a 05 July:
2000 At the United Nations, President Clinton signed an international agreement to ban the forcible recruitment of youths as soldiers in armed conflict, and a companion accord to protect children from being forced into slavery, prostitution and pornography.
2000 The UN Security Council imposes a diamond ban on Sierra Leone's rebels in an effort to strangle their ability to finance a civil war.
1998 Irene Silverman, 82, [photo >] is abducted from her home in the vicinity of East 65th Street between 5th and Madison Avenues in Manhattan. She is a millionaire widow. Her description is given as: Height: 5'0" Weight: 115 lbs. Hair: red/auburn Eyes: Brown. On 18 May 2000, Sante Kimes and Kenneth Kimes, mother-and-son drifters, would be convicted of murdering Irene Silverman in a plot to steal her elegant townhouse mansion. The body would never be found.
1998 España y el Reino Unido alcanzan un acuerdo para levantar las restricciones militares que el Gobierno de Madrid mantiene sobre Gibraltar en las operaciones y maniobras de la OTAN.
1996: The US government reported the nation's unemployment rate fell to a six-year low in June 1996; nervous investors, fearing higher interest rates, gave the stock market its worst beating in four months, sending the Dow industrials down 114 points.
1995 La escritora Rosa Chacel recibe la Medalla de Oro de Bellas Artes de manos del rey de España Juan Carlos I.
1995 IBM launches hostile takeover of Lotus
IBM launched a surprise attack on Lotus, maker of the popular Lotus Notes groupware, on this day in 1995. Lotus conceded the next day, and IBM moved ahead with the largest-ever deal for a software company. IBM's aggressive move was viewed as an attempt to boost the company's performance in the software segment, a major goal of the turnaround strategy launched by new IBM chief Lou Gerstner, who came on board in 1993. 1951 Shockley announces the junction transistor English-born William Shockley, working at Bell Telephone Labs, announced the invention of the junction transistor on July 5, 1951. Together with colleagues John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, Shockley won the Nobel Prize in 1956 for inventing the transistor. In later life, Shockley provoked outrage for his racist views. The invention of the transistor heralded a revolution in radio, television, and computer circuitry.
1993 Un comando de ETA secuestra al empresario español Julio Iglesias Zamora.
1992 Sixto Durán Ballén, gana la segunda vuelta de las elecciones presidenciales de Ecuador.
1991 A worldwide financial scandal erupted as regulators in eight countries shut down the Bank of Credit and Commerce International, charging it with fraud, drug money-laundering and illegal infiltration into the US banking system.
| 1989 El coronel estadounidense Oliver North es sancionado
por su participación en el escándalo Irangate.
1988 La iglesia anglicana se pronuncia a favor de que las mujeres puedan ejercer el sacerdocio, aunque la propuesta no se llevará a la práctica hasta 1993.
1985 Se aprueba por ley en España la despenalización del aborto en tres supuestos: embarazo a causa de un delito de violación, existencia de grave peligro para la salud física o psíquica de la embarazada y presunción de que el feto nacerá con graves taras físicas o psíquicas.
1985 47ºC, St George, Utah (state rec) (103ºF spread, UT 1985)
1981 Rajan Mahadevan recites 31,811 digits of pi from memory
1977 Pakistan's army, led by Gen Mohammad Zia ul-Haq, seizes power
1975 The Cape Verde Islands officially become independent after 500 years of Portuguese rule.
1971 26th amendment certified (reduces voting age to 18)
1970 Luis Echeverría Álvarez es elegido presidente de México.
1966 NYC transit fare rises from 15 cents to 20 cents
1963 In an instruction given by the Holy Office, disposal of the dead by cremation is officially granted sanction by the Catholic Church. (Belief in the resurrection of the dead had previously made cremation repugnant to many Christians.)
1962 Algeria gains independence after 132 years of French rule.
1961 El presidente Joaquin Balaguer constituye un nuevo gobierno en República Dominicana.
1959 Dimite el presidente israelí Ben Gurión, tras la crisis gubernamental causada por los envíos de armas desde la RFA.
1955 El FLN organiza una huelga general en Argelia.
1952 El Senado argentino aprueba el proyecto de ley por el que se erigirán monumentos a Eva Duarte de Perón en Buenos Aires y en las capitales de todas las provincias y territorios del país.
1951 Junction transistor invention announced, Murray Hill, NJ
1950 Law of Return passes, guarantees all Jews right to live in Israel.
1949 Una epidemia de encefalitis causa más de 200 muertos en Corea del Sur.
1948 Britain's National Health Service Act went into effect, providing government-financed medical and dental care. Entra en vigor en Gran Bretaña el National Health Service Act (Acta Nacional de Seguridad Social), que nacionaliza el servicio sanitario en el país. El economista William Henry Beveridge es el responsable de la elaboración del nuevo plan de salud.
1940 Diplomatic relations broken between Britain and the Vichy government in France..
1937 Antonio Oliveira Salazar, presidente del Consejo de Portugal, sufre un atentado fallido.
1937 47ºC, Medicine Lake, Montana (state record)
1936 49ºC, Gannvalley, South Dakota (state record)
1933 Todt gets the Autobahn job
Fritz Todt, who was born on 04 September 1891, is appointed General Inspector for German Highways. His primary assignment: to build a comprehensive autobahn system. Todt, a civil engineer who was a proponent of a national highway system as a means of economic development, was handpicked for the position in 1932 by Adolf Hitler. The two men were close friends, and Todt remained a Nazi party member throughout World War II.
Every aspect of Autobahn construction its design, aesthetic ("to harmonize with the German landscape"), and model role in National Socialist labor relations was stamped with Todt's personality. As was his other great achievement, the building of the massive network of bunkers and fortifications known as the West Wall.
By 1936, 100'000 kilometers of divided highways had been completed, leaving Germany with the most advanced transportation system in the world. Todt estimated in a 1936 speech that "170'000'000 cubic meters of earth have been moved. This would fill a line of trucks extending around the earth four times." He concluded his speech with an exhortation to the German people typical of Nazi party propaganda, "They are roads unequaled anywhere else in the world in their technical excellence and beauty. Is this a work of technology? No! Like so much else, it is the work of Adolf Hitler!" However in Todt last years of life he had disagreements with Göring and even with Hitler, so that some suspect that Todt's death in an airplane crash on 08 February 1982, may have been provoked.
The autobahns were, in fact, the envy of the industrialized world and a source of both anxiety and awe for Europeans. A Danish newspaper declared, "They are the expression of a national energy that compels the greatest admiration." What few suspected was that the German road system was the first step to their conquest of Western Europe, as the autobahns allowed the Germans to move troops and personnel faster and in greater numbers than anyone could have imagined. The ease with which the German army moved into France owes much to its facility to mobilize and shift troops faster than the French could.
Todt became a national hero for his creation. The autobahn inspired US President Dwight Eisenhower to foster a similar American interstate highway system. Having been in Germany during the war, he returned to the States deeply convinced that good highways were directly linked to economic prosperity.
BIOGRAPHIE VON FRITZ TODT, Ingenieur, NS-Politiker
1891 4. September: Fritz Todt wird als Sohn eines Fabrikanten in Pforzheim geboren.
1910 Als Einjährig-Freiwilliger dient er in Karlsruhe.
1911 Er beginnt sein Ingenieurstudium in München.
1914-1918 Teilnahme am Ersten Weltkrieg als Offizier und Flugzeugbeobachter.
1920 Abschluß des Studiums in Karlsruhe.
1921-1933 Er arbeitet zuerst an Wasserkraftanlagen, später im Straßenbau für die Baufirma Sager and Woerner.
1922 Er tritt in die Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) ein.
1931 Er wird Oberführer der Sturmabteilung (SA) im Stabe Ernst Röhms und Fachberater im Amt für Wirtschaftstechnik und Arbeitsbeschaffung der NSDAP.
1932 Todt promoviert über "Fehlerquellen beim Bau von Landstraßendecken aus Teer und Asphalt".
1933 Nach der Ernennung Adolf Hitlers zum Reichskanzler wird Todt Generalinspektor für das deutsche Straßenwesen. Seine Behörde erhält den Status einer Obersten Reichsbehörde außerhalb der Organisation der Reichsministerien. Er ist verantwortlich für den Bau der Reichsautobahnen und Hitler direkt unterstellt.
Er wird Leiter des Hauptamts für Technik in der Reichsleitung der NSDAP.
1938 Als Generalbevollmächtigter für die Regelung der Bauwirtschaft ist er verantwortlich für das gesamte Bauwesen im Reich.
Beginn des Baus des Westwalls als Befestigung entlang der Westgrenze des Reichs. Hierfür schafft Todt durch das Zusammenwirken von Bauverwaltung, privaten Firmen und Reichsarbeitsdienst die Organisation Todt. Während des Kriegs werden immer mehr Zwangsarbeiter herangezogen. Hauptsächliches Einsatzgebiet der bis zu 800.000 Arbeiter sind Instandhaltung und Wiederherstellung kriegswichtiger Anlagen.
1940 Ernennung zum Reichsminister für Bewaffnung und Munition. Damit ist er zuständig für die Kriegswirtschaft und für den Bau des Atlantikwalls entlang der niederländischen, belgischen und nordfranzösischen Küsten.
1941 Generalinspekteur für Wasser und Energie. Trotz Konflikten mit Hermann Göring und mit der Wehrmacht bleibt seine Wertschätzung als unverzichtbarer Organisator bei Hitler ungebrochen. Herbst
Nach einer Inspektionsreise an der Ostfront fordert Todt von Hitler erfolglos Maßnahmen zur besseren Versorgung der Wehrmacht. Zunehmende Zweifel an der Möglichkeit, den Krieg zu gewinnen, führen zu Auseinandersetzungen auch mit Hitler.
1942 8. Februar: Fritz Todt kommt bei einem Flugzeugabsturz nahe dem Führerhauptquartier bei Rastenburg (Ostpreußen) ums Leben. Es gibt Vermutungen, er sei einem Anschlag Hitlers zum Opfer gefallen.
Postum wird ihm als erstem Träger der Deutsche Orden verliehen. Sein Nachfolger als Rüstungsminister wird Albert Speer
| 1932 Oliveira Salazar becomes dictator of fascist Portugal
Antonio Oliveira Salazar es nombrado presidente del Consejo de Ministros
1922 Continúa la campaña nacionalista iniciada por los peruanos residentes en la región colombiana de Tarapacá para obtener la anexión al Perú.
1920 20'000 huérfanos de la primera guerra mundial desfilan delante de la embajada de los Estados Unidos en París para agradecer las donaciones recibidas.
1919 Se establece un Gobierno provisional en Perú bajo la presidencia de Augusto Leguía.
1915 Durante la Primera Guerra Mundial, los italianos son derrotados cerca de Gradisca y de Girizia.
1904 El zar Nicolas II de Rusia nombra a Iván Obolenski gobernador de Finlandia, para "favorecer la más estrecha integración del territorio".
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1861 Engagement at Carthage, Missouri
1859 Capt NC Brooks discovers Midway Islands
1830 Prise d'Alger Le corps expéditionnaire français a débarqué le 16 juin à Sidi-Ferruch. La veille, les troupes de celui-ci se ont emporté la victoire en prenant le fort l'Empereur à Staouéli. En ce jour, Alger à son tour, capitule. The French occupy Algiers.
1814 Americans defeat British and Canadians at Chippewa, Ontario
1811 Venezuela, first American colony to declare independence from Spain La Junta de Caracas declara la independencia absoluta respecto de España de una parte del territorio venezolano (el del cacao), aunque el resto permanece fiel a la metrópoli. Es la primera acta de independencia americana.
1809 La battaille de Wagram commence. Napoléon est encore face aux armées autrichiennes. Le Danube sépare les deux armées. Le 4 Jul, Napoléon fait occuper l'île Lobau. pendant un violent orage, vers 21 heures, l'empereur fait jeter sur le bras nord du fleuve trois ponts, par lesquels ils fait passer ses troupes. Le 5 Jul, l'armée française affronte en vain les Autrichiens. Leur position en équerre surprend l'empereur. Mais le 6 Jul, son plan de bataille prendra en compte ce qu'il a découvert.
1808 Battle of Buenos Aires
1731 Un tumulto popular en Paraguay impide la ejecución de los jefes del movimiento comunero: José de Antequera y Juan de Mena.
1687 Isaac Newton's PRINCIPIA published by Royal Society in England
1439 At the Council of Florence, the Decree of Union ('Laententur Coeli') is signed,creating an official theological union between the Eastern (Orthodox) and Western (Catholic) churches. Unfortunately, the Eastern Church at large never accepted the document.
1433 Alfonso V decide aplazar la toma del poder en su segunda campaña en Nápoles ante la envergadura de la oposición formada por el papa, el emperador y las plazas de Venecia, Florencia y Milán.
1420 Alfonso V entra en la ciudad de Nápoles donde es recibido como libertador.
0767 [Constantine] begins his reign as Pope
0649 Saint Martin I begins his reign as Pope.
2006 Kenneth Lee “Ken” Lay [15 April 1942—], dies of a heart attack. He was a US businessman who was a buddy of US president “Dubya” Bush, vice-president Dick Cheney, and other top Republican politicos which he considered corruptible. Lay was to be sentenced (possibly to as much as 165 years in prison!) on 23 October 2006, having been, on 25 May 2006, convicted of fraud while chairman and CEO (since 1986) of Enron (he resigned on 23 January 2002), a multi-billion-dollar energy corporation which went bankrupt in December 2001. — (060705)
2005 Six terrorists, five of them shot by forewarned police guards during a 2-hour gun battle, after one terrorist detonated a suicide car bomb breaching a security wall at the Ram Janmbhoomi Hindu shrine in Ayodhya, India, where, on 06 December 1992, Hindu extremists had demolished a 16th century Muslim mosque on the sprawling 32-hectare complex, sparking religious riots that killed more than 2000 persons. The mosque was built by Mogul rulers on the site of a Hindu temple at the birthplace of Ram, the highest Hindu god; but Muslims deny that. The dispute is still working its way through India's courts. Today's is the first major attack on a Hindu temple site since the 26 September 2002 assault on the Akshardham temple in Gandhinagar, Gujarat state, which left 32 persons dead, including the two attackers. That attack was blamed on the Pakistan-based Lashkar-e-Toiba guerillas, one of more than a dozen groups fighting for Kashmir's independence or its merger with mostly Muslim Pakistan.
2003 Paul Childs, 15, Black [photo >], shot by White policeman James Turney in Denver. The boy, who required medication for seizures and behavior problems, and had impaired vision, was standing in his home's doorway holding a knife. Turney would not be prosecuted for this killing. Nor was he prosecuted for killing in 2002 partially deaf Gregory Smith, 18, who had pulled out a pocket knife.
2003:: 17 persons including two suicide bomber women, at a music festival in Moscow, Russia.
2002:: At least 30 persons in a market in Larba, Algeria, by a bomb hidden in a pile of garbage bags at the entrance of the market, crowded because this is Algeria's Independence Day (40th anniversary) and a Friday (Muslim day of rest). Another 30 or so are injured.
Sagar and 9 other Royal Bengal tigers, of unknown causes, while
seven of the 45 surviving tigers are in critical condition at the overcrowded
and underfunded Nandankanan Zoo, in Bhubaneshwar, capital of Orissa state,
India. The zoo does not have a staff veterinarian. Two of the dead tigers
are of the rare white variety, of which no other zoo in the world has as
many as this one. (Actually Sagar was the first to die, 000704 evening local
time) [photo: one of the dead tigers being carried away for a post-mortem,
2000 Some heat victims in Turkey, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, as, for the second day, a Saharan air mass pushes temperatures to records unequalled in 112 years, to as much as 44ºC and some 10ºC above normal. Air conditioning in those countries is not as common as in the southern US.
1998 Mercé Marçal, escritora española y catedrática de lengua y literatura catalana.
1990 Mitch Snyder, 46, homeless advocate, suicide by hanging
1977 Henry Scheffé, US mathematician born on 11 April 1907. He worked in several different areas of Statistics, including linear models, analysis of variance and nonparametrics. Author of The Analysis of Variance (1959).
1969 Walter Gropius, 86, architect (found Bauhaus school of design)
1969 Tom Mboya economics minister, assassinated in Narobi Kenya
1962 Helmut Richard Niebuhr, 67. Christian Ethics professor at Yale for 30years, Niebuhr is better remembered for his popular and oft-reprinted 1951 classic, 'Christ and Culture' a work that explores available options of relating one's personal faith tothe world's highest and noblest principles.
| 1942 Oskar
Bolza, German mathematician born on 12 May 1857. He worked
on function theory, integral equations and the calculus of variations. Author
of Lectures on the Calculus of Variations (1908).|
1941 Jews of Wasosz, north-eastern Poland. Soon after the Germans had conquered the region from the Soviets, peasants came with their horse carts to town, to Jewish houses and killed the Jewish men, women and children with axes. The dead and the wounded they then loaded onto the carts and transported out of town. Streets were full of blood, which was dropping from the bodies loaded onto the carts.
1932 René-Louis Baire French mathematician born on 21 January 1874. He worked on the theory of functions and the concept of a limit.
1906 Jules Adolphe Aimé Louis Breton, French Realist painter born on 01 May 1827. MORE ON BRETON AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1903 William Burt Pope, 81. His Compendium of Christian Theology (1875-76) set forth the most powerful systematic arguments of his day for the holiness doctrine in Methodism.
1887 Hans Reinhard von Marées, German painter, draftsman, and sculptor, born on 24 December 1837. MORE ON VON MARÉES AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1886 Charles Louis Baugniet, Belgian artist born on 27 February 1814. links to images.
1868 Magnus von Wright, Finnish painter and illustrator born on 13 June 1805. — more with link to an image
1795 Antonio de Ulloa y de la Torre-Giral, matemático, militar y naturalista español.
1793 Alexander Roslin, Swedish painter born on 15 July 1718. links to images.
2000 Ginaya Farran, in the defendants' cage in the criminal court of judge Abdel-Munem Othman in Damietta, Egypt. Her mother, Amal Ahmed Farran, 35, went into labor right after being sentenced to 3 years at hard labor for drug trafficking. Ginaya means Felony in Arabic. Under Egyptian law, mothers can keep their children in jail with them until they reach the age of four.
1996 Dolly Finn Dorset, ewe, by caesarean section from a surrogate Scottish Blackface mother [at right, with Dolly at left >], at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland. Dolly is the first animal cloned from an adult cell (an udder cell of a 6-year-old ewe), after 277 failed attempts to clone a sheep. The birth would be announced on 23 February 1997. Dolly would give birth (the usual way) to lamb Bonnie in 13 April 1998 and to two males and one female in 24 March 1999. The father of all 4 is David Welsh Mountain ram. Prematurely aged, suffering from arthritis since January 2002, and now ill with a virus-induced lung cancer, Dolly would be put to death at half the average natural death age of sheep, on 14 February 2003.
1983 Baby girl born in Roanoke, Virginia, to a mother brain dead for 84 days.
1946 The bikini swimsuit.
French designer Louis Reard unveils a daring two-piece swimsuit at the Piscine Molitor,l in Paris. Parisian showgirl Micheline Bernardini modeled the new fashion, which Reard dubbed "bikini," inspired by a news-making US atomic test that took place off the Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean earlier that week. European women first began wearing two-piece bathing suits that consisted of a halter top and shorts in the 1930s, but only a sliver of the midriff was revealed and the navel was vigilantly covered. In the United States, the modest two-piece made its appearance during World War II, when wartime rationing of fabric saw the removal of the skirt panel and other superfluous material. Meanwhile, in Europe, fortified coastlines and Allied invasions curtailed beach life during the war, and swimsuit development, like everything else non-military, came to a standstill. In 1946, Western Europeans joyously greeted the first war-free summer in years, and French designers came up with fashions to match the liberated mood of the people. Two French designers, Jacques Heim and Louis Reard, developed competing prototypes of the bikini. Heim called his the "atom" and advertised it as "the world's smallest bathing suit." Reard's swimsuit, which was basically a bra top and two inverted triangles of cloth connected by string, was in fact significantly smaller. Made out of a scant 75 cm of fabric, Reard promoted his creation as "smaller than the world's smallest bathing suit." Reard called his creation the bikini, named after the Bikini Atoll.
In planning the debut of his new swimsuit, Reard had trouble finding a professional model who would deign to wear the scandalously skimpy two-piece. So he turned to Micheline Bernardini, an exotic dancer at the Casino de Paris, who had no qualms about appearing nearly nude in public. As an allusion to the headlines that he knew his swimsuit would generate, he printed newspaper type across the suit that Bernardini modeled on 05 July at the Piscine Molitor. The bikini was a hit, especially among men, and Bernardini received some 50'000 fan letters. Before long, bold young women in bikinis were causing a sensation along the Mediterranean coast. Spain and Italy passed measures prohibiting bikinis on public beaches but later capitulated to the changing times when the swimsuit grew into a mainstay of European beaches in the 1950s. Reard's business soared, and in advertisements he kept the bikini mystique alive by declaring that a two-piece suit wasn't a genuine bikini "unless it could be pulled through a wedding ring." In prudish America, the bikini was successfully resisted until the early 1960s, when a new emphasis on youthful liberation brought the swimsuit en masse to US beaches. It was immortalized by the pop singer Brian Hyland, who sang "Itsy Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polka-Dot Bikini" in 1960, by the teenage "beach blanket" movies of Annette Funicello and Frankie Avalon, and by the California surfing culture celebrated by rock groups like the Beach Boys. Since then, the popularity of the bikini has hardly diminished; though on beaches in Brazil and the Mediterranean today, many women favor the "monokini," a swimsuit style that consists solely of a bikini bottom.
1928 Pierre Mauroy, French Socialist politician of the Nord department, mayor of Lille (1973-2001), Prime Minister (22 May 1981 - 17 Jul 1984), deputé (1973-1992), senator (1992-).
1911 Luis Díez del Corral, profesor y académico español.
1900 Bernard Cardinal Alfrink cardinal of Ultrecht Netherlands
1889 Jean Cocteau France, writer/artist/film maker (Le Potamak) Jean Cocteau, escritor y cineasta francés.
1886 Willem Drees PM of Netherland (1948-58)
1885 André Lhote, French Cubist painter and sculptor who died on 24 January 1962. MORE ON LHOTE AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1883 John Maynard Keynes, economista británico.
1871 Miguel Asín Palacios, arabista y filólogo español.
1868 William Henry Singer Jr., US artist who died in 1943.
1840 Miguel Jadraque y Sánchez de Ocaña, Spanish painter.
1828 Paul Joseph Constantin Gabriël, Dutch artist who died on 23 August 1903. MORE ON GABRIËL AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1810 Phineas Taylor Barnum Bethel Conn, circus promoter (Barnum and Bailey "The Greatest Show on Earth")
1801 David G. Farragut, in Knoxville Tenn, naval hero (Civil War Union Navy Admiral: "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead.")
1950 Pvt. Kenneth Shadrick of Skin Fork WV, who would become the first US serviceman to die in the Korean War.
1794 Sylvester Graham developed graham cracker
1781 Sir Stamford Raffles founded Singapore.
1761 Louis-Léopold Boilly, French portrait and genre painter who died on 04 January 1845. MORE ON BOILLY AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
From Maxim O'Ronn's Illustrated Dixshunnary