAN aún puede impugnar esta decisión ante el Tribunal Federal Electoral. En los comicios extraordinarios del 12 mayo, durante el conteo, fueron anulados 10 mil 700 votos, lo que provocó suspicacias entre los representantes de la Alianza Unidos por Juárez, por lo que impugnaron el triunfo del candidato del PAN. The previous mayoral vote was held in July 2001. The PAN's victory then was annulled because it ran TV and radio spots for its candidates during a blackout period in Ciudad Juarez and across the border in El Paso, Texas.
2002 At a gasoline station in Inglewood, California, Black motorist Coby Chavis Jackson, is stopped by Los Angeles County sheriff's deputies. Inglewood police arrived as backup, and White policeman Jeremy Morse questions the motorist about his suspended driver's license and expired license plates. The motorist's mentally retarded son, Donovan Jackson, 16, reacts in a way that angers the policeman who handcuffs the boy. At this point, in a motel room across the street, Mitchell Crooks, 27, notices the commotion and starts videotaping it. The tape shows Morse slamming Donovan head first into a police car and slugging him in the face as other policemen converge. [a still from the video >] [MORE VIDEO STILLS] After the news comes out, several persons would complain that Morse had brutalized them, including Nelson Williams who would say that, on 23 June 2002, Morse and other policemen had beaten him so badly that he fell into a coma. On 11 July 2000 Mitchell Crooks is arrested on pre-existing Placer County warrants for petty theft and driving under the influence of alcohol with a hit-and-run.
2001 Consistent with his past statements, Pope John Paul II says: “Restrictive economic measures imposed from outside are unjust and ethically unacceptable." This time it is to the US embargo against Cuba that he refers.
2000 The German parliament offered a formal apology to Nazi-era slave and forced laborers as it passed a bill setting up a $5 billion compensation fund.
2000 The body of 19-year-old Cory Erving, son of basketball star Julius "Dr. J" Erving, is found in his car at the bottom of a Florida pond; he'd been missing since May 28.
1997 Los restos del guerrillero Ernesto "Che" Guevara aparecen en una fosa común de Vallegrande (Bolivia).
1996. US President Clinton announced the biggest changes in the rules governing meat and poultry safety in 90 years.
1995 IBM buys Lotus.  In a remarkably swift deal, Lotus accepted a hostile takeover bid launched by IBM the previous day. IBM pays $3.52 billion for the company, which had risen on the strength of its Lotus 1-2-3 database in the early 1980s and later developed the successful Lotus Notes groupware. The deal is the largest takeover of a software company to date.
1991 US President Bush (Sr.) sent a personal message to Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev, urging a stronger effort to conclude arms control talks.
1989 Mijail Sergueevich Gorbachov se compromete a respetar la libertad de los países del Este para elegir su sistema político-social.
1989 The U.S. Army destroyed its last Pershing 1-A missiles at an ammunition plant in Karnack, Texas, under terms of the 1987 Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty.
1988 Carlos Salinas de Gortari elected president of Mexico
1986 Fracasa un intento de golpe de Estado en Filipinas, capitaneado por Arturo Tolentino, contra el Gobierno de Cory Aquino.
1983 US Supreme Court rules retirement plans can't pay women less
1982 En España, Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo y Bustelo dimite como presidente de Unión de Centro Democrático (UCD) y Landelino Lavilla Alsina es elegido sustituto por unanimidad.
^ 1981 Dupont diversifies...(and years later will divests)        
      Though the Dupont Company was hardly on the verge of oblivion, the 1970s witnessed the chemical king beginning to sweat a bit under the strain of international competition. By the dawn of the 1980s, Dupont was taking serious action to stave off the pack. Along with beefing up its marketing efforts, the company looked to bolster its bottom line through diversification. These efforts came to fruition on 06 July 1981, as Dupont officials announced plans to merge with Houston-based oil and energy titan, Conoco Inc. Valued at between $6.5 and $7 billion, the deal then stood as the single biggest merger in U.S. corporate history.
      Despite the rather hefty outlay for Conoco, Dupont didn't stop diversifying: throughout the decade, the company spent a total of $10 billion to seal a heady series of acquisitions and joint ventures. But, as the 1980s melted into a new decade, Dupont's strategy shifted; by the mid-1990s, the company was ready to close the books on its splashy dalliance with the energy industry. In 1998, Dupont unveiled plans to gradually divest itself of Conoco via offerings to the public and its shareholders alike.
1981 María Estela Martínez de Perón recupera la libertad y abandona Argentina para fijar su residencia en España.
1978 Israeli jet fighters swoop over mostly Moslem West Beirut
1978 Se concede la independencia a las Islas Salomón.
^ 1976 Women inducted into U.S. Naval Academy        
      In Annapolis, Maryland, the United States Naval Academy admits women for the first time in its history with the induction of eighty-one female midshipmen. In May of 1980, Elizabeth Anne Rowe became the first female member of the class to graduate, and four years later, Kristine Holderied became the first female midshipman to graduate at the top of her class. On October 10, 1845, the U.S. Naval Academy opened in Annapolis, Maryland, with fifty midshipmen students and seven professors. Known as the Naval School until 1850, the curriculum included mathematics and navigation, gunnery and steam, chemistry, English, natural philosophy, and French. The Naval School officially became the U.S. Naval Academy in 1850, and a new curriculum went into effect requiring midshipmen to study at the Academy for four years and to train aboard ships each summer--the basic format that remains at the academy to this day.
1975 Comoros declare independence from France (most of them)
1972 El presidente del Partido Liberal Demócrata, Kakuei Tanaka, es nombrado primer ministro del Japón y comienza un acercamiento a China.
1971 White House Plumbers unit formed to plug news leaks
1971 Hastings Kamuzu Banda se autoproclama presidente vitalicio de la República y del Partido del Congreso de Malawi.
^ 1967 Newborn Biafra fights for its life        
      Five weeks after the breakaway state of Biafra declared its independence from Nigeria, civil war breaks out between Biafran and Nigerian government forces. In 1966, six years after Nigeria won its independence, the Muslim Hausas in northern Nigeria began massacring the Christian Igbos in the region, prompting tens of thousands of Igbos to flee to the east, where their people were the dominant ethnic group.
      The Igbos doubted that Nigeria's oppressive military government would allow them to develop, or even survive, and so on May 30, 1967, Lieutenant Colonel Chukwuemeka Ojukwu and other Igbo and non-Igbo representatives of the area established the Republic of Biafra, comprising the East-Central, South-Eastern, and Rivers states of Nigeria. After diplomatic efforts by Nigeria failed to reunite the country, war between Nigeria and Biafra breaks out. Ojukwu's forces make some initial advances, but Nigeria's superior military would gradually reduce the territory under Biafran control.
      The breakaway state lost its oil fields--its main source of revenue--and without the funds to import food, at least a million of its civilians died as a result of severe malnutrition. With the exception of a few African states, the international community largely ignored the plight of the Biafran people. On January 11, 1970, Nigerian forces captured the provincial capital of Owerri, one of the last Biafran strongholds, and Biafran leader Ojukwu was forced to flee to the Ivory Coast. Four days later, on January 15, 1970, Biafra surrendered to Nigeria.
1966 Malawi becomes a republic
1964 Malawi (then Nyasaland) gains independence from Britain (Natl Day)
^ 1964 Viet Cong attack US Special Forces at Nam Dong        
      At Nam Dong in the northern highlands of South Vietnam, an estimated 500-man Viet Cong battalion attacks a US Special Forces outpost. During a bitter battle, Capt. Roger C. Donlon, commander of the Special Forces A-Team, rallied his troops, treated the wounded, and directed defenses although he himself was wounded several times. After five hours of fighting, the Viet Cong withdrew. The battle resulted in an estimated 40 Viet Cong killed; two Americans, 1 Australian military adviser, and 57 South Vietnamese defenders also lost their lives. At a White House ceremony in December 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson presented Captain Donlon with the first Medal of Honor of the Vietnam War
^ 1963 Hopes for peaceful coexistence with USSR, in US government.        
      In the light of a deepening ideological rift between the Soviet Union and China, U.S. officials express their belief that Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev will seek closer relations with the United States. Unfortunately, the optimism was somewhat misplaced. Although China and the Soviet Union announced a serious split in mid-July 1963, Khrushchev's days in office were numbered. Officials in the U.S. government watched with tremendous interest the developing rift between the Soviet Union and China in the early 1960s. The ideological split centered around the Chinese perception that the Russians were becoming too "soft" in their revolutionary zeal and too accommodating to Western capitalist powers. In mid-1963, Chinese and Soviet representatives met in Moscow to try to mend the damage. U.S. diplomats were convinced that the rift was irreversible. As a consequence, they believed Khrushchev would become much more receptive to better relations with the United States in order to isolate further the communist Chinese.
      Thus, on 06 July 1963, the New York Times carried several related stories, based on statements from "responsible" figures in the administration of President John F. Kennedy, about the hopes for a meaningful "peaceful coexistence" between the Soviet Union and United States. Khrushchev himself had coined the term "peaceful coexistence" in the late 1950s, indicating that the hope for better U.S.-Soviet relations was not entirely one-sided. Kennedy obviously hoped to build on these feelings to prepare the way for the success of arms control talks with the Soviets scheduled for later in the month. This hope was realized when the Soviet Union and United States signed a treaty banning the aboveground testing of nuclear weapons in August 1963. Just a few days after the newspaper stories concerning improved U.S.-Soviet relations, the Russians and Chinese officially announced their ideological split. Any benefits the United States hoped would accrue from this development in terms of a closer working relationship with Khrushchev, however, were swept away in 1964 when the Russian leader was removed from power by more hard-line elements of the Soviet government. Almost overnight, talk of "peaceful coexistence" disappeared and the Cold War divisions once again hardened.
1960 Se inaugura una exposición de Pablo Ruiz Picasso en la Tate Gallery de Londres.
1959 Saar becomes part of German Federal Republic
1958 Alaska becomes the 49th US state
^ 1955 Diem says South Vietnam not bound by Geneva Agreements        
      South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem declares in a broadcast that since South Vietnam had not signed the Geneva Agreements, South Vietnam was not bound by them. Although Diem did not reject the "principle of elections," he said that any proposals from the communist Viet Minh were out of the question "if proof is not given us that they put the higher interest of the national community above those of communism." The Geneva Conference had begun on 26 April 1954, to negotiate an end to the First Indochina War between the French and the Viet Minh forces of Ho Chi Minh. The negotiations resulted in the signing of a truce on 20 July.
      The agreement fixed a provisional demarcation line roughly along the 17th parallel (which would eventually be most improperly called the Demilitarized Zone, DMZ), pending countrywide elections to be held in July 1956. It also allowed the evacuation of French forces north of that line, and Viet Minh forces south of it. Freedom of movement from either zone was allowed for 300 days, and restrictions were imposed on future military alliances. An International Control Commission was formed with representatives from India, Canada, and Poland to supervise implementation of the agreement, including the scheduled elections. The whole package of agreements became known as the Geneva Accords.
      The agreement was reached over the objections of South Vietnam, which refused to sign it. Likewise, the United States did not concur with the accords, but pledged that it would refrain from use of force or the threat of force to disturb their provisions. However, United States representatives declared that the U.S. would look upon renewed aggression in violation of the agreement "with grave concern." The Geneva Accords ended the war between the French and Viet Minh, but set the stage for renewed conflict. When Diem, realizing the strength of Ho Chi Minh's support in South Vietnam, blocked the elections that were called for in the accords, the United States, citing alleged North Vietnamese truce violation, supported him. No longer able to use the elections as a means to reunify Vietnam, the communists turned to force of arms to defeat South Vietnam. This war lasted until 1975, when the North Vietnamese launched their final offensive. South Vietnam, no longer supported by the United States, which had departed in 1973, fell to the communists in 55 days.
^ 1955 Smog control        
      The Federal Air Pollution Control Act was implemented on this day in 1955, providing federally allocated funds for research into causal analysis and control of car-emission pollution. Concern over the effects of air-pollution had mounted steadily in the U.S. as urban sprawl increased.
     The disastrous fog and attendant high levels of sulfur dioxide and particulate pollution (and probably also sulfuric acid) that occurred in London in the second week of December 1952 led to the deaths of more than 4000 people during that week and the subsequent three weeks. Many, but not all, of the victims already had chronic heart or lung disease. Prize cattle at an agricultural show also died in the same period as a result of the air pollution. Though both the cause and the precise effects of the fog were unclear, the phenomenon sparked an international concern about the effects of emissions pollution.
      The following year, Dr. Arie Haagen-Smit discovered the nature of photochemical smog, determining that nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons combined with ultraviolet radiation from the sun created smog. He also discovered that ozone played a key role in the bonding process that created smog. It was at this time that the U.S. began a rapid shift from coal as an energy source, replacing it with natural gas.
      It would not be until 1960 that the government specifically addressed car-emissions pollution as a legal issue, with the Federal Motor Vehicle Act of 1960, calling for further research and development into the control of car emissions. The next year, the first automotive emissions control technology--positive crankcase ventilation (PCV)--was mandated by the California Motor Vehicle Board. PCV technology limited hydrocarbon emission by returning blow-by gases from the crankcase back to a car's cylinders, where they were burned with fuel and air. In 1963, the first Federal Clean-Air Act was passed, allocating research money for local and federal institutions to combat air-pollution.
1953 El coronel Adib Al-Sisa-Kli es elegido presidente de la República Siria.
1952 En México, Adolfo Ruiz Cortines, candidato del PRI (Partido Revolucionario Institucional), vence en las elecciones presidenciales en una jornada marcada por los desórdenes.
1947 La ley de Sucesión en la Jefatura del Estado Español en favor de Francisco Franco Bahamonde es refrendada por un 92% de los votos.
1946 Argentina reivindica la soberanía sobre las islas Malvinas. El Parlamento solicita al Gobierno que se someta el pleito con Gran Bretaña al consejo de seguridad de la ONU.
1945 Nicaragua becomes first nation to accept UN Charter.
Anne Frank1942 Frank family hides from Nazis         ^top^
      In Nazi-occupied Holland, thirteen-year-old Jewish diarist Anne Frank and her family were forced to take refuge in a secret sealed-off area of an Amsterdam warehouse. The day before, Anne's older sister, Margot, had received a call-up notice to be deported to a Nazi "work camp."
      Born in Germany on June 12, 1929, Anne Frank fled to Amsterdam with her family in 1933 to escape Nazi persecution. In the summer of 1942, with the German occupation of Holland underway, twelve-year-old Anne began a diary relating her everyday experiences, her relationship with her family and friends, and observations about the increasingly dangerous world around her.
      Just a few months later, under threat of deportation to Nazi concentration camps, the Frank family was forced into hiding in a secret sealed-off area of an Amsterdam warehouse. Over the next two years, under the threat of murder by the Nazi officers patrolling just outside the warehouse, Anne kept a diary that is marked by poignancy, humor, and insight.
      On 4 August 1944, just two months after the successful Allied landing at Normandy, the Nazi Gestapo discovered the Frank’s "Secret Annex." Along with another Jewish family with whom they had shared the hiding place, and two of the Christians who had helped shelter them, the Franks were sent to the Nazi death camps. Anne and most of the others had ended up at the Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland, although her diary was left behind, undiscovered by the Nazis.
      In early 1945, with the Soviet liberation of Poland underway, Anne was moved with her sister, Margot, to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany. Suffering under the deplorable conditions of the camp, the two sisters caught typhus and died in early March, probably on March 12 in the case of Anne..
      After the war, Anne’s diary was discovered undisturbed in the Amsterdam hiding place, and in 1947, was translated into English and published. An instant bestseller which was eventually translated into over thirty languages, The Diary of Anne Frank has served as a literary testament to the six million Jews, including Anne herself, who were silenced in the Holocaust.
1940 Japan demands that the Burma road be closed by the British. It is a key supply route of arms for China, Japan's prey. Britain initially balks at the request but, fearing a declaration of war by a third enemy, caves in and closes the road, though only for a limited period.
1936 En la revista Time aparece la crítica literaria de la  novela Gone With the Wind, de Margaret Munnerlyn Mitchell.
1936 46ºC, Moorhead, Minnesota (state record)
1936 49ºC, Steele, North Dakota (state record)
1932 first class postage back up to 3 cents from 2 cents
1931 Entra en vigor en Estados Unidos la moratoria sobre las deudas de guerra, decretada por Herbert Clark Hoover para reactivar las exportaciones.
1928 first all-talking motion picture shown, in NY (Lights of NY)
1928 Worlds largest hailstone 1« lbs (17') falls in Potter Nebraska
1925 Se constituye en España el Partido de la Unión Patriótica, presidido por el general Miguel Primo de Rivera.
1924 first photo sent experimentally across Atlantic by radio, US-England
1922 Jacinto Benavente y Martínez pierde en Nueva York el pleito sobre La malquerida interpuesto contra John Underhill, traductor al inglés de sus obras.
1917 Lawrence de Arabia triunfa en su empeño de unificar a los árabes contra el Imperio otomano. — During World War I, Arab forces led by T.E. Lawrence captured the port of Aqaba from the Turks
1914 Monday : in the aftermath of the June 28 assassination in Sarajevo of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary and of his wife, Sophia:
  • Having completed his meeting with Hoyos and Szogyeny, the Kaiser departs for his annual North Sea cruise. The twenty day cruise had been planned for months and the Kaiser saw nothing in events that would cause him to cancel it. Besides it might appear that something was wrong should the cruise be cancelled.
  • 1908 Robert Peary's expedition sails from NYC for the North Pole
    1906 Se encarga al general José López Domínguez la formación de un nuevo gobierno en España.
    1894 Cleveland sends 2000 troops to Chicago to suppress Pullman strike
    Pasteur successfully tests an anti-rabies vaccine on a boy who had been bitten by an infected dog.        
    1885 Pasteur sauve un enfant de la rage

          Joseph Meister va mourir, il a été mordu par un chien enragé. Si Pasteur le laisse repartir pour l'Alsace, le jeune garçon va mourir dans les atroces souffrances que provoque la rage. Il faut essayer. Même si ce vaccin réalisé avec de la moelle desséchée prélevée sur des lapins rabiques ne peut être considéré comme sûr. L'académie condamne la tentative de Pasteur. Certains laissent entendre que si Louis Pasteur a pu mettre au point un procédé qui permet la conservation des liquides fermentescibles, cela ne l'autorise pas pour autant à pratiquer la médecine. Pasteur, en ce jour, inocule pourtant le vaccin au petit Joseph. La mort de l'enfant, quelques jours plus tard, n'empêche pas qu'une page de l'histoire de la médecine ait été tournée. En réalité, ce n’est pas Pasteur qui injecta le vaccin. Selon la Loi Française, il n’en avait pas le droit. C’est un de ses assistants qui le fit ! Pasteur n’était pas médecin.
    1864 España se convierte en país pionero en el reconocimiento de la Cruz Roja como sociedad de utilidad pública.
    ^ 1864 Early capture of Hagerstown, Maryland        
          Confederate General Jubal Early's troops cross the Potomac River and occupy Hagerstown, Maryland. Early had sought to threaten Washington, D.C., and thereby relieve pressure on General Robert E. Lee, who was fighting to keep Ulysses S. Grant out of Richmond. During the brutal six-week campaign against Grant in June 1864, Lee was under tremendous pressure. On 12 June he dispatched Jubal Early to Lynchburg, in western Virginia, to hold off a Union attack by General David Hunter. After defeating Hunter, Early was ordered to head down the Shenandoah Valley to the Potomac. Lee hoped that this threat to Washington would force Grant to return part of his army to the capital and protect it from an embarrassing capture by the Confederates. Lee was inspired by a similar Shenandoah campaign by Stonewall Jackson in 1862, in which Jackson occupied three Federal armies in a brilliant military show. However, the circumstances were different in 1864. Grant now had plenty of men, and Lee was stretched thin around the Richmond-Petersburg perimeter. Still, the first part of Early's raid was successful. His force crossed the Potomac on 06 July and a cavalry brigade under John McCausland rode into Hagarstown. Early instructed McCausland to demand $200,000 from the city officials of Hagarstown for damages caused by Hunter in the Shenandoah Valley, but McCausland felt the amount was too large, so he asked for $20,000. After receiving the money, Early's army turned southeast toward Washington. The Confederates reached the outskirts of the city before being turned away by troops from Grant's army.
    1863 Northern Territory passes from New South Wales to South Australia
    ^ 1862 Mark Twain begins reporting in Virginia City
          Writing under the name of Mark Twain, Samuel Clemens begins publishing news stories in the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise. Born in Missouri in 1835, Clemens followed a circuitous route to becoming an observer and writer of the American West. As a young man he apprenticed as a printer and worked in St. Louis, New York, and Philadelphia. In 1856, he briefly considered a trip to South America where he thought he could make money collecting coca leaves. A year later, he became a riverboat pilot apprentice on the Mississippi River, and worked on the water for the next four years. In 1861, Clemens' brother Orion was appointed secretary to the territorial governor of Nevada. Clemens jumped at the offer to accompany Orion on his western adventure. He spent his first year in Nevada prospecting for a gold or silver mine but was no more successful than the vast majority of would-be miners.
          In need of money, he accepted a job as reporter for a Virginia City, Nevada, newspaper called The Territorial Enterprise. His articles covering the bustling frontier-mining town began to appear on this day in 1862. Like many newspapermen of the day, Clemens adopted a pen name, signing his articles with the name Mark Twain, a term from his old river boating days. Clemens' stint as a Nevada newspaperman revealed an exceptional talent for writing. In 1864, he traveled farther West to cover the booming state of California. Fascinated by the frontier life, Clemens drew on his western experiences to write one of his first published works of fiction, the 1865 short story The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County. The success of this classic western tall tale catapulted Clemens out of the West, and he became a world-hopping journalist for a California newspaper.
          In 1869, Clemens settled in Buffalo, New York, and later in Hartford, Connecticut. All told, Clemens spent only a little more than five years in the West, and the majority of his subsequent work focused on the Mississippi River country and the Northeast. As a result, Clemens can hardly be defined as a western writer. Still, his 1872 account of his western adventures, Roughing It, remains one of the most original and evocative eyewitness accounts of the frontier ever written. More importantly, even his non-western masterpieces like Tom Sawyer (1876) and Huckleberry Finn (1884) reflected a frontier mentality in their rejection of eastern pretentiousness and genteel literary conventions.
    ^ 1809 Victoire à Wagram        
          Napoléon est encore face aux armées autrichiennes. Le Danube sépare les deux armées. Le 4, Napoléon fait occuper l'île Lobau. pendant un violent orage, vers 9 heures du soir, l'empereur fait jeter sur le bras nord du fleuve trois ponts, par lesquels ils fait passer ses troupes. Le 5, l'armée française affronte en vain les Autrichiens. Leur position en équerre surprend l'empereur. Mais le 6, son plan de bataille prend en compte ce qu'il a découvert.
          La bataille commence par une intense préparation d'artillerie. Et l'attaque est lancée à la charnière de l'équerre autrichienne. L'armée autrichienne, coupée en deux, se replie. Epuisée, la cavalerie française ne parvient pas à poursuivre les fuyards. Qu'importe à l'empereur qui écrit à Joséphine : "L'armée ennemie fuit en désordre et tout marche selon mes voeux. Mes pertes sont assez fortes ; mais la victoire est décisive et complète." Les conditions imposées par Napoléon furent très dures : cession de la Carinthie, de l’Istrie, de la Carniole ainsi que de Trieste, plaque tournante d’un important trafic de contrebande. Cet ensemble fut rattaché aux provinces de l’Illyrie et placé sous la souveraineté d’un gouverneur Français.
    1798 US law makes aliens "liable to be apprehended, restrained,... and removed as alien enemies"
    ^ 1789 Le peuple de Paris réclame du pain        
          Introuvable, le délicieux pain de Gonesse... Le pain-ballet, quoique de qualité inférieur, manque lui aussi. Quant au pain d'alise pétri avec les reste de pâte manque tout autant. Les compagnons boulangers et les artisans les autorités municipales d'être responsables de cette situation. Les blés de printemps ont gelé, l'approvisionnement est irrégulier. La foule gronde devant les boulangeries de Paris qui doivent nourrir 600'000 bouches. Le peuple de Paris, pour lequel le pain est le fondement de la nourriture quotidienne, crie : " Vivre, c'est mordre dans son pain ".
    1785 Congress decides on US currency named "dollar" and adopts decimal coinage
    1777 British General Burgoyne captures Fort Ticonderoga from Americans
    1713 Juan Manuel Fernández Pacheco, marqués de Villena, resulta elegido primer director de la Real Academia Española de la Lengua.
    1699 Captain William Kidd arrested in Boston
    1685 Bataille de Sedgemoor en Angleterre. Jacques II écrase les paysans des ducs de Monmouth et d'Argyll. Malgré cette victoire, il ne restera que quelques mois sur le trône et viendra se réfugier en France où il finira ses jours.
    1483 England's King Richard III crowned.
    < 05 Jul 07 Jul >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 06 July:

    ^ 2005 Claude-Eugène-Henri Simon, French writer born on 10 October 1913 in Tananarive, Madagascar. His works are among the most authentic representatives of the French nouveau roman that emerged in the 1950s. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1985.
          The son of a cavalry officer who was killed in World War I, Simon was raised by his mother in Perpignan, France. After studies at Paris, Oxford, and Cambridge, he traveled widely and then fought in World War II. He was captured by the Germans in May 1940, escaped, and joined the French Resistance, managing to complete his first novel, Le Tricheur (1945), during the war years. Later he settled in his hometown in southern France, where he cultivated vineyards.
          In Le Vent (1957) Simon defined his goals: to challenge the fragmentation of his time and to rediscover the permanence of objects and people evidenced by their survival through the upheavals of contemporary history. He treated the turmoil of the Spanish Civil War in La Corde raide (1947) and Le Sacre du printemps (1954) and the 1940 collapse of France in Le Tricheur. Four novels, L'Herbe (1958), La Route des Flandres (1960), Le Palace (1962), and Histoire (1967), constitute a cycle containing recurring characters and events. Many critics consider these novels, especially La Route des Flandres, to be his most important work. Later novels include La Bataille de Pharsale (1969) and Triptyque (1973).
          His style is a mixture of narration and stream of consciousness, lacking all punctuation and heavy with 1000-word sentences. Through such masses of words, Simon attempts to capture the very progression of life; his novels remain readable despite their seeming chaos.
    Qadir 27 Nov 20012004 Thomas Klestil, of heart failure, born 04 November 1932, president of Austria since 08 July 1992, two days before the expiration of his 2nd and final term of office. He restaured the reputation of Austria which had been damaged by revelations of the Nazi past of his predecessor, former UN Secretary General Kurt Waldheim [21 Dec 1918~].
    2004 Moran Vardi, 25; Amrad Hajad Hanani, 26; Yamen Faraj, 27; Dr. Khaled Saleh, and his son Mohammed Saleh, 16; in attack soon after midnight by Israeli Navy Seals commando unit Shayetet 13, commanded by Capt. Vardi, on a building in a refugee camp in Nablus, West Bank, in which were Faraj, local commander of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, and Hanani, his deputy. Innocent civilians Dr. Saleh, an academic from An Najah University, and his son were killed by missiles fired from Israeli helicopters at Faraj.
    2002 Abdul Qadir and his son-in-law, by two gunmen firing assault rifles, in Kabul, at about 12:40. Since the establishing of the new government in June 2002, Qadir was one of Afghanistan's three Vice-Presidents and head of the Ministry of Public Works which he was just leaving, his son-in-law driving. [27 Nov 2001 photo: Qadir, then post-Taliban governor of the Pashtun province of Nangarhar, at the UN-sponsored Afghan talks , in Koenigswinter, Germany, to plan the interim government. >]
    2002 Palestinian sources said yesterday that a Palestinian woman and her two-year-old daughter were killed by IDF gunfire in the Gaza Strip. A review conducted last night by the IDF division commander in the area, Col. Yoel Sarik, revealed that there was IDF gunfire in the area at the time. Whether the mother and child were caught in the gunfire still remains to determined. According to Palestinian reports, the woman, Randa al-Hindi, 42, and her daughter, Nur, were traveling at 5 A.M. on the road from Khan Yunis to Gaza, following a visit to relatives. Palestinian sources said the two were hit by light-weapons fire close to the Sheikh Ajlin neighborhood south of the city. A conflicting report said the car in which the two had been traveling had been hit by a tank shell. A third Palestinian, Subhi Shurab, 40, was killed at the weekend in Khan Yunis, close to the Katif Bloc settlements. Palestinian sources said the man was killed by IDF gunfire.
    2002 Randa al-Hindi, 42, and her daughter, Nur, 2, Palestinians, by Israeli gunfire or a tank shell, close to the Sheikh Ajlin neighborhood south of Gaza city, as they were traveling at 05:00 on the road from Khan Yunis to Gaza, following a visit to relatives.
    2002 Subhi Shurab, 40, Palestinian, by Israeli army gunfire, in Khan Yunis, close to the Katif Bloc settlements.
    2002 Priscila Jemutai, Kenya Wildlife Service ranger, by a lion, who is limping from an injury, in Lake Nakuru National Park. The death penalty would soon be applied to the lion, without a trial.
    ^ 2001 Ramzan Gasayev, puppet administrator of Alkhan-Kala, executed by Chechen patriots.
         Five masked men shot Gasayev at point-blank range in the evening when he opened the door to his house. The gunmen left a note saying the execution was revenge for the death of Chechen patriot field commander Arbi Barayev, who was killed in a Russian military sweep of Alkhan-Kala the previous week. Russian officials said Barayev was killed during an eight-day military operation in which troops surrounded Alkhan-Kala and searched it for “rebels”.
         This same day a Human Rights Watch report says that Russian forces in Chechnya have arbitrarily detained hundreds and possibly thousands of Chechen men in a new round of sweep operations like the one in Alkhan-Kala. Eyewitnesses from several villages report torture, ill-treatment and extortion of the detainees. The present level of arbitrary detentions is unprecedented. This amounts to collective punishment and is absolutely unacceptable.
    2001 Three Russian soldiers in 13 attacks by Chechen patriots on the occupiers' positions and checkpoints.
    2001 Six Russian combat policemen when their vehicles hit landmines in occupied Grozny, Chechnia.
    2001: 11 persons, by falling tree. Some 120 mostly teenagers at an outdoor Yiddish music concert at the Château Pourtalès park, in a northern Strasbourg suburb, took refuge from the rain in a tent, when, at about 22:00, sudden winds of up to 150 km/h blew a huge plane tree, similar to a sycamore, down onto the tent. 85 were injured, 17 of them seriously.
    2000 Some heat victims in Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Greece, Romania, as, for the third day, a Saharan air mass pushes temperatures to records unequalled in 112 years, to as much as 45ºC and some 10ºC above normal. Air conditioning in those countries is not as common as in the southern US.
    2000 Michael Costin, 40, in a coma from having his head pounded on the floor by the much stronger Thomas Junta, 40, the previous day, in an argument about their 10-year-old sons hockey practice in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Junta would be tried for this in January 2002, convicted of involuntary manslaughter on 11 January 2002, and sentenced on 25 January 2002 to 6-to-10 years in prison as asked by the prosecution, the judge commenting that he would have preferred the maximum, 20 years.
    ^ 1994 Gary Kildall, software pioneer, killed in bar brawl        
          Gary Kildall, inventor of an early personal computer operating system, is killed in a brawl at a biker bar in Monterey, California. Before the development of the IBM PC and the dominance of MS-DOS, almost all personal computers ran on CP/M, Kildall's operating system. In 1980, Kildall rejected an offer from IBM to license his operating system to run the new IBM PC. Instead, IBM bought a simple operating system from Bill Gates for $50'000, ensuring Microsoft's future prosperity.
    Brandon as Joey
    1989 Janos Kadar
    , político y primer ministro húngaro.

    1987 First of 3 massacres by Sikh extremists takes place in India

    1972 André Brandon De Wilde, actor born on 09 April 1942 into a theatrical family. He made a much-acclaimed Broadway debut at the age of nine in The Member of the Wedding. He was the first child actor to win the Donaldson Award and went on to repeat his role in the film version directed by Fred Zinnemann in 1952. As the blond, blue-eyed Joey who idolizes the strange gunman (Alan Ladd) in Shane (1953) [movie still >], he stole the picture and was rewarded with an Oscar nomination the following year. He starred in his own television series, Jamie, during 1953-1954 and made his mark as a screen adolescent during the sixties playing younger brothers in All Fall Down and Hud starring Paul Newman. However, he managed to keep his career building up to his adult status. While on route to appear in the play Butterflies are free, he was killed in a car crash.
    ^ 1971 Louis Armstrong, 69. in New York City        
          Jazz owes an immeasurable debt to the innovations of the legendary "Satchmo," . He virtually taught himself the trumpet, and displayed a musical mastery in his innovations of early day blues and dixieland--music that inspired the swing eras of the 1920s and 1930s. Satchmo also invented "skat," a technique of singing jazz improvisations as he might play them on his horn. (Hello Dolly)
         Louis Armstrong, trompettiste et chanteur noir étasunien. Louis Armstrong est, avec " Duke " Ellington et Charlie Parker, un des trois génies reconnus de la musique de jazz. Alors que le jazz instrumental était encore proche des fanfares, que l’improvisation sur un thème donné -- une des caractéristiques essentielles de cet art -- se déployait surtout collectivement et à l’intérieur de cadres assez étroits, Armstrong inaugura le règne du soliste, donnant l’exemple, par son imagination créatrice, d’une liberté et d’une richesse d’expression jusqu’alors inconnues.
          De ce fait, l’importance, sur le plan esthétique, du grand trompettiste et chanteur noir constitue également un fait historique décisif : d’entreprise collective, liée à un milieu et à toutes sortes d’alluvions culturelles, le jazz, grâce à Armstrong, acquiert en effet son unité, sa dimension d’universalité et ses moyens originaux, à partir desquels deviendront possibles création et évolution, bref, les apports successifs des individualités qui jalonnent son histoire.
    "Satchmo" stamp     Louis "Satchmo" Armstrong was one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century. A world-renowned jazz trumpeter and vocalist, he pioneered jazz improvisation and the style known as swing. Louis Daniel Armstrong was born in New Orleans, the birthplace of jazz, in 1901. He grew up in poverty and from a young age was interested in music. In 1912, he was incarcerated in the Colored Waif's Home for Boys, allegedly for firing a gun into the air on New Year's Eve. While there, he played cornet in the home's band. Upon his release, he dedicated himself to becoming a professional musician and soon was mastering local jazz styles on the cornet. He attracted the attention of cornetist Joe "King" Oliver, and when Oliver moved to Chicago in 1919 he took his place in trombonist Kid Ory's band, a leading group in New Orleans at the time. He later teamed up with pianist Fate Marable and performed on riverboats that traveled the Mississippi.
          In 1922, King Oliver invited Armstrong to Chicago to play second cornet in his Creole Jazz Band, and Armstrong made his first recordings with Oliver the following year. In 1924, he moved to New York City and demonstrated his emerging improvisational style in the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra. In 1925, Armstrong returned to Chicago and formed his own band--the Hot Five--which included Kid Ory, clarinetist Johnny Dodds, and pianist Lil' Hardin, Armstrong's second wife.
          This band, which later grew into the Hot Seven, recorded some of the seminal pieces in the history of jazz, including "Savoy Blues," "Potato Head Blues," and "West End Blues." In these recordings, Armstrong abandoned the collective improvisation of New Orleans-style jazz and placed the emphasis on individual soloists. He switched from cornet to trumpet during this time and played the latter with unprecedented virtuosity and range. In the 1926 recording "Heebie Jeebies," he popularized "scat singing," a style in which jazz vocalists sing musical lines of nonsensical syllables in emulation of instrumental improvisation. His joyous voice, both coarse and exuberant, was one of the most distinctive in popular music.
          In 1929, Armstrong returned to New York City and made his first Broadway appearance. His recordings, many of which were jazz interpretations of popular songs, were international hits, and he toured the United States and Europe with his big band. His music had a major effect on the swing and big band sound that dominated popular music in the 1930s and '40s. A great performer, Armstrong appeared regularly on radio and in American films, including Pennies from Heaven (1936), Cabin in the Sky (1943), and New Orleans (1947). In 1947, he formed a smaller ensemble, the All-Stars, which he led until 1968.
          Louis Armstrong had many nicknames, including Satchmo, short for "Satchelmouth"; "Dippermouth"; and "Pops." Because he spread jazz around the world through his extensive travels and hit songs, many called him "Ambassador Satch." Although in declining health in his later years, he continued to perform until his death on 06 July 1971.
    1964 Rafael Cansinos Assens, literato español.
    ^ 1964: 154 Vietcong attackers and 60 defenders of Camp Nam Dong        
          Captain Donlon and his Special Forces team are manning Camp Nam Dong, a mountain outpost near the borders of Laos and North Vietnam. Just before two o'clock in the morning, hordes of Viet Cong attack the camp. Donlon is shot in the stomach, but he stuffs a handkerchief into the wound, cinches up his belt, and keeps fighting. He is wounded three more times, but he continues fighting--manning a mortar, throwing grenades at the enemy, and refusing medical attention.
          The battle ends in early morning; 154 Viet Cong were killed during the battle. Two Americans died and seven were wounded. Over 50 South Vietnamese soldiers and Nung mercenaries were also killed during the action.
          The battle over, Donlon allows himself to be evacuated to a hospital in Saigon. He would spend over a month there before rejoining the surviving members of his Special Forces team; they would complete their six-month tour in Vietnam in November and fly home together. On 5 December 1964, in a White House ceremony, with Donlon's nine surviving team members watching, President Lyndon B. Johnson presents him with the Medal of Honor for "conspicuous gallantry, extraordinary heroism and intrepidity at the risk of his own life above and beyond the call of duty." Donlon, justifiably proud of his team, tells the president, "The medal belongs to them, too." It is the first Medal of Honor awarded to a U.S. serviceman for action in Vietnam
    1962 Lt. Roger Degueldre, né en 1925, chef des commandos OAS Delta (arrêté le 7 avril 1962), fusillé pour participation à l'Organisation de l'Armée Secrète.
    1962 William Faulkner , 64, of a heart attack, 166 cm tall author of novels, shortstories, movie and TV screenplays, inventor of Yoknapatawpha County .        
    -- The Sound and the Fury (291007) -- As I Lay Dying (301006) -- Absalom, Absalom! (361026) -- Go down, Moses (420511) --
    NOVELS: summaries [YOK] indicates the setting is Yoknapatawpha
    Soldiers Pay  (1926)
    Mosquitoes  (1927)
    [YOK]Sartoris  (1929)
    [YOK]The Sound and the Fury  (19291007)
    [YOK]As I Lay Dying  (19301006)
    [YOK]Sanctuary  (1931)
    [YOK]Light in August  (1932)
    Pylon  (1935)
    [YOK]Absalom, Absalom!  (19361026)
    [YOK]The Unvanquished  (1938)
    If I Forget Thee Jerusalem [The Wild Palms]  (1939)
    [YOK]The Hamlet  (1940)
    [YOK]Go Down, Moses  (19420511)
    [YOK]Intruder in the Dust  (1948)
    [YOK]Requiem for a Nun  (1951)
    A Fable  (1954)
    [YOK]The Town  (1957)
    [YOK]The Mansion  (1959)
    [YOK]The Reivers  (1962)
    [YOK]Flags in the Dust  (1973)  
    New Orleans Sketches
    These 13
    Doctor Martino and Other Stories
    The Portable Faulkner
    Knight's Gambit
    Collected Stories of William Faulkner
    Big Woods: The Hunting Stories
    Three Famous Short Novels
    Selected Short Stories of William Faulkner
    The Wishing Tree
    A Faulkner Miscellany
    Uncollected Stories of William Faulkner
    1961 Enrique Rodríguez Larreta, novelista argentino.
    1959 George Grosz, German US Expressionist painter, born on 26 July 1893. MORE ON GROSZ AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    ^ 1944, 167 persons in the Hartford Circus fire.        
          In Hartford, Connecticut, a fire breaks out under the big top of the Ringling Brothers, Barnum and Bailey Circus, killing 167 people and injuring 682. Two-thirds of those who perish are children. The cause of the fire is not known, but it spread at incredible speed, racing up the canvas of the circus tent. Scarcely before the 8000 spectators inside the big top could react, patches of burning canvas began falling on them from above, and a stampede for the exits began. Many were trapped under fallen canvas, but most were able to rip through it and escape. However, after the tent's ropes burned and its poles gave way, the whole burning big top came crashing down, consuming those who remained inside. Within ten minutes it was over, and some one hundred children and their sixty adult escorts were dead or dying.
          An investigation discovered that the tent had undergone a treatment with 800 kg of flammable paraffin thinned with three parts of gasoline (23'000 liters) to make it waterproof. Ringling Brothers, Barnum and Bailey Circus eventually agreed to pay five million dollars in compensation, and several of the organizers were convicted on manslaughter charges. In 1950, in a late development in the case, Robert D. Segee of Circleville, Ohio, confessed to starting the Hartford circus fire. Segee claimed that he had been an arsonist since the age of six, and that an apparition of an Indian on a flaming horse often visited him and urged him to set fires. But he recanted his confession. On 02 November 1950, Segee was sentenced to two consecutive terms of twenty-two years in prison, the maximum penalty in Ohio at the time.
    ^ 1944 Georges Mandel, 59, French patriot, executed
          Georges Mandel, France's minister of colonies and vehement opponent of the 1940 armistice with Germany, is executed in a wood outside Paris by collaborationist French. Born on 05 June 1885 into a prosperous Jewish family (his given name was Louis-Georges Rothschild, though no relation to the banking family) in 1885, Mandel's political career began at age 21 as a member of the personal staff of French Premier Georges Clemenceau [28 Sep 1841 – 24 Nov 1929]. He went on to serve in the National Assembly from 1919 to 1924, and then again from 1928 to 1940.
          Although a political conservative, he fell into conflict with fellow conservatives over their too-often pro-German sympathies, especially during the two world wars. In 1940, he was transferred to the Ministry of the Interior by then French Premier Paul Reynaud [15 Oct 1878 – 21 Sep 1966], with whom he shared the conviction that no armistice should be made with the German invaders, and that the battle should continue, even if only from France's colonies in Africa.
          After the resignation of Reynaud and the establishment of the government of Pétain [24 Apr 1856 – 23 Jul 1951] in Vichy, Mandel sailed to Morocco, where he was arrested and sent back to France and imprisoned. He was then handed over to the Germans, and put in concentration camps in Oranienburg and Buchenwald. On 04 July 1944, he was shipped back to Paris, where the French collaborationist security police, the Milice, took him out to a wood and shot him. As he was being handed over to his countrymen by the German SS, he said: "To die is nothing. What is sad is to die without seeing the liberation of the country and the restoration of the Republic."
    1916 Odilon Redon, French Symbolist painter and lithographer born on 22 April 1840. — MORE ON REDON AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1905 Anton Burger, German artist born on 24 November 1824.
    1897 José de Letamendi, médico y escritor español.
    1857 Ignaz Raffalt, Austrian artist born on 21 July 1800.
    1854 Georg Simon Ohm, Bavarian mathematician and physicist, born on 16 March 1789. Ohm's law appears in his Die galvanische Kette, mathematisch bearbeitet (1827). It states that Volts = Amperes x Ohms.
    1835 John Marshall, born on 24 September 1755, US Supreme Court Chief Justice (04 February 1801 – 06 July 1835).
    1598 Benito Arias Montano, escritor y humanista español.
    1553 Edward VI, , of tuberculosis, born on 12 October 1537, king of England since the death of his father Henry VIII [28 Jun 1491 – 28 Jan 1547].
    ^ the 6 wives of Henry VIIISir Thomas More, executed for “treason”        
    1535 Thomas More
    , 57 ans, Chancelier de l’Angleterre, décapité pour son opposition au roi Henri VIII, désireux de contrer l’autorité pontificale afin de casser le mariage avec Catherine d’Aragon et de valider l’union avec Anne Boleyn.

    Henry was not satisfied with two wives: his six wives were, successively,
    1. Catherine of Aragon (married at age 23 in 1509, gave birth on 18 February 1816 to the future queen Mary I, Henry left her in July 1531, and got the Anglican Church started for it to annul his marriage, which it did on 23 May 1533. She died on 07 January 1536 of natural causes),
    2. Anne Boleyn (married at age 26 on 25 January 1533, gave birth on 07 September 1533 to the future queen Elizabeth I, was beheaded on 19 May 1536 for adultery, almost certainly falsely alleged, while Henry was guilty of same).
    3. Jane Seymour (married at age 27 on 30 May 1536, gave birth on 12 October 1537 to Henry's successor, Edward VI, and died of natural causes on 24 October 1537),
    4. Anne of Cleves, (married at age 24 on 06 January 1940, marriage annulled by Anglican Church on 09 July 1540, she died on 16 July 1557 of natural causes)
    5. Catherine Howard, (married on 28 July 1540, proclaimed queen on 08 August 1540, beheaded on 13 February 1542 for treason, namely her premarital affairs)
    6. Catherine Parr. (married at age 31 on 12 July 1543, Henry died 28 January 1547, she remarried and died on 07 September 1548, shortly after giving birth)
    English Catholic theologian Thomas More, born on 07 February 1477, is beheaded for refusing to recognize Henry VIII [28 Jun 1491 – 28 Jan 1547] as supreme head of the Church of England, which had broken with the Roman Catholic Church so that Henry VIII could get wife number 2 (which he ordered beheaded less than a year after Thomas More, so as to make room for wife number 3)..
    1476 Regiomontanus [Johannes Müller of Königsberg], 40, German astronomer and mathematician who was chiefly responsible for the revival and advancement of trigonometry in Europe.
    1415 Jan Hus, 46 ans, brûlé à Constance, Allemagne. Ce pacifiste, nationaliste et réformateur Tchèque suscita non seulement l’ire de la Papauté (à Rome) mais aussi celle de l’Empire. Il n’avait aucune chance d’échapper à l’Inquisition. En savoir plus sur Jan Hus et les Tabordites. -- Jan Hus, Czech reformer, is burned at the stake for heresy because of his outspoken appeals for church reform and for political and religious rights for the common people.
    1189 Henry II, 56, King of England (1154-1189)
    < 05 Jul 07 Jul >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 06 July:

    ^ 1946 George Walker “Dubya” Bush, 43rd president of the United States (2001–2009), the first person since 1888 to become US president despite losing the nationwide popular vote, and the first ever to usurp the presidency thanks to the state of which his brother was the governor disenfranchising many voters suspected of intending to vote for his Democratic opponent Al Gore [31 Mar 1948~].the nose knows Before this, Dubya was the son of George Herbert Walker Bush [12 Jun 1924~] (US president 1989-1993), then a businessman, and then Texas governor (1995–2000). As president he became notorious for his lies, which enabled him narrowly but legitimately to win reelection without overt fraud by his brother “Jeb” Bush [11 Feb 1953~], governor of Florida.

    // More artwork about W (Dubya) and his policies:
    No Child Left Behind
    —C*#> Fixing the UN
    —C*#> Compassionate Conservatism
    Vietnam and Iraq: Nothing Succeeds Like Failure
    Shame On You
    The Grush Who Stole Christmas Yet To Come
    The First Casualty
    Gearoge Pinocchio Bush and his WMD
    Nothing Succeeds Like Failure
    And I Am Caesar
    The Bill Of Rights Behind Bars
    ^ 1935 Lhamo Dondrub “Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso”, to a peasant family in Takster, Tibet.        
          In 1937, the child would be declared the reincarnation of a great Buddhist spiritual leader and named the 14th Dalai Lama. His leadership rights were exercised by a regency until 1950. That same year, he was forced to flee by the Chinese but negotiated an agreement and returned to lead Tibet for the next eight years.
          In 1959, an unsuccessful Tibetan nationalist uprising led to a crackdown by China, and the Dalai Lama fled to Punjab, India, where he established his democratic government in exile. In 1989, he won the Nobel Peace Prize for his commitment to the nonviolent liberation of Tibet.
          In 1998, his book The Art of Happiness, written with psychiatrist Howard Cutler, became a bestseller. His next book, Ethics for the New Millennium made the bestseller lists in August 1999, giving him two titles in the Top 10. Both books offered guidance for happy, simple living. Although drawing on Buddhist teachings, the books argue that spiritual faith is not necessary to live a contented, peaceful life.
         His Holiness the 14th the Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso, is the head of state and spiritual leader of the Tibetan people. He was born Lhamo Dhondrub on 6 July 1935, in a small village called Taktser in northeastern Tibet. Born to a peasant family, His Holiness was recognized at the age of two, in accordance with Tibetan tradition, as the reincarnation of his predecessor the 13th Dalai Lama, and thus an incarnation Avalokitesvara, the Buddha of Compassion. The Dalai Lamas are the manifestations of the Bodhisattva (Buddha) of Compassion, who chose to reincarnate to serve the people. Lhamo Dhondrub was, as Dalai Lama, renamed Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso - Holy Lord, Gentle Glory, Compassionate, Defender of the Faith, Ocean of Wisdom. Tibetans normally refer to His Holiness as Yeshe Norbu, the Wishfulfilling Gem or simply Kundun - The Presence. The enthronement ceremony took place on 22 February 1940 in Lhasa,
    ^ 1923 Wojciech Jaruzelski, à Kurow, près de Pulawy, de petite noblesse polonaise.
          Il sera sauveur ou bourreau de la Pologne?
          Jaruzelski fréquente le collège marianiste à Varsovie où il a été élevé dans un esprit patriotique et religieux. En 1939, déporté avec ses parents en U.R.S.S. (son père y meurt en 1942), il est soumis aux travaux forcés. Néanmoins, au printemps de 1943 il s’enrôle dans l’armée polonaise dite "de Berling" sous commandement soviétique. Il entre à l’école des officiers. Il fait la guerre contre l’Allemagne nazie de 1943 à 1945 et s’y distingue en tant que jeune officier courageux et discipliné. De 1945 à 1947, il participe à la liquidation armée de la résistance armée polonaise et ukrainienne contre le régime communiste.
          En 1947, il entre au parti communiste (dont le sigle est alors P.O.P., Parti Ouvrier Polonais), puis fréquente les écoles d’officiers d’état-major en Pologne, enfin l’académie militaire Vorochilov à Moscou. C’est un des rares officiers polonais de très haut rang sans accointances soviétiques, de même que sa femme Halina, germaniste et professeur à Varsovie. Nommé général à trente-trois ans en 1956, au moment du "dégel", député de Szczecin à la Diète en 1961, il est vice-ministre de la Défense en 1962.
          Par ailleurs, après avoir commandé une division d’infanterie, il devient, en 1960, chef de la direction politique de l’armée jusqu’en 1965. Il est élu membre du comité central du Parti ouvrier unifié polonais (P.O.U.P.) en 1964 et chef de l’état-major général avec rang de général de corps d’armée en 1965. En 1968, à quarante-cinq ans, le général Jaruzelski est nommé ministre de la Défense et occupe ce poste clé au moment de l’invasion de la Tchécoslovaquie en août 1968 et de la révolte ouvrière de la Baltique en 1970. On fait alors état de son attitude : il se serait opposé à Gomulka en refusant de donner à l’armée l’ordre de tirer sur les grévistes.
          En 1973, il est promu au rang de général d’armée. Sous Gierek, Jaruzelski se distingue par son souci de maintenir l’armée en dehors de la corruption de l’appareil du parti et de l’État et par son opposition à l’utilisation de l’armée contre les manifestations ouvrières de 1980. Une sorte de légende se crée autour de son attitude stricte, sèche, le décrivant comme un bourreau de travail, un homme intègre et un militaire proche de l’homme de troupe. Il semble, par ailleurs, que ses rapports avec les dirigeants soviétiques soient toujours restés loyaux et même amicaux, "dans l’esprit de l’article 3 de la Constitution polonaise de 1976", selon certains intellectuels. Il faut toutefois distinguer ses rapports avec le pouvoir conservateur de Brejnev et ceux qu’il entretient avec le Kremlin depuis l’avènement de Gorbatchev.
         Lech Walesa, séjournant en France du 18 au 21 octobre 1981 et interrogé sur ce qu’il pensait de la nomination de Jaruzelski au poste de premier secrétaire du parti, avait répondu : "C’est bien. Je m’entendrai avec lui", ou, comme le rapporte Douglas Stanglin : "J’espère que les décisions vont maintenant être prises plus rapidement et que le gouvernement sera plus efficace" (Newsweek, 5 juillet 1982).
          Jaruzelski est nommé président du Conseil des ministres en février 1981 et premier secrétaire du P.O.U.P. en octobre de la même année. Après la proclamation de l’état de guerre, le 13 décembre 1981, il devient aussi président du Conseil national de défense et, en 1985, il accède à la fonction de président du Conseil d’État (il s’agissait alors d’une présidence collégiale de l’État). Au moment de l’instauration de l’état de guerre, le discours du général Jaruzelski, bien qu’ayant un accent de sincérité, lui attire une rancune tenace de la population. Lorsqu’il annonce la fin de l’état de guerre, le 22 juillet 1983, son entourage et quelquefois ses adversaires sont touchés par sa vision patriotique mais réaliste et teintée d’amertume.
          Finalement, Jaruzelski contribue à la légalisation du syndicat Solidarité, à l’établissement d’un modus vivendi avec l’opposition et aux élections "mi-démocratiques" de juin 1989. À l’issue de celles-ci, il renonce à ses fonctions et est élu, d’extrême justesse, président de la République de Pologne en juillet 1989 pour six ans. Il est contraint d’accepter que Tadeusz Mazowiecki, membre de Solidarité devienne chef du gouvernement, entraînant ainsi la chute du pouvoir communiste. En janvier 1990, le P.O.U.P. se saborde, faisant de Jaruzelski un président sans parti. En septembre, il accepte la réduction de son mandat de président, et l’élection présidentielle de novembre-décembre 1990 porte au pouvoir Lech Walesa. Jaruzelski reste, malgré son attitude opposée à Solidarnosc, protégé par le nouveau pouvoir. Probablement en fonction d’accords secrets lui promettant l’impunité.
    1923 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics formed
    1919 Oswaldo Guayasamín, pintor y escultor ecuatoriano.
    1914 José García Nieto, poeta y académico español.
    1909 Andrei Gromyko (Russian leader: Soviet Foreign Minister; Soviet President)
    1907 Magdalena Carmen Frida Kahlo y Calderón, Mexican painter who died on 13 July 1954. — MORE ON KAHLO AT ART “4” JULY 13 with links to images.
    1884 Harold Vanderbilt (capitalist, sportsman)
    1884 André Albert Marie Dunoyer de Segonzac, French artist who died on 17 September 1974 — MORE ON SEGONZAC AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    ^ 1878 Armas Eino Leopold Lönnbohm ("Eino Leino"), Paltamo, Finland (then part of Russia)        
         Prolific and versatile poet, a master of Finnish poetic forms, the scope of whose talent ranges from the visionary and mystical to topical novels, pamphlets, and critical journalism.
          Leino studied at the University of Helsinki and worked as a journalist, principally as literary and dramatic critic on the liberal newspapers Päivälehti and Helsingin Sanomat. The last part of his life he spent in bohemian excess. He translated into Finnish a number of world classics, including Dante's Divina Commedia. In his first collection of poems, Maaliskuun lauluja (1896, "Songs of March"), Leino's mood was gay and his style free and melodic; he was influenced by his compatriot J.L. Runeberg, the German poet Heinrich Heine, and Finnish folk songs.
          But gradually his mood darkened, and he turned to poems of confession and solitude, patriotic poems about the period of Russian oppression, desolate ballad themes, and mythical motifs. The last dominate Helkavirsiä (1903-16; Whitsongs, 1978), Leino's main work, in which he revives the metre and spirit of folklore. Other poetry includes Talviyö (1905, "Winter Night"), Halla (1908, "Frost"), and a historical poem Simo Hurtta (1904-19; "Simo the Bloodhound"). He also wrote plays, collected in Naamioita (1905-11, "Masks"), contemporary novels, animal fables, and essays. His work is uneven, but his best poems are among the finest Finnish lyrics. Leino died on January 10, 1926.
    1877 Niceto Alcalá Zamora, político español, presidente de la Segunda República Española.
    1859 Verner von Heidenstam Sweden, poet/novelist (Nobel 1916)
    1853 Clotel by William Wells Brown published , first novel by Black American (It tells the story of the daughters and granddaughters of President Thomas Jefferson and his slave Currer). He was also the first to have a play and a travel book published. Brown was born to a black slave mother and a white slaveholding father in 1814 approximately. He died on 6 November 1884. WILLIAM WELLS BROWN ONLINE: The Black Man: His Antecedents, His Genius, and His Achievements (1863) —: Clotel, or The President's Daughter (1853) — Clotelle, or The Colored HeroineNarrative of William W. Brown, an American Slave (1849) — The Negro in the American Rebellion: His Heroism and his Fidelity (page images)
    1851 William Lionel Wyllie, British artist who died on 06 April 1931.
    1849 Alfred Bray Kempe, London barrister and hobbyist mathematician who died on 21 April 1922. Kempe published in 1879 a flawed “proof” of the four color theorem (at least four colors are required to color a plane map so that no two adjacent regions are of the same color). In 1890 Heawood [08 Sep 1861 – 24 Jan 1955] showed the mistake. However that “proof” is the basis for the valid proof completed in 1976 by Appel and Haken thanks to 1200 hours of computer time. The Four Color Theorem was the first major theorem to be proved using a computer.
    1840 José María Velasco, Mexican painter and teacher who died on 25 August 1912. — more with links to images.
    1840 Johannes Hermanus Barend Koekkoek, Dutch artist who died on 12 January 1912.
    1832 Maximiliano I de Habsburgo, archiduque de Austria y Emperador de México.
    1825 Joseph Frédéric Charles Soulacroix, French sculptor and painter who died in 1899. — link to an image.
    1818 Adolf Anderssen, Prussian, world chess champion (1851-66)
    1796 Nicholas I Russia, Tsar (1825-55)
    1794 Wilhelm Hensel, German artist who died on 26 November 1861.
    1782 (09 June?) Lancelot~Théodore Turpin comte de Crissé, Paris painter, lithographer, and collector, who died on 15 May 1859. MORE ON TURPIN AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1747 John Paul Jones (American naval officer of the ship, Bonhomme Richard in battle against British frigate, Serapis: "I have not yet begun to fight!")
    1687 Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica of Isaac Newton, published. Newton was born on 04 January 1643 and died on 31 March 1727 (Gregorian dates). NEWTON ONLINE: (English translation:) Principia — (Latin) Principia, Book Two, Lemma II Opticks: or, A Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light; Also Two Treatises of the Species and Magnitude of Curvilinear Figures (page images)
    1589 Pieter Brueghel III, Flemish painter, who died in 1639.
    Holidays Malawi : Independence Day (1964) / Republic Day (1966)

    Religious Observances Luth : Jan Hus, martyr / Old Catholic : St Thomas More, humanist/martyr / RC : St Maria Goretti, virgin/martyr (opt) / Santas Dominica, Lucía y María Goretti, vírgenes; santos Rómulo, Dion y Antonino.
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          From Maxim O'Ronn's Illustrated Dixshunnary:
         “lonely crowd”

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    Question: Which city is ideal for a gambling casino? — Hint #1: ROOMY THERE WAS A TURKISH GATE
    (another hint in this space tomorrow)
    Thoughts for the day: “Blessed are the peacemakers, they will never want for work.”
    "On the outskirts of every agony sits some observant fellow who points."
    — Virginia Woolf, English author and critic [25 Jan 1882 – 28 March 1941]  — {Who's afraid of Virginia Woolf's comments?}
    updated Sunday 06-Jul-2008 2:48 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.60 Friday 06-Jul-2007 2:36 UT
    v.6.60 Thursday 06-Jul-2006 3:45 UT
    v.5.60 Thursday 14-Jul-2005 2:35 UT
    Wednesday 07-Jul-2004 16:30 UT

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