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ALTERNATE SITES   ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY    ART “4” JUL 05    wikipedia
• Les croisés prennent Jérusalem... • Egmont décapité... • Bernanos  dies... • Todt gets the Autobahn job... • The “bikini”... • Man drowns in cat's water bowl... • Strikers fight Pinkertons...
Irene Silverman^  On a 05 July:
2000 At the United Nations, President Clinton signed an international agreement to ban the forcible recruitment of youths as soldiers in armed conflict, and a companion accord to protect children from being forced into slavery, prostitution and pornography.
2000 The UN Security Council imposes a diamond ban on Sierra Leone's rebels in an effort to strangle their ability to finance a civil war.
1998 Irene Silverman, 82, [photo >] is abducted from her home in the vicinity of East 65th Street between 5th and Madison Avenues in Manhattan. She is a millionaire widow. Her description is given as: Height: 5'0" Weight: 115 lbs. Hair: red/auburn Eyes: Brown. On 18 May 2000, Sante Kimes and Kenneth Kimes, mother-and-son drifters, would be convicted of murdering Irene Silverman in a plot to steal her elegant townhouse mansion. The body would never be found.
1998 España y el Reino Unido alcanzan un acuerdo para levantar las restricciones militares que el Gobierno de Madrid mantiene sobre Gibraltar en las operaciones y maniobras de la OTAN.
1996: The US government reported the nation's unemployment rate fell to a six-year low in June 1996; nervous investors, fearing higher interest rates, gave the stock market its worst beating in four months, sending the Dow industrials down 114 points.
1995 La escritora Rosa Chacel recibe la Medalla de Oro de Bellas Artes de manos del rey de España Juan Carlos I.

1995 IBM launches hostile takeover of Lotus        
      IBM launched a surprise attack on Lotus, maker of the popular Lotus Notes groupware, on this day in 1995. Lotus conceded the next day, and IBM moved ahead with the largest-ever deal for a software company. IBM's aggressive move was viewed as an attempt to boost the company's performance in the software segment, a major goal of the turnaround strategy launched by new IBM chief Lou Gerstner, who came on board in 1993. 1951 Shockley announces the junction transistor English-born William Shockley, working at Bell Telephone Labs, announced the invention of the junction transistor on July 5, 1951. Together with colleagues John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, Shockley won the Nobel Prize in 1956 for inventing the transistor. In later life, Shockley provoked outrage for his racist views. The invention of the transistor heralded a revolution in radio, television, and computer circuitry.
1993 Un comando de ETA secuestra al empresario español Julio Iglesias Zamora.
1992 Sixto Durán Ballén, gana la segunda vuelta de las elecciones presidenciales de Ecuador.
1991 A worldwide financial scandal erupted as regulators in eight countries shut down the Bank of Credit and Commerce International, charging it with fraud, drug money-laundering and illegal infiltration into the US banking system.
1989 El coronel estadounidense Oliver North es sancionado por su participación en el escándalo Irangate.
1988 La iglesia anglicana se pronuncia a favor de que las mujeres puedan ejercer el sacerdocio, aunque la propuesta no se llevará a la práctica hasta 1993.
1985 Se aprueba por ley en España la despenalización del aborto en tres supuestos: embarazo a causa de un delito de violación, existencia de grave peligro para la salud física o psíquica de la embarazada y presunción de que el feto nacerá con graves taras físicas o psíquicas.
1985 47ºC, St George, Utah (state rec) (103ºF spread, UT 1985)
1981 Rajan Mahadevan recites 31,811 digits of pi from memory
1977 Pakistan's army, led by Gen Mohammad Zia ul-Haq, seizes power
1975 The Cape Verde Islands officially become independent after 500 years of Portuguese rule.
1971 26th amendment certified (reduces voting age to 18)
1970 Luis Echeverría Álvarez es elegido presidente de México.
1966 NYC transit fare rises from 15 cents to 20 cents
1963 In an instruction given by the Holy Office, disposal of the dead by cremation is officially granted sanction by the Catholic Church. (Belief in the resurrection of the dead had previously made cremation repugnant to many Christians.)
1962 Algeria gains independence after 132 years of French rule.
1961 El presidente Joaquin Balaguer constituye un nuevo gobierno en República Dominicana.
1959 Dimite el presidente israelí Ben Gurión, tras la crisis gubernamental causada por los envíos de armas desde la RFA.
1955 El FLN organiza una huelga general en Argelia.
1952 El Senado argentino aprueba el proyecto de ley por el que se erigirán monumentos a Eva Duarte de Perón en Buenos Aires y en las capitales de todas las provincias y territorios del país.
1951 Junction transistor invention announced, Murray Hill, NJ
1950 Law of Return passes, guarantees all Jews right to live in Israel.
1949 Una epidemia de encefalitis causa más de 200 muertos en Corea del Sur.
1948 Britain's National Health Service Act went into effect, providing government-financed medical and dental care. — — Entra en vigor en Gran Bretaña el National Health Service Act (Acta Nacional de Seguridad Social), que nacionaliza el servicio sanitario en el país. El economista William Henry Beveridge es el responsable de la elaboración del nuevo plan de salud.
^ 1945 Liberation of the Philippines complete        
      During World War II, US General Douglas MacArthur announced that the liberation of the Philippines from its Japanese occupiers was complete. However, despite the capture of all strategic positions on the archipelago, there were still a few pockets of Japanese troops that bitterly resisted the American advance until the end of the war. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Douglas MacArthur, as commander of US Army forces in the Far East, conducted a desperate defense of the Philippines against overwhelming Japanese forces. Forced to retreat, he promised the people of the Philippines and Manila — a city that had become his adopted home — that "I shall return."
      On 20 October 1944, after advancing island by island across the Pacific Ocean, MacArthur waded ashore onto the island of Leyte, and the liberation of the Philippines had begun. On 09 January 1945, after a week of massive aerial bombardment, he ordered the invasion of Luzon, the main Philippine island. The same day, nearly 70'000 troops from US Lieutenant General Krueger's Sixth Army waded ashore under heavy fire from Luzon's Japanese occupiers. Two days later, Krueger managed to establish a secure beachhead and began forging inland to Manila, the Philippine capital located 180 km to the south — MacArthur's goal.
      On 03 March 1945, after a month of grim fighting, Manila finally fell to the Americans at the cost of 1000 US troops, 15'000 Japanese troops, and over 100'000 civilians. Four months later, on 05 July, MacArthur announces that the liberation of the Philippines has been achieved.
1941 La División Azul española parte hacia el frente ruso para apoyar a las tropas alemanas.
1940 Diplomatic relations broken between Britain and the Vichy government in France..
^ 1940 Because of Japan, US controls militarily valuable exports        
      Congress passes the Export Control Act, forbidding the exporting of aircraft parts, chemicals, and minerals without a license. This prohibition is a reaction to Japan's occupation of parts of the Indo-Chinese coast. Now that the Germans occupy a large part of France, the possibility of Axis control of French colonies becomes a reality. Among those of immediate concern is French Indo-China. The prospect of the war spreading to the Far East is now a definite possibility. Increasing its likelihood is the request by Imperial Japan to use army, naval, and air bases in French Indo-Chinese territory, an important vantage point from which to further its campaign to conquer China. As Vichy France enters into negotiations on this issue, the Japanese peremptorily occupy key strategic areas along the coast of Indo-China.
      The United States, fearing the advance of Japanese expansion and cooperation, even if by coercion, between German-controlled France and Japan, takes its own action, by banning the export of aircraft parts without a license and, three weeks later, the export of aviation fuel and scrap metal and iron without a license. The United States is not alone in its concern. Great Britain, which has it own colonies in the Far East (Burma, Hong Kong, and Malaya) also fears an aggressive Japan. The day after the Export Act is passed, the British ambassador would be asked by Japan to close the Burma Road, a key supply route of arms for China, Japan's prey. Britain initially balked at the request but, fearing a declaration of war by a third enemy, caved in and closed the road, though only for a limited period.
1939 El embajador de España en Berlín entrega a Hitler tres cuadros de Zuloaga, obsequio de Franco.
1937 Antonio Oliveira Salazar, presidente del Consejo de Portugal, sufre un atentado fallido.
1937 47ºC, Medicine Lake, Montana (state record)
1936 49ºC, Gannvalley, South Dakota (state record)
^ 1935 National Labor Relations Act        
      When New York Senator Robert Wagner first introduced his National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) in the winter of 1935, he was met with resistance from a potent and seemingly unlikely source, President Franklin Roosevelt. Though Wagner's bill had all the proactive trappings of Roosevelt's New Deal, the President instead threw his weight behind the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA). Roosevelt's labor secretary explained that the Wagner Act was simply "not part of the President's program. It did not particularly appeal to him when it was described to him."
      However, the Supreme Court's decision to scotch the NIRA, coupled with strong congressional support for Wagner's bill, eventually melted Roosevelt's opposition. And so, on this day in 1935 the President signed the Wagner Act into law. The freshly consecrated legislation was, at least in the short term, a tremendous boon for America's workers. Along with granting workers the right both to strike and to freely select their own union via voting, the Wagner also clamped down on "unfair labor practices" by management, which encompassed a myriad of methods designed to prevent workers from organizing.
^ 1933 Todt gets the Autobahn job        
      Fritz Todt, who was born on 04 September 1891, is appointed General Inspector for German Highways. His primary assignment: to build a comprehensive autobahn system. Todt, a civil engineer who was a proponent of a national highway system as a means of economic development, was handpicked for the position in 1932 by Adolf Hitler. The two men were close friends, and Todt remained a Nazi party member throughout World War II.
     Every aspect of Autobahn construction — its design, aesthetic ("to harmonize with the German landscape"), and model role in National Socialist labor relations — was stamped with Todt's personality. As was his other great achievement, the building of the massive network of bunkers and fortifications known as the West Wall.
      By 1936, 100'000 kilometers of divided highways had been completed, leaving Germany with the most advanced transportation system in the world. Todt estimated in a 1936 speech that "170'000'000 cubic meters of earth have been moved. This would fill a line of trucks extending around the earth four times." He concluded his speech with an exhortation to the German people typical of Nazi party propaganda, "They are roads unequaled anywhere else in the world in their technical excellence and beauty. Is this a work of technology? No! Like so much else, it is the work of Adolf Hitler!" However in Todt last years of life he had disagreements with Göring and even with Hitler, so that some suspect that Todt's death in an airplane crash on 08 February 1982, may have been provoked.
      The autobahns were, in fact, the envy of the industrialized world and a source of both anxiety and awe for Europeans. A Danish newspaper declared, "They are the expression of a national energy that compels the greatest admiration." What few suspected was that the German road system was the first step to their conquest of Western Europe, as the autobahns allowed the Germans to move troops and personnel faster and in greater numbers than anyone could have imagined. The ease with which the German army moved into France owes much to its facility to mobilize and shift troops faster than the French could.
      Todt became a national hero for his creation. The autobahn inspired US President Dwight Eisenhower to foster a similar American interstate highway system. Having been in Germany during the war, he returned to the States deeply convinced that good highways were directly linked to economic prosperity.
Fritz Todt
BIOGRAPHIE VON FRITZ TODT, Ingenieur, NS-Politiker
1891 4. September: Fritz Todt wird als Sohn eines Fabrikanten in Pforzheim geboren.
1910 Als Einjährig-Freiwilliger dient er in Karlsruhe.
1911 Er beginnt sein Ingenieurstudium in München.
1914-1918 Teilnahme am Ersten Weltkrieg als Offizier und Flugzeugbeobachter.
1920 Abschluß des Studiums in Karlsruhe.
1921-1933 Er arbeitet zuerst an Wasserkraftanlagen, später im Straßenbau für die Baufirma Sager and Woerner.
1922 Er tritt in die Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) ein.
1931 Er wird Oberführer der Sturmabteilung (SA) im Stabe Ernst Röhms und Fachberater im Amt für Wirtschaftstechnik und Arbeitsbeschaffung der NSDAP.
1932 Todt promoviert über "Fehlerquellen beim Bau von Landstraßendecken aus Teer und Asphalt".
1933 Nach der Ernennung Adolf Hitlers zum Reichskanzler wird Todt Generalinspektor für das deutsche Straßenwesen. Seine Behörde erhält den Status einer Obersten Reichsbehörde außerhalb der Organisation der Reichsministerien. Er ist verantwortlich für den Bau der Reichsautobahnen und Hitler direkt unterstellt.
     Er wird Leiter des Hauptamts für Technik in der Reichsleitung der NSDAP.
1938 Als Generalbevollmächtigter für die Regelung der Bauwirtschaft ist er verantwortlich für das gesamte Bauwesen im Reich.
      Beginn des Baus des Westwalls als Befestigung entlang der Westgrenze des Reichs. Hierfür schafft Todt durch das Zusammenwirken von Bauverwaltung, privaten Firmen und Reichsarbeitsdienst die Organisation Todt. Während des Kriegs werden immer mehr Zwangsarbeiter herangezogen. Hauptsächliches Einsatzgebiet der bis zu 800.000 Arbeiter sind Instandhaltung und Wiederherstellung kriegswichtiger Anlagen.
1940 Ernennung zum Reichsminister für Bewaffnung und Munition. Damit ist er zuständig für die Kriegswirtschaft und für den Bau des Atlantikwalls entlang der niederländischen, belgischen und nordfranzösischen Küsten.
1941 Generalinspekteur für Wasser und Energie. Trotz Konflikten mit Hermann Göring und mit der Wehrmacht bleibt seine Wertschätzung als unverzichtbarer Organisator bei Hitler ungebrochen. Herbst
      Nach einer Inspektionsreise an der Ostfront fordert Todt von Hitler erfolglos Maßnahmen zur besseren Versorgung der Wehrmacht. Zunehmende Zweifel an der Möglichkeit, den Krieg zu gewinnen, führen zu Auseinandersetzungen auch mit Hitler.
1942 8. Februar: Fritz Todt kommt bei einem Flugzeugabsturz nahe dem Führerhauptquartier bei Rastenburg (Ostpreußen) ums Leben. Es gibt Vermutungen, er sei einem Anschlag Hitlers zum Opfer gefallen.
      Postum wird ihm als erstem Träger der Deutsche Orden verliehen. Sein Nachfolger als Rüstungsminister wird Albert Speer
1932 Oliveira Salazar becomes dictator of fascist Portugal — Antonio Oliveira Salazar es nombrado presidente del Consejo de Ministros de Portugal.
1922 Continúa la campaña nacionalista iniciada por los peruanos residentes en la región colombiana de Tarapacá para obtener la anexión al Perú.
1920 20'000 huérfanos de la primera guerra mundial desfilan delante de la embajada de los Estados Unidos en París para agradecer las donaciones recibidas.
1919 Se establece un Gobierno provisional en Perú bajo la presidencia de Augusto Leguía.
1915 Durante la Primera Guerra Mundial, los italianos son derrotados cerca de Gradisca y de Girizia.
1914 Sunday : in the aftermath of the June 28 assassination in Sarajevo of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary and of his wife, Sophia:
  • German Foreign Minister Gottlieb von Jagow leaves for his honeymoon in Lucerne.
  • Hoyos arrives in Berlin and is accompanied to Potsdam Palace by the Austrian Ambassador to Germany, Count L. de Szogyeny-Marich, where they meet with the Kaiser. The goal of the mission is to secure German backing for any actions Austria-Hungary might take. No notes exist from this meeting but it is widely accepted that they received the promises of support they sought. The blank check had been given. [view text of the 'blank check']
  • All but one of the seven assassins have now been apprehended. Mehmedbasic would be the only member of the assassination team to escape. See Jun-28-1914: Assassination in Sarajevo for more details.
  • 1907 El Congreso español aprueba la reforma de la Ley Electoral.
    1904 El zar Nicolas II de Rusia nombra a Iván Obolenski gobernador de Finlandia, para "favorecer la más estrecha integración del territorio".
    ^ 1892 Strikers fight off Pinkertons        
          By the late nineteenth century, the workers at Andrew Carnegie's Homestead, PA plant had eked out a modicum of power. They won a key strike in 1889, and in the process became a potent unit of the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers. Still, these victories hardly erased the harsh working conditions at the Homestead mills. Nor did they mean that the Carnegie Company was pleased with or readily recognized the union. Ever mindful of Amalgamated's potentially deleterious impact on his profit margins, Andrew Carnegie looked to erode the power of the union.
          In 1892, the company made its move against Amalgamated, though not with Carnegie at the helm: the steel baron had departed for a vacation in Scotland, leaving the task of smashing the union in the hands of his partner, Henry Clay Frick. Frick took his mission all too seriously: after refusing to renew the company's contract with Amalgamated, he dug in for war, erecting a three-mile long steel wire fence around the plant. Frick also enlisted the aid of the Pinkerton Detective agency, which sent three hundred men to Homestead to ensure the plant's transition to non-union workers. Amalgamated's leaders responded in kind, lining up scores of workers, as well as a good chunk of the town, to wage battle against the plant.
          The showdown begins in earnest on July 2, as Frick halted work at Homestead until the plant was staffed entirely by non-union workers. Three days later, the Homestead affair turned bloody, as the Pinkerton agents made their first appearance on the scene. Attempting to reach the plant via the Monongahela River, the agents were met by Amalgamated's forces; the two sides engaged in a long and vicious battle that left nine strikers and seven agents dead. Despite the losses, Amalgamated's motley army was able to turn back the detectives.
          Sensing that they were on the verge of disaster, officials for Carnegie enlisted the aid of the Pennsylvania Government. And, on July 9, 1892, the state sends 7000 troops to Homestead to "restore law and order." The militia effectively squelched Amalgamated's strike: the troops helped the Carnegie restaff its plant with non-union workers and by September, the Carnegie company would have resumed production. Later that November, the union conceded defeat and called off its strike; Carnegie responded by summarily firing and even blacklisting the strikers.
    ^ 1880 George Bernard Shaw becomes a full-time writer
          George Bernard Shaw, 23, quits his job at the Edison Telephone Company in order to write. Shaw was born on 26 July 1856 in Dublin, Ireland, and left school at the age of 14 to work in a land agent's office. In 1876, he quit and moved to London, where his mother, a music teacher, had settled. He worked various jobs while trying to write plays.
          He would begin publishing book reviews and art and music criticism in 1885. Meanwhile, he became a committed reformer and an active force in the newly established Fabian Society, a group of middle-class socialists. His first play, Widowers' House, was produced in 1892. His second play, Mrs. Warren's Profession, was banned in Britain because of its frank dealing with prostitution. In 1905, when the play was performed in the US, police shut it down after one performance and jailed the actors and producers. The courts soon ruled that the show could re-open. Although some private productions were held, the show wasn't legally performed in Britain until 1926.
          Shaw became the theater critic for the Saturday Review in 1895, and his reviews during the next several years helped shape the development of drama. In 1898, he published Plays Pleasant and Unpleasant, which contained Arms and the Man, The Man of Destiny, and other dramas. In 1904, Man and Superman was produced.
          In his work, Shaw supported socialism and decried the abuses of capitalism, the degradation of women, and the evil effects of poverty, violence, and war, not to mention English spelling. His writing was filled with humor, wit, and sparkle, as well as reformist messages, and his play Pygmalion , produced in 1912, later became the hit musical and movie My Fair Lady. In 1925, Shaw won the Nobel Prize for literature and used the substantial prize money to start an Anglo-Swedish literary society. He lived simply, abstained from alcohol, caffeine, and meat, declined most honors and awards, and continued writing into his 90s. He produced more than 40 plays before his 02 November 1950 death.
    Other works by SHAW ONLINE:
  • Major Barbara, with an Essay as First Aid to Critics
  • Misalliance
  • The Perfect Wagnerite: A Commentary on the Niblung's Ring
  • An Unsocial Socialist
  • You Never Can Tell
  • 1863 Engagement at Birdsong Ferry, Mississippi
    1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
    1861 Engagement at Carthage, Missouri
    1859 Capt NC Brooks discovers Midway Islands
    ^ 1848 Un militaire au pouvoir
          Le général Cavaignac encore auréolé du succès qui a été le sien, quelques semaines plus tôt, lorsque comme ministre de la Guerre, il a réprimé, face aux yeux d'une bourgeoisie inquiète, avec toute "l'énergie nécessaire", les insurrections qui ont eu lieu entre les 23 et 26 juin 1848. Il devient donc chef du pouvoir exécutif. Résultat : Hyppolite Carnot, ministre de l'Instruction publique, jugé trop "laïc", est immédiatement éconduit.
    1841 Thomas Cook opens first travel agency
    1830 Prise d'Alger Le corps expéditionnaire français a débarqué le 16 juin à Sidi-Ferruch. La veille, les troupes de celui-ci se ont emporté la victoire en prenant le fort l'Empereur à Staouéli. En ce jour, Alger à son tour, capitule. — The French occupy Algiers.
    1814 Americans defeat British and Canadians at Chippewa, Ontario
    1811 Venezuela, first American colony to declare independence from Spain — La Junta de Caracas declara la independencia absoluta respecto de España de una parte del territorio venezolano (el del cacao), aunque el resto permanece fiel a la metrópoli. Es la primera acta de independencia americana.
    1809 La battaille de Wagram commence. Napoléon est encore face aux armées autrichiennes. Le Danube sépare les deux armées. Le 4 Jul, Napoléon fait occuper l'île Lobau. pendant un violent orage, vers 21 heures, l'empereur fait jeter sur le bras nord du fleuve trois ponts, par lesquels ils fait passer ses troupes. Le 5 Jul, l'armée française affronte en vain les Autrichiens. Leur position en équerre surprend l'empereur. Mais le 6 Jul, son plan de bataille prendra en compte ce qu'il a découvert.
    1808 Battle of Buenos Aires
    1731 Un tumulto popular en Paraguay impide la ejecución de los jefes del movimiento comunero: José de Antequera y Juan de Mena.
    1687 Isaac Newton's PRINCIPIA published by Royal Society in England
    1439 At the Council of Florence, the Decree of Union ('Laententur Coeli') is signed,creating an official theological union between the Eastern (Orthodox) and Western (Catholic) churches. Unfortunately, the Eastern Church at large never accepted the document.
    1433 Alfonso V decide aplazar la toma del poder en su segunda campaña en Nápoles ante la envergadura de la oposición formada por el papa, el emperador y las plazas de Venecia, Florencia y Milán.
    1420 Alfonso V entra en la ciudad de Nápoles donde es recibido como libertador.
    0767 [Constantine] begins his reign as Pope
    0649 Saint Martin I begins his reign as Pope.
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    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 05 July:

    2006 Kenneth Lee “Ken” Lay [15 April 1942—], dies of a heart attack. He was a US businessman who was a buddy of US president “Dubya” Bush, vice-president Dick Cheney, and other top Republican politicos which he considered corruptible. Lay was to be sentenced (possibly to as much as 165 years in prison!) on 23 October 2006, having been, on 25 May 2006, convicted of fraud while chairman and CEO (since 1986) of Enron (he resigned on 23 January 2002), a multi-billion-dollar energy corporation which went bankrupt in December 2001. — (060705)
    2005 Six terrorists, five of them shot by forewarned police guards during a 2-hour gun battle, after one terrorist detonated a suicide car bomb breaching a security wall at the Ram Janmbhoomi Hindu shrine in Ayodhya, India, where, on 06 December 1992, Hindu extremists had demolished a 16th century Muslim mosque on the sprawling 32-hectare complex, sparking religious riots that killed more than 2000 persons. The mosque was built by Mogul rulers on the site of a Hindu temple at the birthplace of Ram, the highest Hindu god; but Muslims deny that. The dispute is still working its way through India's courts. Today's is the first major attack on a Hindu temple site since the 26 September 2002 assault on the Akshardham temple in Gandhinagar, Gujarat state, which left 32 persons dead, including the two attackers. That attack was blamed on the Pakistan-based Lashkar-e-Toiba guerillas, one of more than a dozen groups fighting for Kashmir's independence or its merger with mostly Muslim Pakistan.
    Paul Childs2003 Paul Childs, 15, Black [photo >], shot by White policeman James Turney in Denver. The boy, who required medication for seizures and behavior problems, and had impaired vision, was standing in his home's doorway holding a knife. Turney would not be prosecuted for this killing. Nor was he prosecuted for killing in 2002 partially deaf Gregory Smith, 18, who had pulled out a pocket knife.
    2003:: 17 persons including two suicide bomber women, at a music festival in Moscow, Russia.
    2002:: At least 30 persons in a market in Larba, Algeria, by a bomb hidden in a pile of garbage bags at the entrance of the market, crowded because this is Algeria's Independence Day (40th anniversary) and a Friday (Muslim day of rest). Another 30 or so are injured.
    ^ 2001 Peter John Robinson, 28, drowned in cat's water bowl.      
         It is winter in Reefton, South Island, New Zealand. Robinson walks down his back door ramp to feed his cat, Piper. The ramp is covered in about 3 cm of ice after a week of hoar frosts. Robinson slips, is knocked unconscious as he hits his head on the concrete ramp, falls face down into the pet bowl with 4 cm of water, and breathes the water into his lungs. His mother, Gill Robinson, who had left the house for only 15 minutes, finds him dead on her return.
         Piper had been given to Robinson as a kitten nine months earlier when he moved to his family home after he became bed-ridden with back pain. A curve in his spine had forced him to give up coaching swimming lessons and cut short his dreams of becoming a primary school teacher. He had been away from his Reefton home for seven years while he completed a bachelor of arts degree and a masters degree in political science at Canterbury University. The curve in his spine affected his balance and the medication for the pain made it worse. In two weeks he was due to have his spine fused by a specialist. He had had balance problems since he was born without an ear, a rare problem that affects only about one in a thousand babies. An artificial ear was fitted when he was 5 years old.
    Dead tiger2000 Sagar and 9 other Royal Bengal tigers, of unknown causes, while seven of the 45 surviving tigers are in critical condition at the overcrowded and underfunded Nandankanan Zoo, in Bhubaneshwar, capital of Orissa state, India. The zoo does not have a staff veterinarian. Two of the dead tigers are of the rare white variety, of which no other zoo in the world has as many as this one. (Actually Sagar was the first to die, 000704 evening local time) [photo: one of the dead tigers being carried away for a post-mortem, 000705]
    2000 Some heat victims in Turkey, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, as, for the second day, a Saharan air mass pushes temperatures to records unequalled in 112 years, to as much as 44ºC and some 10ºC above normal. Air conditioning in those countries is not as common as in the southern US.
    1998 Mercé Marçal, escritora española y catedrática de lengua y literatura catalana.
    1990 Mitch Snyder, 46, homeless advocate, suicide by hanging
    1977 Henry Scheffé, US mathematician born on 11 April 1907. He worked in several different areas of Statistics, including linear models, analysis of variance and nonparametrics. Author of The Analysis of Variance (1959).
    1969 Walter Gropius, 86, architect (found Bauhaus school of design)
    1969 Tom Mboya economics minister, assassinated in Narobi Kenya
    1962 Helmut Richard Niebuhr, 67. Christian Ethics professor at Yale for 30years, Niebuhr is better remembered for his popular and oft-reprinted 1951 classic, 'Christ and Culture' — a work that explores available options of relating one's personal faith tothe world's highest and noblest principles.
    ^ 1950 Kenneth Shadrick, 19, first US serviceman killed in Korean War
          Near Sojong, South Korea, Private Shadrick, an infantryman from Skin Fork, West Virginia, becomes the first American reported killed in the Korean War. Shadrick, a member of a bazooka squad, had just fired the weapon at a Soviet-made tank when he looked up to check his aim and was cut down by enemy machine-gun fire.
          In the aftermath of World War II, foreign ministers from the former Allied nations of the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain agreed to divide Korea into two separate occupation zones and govern the nation for five years. The country was split along the thirty-eighth parallel, with Soviet forces occupying the northern zone, and Americans stationed in the south.
          Although the border was defended on both sides, the South Koreans were unprepared for the hordes of North Korean troops and Soviet-made tanks that rolled across the thirty-eighth parallel on 25 June 1950. At dawn that day, nearly 100'000 Communist troops of the North Korean People's Army swept across the thirty-eighth parallel, catching the Republic of Korea forces completely off guard and throwing them into a hasty southern retreat.
          When word of the attack reached Washington, US President Harry S. Truman ordered additional US forces to Korea, and, on 27 June, he announced to the nation and the world that America would intervene in order to stem the spread of communism. The next day, the United Nations (UN) Security Council met, and in the absence of the Soviet Union, which was boycotting the council, a resolution was passed approving the use of force against North Korea.
          On 30 June, Truman authorized the use of US ground forces in Korea, and, on 07 July, the Security Council recommended that all UN forces sent to Korea be put under US command. The next day, General Douglas MacArthur was named commander of all UN forces in Korea. In the opening months of the war, the US-led UN forces rapidly advanced against the North Koreans, but in October, Chinese Communist troops entered the fray, throwing the Allies into a general retreat.
          On 27 July 1953, a peace agreement was signed, ending the war and reestablishing the 1945 division of Korea that still exists today. American casualties in the Korean War included 170'000 killed, wounded, or missing in action.
    ^ 1948 Georges Bernanos        
          Un franc-tireur, un homme ardent et libre, c’est ainsi qu’apparaît d’abord Bernanos. Ni dans l’ordre littéraire, ni dans l’ordre politique, ni dans l’ordre religieux, il ne s’est contenté d’être le témoin d’une famille d’esprits, moins encore le champion d’une tradition. Une impérieuse nécessité intérieure l’a conduit à bouleverser, à faire éclater les cadres que son monde lui offrait. Nul n’a été plus féroce que ce catholique contre les déformations caricaturales de son idéal qu’il rencontrait dans les milieux cléricaux de son temps.
          Pas de politique plus clairvoyant, jusque dans ses injustices, que le grand polémiste qui dénonça superbement la montée des fascismes, flétrit l’écrasement de la république espagnole par les franquistes, prédit et déplora la défaite française de 1940, et ne cessa ensuite jusqu’à la victoire finale de donner à son pays et aux Alliés les leçons d’un espoir généreux, tout en continuant à stigmatiser les menaces renaissantes au cœur du monde nouveau. Dans le domaine proprement littéraire enfin, il a le mérite d’avoir, sous le coup de pures exigences spirituelles, été un des premiers à se libérer de la tradition romanesque du XIXe siècle, pour l’ouvrir aux ambitions du roman le plus actuel.
          Comme beaucoup de grands écrivains, il a été finalement très peu homme de lettres, et son œuvre vit comme le témoignage d’une expérience cruelle et riche : celle d’un homme entier, aux rêves démesurés, face à un monde veule et désespérant qu’il n’a pu cependant se défendre d’aimer jusqu’au bout : " Quand je serai mort, dites au doux royaume de la Terre que je l’aimais plus que je n’ai jamais osé dire. " Rien ne semblait prédisposer ce fils de tapissier décorateur, né à Paris, élevé dans le calme provincial de Pellevoisin dans l’Indre, puis de Fressin dans le Pas-de-Calais, à la vie agitée qui fut la sienne. Après de solides études dans divers établissements religieux, le jeune bachelier prépare à Paris ses licences de lettres et de droit. Dès cette époque, sa violence l’entraîne à militer comme camelot du roi dans les rangs de l’Action française. Il connaît la prison, débute dans le journalisme, dirige même à Rouen un hebdomadaire monarchiste.
          Plusieurs fois blessé à la guerre de 1914, il se retrouve ensuite inspecteur d’assurances à Bar-le-Duc pour faire vivre les siens : marié depuis 1917, il aura six enfants. Le succès de son premier roman, Sous le soleil de Satan, publié en 1926, l’incite à vivre désormais de sa plume. C’est le début de l’existence pénible et instable qui sera la sienne jusqu’à la fin, jalonnée de voyages, de déménagements, d’accidents, de difficultés financières – de livres aussi.
          Aux Baléares, de 1934 à 1937, il voit les débuts de la guerre civile espagnole ; du Brésil, où il réside de 1940 à 1944, il suit avec anxiété le déroulement de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Rentré en France, il ne cesse de se déplacer et se fixe finalement en Tunisie. Mais, après moins d’un an de séjour, il rentre à Paris pour se faire soigner et y meurt le 05 juillet 1948.
    1942 Oskar Bolza, German mathematician born on 12 May 1857. He worked on function theory, integral equations and the calculus of variations. Author of Lectures on the Calculus of Variations (1908).
    1941 Jews of Wasosz, north-eastern Poland. Soon after the Germans had conquered the region from the Soviets, peasants came with their horse carts to town, to Jewish houses and killed the Jewish men, women and children with axes. The dead and the wounded they then loaded onto the carts and transported out of town. Streets were full of blood, which was dropping from the bodies loaded onto the carts.
    1932 René-Louis Baire French mathematician born on 21 January 1874. He worked on the theory of functions and the concept of a limit.
    1906 Jules Adolphe Aimé Louis Breton, French Realist painter born on 01 May 1827. — MORE ON BRETON AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1903 William Burt Pope, 81. His Compendium of Christian Theology (1875-76) set forth the most powerful systematic arguments of his day for the holiness doctrine in Methodism.
    1887 Hans Reinhard von Marées, German painter, draftsman, and sculptor, born on 24 December 1837. — MORE ON VON MARÉES AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1886 Charles Louis Baugniet, Belgian artist born on 27 February 1814. — links to images.
    1868 Magnus von Wright
    , Finnish painter and illustrator born on 13 June 1805. — more with link to an image
    ^ 1861: 53 soldiers at the Battle of Carthage, Missouri
          The first large-scale engagement of the Civil War is fought in southwestern Missouri, signaling an escalation in the hostilities between the North and South. Missouri was the scene of some of the most bitter partisan fighting during the war. After the clash at Fort Sumter in April, the state was deeply divided. The Missouri State Guardsmen, a force of 6000 men commanded by Confederate Governor Claiborne Jackson and Colonel Sterling Price, were poorly equipped and outfitted mostly in civilian clothing. Their Union counterpart was a force of 1100, mostly German-Americans from St. Louis, commanded by General Franz Sigel. Sigel's force occupied Springfield in late June, and then collided with the Confederates at nearby Carthage on July 5.
          Outnumbered, Sigel eventually withdrew, but was able to hold off several small attacks. By nightfall, the Union troops had retreated through Carthage and escaped a dangerous trap. Both sides declared victory, and losses were light: 13 Union men were killed and 31 were wounded, while 40 Confederates were killed and 120 were wounded. The forces remained in the area of Springfield, gathering strength over the next month. They would fight again in August at Wilson's Creek, Missouri.
    1814 Andries Meulen, Dutch artist born on 23 March 1763
    1795 Antonio de Ulloa y de la Torre-Giral, matemático, militar y naturalista español.
    1793 Alexander Roslin, Swedish painter born on 15 July 1718. — links to images.
    ^ 1568 Hornes et Egmont, héros de la résistance belge aux espagnols, décapités        
          Exécution sur la Grand Place de Bruxelles, un des joyaux de l’art toutes périodes confondues, de deux nobles qui s’étaient élevés pour défendre le peuple contre la tyrannie Espagnole.
          Fils de Joseph de Montmorency-Nivelle et d’Anne d’Egmont, le comte de Hornes, qui a hérité de son beau-père, le second mari de sa mère, le comté de Hornes et porte son nom, appartient à la riche noblesse des Pays-Bas. Il sert loyalement l’Espagne au cours de la majeure partie de sa carrière. Nommé successivement grand veneur, chevalier de la Toison d’or, chef du Conseil d’État des Pays-Bas, chambellan et capitaine de la garde flamande du roi d’Espagne, amiral des Flandres et gouverneur de la Gueldre et de Zutphen, le comte de Hornes ne se contente pas de ces titres prestigieux ; il paye aussi de sa personne et se distingue par sa bravoure aux batailles de Saint-Quentin en 1557 et de Gravelines en 1558
          Peu à peu sa méfiance à l’égard de l’autoritarisme espagnol aux Pays-Bas s’accroît et Hornes lie son sort à celui de Lamoral, comte d’Egmont, auquel il est apparenté. Il forme avec lui une sorte de ligue de seigneurs opposés à Granvelle, que Philippe II disgrâcie en 1564. Pour bien montrer son opposition résolue à la politique d’intimidation, puis de répression de Philippe II dans les Pays-Bas, le comte de Hornes renvoie ses insignes de la Toison d’or. Mais il ne croit pas à la rupture et refuse de s’enfuir, lorsque le duc d’Albe est nommé gouverneur des Pays-Bas en 1567. Ce dernier le fait arrêter avec Egmont et tous deux sont décapités à Bruxelles.
          Tous deux restent dans l’imaginaire belge deux figures " héroïques " de la Résistance à l’envahisseur (ici Espagnol) et donc des Symboles de résistance à toute tyrannie, donc en définitive des " Figures de proue " de l’identité Belge, que d’aucuns refusent à reconnaître.
    1539 San Antonio María Zaccaria, religioso italiano.
    ^ 1099 Juifs et Musulmans massacrés à la Prise de Jérusalem par la Première Croisade.        
          Depuis 6 siècles, Jérusalem était aux mains des Musulmans. Bien sûr, l’un ou l’autre Calife avait bien transaformé une synagogue en Mosquée. Ou détruit le faux tombeau du Christ. Mais globalement, l’entente entre les fidèles des deux grandes religions monothéistes était positive. Seulement les Turcs Seldjoucides s’emparent du couloir Syro-Palestinien et de Jérusalem en 1071. Leur apparatenance musulmane est de type " chiïte ", extrémiste, intolérante. Les Juifs sont pourchassés, et les Chrétiens sont interdits de séjour, le tombeau du Christ est souillé. Ce qui provoque la colère des Chrétiens en Occident et la première Croisade se met en route en 1096. Seulement, en 1098, la ville retombe aux mains des Arabes de la dynastie des Fatimides (plutôt Sunnites, plus tolérants).
          Les Croisés parviennent à Jérusalem en Juin 1099. Le 5 Juillet ils s’emparent de la ville après un siège d’une rare intensité. Les Juifs autant que les Musulmans sont massacrés. Jérusalem devient la capitale d’un Royaume " latin " qui s’étend jusqu’à la Mer Rouge et à l’Isthme de Suez. Godefroid de Bouillon (duc de Basse Lotharingie, Comte de Bouillon (petite ville dans le sud de la Belgique à la frontière française) en devient le premier chef, il refuse le titre de roi de Jérusalem (par respecte pour le Christ, roi des Juifs) ; il n’en est que l’avoué (sorte de gestionnaire). Ce royaume subsistera quand même près de 86 ans.

     
    < 04 Jul 06 Jul >
    Dolly and surrogate mom^  Births which occurred on a 05 July:
    2000 Ginaya Farran, in the defendants' cage in the criminal court of judge Abdel-Munem Othman in Damietta, Egypt. Her mother, Amal Ahmed Farran, 35, went into labor right after being sentenced to 3 years at hard labor for drug trafficking. Ginaya means Felony in Arabic. Under Egyptian law, mothers can keep their children in jail with them until they reach the age of four.
    1996 Dolly Finn Dorset, ewe, by caesarean section from a surrogate Scottish Blackface mother [at right, with Dolly at left >], at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland. Dolly is the first animal cloned from an adult cell (an udder cell of a 6-year-old ewe), after 277 failed attempts to clone a sheep. The birth would be announced on 23 February 1997. Dolly would give birth (the usual way) to lamb Bonnie in 13 April 1998 and to two males and one female in 24 March 1999. The father of all 4 is David Welsh Mountain ram. Prematurely aged, suffering from arthritis since January 2002, and now ill with a virus-induced lung cancer, Dolly would be put to death at half the average natural death age of sheep, on 14 February 2003.
    1983 Baby girl born in Roanoke, Virginia, to a mother brain dead for 84 days.
    1946 The “bikini” swimsuit.        
          French designer Louis Reard unveils a daring two-piece swimsuit at the Piscine Molitor,l in Paris. Parisian showgirl Micheline Bernardini modeled the new fashion, which Reard dubbed "bikini," inspired by a news-making US atomic test that took place off the Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean earlier that week. European women first began wearing two-piece bathing suits that consisted of a halter top and shorts in the 1930s, but only a sliver of the midriff was revealed and the navel was vigilantly covered. In the United States, the modest two-piece made its appearance during World War II, when wartime rationing of fabric saw the removal of the skirt panel and other superfluous material. Meanwhile, in Europe, fortified coastlines and Allied invasions curtailed beach life during the war, and swimsuit development, like everything else non-military, came to a standstill. In 1946, Western Europeans joyously greeted the first war-free summer in years, and French designers came up with fashions to match the liberated mood of the people. Two French designers, Jacques Heim and Louis Reard, developed competing prototypes of the bikini. Heim called his the "atom" and advertised it as "the world's smallest bathing suit." Reard's swimsuit, which was basically a bra top and two inverted triangles of cloth connected by string, was in fact significantly smaller. Made out of a scant 75 cm of fabric, Reard promoted his creation as "smaller than the world's smallest bathing suit." Reard called his creation the bikini, named after the Bikini Atoll.
          In planning the debut of his new swimsuit, Reard had trouble finding a professional model who would deign to wear the scandalously skimpy two-piece. So he turned to Micheline Bernardini, an exotic dancer at the Casino de Paris, who had no qualms about appearing nearly nude in public. As an allusion to the headlines that he knew his swimsuit would generate, he printed newspaper type across the suit that Bernardini modeled on 05 July at the Piscine Molitor. The bikini was a hit, especially among men, and Bernardini received some 50'000 fan letters. Before long, bold young women in bikinis were causing a sensation along the Mediterranean coast. Spain and Italy passed measures prohibiting bikinis on public beaches but later capitulated to the changing times when the swimsuit grew into a mainstay of European beaches in the 1950s. Reard's business soared, and in advertisements he kept the bikini mystique alive by declaring that a two-piece suit wasn't a genuine bikini "unless it could be pulled through a wedding ring." In prudish America, the bikini was successfully resisted until the early 1960s, when a new emphasis on youthful liberation brought the swimsuit en masse to US beaches. It was immortalized by the pop singer Brian Hyland, who sang "Itsy Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polka-Dot Bikini" in 1960, by the teenage "beach blanket" movies of Annette Funicello and Frankie Avalon, and by the California surfing culture celebrated by rock groups like the Beach Boys. Since then, the popularity of the bikini has hardly diminished; though on beaches in Brazil and the Mediterranean today, many women favor the "monokini," a swimsuit style that consists solely of a bikini bottom.
    1928 Pierre Mauroy, French Socialist politician of the Nord department, mayor of Lille (1973-2001), Prime Minister (22 May 1981 - 17 Jul 1984), deputé (1973-1992), senator (1992-).
    1911 Luis Díez del Corral, profesor y académico español.
    ^ 1904 Ernst Mayr, German-born US biologist who died on 03 February 2005, a professor emeritus of zoology at Harvard. He was known for his work in avian taxonomy, population genetics, and he was the leading evolutionary biologist of the 20th century.
          Mayr earned a medical degree from the University of Greifswald in 1925. Descended from generations of doctors, he broke off his medical career and turned his attention to zoology, earning a doctorate from the University of Berlin just 16 months later.
         In 1927, at a zoological convention in Budapest, Mayr met Lord Rothschild, who had been looking for someone to travel to New Guinea to collect birds of paradise. In 1928, Mayr, then a member of the university staff, led the first of three expeditions to New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, where he was profoundly impressed with the effects of geographic distribution among various animal species. His early studies of the ability of one species to separate or subdivide into daughter species (speciation) and of those populations that were established by a small number of founders (founder populations) made him one of the leaders in the development ofthe modern synthetic theory of evolution. This theory encompasses the biological processes of gene mutation and recombination, changes in the structure and function of chromosomes, reproductive isolation, and natural selection.
          Mayr continued his studies as the curator of birds at the American Museum of Natural History in New York (1932–1953), where he wrote more than 100 papers on avian taxonomy, including Birds of the Southwest Pacific (1945). He proposed in 1940 a definition of species that won wide acceptance in scientific circles and led to the discovery of a number of previously unknown species. In 1953 he became Alexander Agassiz professor of zoology at Harvard University and in 1961 became director of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, retiring from that position in 1970, but never quitting his research. His works include Methods and Principles of Systemic Zoology (with E.G. Linsley and R.L. Usinger; 1953), Animal Species and Evolution (1963), and The Growth of Biological Thought (1982), What Makes Biology Unique?: Considerations on the Autonomy of a Scientific Discipline (Aug 2004).
    —      Mayr was known as an architect of the evolutionary or modern synthesis, an intellectual watershed when modern evolutionary biology was born. The synthesis, which was one of the half-dozen major scientific achievements of the 20th century, reconciled Darwin's theories of evolution with new findings in laboratory genetics and in fieldwork on animal populations and diversity.
          One of Mayr's most significant contributions was his persuasive argument for the role of geography in the origin of new species, an idea that has won virtually universal acceptance among evolutionary theorists. He also established a philosophy of biology and founded the field of the history of biology.
          In a career spanning nine decades, Mayr exerted a broad and powerful influence over the field of evolutionary biology. Prolific, opinionated, provocative and dynamic, Mayr had been a major figure and intellectual leader since the 1940's. Setting much of the conceptual agenda for the field, he put the focus just where Charles Darwin first placed it, on the question of how new species originate.
          Though Mayr will be best remembered as a synthesizer and promoter of evolutionary ideas, he was also an accomplished ornithologist. In fact, it was with the sighting of a pair of unusual birds that Mayr's long career in biology began in 1923 at age 19. Mayr was born in Kempten, Germany. While still a boy, he was instructed in natural history by his father, Otto, a judge. He quickly became a skilled birdwatcher and naturalist. Intending to become a medical doctor like others in his family, Mayr was about to leave for medical school when he spotted a pair of red-crested pochards, a species of duck that had not been seen in Europe for 77 years. Though he took detailed notes, he could not get anyone to believe his sighting. Finally, he met Dr. Erwin Stresemann, then the leading German ornithologist, who was at the Berlin Zoological Museum and who recognized his talents and invited him to work at the museum during school holidays.
          After two years of medical studies at the University of Greifswald (chosen because it was in the most interesting German region for birdwatching), Mayr, like Darwin before him, opted for natural history. He completed his Ph.D. at the University of Berlin in just 16 months. Mayr went on to fulfill what he called "the greatest ambition of my youth," heading off to the tropics. In the South Pacific, principally New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, Mayr collected more than 3000 birds from 1928 to 1930. (He had to live off the land, and every bird, after being skinned for study, went into the pot. As a result, he is said to have eaten more birds of paradise than any other modern biologist.). The South Seas experience, he once said, "had an impact on my thinking that cannot be exaggerated." For it was his detailed observations of the differences among geographically isolated populations that contributed to his conviction that geography played a crucial role in the origin of species.
          Though Darwin titled his book The Origin of Species, little in the book, in fact, addresses the question of how new species arise. Mayr determined that when populations of a single species are separated from one another, they slowly accumulate differences until they can no longer interbreed. Mayr called this allopatric speciation and detailed his arguments in his seminal book Systematics and the Origin of Species (1942). Today allopatric speciation is accepted as the most common way in which new species arise. Organic diversity had at last received a convincing explanation in this book, one of the greatest achievements of evolutionary biology.
          Similarly, the most commonly held view of what constitutes a species remains the one that Mayr promoted, known as the biological species concept. First explicitly defined by Dr. Theodosius Dobzhansky, it states that populations that can successfully interbreed are the same species and those that cannot are different species. While numerous other species concepts have been proposed and debated, this one continues to reign supreme.
          Mayr's focus on species, both their nature and their origins, appears to have derived from his experiences in the South Pacific. When he went to New Guinea, Mayr once explained, there was a popular school of thinking known as the nominalist school of philosophy that held that species did not, in reality, exist. They were merely arbitrary categories, little more than names. “But I discovered that the very same aggregations or groupings of individuals that the trained zoologist called separate species were called species by the New Guinea natives,” Mayr said. “I collected 137 species of birds. The natives had 136 names for these birds - they confused only two of them. The coincidence of what Western scientists called species and what the natives called species was so total that I realized the species was a very real thing in nature.”
          Mayr eventually became a living symbol of the beginnings of the modern field of evolution, one of the last survivors of the handful of biologists, including Theodosius Dobzhansky [25 Jan 1900 – 18 Dec 1975] and George Gaylord Simpson [16 Jun 1902 – 06 Oct 1984], known as the architects of the modern evolutionary synthesis.
          In the evolutionary synthesis, neo-Darwinism took its place as today's dominant theory of evolution. Taking place between the 1920's and 50's, the synthesis is recognized as a period of conceptual unification, a time of "mutual education," as Mayr once described it. Laboratory geneticists, studying mutations and population genetics, began merging their views of evolution with those of field scientists like Mayr who studied the diversity and origins of different species. New findings, in genetics as well as other fields, were reconciled with Darwin's theories of evolution. Competing theories, including Lamarckism (the idea that acquired characteristics can be inherited), were tossed aside, producing a much more unified view of evolution at work.
          Over his remarkably productive career, Mayr wrote or edited 20 books and wrote more than 600 journal articles. After his official retirement in 1975, he published more than 200 of the articles, more than many scientists do in their entire careers. He received awards including the National Medal of Science, the Balzan Prize and the International Prize. He once noted that Nobel Prizes were not given in evolutionary biology, saying, "Darwin wouldn't have won it either." Mayr was an ardent promoter of the academic discipline of evolutionary biology, and perhaps its most energetic organizer, playing a critical role in founding the Society for the Study of Evolution in 1946, and serving as the first editor of its journal, Evolution, still the leading journal in the field.
          Meanwhile, his birds were never forgotten. As a collector, ornithologist and curator, first at the University of Berlin, then the American Museum of Natural History in the 1930's and 1940's, and finally at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard, Mayr made his mark. By the time he turned 90, in 1994, he had named more than 24 valid bird species, more than any other living ornithologist had at the time. He had named more than 400 subspecies and several new genuses of birds as well.
          Mayr also took a serious interest in organisms other than birds, publishing work on species delineations in plants, hybrids formed by snail species, courtship behavior in fruit flies and the evolution of human blood groups.
          Mayr may have taken the greatest pride in his theory of what he called peripatric speciation and genetic revolutions, an idea he called "perhaps the most original theory I have ever proposed." It was also his least successful.
          According to this controversial theory, new species can be produced when very small populations are cut off from the rest of the species. Unlike the more general theory of allopatric speciation, holding that isolated populations slowly accumulate differences until they can no longer interbreed, peripatric speciation posits that extremely small populations, isolated in unusual habitats, undergo what Mayr termed a "genetic revolution." Undergoing drastic changes in their genome, populations evolve quickly to become new species.
          Some scientists have said that this theory is unlikely, unsupported and untestable. Others have defended it as a proposal, saying that while the idea itself may not stand the test of time, it remains significant as one of the first explicit theoretical models of speciation and its genetic consequences.
          Mayr also sowed the seeds for the flowering of modern macroevolutionary theory. While microevolutionary theory seeks to explain how species adapt to particular environments or how evolution among populations can give rise to new species, macroevolution theory encompasses a much bigger picture, examining how some species survive better than others and how likely or unlikely they are to give rise to other species. It was Mayr's concept of the species and its role in the evolutionary process that laid the foundations for many of the theories being tested by macroevolutionists today.
          In addition to his several lifetimes' worth of work in evolution, Mayr also fathered an entirely new field of study, creating almost singlehandedly the field of history and philosophy of biology as a distinct discipline, apart from the history of physics and chemistry, Dr. Smocovitis of the University of Florida said. As with modern evolutionary biology, Mayr nurtured the new discipline as organizer, mover and shaker. His own contributions include the defining book The Growth of Biological Thought (1982), as well as books on the philosophy of biology, Darwin and the evolutionary synthesis.
          Mayr, a strong believer in the Hegelian dialectic as a way of advancing understanding, was known for his definitive proclamations, which often inspired as many heated rebuttals as nods of vigorous agreement. With so long to consider the great pageant of the history of life, he seemed to have taken on every subject of interest in evolutionary biology, and his views are an unavoidable point at which to begin nearly any argument of substance. No one will agree with all his positions, analyses, and opinions. But anyone who has failed to read Mayr can hardly claim to be educated in evolutionary biology.
    1902 Henry Cabot Lodge (R) politician (VP candidate 1960); ambassador (UN, Viet Nam)
    1900 Bernard Cardinal Alfrink cardinal of Ultrecht Netherlands
    1889 Jean Cocteau France, writer/artist/film maker (Le Potamak) — Jean Cocteau, escritor y cineasta francés.
    1886 Willem Drees PM of Netherland (1948-58)
    1885 André Lhote, French Cubist painter and sculptor who died on 24 January 1962. MORE ON LHOTE AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1883 John Maynard Keynes, economista británico.
    1871 Miguel Asín Palacios, arabista y filólogo español.
    1868 William Henry Singer Jr., US artist who died in 1943.
    ^ 1865 The Christian Mission (future Salvation Army)
          In the East End of London, England, revivalist preacher William Booth, with the assistance of his wife, Catherine, established the Christian Mission, later known as the Salvation Army. Determined to wage war against the twin evils of poverty and religious indifference with the efficiency of a military organization, Booth modeled his Protestant sect after the British army, labeling uniformed ministers as "officers" and new members as "recruits."
          A Methodist minister, Booth preached the religious doctrines subscribed to by mainstream Protestant evangelical denominations at the time. However, the Christian Mission was unique in its commitment to establishing a presence in the most forsaken neighborhoods and in its provision for the absolute equality of women within the sect. Soup kitchens were the first in a long line of a variety of projects designed to provide physical and spiritual assistance to the destitute.
          In 1878, the organization was renamed the Salvation Army, and two years later the first US branch opened in Pennsylvania. During the Great Depression, the Salvation Army provided food and lodging for those in need, and during both World Wars distinguished itself by its work with the armed services.
          Today, the Salvation Army, still based in London, has branches in more than seventy-five countries. The Army operates hospitals, emergency and disaster services, alcoholic and drug rehabilitation programs, community centers, social work centers, second-hand stores, and recreation facilities. Voluntary contributions and profits from the sale of its publications fund the organization.
    1853 Cecil John Rhodes, in England, South African politician, diamond merchant. Il fut surnommé Le Napoléon du Cap. Élu Premier Ministre de la colonie anglaise du Cap, il prit activement par à la guerre contre les Boers. Sa statue domine la ville de Cap Town.
    1840 Miguel Jadraque y Sánchez de Ocaña, Spanish painter.
    1828 Paul Joseph Constantin Gabriël, Dutch artist who died on 23 August 1903. MORE ON GABRIËL AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
    1810 Phineas Taylor Barnum Bethel Conn, circus promoter (Barnum and Bailey "The Greatest Show on Earth")
    1801 David G. Farragut, in Knoxville Tenn, naval hero (Civil War Union Navy Admiral: "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead.")
    1950 Pvt. Kenneth Shadrick of Skin Fork WV, who would become the first US serviceman to die in the Korean War.
    1794 Sylvester Graham developed graham cracker
    1781 Sir Stamford Raffles founded Singapore.
    1761 Louis-Léopold Boilly, French portrait and genre painter who died on 04 January 1845. MORE ON BOILLY AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
     
    Holidays Algeria : Independence Day (1962) / Isle of Man : Tynwald Day (1266) / Laos : Boun Festival / Rwanda : Peace and National Unity Day / Venezuela : Independence Day (1811)

    Religious Observances Muslim-Brunei : Mohammed's Ascension / RC : St Anthony-Mary Zaccaria, confessor (opt) / Santos Miguel de los Santos, Marino, Teodoto, Agatón y Antonio María Zacaría.
    click for complete picture


    From Maxim O'Ronn's Illustrated Dixshunnary

    click click
    Question: Which city is ideal for a gambling casino? (hint in this space tomorrow)
    Thought for the day:
    “Which witch are you? Are you a good witch, or are you a bad witch?” — [Neither question appears in The Wizard of Oz of L. Frank Baum, but the second one, or something close to it, may have been in MGM's 1939 film]
    “Switch the witch? Switch which witch? The Ipswich witch?”
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    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4jul/h4jul02.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4jul/h4jul05.html
    http://www.geocities.com/johncanu/history/h4jul/h4jul02.html
    updated Wednesday 02-Jul-2008 21:37 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.60 Friday 06-Jul-2007 0:40 UT
    v.6.60 Wednesday 05-Jul-2006 19:14 UT
    v.5.70 Saturday 13-Aug-2005 16:21 UT
    Monday 05-Jul-2004 4:06 UT

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