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Events, deaths, births, of JUL 02
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ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY    ART “4” JUL 02    wikipedia
• Slaves take over slave ship... • Tecumseh urges Amerindians to fight for their land... • Carlos Menem is born... • Battle of Gettysburg: Day 2... • President incapacitated. VP promoted?... • Civil Rights Act... • Budapest mined and bombed... • Zeppelin demonstrated... • Shermann Anti~Trust Act... • Hermann Hesse is born... • USSR rejects Marshall Plan... • Proclamation de la République du Vietnam... • Jean~Jacques Rousseau is born... • Amelia Earhart lost... • 1'000'000th Corvette...
^  On a 02 July:
2009 Pope Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927~] issues the “motu proprioEcclesiae Unitatem putting the pontifical commission Ecclesia Dei (charged with facilitating the return of the dissident Society of St Pius X to the Church) under the jurisdiction of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. —(090930)
2006 General elections in Mexico. The presidential election is narrowly won by Felipe de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa [18 Oct 1952~] of the Partido Acción Nacional (PAN). The close second is Andrés Manuel López Obrador [13 Nov 1953~] of the center-left Partido de la Revolución Democrática (PRD) in coalition with the Partido de Convergencia Para la Democracia and the Partido de los Trabajadores (PT) in the Alianza Por el Bien de Todos. Roberto Madrazo [30 Jul 1952~], of the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI), is a distant third despite having formed Alianza Para México with the PVEM (which is NOT the Partido de la Violencia Extremista en México, but the Partido Verde Ecologista de México). The other two presidential candidates never had a chance of winning. The are Patricia Mercado Castro [1957~] of Alternativa Socialdemócratica y Campesina and Roberto Campa Cifrián [1957~] of Nueva Alianza. — (060703)

the Abiocor main unit2001 Artificial heart is implanted in patient.
      Surgeons from the University of Louisville implant the first self-contained artificial heart, a titanium and plastic pump, into Robert Tools at Jewish Hospital. Doctors said they expect the new implant to extend the patient's life only a month or so. But the device is considered a technological leap from mechanical hearts used in the 1980s, which were attached by wires and tubes to machinery outside the body.
      The new grapefruit-sized pump, known as AbioCor, is designed to allow recipients to maintain a productive lifestyle while wearing it. No wires, no tubes. Power is sent from a battery pack worn outside the body through the skin to an implanted coil, control package and backup battery. The internal battery, about the size of a typical pager, can work on its own for about 30 minutes between charges — long enough for a patient to take a shower, for example.
      Drs. Laman Gray and Robert Dowling, who trained by implanting the pump in baby cows, performed the surgery. Surgical teams at four other hospitals around the country had been trained to do the surgery, but Louisville was first. Experts hope that the experimental heart, made by Abiomed Inc. of Danvers, Massachusetts, will lead to new hope for patients with failing hearts.
 the Abocor system    David M. Lederman, Abiomed's president and chief executive officer, said earlier in 2001 that the company had received Food and Drug Administration approval to perform at least five human trials with the artificial heart. If the experiments are successful, more patients could be added to the trial later. Patients selected for the trial must be suffering from a chronic, progressive heart disease expected to result in death within 30 days. They had to be ineligible for receiving a human heart transplant. The goal of the experimental trials with the artificial heart is to double the life span of these patients to 60 days, but every patient is expected to die on the AbioCor.
     A second goal is to evaluate how the mobile mechanical heart affects the quality of life of those patients, most of whom are so ill that they cannot walk or perform the daily routine of life, such as getting dressed.
      The first recipient of an artificial heart, Barney Clark, a Seattle-area dentist, lived 112 days after receiving a Jarvik-7 device on 02 December 1982. The survival record for a total artificial heart is held by William Schroeder of Jasper, Indiana, who lived 620 days on one before he died in August 1986. But artificial heart patients of the 1980s all had a variety of complications, and use of the devices as permanent replacements for diseased hearts was largely suspended.
      Still, the scientists building the next generation of devices -including those that assist rather than replace a diseased heart - learned too much to consider those early tests mistakes. The second man to receive a Jarvik-7, Thomas Gaidosh, of Sutersville, Pennsylvania, was on the device only a few days before he received a human heart transplant. He lived 11 more years, long enough to be best man at the wedding of inventor Dr. Robert Jarvik.
      Five hospitals were approved as sites for implanting the AbioCor. The others were Brigham & Women's and Massachusetts General in Boston; Hahnemann University Hospital in Philadelphia; the Texas Heart Institute in Houston; and the UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles.
THE PATIENT SURVIVES LONGER THAN EXPECTED.
[< Robert Tools, center, the recipient of the first totally self-contained artificial heart, addressed the media on 21 August 2001 alongside his surgeons Drs. Laman Gray Jr., left, and Robert Dowling.]
     More than six weeks after he received the experimental device, Robert Tools, 59, a former telephone company employee and teacher, is introduced to the news media via closed circuit television at Jewish Hospital in Louisville. "I had a choice to stay home and die or come here and take a chance," said Robert Tools of Franklin, Kentucky. "I decided to come here and take a chance." advertisement "I asked for it because I knew I had no more chances to survive," said Tools, who appeared frail and spoke with an airy voice while holding his throat because of a tracheotomy. Tools smiled as he said the whirring sound of the device took some getting used to, but he liked it because he knew he was alive.
      Tools, a diabetic with a history of heart problems, was deemed too ill to receive a heart transplant. Before the surgery, he was so weak he could take only a few steps at a time and couldn't raise his head to talk to his doctors. Tools was given only a slight chance of surviving 30 days. Tools moved to Kentucky from Colorado in 1996 hoping to receive a transplant, but he grew so weak he could barely cross the street.
BUT HE SUFFERS A STROKE ON 11 NOVEMBER 2001
      Robert Tools suffers a stroke in the afternoon of 11 November and is put back on a ventilator at Jewish Hospital.
AND DIES ON 30 NOVEMBER 2001.
     He dies on 30 November 2001, having lived with the artificial heart for 151 days, much longer than his estimated life expectancy of 30 days before the implantation operation and of 60 days after it. Tools began bleeding on 10 November and his organs began failing later that night. His abdominal bleeding was caused by continuous anti-coagulation problems Tools had experienced since the surgery. His death was unrelated to his 11 November stroke. The deterioration of his condition was not caused by complications or any malfunction of the experimental AbioCor heart device. Blood-thinning drugs are often given to patients to prevent the clots that can cause strokes, but Tools could not be given high doses, because such drugs can also cause internal bleeding. Doctors had said early on that strokes were among the risks for the artificial heart patients. The AbioCor was designed with a smooth plastic lining to decrease the chance of blood clots forming.
2000: Mexican elections, not yet completely fair, but the "fairest" ever, evidence of which is that an opposition candidate is given a chance to become the first non-PRI (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) president in 71 years. The results announced the next day would prove that the election is fair enough: Vicente Fox, the canditate of PAN (Partido Acción Nacional) is elected, to assume the presidency on December 1.
2000 et tous les ans: Tous les 2 juillet, la terre se trouve à son aphélie. Dans son mouvement de rotation autour du Soleil, la Terre décrit une ellipse dont le demi-grand axe est de 149'598'600 km. En janvier, la Terre est plus proche du Soleil, soit 147'100'000 km (périhélie) et en Juillet, elle est la plus éloignée, soit 152'100'000 km (aphélie). Cela fait une variation de 3,3% dans l'intensité de la radiation solaire, négligeable par rapport à la variation due à l'inclinaison de l'axe de la Terre.
1998 Un grupo de extremistas protestantes incendia diez capillas católicas en Irlanda del Norte.
1996 Electricity and phone service was knocked out for millions of customers from Canada to the Southwest after power lines throughout the West failed on a record-hot day.
1996 Seven years after they had shot their parents to death in the family's Beverly Hills mansion, Lyle and Erik Menendez were sentenced to life in prison without parole.
1995 La cadena comercial española Galerías Preciados cierra sus puertas tras más de 60 años de actividad, absorbida por su eterno competidor El Corte Inglés.
1992 Estados Unidos comunica a la OTAN la retirada de sus armas nucleares tácticas en Europa.
^ 1992 One millionth Corvette       
      Original Corvette engineer Zora Arkus Duntov drives the one-millionth Chevrolet Corvette off the assembly line in Bowling Green, Kentucky. The event is monumental to both America's first sports car and the man that made the car possible.
      Duntov was born in Belgium, the son of Russian immigrants. He pursued an interest in motorcycle racing and engineering until the outbreak of World War II, at which point he joined the French Air Force. After the French surrender, Duntov managed to secure exit visas to Spain for his entire family. He later resettled in Manhattan, and started a performance engineering firm, called Ardun, with his brother. The firm enjoyed a reputation for quality, but eventually went out of business as the result of questionable financial practices on the part of a third partner that Duntov and his brother had taken on.
      Duntov moved to England to work on the Allard sports car, which he co-drove at Le Mans in 1952 and 1953. Duntov earned a reputation as an exacting driver and engineer in the European tradition of performance car racing. After witnessing the prototype Corvette on display at the 1953 Motorama in New York City, he decided to join Chevrolet. While Duntov was visually taken by the car, he expressed dismay at what lay under the hood. He wrote Chevrolet chief engineer Ed Cole and offered his services to improve the Corvette, including with his note a technical paper outlining his plan to increase the Corvette's performance capabilities. Chevrolet was so impressed that engineer Maurice Olley, then in charge of the Corvette, offered Duntov a position as a staff engineer.
      Soon after arriving at Chevrolet, Duntov set the tone for his career at the company by distributing a paper to his superiors entitled "Thoughts Pertaining to Youth, Hot Rodders, and Chevrolet." The paper laid the foundation for a strategy to create both racing and performance parts programs for Chevy. It was his desire that the Corvette measure itself against the best sports cars in the world: Porsche, Ferrari, and Mercedes.
      He helped develop the small-block V-8 engine to increase the little Corvette's power; he introduced the Duntov high-lift cam-shaft; and he introduced fuel injection, seeing the Corvette through from its inauspicious beginnings to its triumphant end. He created the Corvette Grand Sport Program in 1963, making the Corvette competitive on all levels of international performance competition. Duntov also helped to build the Corvette culture, appearing at Corvette shows, clubs, and rallies all over the US He retired from Chevrolet in 1975, but Duntov's legacy will stay alive as long as Corvettes roam the open road.
^ 1992 Stephen Hawkings breaks British bestseller records       
      Theoretical physicist Stephen Hawkings breaks British publishing records on this day in 1992. His book, A Brief History of Time, has been on the nonfiction bestseller list for three and a half years, selling more than 3 million copies in 22 languages. A Brief History of Time explains the latest theories on the origins of the universe in language accessible to educated lay people.
      The book was made into an acclaimed documentary in 1992, which focused largely on Hawkings' own story. Diagnosed with Lou Gehrig's disease in his 20s, Hawkings was told he had only two years to live. Despite the sobering prognosis, Hawkings pursued his studies in theoretical physics, married, and had a son. Eventually, his disease left him paralyzed except for his left hand. He was able to speak, although his speech was difficult to understand, until he underwent a tracheotomy in 1985 during a bout with pneumonia. Afterward, he relied on a mouse-controlled voice synthesizer, which improved the clarity of his speech.
1991 A European Community-brokered truce between Yugoslavia and the breakaway republic of Slovenia was shattered as the federal army battled Slovene militias.
^ 1991 Electronic forgery thwarted
      The US Commerce Department announces a standard to protect electronic documents from tampering. The method, developed jointly with the National Security Agency, would make it impossible to alter some documents by creating an "electronic signature." The Commerce Department hopes that the measure will encourage the use of electronic documents in government transactions.
1990 Imelda Marcos (on her 61st birthday) & Adnan Khashoggi found not guilty of racketeering
1986 Se inicia en Chile la primera jornada de huelga general contra Pinochet.
1985 Andrei Gromiko es nombrado presidente del Soviet Supremo de la URSS y sustituido en la cartera de Exteriores por Eduard Shevardnadze.
1976 US Supreme Court rules death penalty not inherently cruel or unusual
1976 Formal reunification of North & South Vietnam
1976 Proclamation de la République Socialiste du Vietnam.       
      Actuellement, elle approche les 75 millions d’habitants. La démographie est importante, même si elle a subi une diminution importante lors des guerres d’indépendance, contre les Japonais (40 - 45) contre les Français (45 - 56) et contre les Américains (56 - 76). De même les nouvelles conditions de vie, exode vers les villes et urbanisation galopante, industrialisation forcée, ouverture au monde capitaliste, retour de la propriété privée, ont contribué à fléchir le taux de croissance.
      Le régime politique reste "Communiste", un anachronisme peut-être, mais qui semblait convenir à ce peuple qui a essayé de penser ses plaies sans l’aide des Occidentaux, et sans aide importante de la part du bloc Communiste. Depuis 5 ans, une réforme constitutionnelle amorce un virage prudent vers l’économie de marché, mais la gérontocratie gouvernementale, malgré l’apport de quelques conseillers et techniciens plus jeunes, reste puissante et désireuse de ne pas "brûler" les étapes.
      Ce pays vaut 10 fois la Belgique, il mesure plus de 331"000 km². Il s’étend tout en longueur dans la partie orientale de la Péninsule Indochinoise, avec une plaine à chaque extrémité. Il offre un peu l’image d’un "fléau" d’épaule, une espèce de bambou qui soutiendrait un sac de riz à chaque extrémité, car ces deux plaines sont deux deltas très fertiles ; le delta du Sông Hông (fleuve rouge) au nord et du Mékong (fleuve jaune) au sud.
      Les 3 régions importantes sont le Tonkin au nord (capitale Hanoï), l’Ammam au centre et la Cochinchine au sud (capitale Saïgon). Si les plaines fertiles des deux deltas et du littoral au centre sont très peuplées, les montagnes couvrent près des deux tiers du territoire et la densité d’habitants y est faible.
      Sur les plans philosophique et religieux, les Vietnamiens ont jadis reçu de la Chine le bouddhisme Mahayana, le confucianisme et le taoïsme, qui ont profondément marqué leur mentalité. Mais ils ont aussi pratiqué des cultes autochtones, comme celui des ancêtres, célébré devant les tablettes funéraires de l’autel familial, du génie gardien du village, honoré dans le temple communal (d–ình), ceux de certains arbres, animaux ou pierres.
      Aujourd’hui, le confucianisme et le taoïsme sont en voie de disparition, les cultes locaux perdent de plus en plus d’adeptes, mais le bouddhisme (amidisme et école du Dhyana) fait preuve d’une grande vitalité et 80 % des Vietnamiens déclarent y adhérer. Trois autres mouvements religieux comptent un nombre notable de croyants ; ce sont le catholicisme (près de 2 millions de baptisés) et, dans le Sud, les sectes Cao-–Dài (1,5 million de fidèles) et Hoà-Ha’o.
1975 El Frente Polisario es expulsado de Mauritania.
1966 Francia realiza su primer experimento atómico en el atolón de Mururoa.
1964 US President Johnson signs Civil Rights Act       
      In a nationally televised White House ceremony, US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law, after lobbying hard for its passage. The act, which is the most sweeping civil rights legislation passed by Congress since Reconstruction, prohibits racial discrimination in employment and education, and outlaws racial segregation in public facilities.
      This landmark legislation comes ten years after the US Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public educational facilities is unconstitutional. In the decade that followed the historic decision, the Black civil rights movement made great strides in winning federal support for integration, and in 1960, John F. Kennedy made passage of a new civil rights bill one of the platforms of his successful presidential campaign.
      Vice President Lyndon Johnson served as chairman of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunities, and, after the president was assassinated on 22 November 1963, Johnson vowed to carry out Kennedy's proposals for civil rights reform.
^ 1964 Republicans attack LBJ's Vietnam policy.        
      At a joint news conference, Senate Republican leader Everett Dirksen (Illinois) and House Republican leader Charles Halleck (Indiana) say that the Vietnam War will be a campaign issue because "Johnson's indecision has made it one." President Lyndon B. Johnson had assumed office after the assassination of John F. Kennedy on 22 November 1963. Kennedy had supported Ngo Dinh Diem, the president of South Vietnam, who was assassinated during a coup just before Kennedy was killed. The deaths of both Diem and Kennedy provided an opportunity for the new administration to undertake a reassessment of US policy toward Vietnam, but this was not done. Johnson, who desperately wanted to push a set of social reforms called the Great Society, was instead forced to focus on the deteriorating situation in South Vietnam.
      Caught in a dilemma, he later wrote: "If I...let the Communists take over South Vietnam, then I would be seen as a coward and my nation would be seen as an appeaser and we would both find it impossible to accomplish anything for anybody anywhere in the entire globe." Faced with having to do something about Vietnam, Johnson vacillated as he and his advisers attempted to devise a viable course of action. The situation changed in August 1964 when North Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked US destroyers off the coast of North Vietnam. What became known as the Tonkin Gulf incident led to the passage of the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, which passed 416 to 0 in the House, and 88 to 2 in the Senate. This resolution, which gave the president approval to "take all necessary measures to repel an armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression," provided the legal basis for President Johnson to initiate a major commitment of US troops to South Vietnam, which ultimately totaled more than 540'000 by 1968.
1959 Juan XXIII publica su primera encíclica Ad Petri Cathedram.
1957 El senador demócrata J. F. Kennedy solicita que su gobierno intervenga a favor de la independencia de Argelia.
1947 Dimite el Gobierno chileno y González Videla forma un nuevo Ejecutivo con personalidades sin filiación política.
^ 1947 Soviet Union rejects Marshall Plan assistance        
      Soviet Foreign Minister V. M. Molotov walks out of a meeting with representatives of the British and French governments, signaling the Soviet Union's rejection of the Marshall Plan. Molotov's action indicated that Cold War frictions between the United States and Russia were intensifying. On 04 June 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall gave a speech in which he announced that the United States was willing to offer economic assistance to the war-torn nations of Europe to help in their recovery. The Marshall Plan, as this program came to be known, eventually provided billions of dollars to European nations and helped stave off economic disaster in many of them. The Soviet reaction to Marshall's speech was a stony silence. However, Foreign Minister Molotov agreed to a meeting on 27 June with his British and French counterparts to discuss the European reaction to the US offer.
      Molotov immediately made clear the Soviet objections to the Marshall Plan. First, it would include economic assistance to Germany, and the Russians could not tolerate such aid to the enemy that had so recently devastated the Soviet Union. Second, Molotov was adamant in demanding that the Soviet Union have complete control and freedom of action over any Marshall Plan funds Germany might receive. Finally, the Foreign Minister wanted to know precisely how much money the United States would give to each nation.
      When it became clear that the French and British representatives did not share his objections, Molotov stormed out of the meeting on 02 July. In the following weeks, the Soviet Union pressured its Eastern European allies to reject all Marshall Plan assistance. That pressure was successful and none of the Soviet satellites participated in the Marshall Plan. The Soviet press claimed that the US program was "a plan for interference in the domestic affairs of other countries." The United States ignored the Soviet action and, in 1948, officially established the Marshall Plan and began providing funds to other European nations. Publicly, US officials argued that the Soviet stance was another indication that Russia intended to isolate Eastern Europe from the West and enforce its Communist and totalitarian doctrines in that region. From the Soviet perspective, however, its refusal to participate in the Marshall Plan indicated its desire to remain free from US "economic imperialism" and domination.
      La Unión Soviética rechaza el plan Marshall mientras los representantes francés y británico deciden proseguir su aplicación.
1944 Los alemanes bombardean Inglaterra con munición V-1, los primeros misiles autopropulsados empleados en la historia bélica.
^ 1944 Mines, bombs, and leaflets on Budapest       
      As part of Operation Gardening, the British and US strategy to lay mines in the Danube River by dropping them from the air, US aircraft also drop bombs and leaflets on German-occupied Budapest. Hungarian oil refineries and storage tanks, important to the German war machine, were destroyed by the US air raid. Along with this fire from the sky, leaflets threatening "punishment" for those responsible for the deportation of Hungarian Jews to the gas chambers at Auschwitz were also dropped on Budapest. The US government wanted the SS and Hitler to know it was watching.
      Admiral Miklas Horthy, regent and virtual dictator of Hungary, vehemently antiCommunist and afraid of Russian domination, had aligned his country with Hitler, despite the fact that he little admired him. But he, too, demanded that the deportations cease, especially since special pleas had begun pouring in from around the world upon the testimonies of four escaped Auschwitz prisoners about the atrocities there. Hitler, fearing a Hungarian rebellion, stopped the deportations on 08 July. Horthy would eventually try to extricate himself from the war altogether — only to be kidnapped by Hitler's agents and consequently forced to abdicate.
      One day after the deportations stopped, a Swedish businessman, Raoul Wallenberg, having convinced the Swedish Foreign Ministry to send him to the Hungarian capital on a diplomatic passport, arrived in Budapest with 630 visas for Hungarian Jews, prepared to take them to Sweden to save them from further deportations.
1940 Gonvernement ira à Vichy. C'est parce que Bordeaux où le gouvernement s'est réfugié pendant la débâcle fait, depuis l'armistice, partie de la France occupée, qu'il lui faut trouver dans la zone libre une ville qui puisse l'accueillir ainsi que la Chambre. Le casino et les nombreux hôtels de la station balnéaire qu'est Vichy offrent des conditions de vie acceptables. Pétain y convoque le Parlement pour le 10 juillet prochain.
^ 1937 Amelia Earhart lost:       
      The Lockheed aircraft carrying legendary aviator Amelia Earhart and her copilot Frederick J. Noonan is reported missing. In 1928, Earhart was the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean, and in 1932 she became the first female pilot to cross it solo. She disappeared on the last leg of her global journey somewhere between New Guinea and Howland Island in the South Pacific. Two radio amateurs picked up a signal that she was low on fuel — the last trace the world would ever know of Amelia Earhart. New York Times story (370703)
      The Lockheed aircraft carrying US aviator Amelia Earhart and navigator Frederick Noonan is reported missing near Howland Island in the Pacific. The pair were attempting to fly around the world when they lost their bearings during the most challenging leg of the global journey: Lae, New Guinea, to Howland Island, a tiny island 2227 nautical miles away, in the center of the Pacific Ocean. The US Coast Guard cutter Itasca was in sporadic radio contact with Earhart as she approached Howland Island and received messages that she was lost and running low on fuel. Soon after, she probably tried to ditch the Lockheed in the ocean. No trace of Earhart or Noonan was ever found.
      Amelia Earhart was born in Atchison, Kansas, in 1897. She took up aviation at the age of 24 and later gained publicity as one of the earliest female aviators. In 1928, the publisher George P. Putnam invited her to become the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean. The previous year, Charles A. Lindbergh had flown solo nonstop across the Atlantic, and Putnam had made a fortune off Lindbergh's autobiographical book We. In June 1928, Earhart and two men flew from Newfoundland, Canada, to Wales, Great Britain. Although Earhart's only function during the crossing was to keep the plane's log, the flight won her great fame, and people in the US were enamored of the daring young pilot. The three were honored with a ticker-tape parade in New York, and "Lady Lindy," as Earhart was dubbed, was given a White House reception by President Calvin Coolidge.
      Earhart wrote a book about the flight for Putnam, whom she married in 1931, and gave lectures and continued her flying career under her maiden name. On 20 May 1932 she took off alone from Newfoundland in a Lockheed Vega on the first solo nonstop transatlantic flight by a woman. She was bound for Paris but was blown off course and landed in Ireland on May 21 after flying more than 3000 km in just under 15 hours. It was the fifth anniversary of Lindbergh's historic flight, and before Earhart no one had attempted to repeat his solo transatlantic flight. For her achievement, she was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross by Congress. Three months later, Earhart became the first woman to fly solo nonstop across the continental United States.
      In 1935, in the first flight of its kind, she flew solo from Wheeler Field in Honolulu to Oakland, California, winning a $10'000 award posted by Hawaiian commercial interests. Later that year, she was appointed a consultant in careers for women at Purdue University, and the school bought her a modern Lockheed Electra aircraft to be used as a "flying laboratory."
      On March 17, 1937, she took off from Oakland and flew west on an around-the-world attempt. It would not be the first global flight, but it would be the longest — 47'000 km, following an equatorial route. Aboard her Lockheed were Frederick Noonan, her navigator and a former Pan American pilot, and co-pilot Harry Manning. After resting and refueling in Honolulu, the trio prepared to resume the flight. However, while taking off for Howland Island, Earhart ground-looped the plane on the runway, perhaps because of a blown tire, and the Lockheed was seriously damaged. The flight was called off, and the aircraft was shipped back to California for repairs.
      In May, Earhart flew the newly rebuilt plane to Miami, from where Noonan and she would make a new around-the-world attempt, this time from west to east. They left Miami on 01 June, and after stops in South America, Africa, India, and Southeast Asia, they arrived at Lae, New Guinea, on 29 June. About 35'000 km of the journey had been completed, and the last 11'000 km would all be over the Pacific Ocean. The next destination was Howland Island, a tiny US-owned island that was just a few miles long. The US Department of Commerce had a weather observation station and a landing strip on the island, and the staff was ready with fuel and supplies. Several US ships, including the Coast Guard cutter Itasca, were deployed to aid Earhart and Noonan in this difficult leg of their journey.
      As the Lockheed approached Howland Island, Earhart radioed the Itasca and explained that she was low on fuel. However, after several hours of frustrating attempts, two-way communication was only briefly established, and the Itasca was unable to pinpoint the Lockheed's location or offer navigational information. Earhart circled the Itasca's position but was unable to sight the ship, which was sending out miles of black smoke. She radioed "one-half hour fuel and no landfall" and later tried to give information on her position. Soon after, contact was lost, and Earhart presumably tried to land the Lockheed on the water.
      If her landing on the water was perfect, Earhart and Noonan might have had time to escape the aircraft with a life raft and survival equipment before it sank. An intensive search of the vicinity by the Coast Guard and US Navy found no physical evidence of the fliers or their plane. Additional searches through the years have likewise failed to find any trace of the Lockheed or of Earhart and Noonan, who almost certainly perished at sea.
1926 US Army Air Corps created; Distinguish Flying Cross authorized
^ 1917 First plane-to-ground phone call
      The first phone call from an airplane is received at Langley Field, Virginia. The call, placed from an airplane three kilometers away, come through loud and clear: Unfortunately, the plane can only transmit, not receive, the call. The first two-way, ground-to-air conversation would occur the following month.
1917 Jozef Pilsudski dimite del Consejo de Estado Polaco en protesta por la tutela a que se ve sometido este órgano por las administraciones militares alemana y austro-húngara. Los alemanes, en represalia, le hacen prisionero.
1914 Thursday : in the aftermath of the June 28 assassination in Sarajevo of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary and of his wife, Sophia:
  • Emperor Franz Josef sends a letter to Kaiser Wilhelm II thanking him for his condolences regarding the Archduke's death. The letter contains undertones of the actions to follow. [view text of the letter]
  • 1912 Bulgaria, Serbia y Grecia firman un convenio militar contra Turquía.
    1905 Entra en vigor en Francia una ley que limita el horario laboral de los menores a nueve horas.
    ^ 1900 Zeppelin demonstrates airship       
          In the sky over Germany's Lake Constance, Count Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin, a retired Prussian army officer, successfully demonstrated the world's first rigid airship. The 128-meter, cigar-shaped LZ-1 is lifted by hydrogen gas and powered by a sixteen-horsepower engine.
          Zeppelin had first become interested in lighter-than-air travel in 1863, when as a military observer in the US Civil War he had made several ascents in Union observation balloons. In 1891, he retired from the Prussian army to devote himself to the building of motor-driven dirigibles, and in 1900 he successfully tested his first airship. Although a French inventor had built a power-driven airship several decades before, the Zeppelin's rigid dirigible, with its steel framework, was by far the largest airship ever constructed. Size, however, was exchanged for safety as the heavy steel-framed airships were vulnerable to explosion because they had to be lifted by highly flammable hydrogen gas, instead of non-flammable helium gas.
          During World War I, several "Zeppelins," as all rigid airships became popularly known, were used by the Germans in bombing missions over Britain. After the war, commercial passenger service increased, and one of the most famous rigid airships, the Graf Zeppelin, traveled around the world in 1929. In the 1930s, the Graf Zeppelin also pioneered the first transatlantic air service, leading to the construction of the largest dirigible ever built: the Hindenburg.
          On 06 May 1937, at the end of its maiden voyage across the Atlantic, the Hindenburg burst into flames upon touching its mooring mast in Lakehurst, New Jersey, killing thirty-six passengers and crew [however a recent theory is that the hydrogen was not responsible but the envelope of the airship, with a flammable coating including aluminum powder, caught fire from static electricity, while the hydrogen vented harmlessly upward]. Lighter-than-air passenger travel rapidly fell out of favor after the Hindenberg disaster, and no existing rigid airship survived World War II.
    1894 Government obtains injunction against striking Pullman Workers
    ^ 1892 Lock-out at Carnegie's plant       
          By the late nineteenth century, the workers at Andrew Carnegie's Homestead, PA plant had eked out a modicum of power. They won a key strike in 1889, and in the process became a potent unit of the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers. Still, these victories hardly erased the harsh working conditions at the Homestead mills. Nor did they mean that the Carnegie Company was pleased with or readily recognized the union. Ever mindful of Amalgamated's potentially deleterious impact on his profit margins, Andrew Carnegie looked to erode the power of the union.
          In 1892, the company made its move against Amalgamated, though not with Carnegie at the helm: the steel baron had departed for a vacation in Scotland, leaving the task of smashing the union in the hands of his partner, Henry Clay Frick. Frick took his mission all too seriously: after refusing to renew the company's contract with Amalgamated, he dug in for war, erecting a three-mile long steel wire fence around the plant. Frick also enlisted the aid of the Pinkerton Detective agency, which sent three hundred men to Homestead to ensure the plant's transition to non-union workers. Amalgamated's leaders responded in kind, lining up scores of workers, as well as a good chunk of the town, to wage battle against the plant.
          The showdown begins in earnest on 02 July as Frick halted work at Homestead until the plant was staffed entirely by non-union workers. Three days later, the Homestead affair turned bloody, as the Pinkerton agents made their first appearance on the scene. Attempting to reach the plant via the Monongahela River, the agents were met by Amalgamated's forces; the two sides engaged in a long and vicious battle that left nine strikers and seven agents dead. Despite the losses, Amalgamated's motley army was able to turn back the detectives.
          Sensing that they were on the verge of disaster, officials for Carnegie enlisted the aid of the Pennsylvania Government. And, on 09 July, 1892, the state sends 7000 troops to Homestead to "restore law and order." The militia effectively squelched Amalgamated's strike: the troops helped the Carnegie restaff its plant with non-union workers and by September, the Carnegie company would have resumed production. Later that November, the union conceded defeat and called off its strike; Carnegie responded by summarily firing and even blacklisting the strikers.
    ^ 1890 Sherman Anti-Trust Act
          The federal government tackled the rising specter of outsized business conglomerations by passing the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. Sponsored by Ohio Senator John Sherman, the bill is designed as a direct strike against "every contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade of commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations."
          Along with attempting to block the future creation of monopolies, the Sherman Anti-Trust Act also calls for existing monopolies to be disbanded. But, such seemingly strong tactics betray the bill's weak language. Written by Senator George Hoar (Mississippi) and Senator George F. Edmunds (Vermont), the Sherman Act is fraught with ambiguous terms like "trust," leaving it ripe for exploitation by both litigious business officials and savvy attorneys. Sure enough, the ensuing years would see anti-labor forces manipulate the bill in their crusade against organized labor unions. In 1894, these anti-labor efforts were legally sanctioned by the Supreme Court which ruled in United States v. Debs that the Sherman Act did indeed cover unions, as well as hulking business entities.
    1885 Canada's North-west Insurrection ends with surrender of Big Bear
    ^ 1881 US President shot and incapacited. Is the VP promoted?       
         After only four months in office, while on his way to visit his ill wife in Elberon, New Jersey, President James A. Garfield, 49, is shot in the back and the arm at the Baltimore & Potomac railroad station in Washington, D.C., by Charles J. Guiteau, , a mentally disturbed man, who had been tracking President Garfield for a while. When Garfield was running for office, Guiteau sent him a deranged speech to read to his audience. Not surprisingly, Garfield never read the speech, but Guiteau insisted that it was instrumental in getting him elected and demanded the position of ambassador to France in return.
          Since the White House did not have standard security in place at this time, Guiteau became a frequent visitor and even met the president on one occasion. He began to harass the secretary of state every day about the ambassador position. When he was summarily rejected, Guiteau decided to seek revenge by shooting the president. He later told authorities that he followed Garfield for weeks, once sitting directly behind him at church. After checking out the prisons in Washington DC, to make sure the accommodations would suit him, Guiteau makes his attack on the president on 02 July. Guiteau peaceably surrendered to police, calmly announcing, "I am a Stalwart. Arthur is now president of the United States."
          With the bullet lodged near his pancreas, Garfield, mortally ill, was treated in Washington and then taken to the seashore at Elberon, New Jersey, where he attempted to recuperate with his family. For 80 days he performed only one official act — the signing of an extradition paper. It was generally agreed that, in such cases, the vice president was empowered by the Constitution to assume the powers and duties of the office of president. But should he serve merely as acting president until Garfield recovered, or would he receive the office itself and thus displace his predecessor?
          Because of an ambiguity in the Constitution, opinion was divided, and, because Congress was not in session, the problem could not be debated there. On 02 September 1881, the matter came before a cabinet meeting, where it was finally agreed that no action would be taken without first consulting Garfield. But in the opinion of the doctors this was impossible, and no further action was taken before the death of the president, the result of slow blood poisoning, on 19 September.
         The following day, Arthur was inaugurated as the twenty-first president of the United States. Garfield had three funerals: one in Elberon, another in Washington, where his body rested in state in the Capitol for three days, and a third in Cleveland, Ohio, where he was buried.
          Charles Guiteau's murder trial began in November. Despite strong indications of insanity, prosecutors would tried him for murder. Acting as his own attorney during the 10-week trial, Guiteau screamed incessantly and sometimes danced around the courtroom. But the court did not put a stop to his antics, even after he called the prosecutors "dirty liars." During his closing argument, he claimed that God had told him to kill the president. When the jury pronounced him guilty of murder, Guiteau shouted at them, "You are all low, consummate jackasses!" Guiteau was hanged on 30 June 1882. Two hundred spectators at the jail watched as hundreds more gathered outside. From the gallows, Guiteau recited a poem in a high, childlike voice, "I am going to the Lordy, I am so glad."
    1876 Se promulga en España la Constitución de 1876.
    1871 Víctor Manuel II, primer [entonces ¿porqué el “II”] rey de Italia, entra en el palacio del Quirinal, antigua residencia papal.
    1864 The US Congress passes the Wade-Davis Bill, requiring a majority of a seceded state's white citizens to take an oath of loyalty to the Constitution and guarantee black equality, but President Abraham Lincoln pocket vetoes the harsh plan for dealing with the defeated Confederate states.
    1864 General Early & Confederate forces reach Winchester
    1863 Morgan's raiders cross the Cumberland River near Burkesville, Kentucky
    1863 Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania continues
    1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
    1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
    1862 Morrill Land Grant Act approved by President Lincoln
    1858 Partial emancipation of Russian serfs
    1855 Comienza en Cataluña la primera huelga general realizada en España, que duró ocho días.
    1852 Portugal decreta la abolición de la pena de muerte por motivos políticos.
    1847 Envelope bearing the 1st US 10 cent stamps, still exists today
    1843 An alligator falls from the sky during a Charleston SC thunderstorm
    ^ 1809 Tecumseh urges Amerindians to fight for their land.
          Alarmed by the growing encroachment of whites squatting on Amerindian lands, the Shawnee Chief Tecumseh calls on all Indians to unite and resist. Born around 1768 near Springfield, Ohio, Tecumseh early won notice as a brave warrior. He fought in battles between the Shawnee and the white Kentuckians, who were invading the Ohio River Valley territory. After the US Army won several important battles in the mid-1790s, Tecumseh reluctantly relocated westward but remained an implacable foe of the white men and their ways. By the early 19th century, many Shawnee and other Ohio Valley Indians were becoming increasingly dependent on trading with the US invaders for guns, cloth, and metal goods. Tecumseh spoke out against such dependence and called for a return to traditional Indian ways. He was even more alarmed by the continuing encroachment of white settlers illegally settling on the already diminished government-recognized land holdings of the Shawnee and other tribes. The US government, however, was reluctant to take action against its own citizens to protect the rights of the Ohio Valley Indians. On this day in 1809, Tecumseh began a concerted campaign to persuade the Indians of the Old Northwest and Deep South to unite and resist. Together, Tecumseh argued, the various tribes had enough strength to stop the whites from taking further land. Heartened by this message of hope, Indians from as far away as Florida and Minnesota heeded Tecumseh's call. By 1810, he had organized the Ohio Valley Confederacy, which united Indians from the Shawnee, Potawatomi, Kickapoo, Winnebago, Menominee, Ottawa, and Wyandot nations. For several years, Tecumseh's Indian Confederacy successfully delayed further white settlement in the region. In 1811, however, the future president William Henry Harrison led an attack on the confederacy's base on the Tippecanoe River. At the time, Tecumseh was in the South attempting to convince more tribes to join his movement. Although the battle of Tippecanoe was close, Harrison finally won out and destroyed much of Tecumseh's army. When the War of 1812 began the following year, Tecumseh immediately marshaled what remained of his army to aid the British. Commissioned a brigadier general, he proved an effective ally and played a key role in the British capture of Detroit and other battles. When the tide of war turned in the favor of the US, Tecumseh's fortunes went down with those of the British. On October 5, 1813, he was killed during Battle of the Thames. His Ohio Valley Confederacy and vision of Indian unity died with him.
    1798 Napoleón Bonaparte dirige una expedición militar francesa en Egipto y toma Alejandría al asalto. (Batalla de las Pirámides.)
    1787 de Sade shouts from Bastille that prisoners are being slaughtered
    1777 Vermont becomes 1st American colony to abolish slavery
    1776 Continental Congress resolves "these United Colonies are & of right ought to be Free & Independent States"
    1652 Bataille de la porte Saint-Antoine (Paris) entre Turenne et Condé. Les troupes de Condé sont sauvées par la duchesse de Montpensier (cousine de Louis XIV) qui leur fait ouvrir les portes de Paris. — El Congreso Continental norteamericano ratifica su decisión de separarse de Inglaterra.
    1648 Le roi fait des réformes. Devant le Parlement réuni, Saint Louis fait donner la lecture d'un texte. Les membres du Parlement sont étonnés par les vingt-sept articles dont le contenu peut passer pour être révolutionnaire. Les impôts sont diminués. Les intendants sont rappelés. L'habeas corpus est établi à l'exemple de l'Angleterre.
    1644 Battle of Marston Moor; Parliamentary forces defeat royalists
    ^ 1560 Michel de L'Hospital, chancelier conciliateur       
          La place de chancelier du royaume est vacante depuis la mort d'Olivier , mort de chagrin (?). Celui-ci avait dû juger les conjurés d'Amboise qui avaient voulu soustraire le roi à l'influence du très catholique Guise, il ne s'en serait pas remis moralement. Les partisans de Condé qui ont participé à cette conjuration ont été pendus, décapités, noyés dans la Loire. Catherine de Médicis trouve qu'il est temps d'apaiser les esprits. Elle impose à son fils, François II, Michel de L'Hospital pour cette charge. Il est catholique. Il est modéré. Il est humaniste. Il ne tarde pas à en faire la preuve. Lors des Etats généraux qui se tiennent à Orléans en décembre 1561 il déclare : " Otons ces mots diaboliques, noms de partis, de factions, de séditions, luthériens, huguenots, papistes : ne gardons que le nom de chrétiens. "
    0310 or 311 Saint Miltiades is elected 32nd pope. During his pontificate, Christianity was finally tolerated by Rome, following the Emperor Constantine's conversion to the Christian faith.
    TO THE TOP
    < 01 Jul 03 Jul >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 02 July:

    2005 Christopher Rose, 15, in the evening in Brooklyn, stabbed twice in the chest, when he resists two teenagers demanding his iPod portable music player (price new $300). Rose was with three friends.

    2004 Lonnie Ellingburg, 46; Travis Nelson, 23; Leonardo Rodriguez, 49; and a Mexican; employees at the ConAgra meatpacking plant in Kansas City, Kansas, shot from 17:05 to 17:15 by Elijah Brown, 21, another employee who had a conflict with them a few days earlier and who then shoots himself dead. Three employees are wounded, including Ardell L. Edwards, 55, who dies early the next day.
    Derailed train
    2003 At least 18 persons, after Golconda Express train, bound for Secunderabad, India, at 10:30, with failed brakes, derails on bridge in approach to station at Warangal, and engine and two coaches fall in motorized-rickshaws parked at a fish market below. 6 of the dead were in the fish market. At least 25 people are injured. [the aftermath >]

    2001 Roberto Blancas, 10, by gunfire from four policemen who pursued his family's truck after it had withdrawn money from a bank, in Ecatepec, estado de Mexico.

    1999 Mario Puzo, US novelist and screenplay writer born on 15 October 1920. Author of the novels The Godfather, The Dark Arena, The Fortunate Pilgrim, Fools Die (1978), The Sicilian (1984), The Fourth K (1991), The Last Don (1996).

    1990 More than 1400 Muslim pilgrims in a stampede inside a pedestrian tunnel leading to Mecca in Saudi Arabia.

    1989 Andrei Gromiko, político ruso, ministro de Asuntos Exteriores de la URSS.

    1987 Karl Linnas accused Nazi, of heart failure in Russia.
    ^ 1977 Vladimir Nabokov, écrivain américano-franco-russe.
    Works of Nabokov:

    Novels: Mary (1926) — King, Queen, Knave (1928) — The Defense (1930) — Glory (1932) — Laughter in the Dark (1933) — Despair (1934) — The Gift (1938) — Invitation to a Beheading (1938) — The Eye (1938) — The Enchanter (1939) — The Real Life of Sebastian Knight (1941) — "Ultima Thule" (1942) — Bend Sinister (1947) — Lolita (1955) — Pnin (1957) — Pale Fire (1962) — Ada (1969) — Transparent Things (1972) — Look at the Harlequins! (1974) —
    Autobiography: Conclusive Evidence: A Memoir (1951); revised Rusian translation published as Drugie Berega (1954); expanded English edition published as Speak, Memory: An Autobiography Revisited (1966)
    Short Story Collections: Vozvrashchenie Chorba (1929) — Nine Stories (1947) — Vesna v Fial'te, i Drugie Rasskazy, (1956) — Nabokov's Dozen: A Collection of Thirteen Stories (or Spring in Fialta, 1958) — Nabokov's Quartet (1966) — A Russian Beauty and Other Stories (1973) — Tyrants Destroyed and Other Stories (1975) — Details of a Sunset and Other Stories (1976)
    Poetry: Poems (1916) — Gorny Put' (1923) — Grozd' (1923) — Stikhotvoreniia (1920-1952) — Poems (1959) — Poems and Problems, 1970 — Stikhi, 1979
    Plays: "Skital'tsy," 1923 (a pretended translation of an imaginary 18th-century English play) — "Agasfer," 1923 (poetic accompaniment to a symphony) — "Smert'," 1923 — "Dedushka," 1923 — "Polius," 1924 — "Tragediia gospodina Morna," 1925 — "Chelovek iz SSSR," 1927 — "Sobytie," 1938 — "Izobretenie Val'sa," (1938)
    Nonfiction: Nikolai Gogol, 1944 — Strong Opinions, 1973 — Letters from Terra: Vladimir Nabokov zu Ehren, 1977 — The Nabokov-Wilson Letters: Correspondence between Vladimir Nabokov and Edmund Wilson, 1940-1971, 1979 — Lectures on Literature, 1980 — Lectures on Ulysses: Facsimile of the Manuscript, 1980 — Lectures on Russian Literature, 1980 — Lectures on Don Quixote, 1983 — Perepiska s sestroi, 1985
    Translator into English of: Three Russian Poets: Selections from Pushkin, Lermontov, and Tyuthchev, 1969 — The Song of Igor's Campaign: An Epic from the Twelfth Century, 1960 — Alexander Pushkin's Eugene Onegin: A Novel in Verse, 1964, rev. ed., 1975
    Translator into Russian of: Romain Rolland's Colas Breugnon (translated as Nikolka Persik) 1922 — Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland (translated as Anya v strane chudes) 1923
    ^ 1961 Ernest Miller Hemingway shoots himself with a shotgun. He was a US novelist and short-story writer, awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954. He was noted both for the intense masculinity of his writing and for his adventurous and widely publicized life. His succinct and lucid prose style exerted a powerful influence on US and UK fiction in the 20th century.
         The first son of Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, a doctor, and Grace Hall Hemingway, Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on 21 July 1899 in Oak Park, a suburb of Chicago. He was educated in the public schools and began to write in high school, where he was active and outstanding, but the parts of his boyhood that mattered most were summers spent with his family on Walloon Lake in upper Michigan. On graduation from high school in 1917, impatient for a less sheltered environment, he did not enter college but went to Kansas City, where he was employed as a reporter for the Star. He was repeatedly rejected for military service because of a defective eye, but he managed to enter World War I as an ambulance driver for the American Red Cross. On 08 July 1918, not yet 19 years old, he was injured on the Austro-Italian front at Fossalta di Piave. Decorated for heroism and hospitalized in Milan, he fell in love with a Red Cross nurse, Agnes von Kurowsky, who declined to marry him. These were experiences he was never to forget.
          After recuperating at home, Hemingway renewed his efforts at writing, for a while worked at odd jobs in Chicago, and sailed for France as a foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star. Advised and encouraged by other US writers in Paris, F. Scott Fitzgerald [24 Sep 1896 – 21 Dec 1940], Gertrude Stein, Ezra Pound, Hemingway began to see his nonjournalistic work appear in print there, and in 1925 his first important book, a collection of stories called In Our Time, was published in New York City; it was originally released in Paris in 1924. In 1926 he published The Sun Also Rises, a novel with which he scored his first solid success. A pessimistic but sparkling book, it deals with a group of aimless expatriates in France and Spain—members of the postwar “lost generation,” a phrase that Hemingway scorned while making it famous. This work also introduced him to the limelight, which he both craved and resented for the rest of his life. Hemingway's The Torrents of Spring, a parody of Dark Laughter by the US writer Sherwood Anderson [13 Sep 1876 – 08 Mar 1941], also appeared in 1926.
          The writing of books occupied him for most of the postwar years. He remained based in Paris, but he traveled widely for the skiing, bullfighting, fishing, or hunting that by then had become part of his life and formed the background for much of his writing. His position as a master of short fiction had been advanced by Men Without Women in 1927 and thoroughly established with the stories in Winner Take Nothing in 1933. Among his finest stories are “The Killers,” “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber,” and “The Snows of Kilimanjaro.” At least in the public view, however, the novel A Farewell to Arms (1929) overshadowed such works. Reaching back to his experience as a young soldier in Italy, Hemingway developed a grim but lyrical novel of great power, fusing love story with war story. While serving with the Italianambulance service during World War I, the US lieutenant Frederic Henry falls in love with the English nurse Catherine Barkley, who tends him during his recuperation after being wounded. She becomes pregnant by him, but he must return to his post. Henry deserts during the Italians' disastrous retreat after the Battle of Caporetto, and the reunited couple flee Italy by crossing the border into Switzerland. There, however, Catherine and her baby die during childbirth, leaving Henry desolate at the loss of the great love of his life.
          Hemingway's love of Spain and his passion for bullfighting resulted in Death in the Afternoon (1932), a learned study of a spectacle he saw more as tragic ceremony than as sport. Similarly, a safari he took in 1933–1934 in the big-game region of Tanganyika resulted in The Green Hills of Africa (1935), an account of big-game hunting. Mostly for the fishing, he bought a house in Key West, Florida, and bought his own fishing boat. A minor novel of 1937 called To Have and Have Not is about a Caribbean desperado and is set against a background of lower-class violence and upper-class decadence in Key West during the Great Depression.
          By now Spain was in the midst of its civil war (18 Jul 1936 – 01 Apr 1939). Still deeply attached to that country, Hemingway made four trips there, once more a correspondent. He raised money for the Republicans in their struggle against the Nationalists under General Francisco Franco, and he wrote a play called The Fifth Column (1938), which is set in besieged Madrid. As in many of his books, the protagonist of the play is based on the author. Following his last visit to the Spanish war he purchased Finca Vigía, an unpretentious estate outside Havana, Cuba, and went to cover another war, the Japanese invasion of China.
          The harvest of Hemingway's considerable experience of Spain in war and peace was the novel For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940), a substantial and impressive work that some critics consider his finest novel, in preference to A Farewell to Arms. It was also the most successful of all his books as measured in sales. Set during the Spanish Civil War, it tells of Robert Jordan, an American volunteer who is sent to join a guerrilla band behind the Nationalist lines in the Guadarrama Mountains. Most of the novel concerns Jordan's relations with the varied personalities of the band, including the girl Maria, with whom he falls in love. Through dialogue, flashbacks, and stories, Hemingway offers telling and vivid profiles of the Spanishcharacter and unsparingly depicts the cruelty and inhumanity stirred up by the civil war. Jordan's mission is to blow up a strategic bridge near Segovia in order to aid a coming Republican attack, which he realizes is doomed to fail. In an atmosphere of impending disaster, he blows up the bridge but is wounded and makes his retreating comrades leave himbehind, where he prepares a last-minute resistance to his Nationalist pursuers.
          All of his life Hemingway was fascinated by war, in A Farewell to Arms he focused on its pointlessness, in For Whom the Bell Tolls on the comradeship it creates. As World War II progressed he made his way to London as a journalist. He flew several missions with the Royal Air Force and crossed the English Channel with US troops on D-Day (06 Jun 1944). Attaching himself to the 22nd Regiment of the 4th Infantry Division, he saw a good deal of action in Normandy and in the Battle of the Bulge. He also participated in the liberation of Paris and, although ostensibly a journalist, he impressed professional soldiers not only as a man of courage in battle but also as a real expert in military matters, guerrilla activities, and intelligence collection.
          Following the war in Europe, Hemingway returned to his home in Cuba and began to work seriously again. He also traveled widely, and on a trip to Africa he was injured in a plane crash. Soon after (in 1953), he received the Pulitzer Prize in fiction for The Old Man and the Sea (1952), a short, heroic novel about an old Cuban fisherman who, after an extended struggle, hooks and boats a giant marlin only to have it eaten by voracious sharks during the long voyage home. This book, which played a role in gaining for Hemingway the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954, was as enthusiastically praised as his previous novel, Across the River and into the Trees (1950), the story of a professional army officer who dies while on leave in Venice, had been damned.
          By 1960 the revolution of Fidel Castro had driven Hemingway from Cuba. He settled in Ketchum, Idaho, and tried to lead his life and do his work as before. For a while he succeeded, but, anxiety-ridden and depressed, he was twice hospitalized at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, where he received electroshock treatments. Two days after his return to the housein Ketchum, he took his life with a shotgun. Hemingway had married four times and fathered three sons.
          He left behind a substantial amount of manuscript, some which has been published. A Moveable Feast, an entertaining memoir of his years in Paris (1921–1926) before he was famous, was issued in 1964. Islands in the Stream, three closely related novellas growing directly out of his peacetime memories of the Caribbean island of Bimini, of Havana during World War II, and of searching for U-boats off Cuba, appeared in 1970.
          Hemingway's characters plainly embody his own values and view of life. The main characters of The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms, and For Whom the Bell Tolls are young men whose strength and self-confidence nevertheless coexist with a sensitivity that leaves them deeply scarred by their wartime experiences. War was for Hemingway a potent symbolof the world, which he viewed as complex, filled with moral ambiguities, and offering almost unavoidable pain, hurt, and destruction. To survive in such a world, and perhaps emerge victorious, one must conduct oneself with honour, courage, endurance, and dignity, a set of principles known as “the Hemingway code.” To behave well in the lonely, losing battle with life is to show “grace under pressure” and constitutes in itself a kind of victory, a theme clearly established in The Old Man and the Sea.
          Hemingway's prose style was probably the most widely imitated of any in the 20th century. He wished to strip his own use of language of inessentials, ridding it of all traces of verbosity, embellishment, and sentimentality. In striving to be as objective and honest as possible, Hemingway hit upon the device of describing a series of actions using short, simple sentences from which all comment or emotional rhetoric have been eliminated. These sentences are composed largely of nouns and verbs, have few adjectives and adverbs, and rely on repetition and rhythm for much of their effect. The resulting terse, concentrated prose is concrete and unemotional yet is often resonant and capable of conveying great irony through understatement. Hemingway's use of dialogue was similarly fresh, simple, and natural-sounding. The influence of this style was felt worldwide wherever novels were written, particularly from the 1930s through the '50s.
          A consummately contradictory man, Hemingway achieved a fame surpassed by few, if any, US authors of the 20th century. The virile nature of his writing, which attempted to re-create the exact physical sensations he experienced in wartime, big-game hunting, and bullfighting, in fact masked an aesthetic sensibility of great delicacy. He was a celebrity long before he reached middle age, but his popularity continues to be validated by serious critical opinion.
    1956 127 personas al colisionarse en el aire dos aviones estadounidenses de pasajeros que se estrellan en el Gran Cañón.
    1947 Nikolai Grigorievich Chebotaryov, Ukrainian mathematician born on 15 June 1894. He proved his density theorem generalizing Dirichlet's theorem on primes in an arithmetical progression. Author of Basic Galois Theory (2 volumes: 1934, 1937), Theory of Lie Groups (1940), not to be confused with the political tract about the Soviet ruling circles, Theory of Liar Groups, which was not written by Chebotaryov, nor by anyone else for that matter (potential authors were purged by firing squads before they had a chance to think of such a title)..
    1932 Manuel II, último rey de Portugal.
    1924 Unos 250 muertos por disturbios en São Paulo.
    1919 Theodor Reye, German mathematician born on 20 June 1838. He worked in Geometry and Projective Geometry. Author of Geometrie der Lage (2 volumes: 1866, 1868).
    1915 Porfirio Díaz, militar y estadista mexicano.
    1904 (Julian date) go to Gregorian 15 July for Anton Pavlovich Chekhov.
    1902 Geskel Saloman (or Salomon), Swedish artist born on 01 April 1821. — more on The Judgment of Salomon by many artists, and other Judgment paintings.
    ^ 1863 The 2nd day's part of the 28'063 Confederates and 23'049 Union soldiers killed or wounded in the whole battle of Gettysburg.
         General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia attacks General George G. Meade's Army of the Potomac at both Culp's Hill and Little Round Top, but fails to move the Yankees from their positions. On the north end of the line, or the Union's right flank, Confederates from General Richard Ewell's corps struggled up Culp's Hill, which was steep and heavily wooded, before being turned back by heavy Union fire. But the most significant action was on the south end of the Union line. General James Longstreet's corps launched an attack against the Yankees, but only after a delay that allowed additional Union troops to arrive and position themselves along Cemetery Ridge. Many people later blamed Longstreet for the Confederates' eventual defeat. Still, the Confederates had a chance to destroy the Union left flank when General Daniel Sickles moved his corps, against Meade's orders, from their position on the ridge to open ground around the Peach Orchard. This move separated Sickles' force from the rest of the Union army, and Longstreet attacked. Although the Confederates were able to take the Peach Orchard, they were repulsed by Yankee opposition at Little Round Top. Some of the fiercest fighting took place on this day, and both armies suffered heavy casualties. Lee's army regrouped that evening and planned for one last assault against the Union center on 03 July 1863. That attack, Pickett's charge, would represent the high tide of Confederate fortunes.
    ^ 1839 Captain and sailor of Amistad slave ship, killed by slaves
          Early in the morning, Africans on the Cuban schooner Amistad rose up against their captors, killing two crewmembers and seizing control of the ship, which had been transporting them to a life of slavery on a sugar plantation at Puerto Principe.
          In 1807, the US Congress joined with Great Britain in abolishing the African slave trade, although the trading of slaves within the US was not yet prohibited. Despite the international ban on the import of African slaves, Spain and Portugal continued to transport and accept captive Africans to their American colonies until the 1860s.
    Cinque      On 28 June 1839, fifty-three slaves recently captured in Africa left Havana, Cuba, aboard the Amistad for Puerto Principe. Three days later, Sengbe Pieh, a Membe African known as Cinque [drawing], freed himself and the other slaves and planned a mutiny. Early in the morning of 02 July in the midst of a storm, the Africans mutinied, and, using sugar cane knives found in the hold, killed the captain of the vessel and a crewmember. Two other crewmembers were either thrown overboard or escaped, and Jose Ruiz and Pedro Montes, the two Cubans who had purchased the slaves, were captured.
          Cinque ordered the Cubans to sail the Amistad east back to Africa. During the day Ruiz and Montes complied, but at night they would turn the vessel in a northerly direction, toward US waters. After nearly two difficult months at sea, during which time over a dozen Africans perished, the so-called "black schooner" was spotted by the first US vessels. On 26 August the USS Washington, a US Navy brig, seized the Amistad off the coast of Long Island, New York, and escorted it to New London, Connecticut.
          Ruiz and Montes were freed and the Africans were imprisoned pending an investigation of the Amistad revolt. The two Cubans demanded the return of their supposedly Cuban-born slaves, while the Spanish government called for the Africans' extradition to Cuba to stand trial for piracy and murder. In opposition to both groups, US abolitionists advocated the return of the illegally bought slaves to Africa.
          The story of the Amistad mutiny garnered widespread attention, and US abolitionists succeeded in winning a trial in a US court. Before a federal district court in Connecticut, Cinque, who was taught English by his new US friends, testified on his own behalf. On 13 January 1840, Judge Andrew Judson ruled that the Africans were illegally enslaved, that they would not be returned to Cuba to stand trial for piracy and murder, and that they should be granted free passage back to Africa.
          The Spanish authorities and US President Van Buren appealed the decision, but another federal district court upheld Judson's findings. President Van Buren, in opposition to the abolitionist faction in Congress, appealed the decision again and, on 22 February 1941, the US Supreme Court began hearing the Amistad case. US Representative John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts, who served as the sixth president of the United States from 1825 to 1829, joined the Africans' defense team. In Congress, Adams had been an eloquent opponent of slavery, and before the nation's highest court he presented a coherent argument for the release of Cinque and the thirty-four other survivors of the Amistad.
          On 09 March 1841, the Supreme Court ruled, with only one dissent, that the Africans had been illegally enslaved and had thus exercised a natural right to fight for their freedom. In November, with the financial assistance of their abolitionist allies, the Amistad Africans departed America aboard the Gentleman on a voyage back to West Africa. Some of the Africans helped establish a Christian mission in Sierra Leone, but most, like Cinque, returned to their homelands in the African interior. One of the survivors, who was a child when taken aboard the Amistad as a slave, eventually returned to the United States. Originally named Margru, she studied at Ohio's integrated and coeducational Oberlin College in the late 1840s, before returning to Sierra Leone as evangelical missionary Sara Margru Kinson.   [Amistad Timeline]
    1822 Denmark Vesey & 5 aides hanged at Blake's Landing, Charleston, SC
    ^ 1778 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, à Ermenonville (France).
          Tout à tour graveur, musicien, écrivain, il fut surtout un grand philosophe. Une de ses oeuvres, le Contrat Social (1762) devait avoir une grande influence sur la Révolution Française.
         Born on 28 June 1712, Geneva, Switzerland, Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a French philosopher, writer, and political theorist whose treatises and novels inspired the leaders of the French Revolution and the Romantic generation. Rousseau was the least academic of modern philosophers and in many ways was the most influential. His thought marked the end of the Age of Reason. He propelled political and ethical thinking into new channels. His reforms revolutionized taste, first in music, then in the other arts. He had a profound impact on people's way of life; he taught parents to take a new interest in their children and to educate them differently; he furthered the expression of emotion rather than polite restraint in friendship and love. He introduced the cult of religious sentiment among people who had discarded religious dogma. He opened men's eyes to the beauties of nature, and he made liberty an object of almost universal aspiration. Jean-Jacques Rousseau died on 2 July 1778.
    JJ ROUSSEAU ONLINE: Les Confessions,    
    Les rêveries du promeneur solitaire 
    Discours sur l'Origine et les Fondements de l'Inégalité parmi les Hommes
    Discours sur les Sciences et les Arts
    La Reine Fantasque
    Le Devin du Village
    Les Amours de Claire et de Marcellin
    Oeuvres et documents
    Emile (français et anglais)
    IN ENGLISH translation:
    The Confessions
    Discourse on the Origin of Inequality,
    The Social Contract
     
    Nostradamus

    1660 Francesco Maffei
    , Italian painter Baroque born in 1610, give or take ten years. MORE ON MAFFEI AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.


    1638 Charles Corneliszoon de Hooch
    (or Hoogh), Dutch artist.


    1621 Thomas Harriot
    , of cancer of the nose, English mathematician and astronomer born in 1560. He did outstanding work on the solution of equation, recognising negative roots and complex roots in a way that makes his solutions look almost like a present day solution.


    1613 Bartholomeo Pitiscus
    , German Calvinist minister and mathematician born on 24 August 1561. Author of Trigonometria (1595, he invented the word), Thesaurus Mathematicus.


    1566 Michel de Nostredame “Nostradamus
    ”, French astrologer / physician / prophet, dies in Salon. He was born on 14 December 1503. (portrait from the workshop of François~Marius Granet [17 Sep 1775 – 21 Nov 1849], after a portrait by César de Nostredame, son of Michel >)
    — NOSTRADAMUS ONLINE: Les CenturiesLes CenturiesLettre à CésarSixtainsPrésages (English translations:) Complete PropheciesSixainsCenturies.
     
    < 01 Jul 03 Jul >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 02 July:

    ^ 1985 The first MS Windows is released
          The system, announced two years earlier, is something of an embarrassment for Microsoft. Existing machines lack the power to run Windows at full speed, and few applications work with the operating system. The system is only one of several programs vying to provide a multitasking, point-and-click interface like the one introduced by Apple's Macintosh in 1984. Although Windows eventually would beat out rivals including IBM's TopView system, it wasn't until the introduction of Windows 3.0 in 1990 and Windows 3.1 in 1991 that the operating system widely replaced DOS.
    1964 Andrea Pia Kennedy Yates, in Houston. —(080509)
    1958 Plan 9 From Outer Space, one of the worse films ever, premieres. Unspeakable horrors from outer space, whose first 8 plans for getting mankind's attention didn't work, try re-animating corpses, but this does not get them a sympathetic hearing. It's full of bloopers.
    1957 1st sub powered by liquid metal cooled reactor completed — The Seawolf — The first President to cruise aboard a nuclear submarine was President Eisenhower who rode the USS SEAWOLF out of Newport, Rhode Island on September 26, 1957.
    1957 1st submarine designed to fire guided missiles launched, the diesel-electric USS Grayback (SSG 574).
    1945 Gerardo Iglesias, dirigente comunista español.
    1942 Vicente Fox, who would grow up to be elected the first non-PRI Mexican president on his 58th birthday.
    1934 El acorazado Graf Spee se bota en Wilhelmshaven (Alemania).
    ^ 1930 Carlos Saúl Menem Akil
        Menem nait à Anillaco, petit village de la province de La Rioja, au nord-ouest de l'Argentine, d’une famille musulmane d’immigrants syriens (les Muni’im), chassée de chez elle par l’oppression turque. Carlos Menem will grow up to be a politician and lawyer, converting to Catholicism, and, in 1989, the first Peronist to be elected president of Argentina since Juan Perón in 1973. He was reelected in 1995. He was in office from 890708 to 991210.
          Arborant cheveux longs et patillas, ces larges favoris qui lui mangent le visage, il obtient à vingt et un ans son diplôme d’avocat. He joined the Peronist (Partido Justicialista) movement in 1956 and was briefly imprisoned that year after participating in a revolt aimed at restoring Juan Perón (who had been ousted from power) to the presidency. Menem est élu pour la première fois, en 1973, gouverneur de La Rioja. Il subit, à partir de 1976, les foudres des militaires et passe cinq ans sans procès dans les geôles de la dictature. Renouant avec la liberté et un style de vie tapageur — sa participation à des courses automobiles et ses conquêtes féminines défraient plusieurs fois la chronique — Carlos Menem est réélu gouverneur de sa province en 1983, puis en 1987. Sous les apparences d’un séducteur frivole, le dirigeant péroniste sait parler à ses administrés et se poser en défenseur de l’"autre Argentine" face à l’arrogance des porteños, les habitants de la capitale.
          Durant la campagne électorale pour la présidence, il ne s’est pas vraiment attaché à dissiper les équivoques. Sillonnant le pays au volant de sa "Menem-mobile", il répétait à l’envi son slogan ("Suivez-moi") — sans préciser où — et appelait à une mystérieuse "révolution productive". Beaucoup redoutaient l’avènement d’un "caudillo" démagogue, masquant le flou de son programme de propos populistes. Menem a fait montre d’habileté politique dans le traitement des dossiers, de constance dans ses choix, et il a su s’entourer de gestionnaires compétents. Mais dans les dernières années de sa présidence, ses différents avec la justice (divorce) et le blanchiment de narco-dollars ternirent considérablement son image.
    Menem leaves court 7 June 2001     On 07 June 2001 Carlos Menem is put under house arrest as part of an investigation into illegal arms sales. Menem is ordered held by federal judge Jorge Urso probing accusations that the former president headed an "illicit organization" that funneled arms to Croatia and Ecuador in 1991 and 1995, despite international arms embargoes on both nations. 6500 tons of weapons that were officially destined for Panama and Venezuela were shipped to Croatia and Ecuador instead.
    On 4 July 2001 Menem is indicted.
    [photo: Menem, accompanied by his Chilean wife Cecilia Bolocco leaves court for house arrest >]
         Investigators have alleged that Menem and his aides organized the sale of 6500 tons of weapons. The weapons were officially destined for Panama and Venezuela but ended up in Croatia and Ecuador respectively. During that period, Argentina was bound by international agreements that enforced arms embargoes on Croatia and Ecuador. Ecuador and Peru waged a brief border war in the 1990s, and the embargo against Croatia stemmed from fighting in the former Yugoslavia.
          Menem, 70, will be under house arrest during any prosecution. If charged and convicted, he could face a sentence of three to 10 years house arrest. Under Argentine law, people 70 years or older cannot be put in prison.
          The court had no immediate confirmation of the detention, but it was also widely reported by local media. Menem has insisted the sales were done "absolutely legally" and that he was the victim of "political persecution." "I am very calm. Can't you see that?" Menem said earlier Thursday as hundreds of supporters crowded around him outside the federal courthouse, where he arrived to testify before Federal Judge Jorge Urso. "I trust in justice," said Menem, who wore a stylish brown suit and gold tie and was flanked by his new bride,
          Urso's probe has led to the recent detention of three other former Menem advisers. On 6 June 2001 a retired former army chief who served under Menem's government was detained. General Martin Balza, the highest-ranking army officer during most of Menem's presidency, was accused of being an organizer of a ring that conspired to secretly sell arms to Croatia and Ecuador.
          In May 2001 Antonio Erman Gonzalez, a former defense minister under Menem, was detained in connection with the case. Former presidential aide Emir Yoma, the brother of Menem's ex-wife Zulema Yoma, was detained on 07 April 2001 on charges of complicity in the alleged arms ring.
          Menem, who served two consecutive terms that ended in December 1999, closed out his presidency amid accusations of corruption in his administration. The former president, who married the 36-year-old former Miss Universe Cecilia Bolocco of Chile. on 26 May 2001, is best remembered for repairing a broken economy he inherited upon taking office in 1989. During his presidency, Menem managed to transform the economy with free-market reforms that included toppling trade barriers and selling off hundreds of state companies while stabilizing the currency. He also reopened ties with Britain after the two countries had gone to war over the Falkland Islands and reinforced democracy by defusing the destabilizing grievances of the military. He tamed inflation that had been as high as 200% a month and brought on years of economic growth. His government calmed the volatile currency by pegging it to the dollar. Since leaving office, Menem has served as leader of his Peronist Party and talked openly about his desire to run for the presidency again in 2003.
        Carlos Saúl Menem Akil was born on 02 July 1930 in Anillaco, Argentina, and educated at Córdoba University. The son of Syrian immigrants, he was raised as a Sunni Muslim. He converted to Roman Catholicism in his youth and became politically active while still a student. In 1955 he founded the Juventud Peronista, a Peronist youth group. He was briefly jailed the next year for his role in an attempt to restore the ousted dictator Juan Perón to power. In 1956 Menem became legal adviser to the Confederación General del Trabajo (General Confederation of Labor), a trade union group and a major Perón supporter. Menem ran for the seat of deputy of his native La Rioja Province in 1962, but a military coup aborted the election. He was elected provincial president of the Peronist Party in 1963. In 1973, after Perón's return to power, Menem was elected governor of the La Rioja Province.
         On 24 March 1976 a military coup led by general Jorge Rafael Videla ousted Argentine Isabel de Perón, the dictator's widow and successor. Menem was jailed and not not released until 1981. He was reelected governor of La Rioja Province in 1983 and 1987. In 1989 he was elected president of Argentina in the first transfer of power in Argentina from one constitutionally elected party to another since 1928.
          A flamboyant figure, Menem described his political philosophy, Peronism, as nationalist, populist, humanist, socialist, and Christian. He worked to reform the structure of the state, privatize business, achieve a free market, and restore connections with the United Kingdom. In 1992 Menem ordered that all secret files pertaining to Nazis in Argentina after World War II (1939-1945) be opened to the public. His success in bringing inflation and the economy of Argentina under control helped him win a second term as president in 1995. Menem was constitutionally barred from running for a third consecutive term in 1999, and was on 10 December 1999 succeeded by Fernando de la Ruá Bruno (born on 15 September 1937), who had won the 24 October 1999 election..
         Carlos Saúl Menem is a politician and lawyer who in 1989 became the first Peronist to be elected president of Argentina since Juan Perón in 1973. He led the country for 10 years (1989–99). Menem, the son of Syrian immigrants, was raised a Muslim. His political aspirations, however, led him to convert to Roman Catholicism, the official religion of Argentina. He joined the Peronist (Partido Justicialista) movement in 1956 and was briefly imprisoned that year after participating in a revolt aimed at restoring Juan Perón (who had been ousted from power) to the presidency. After obtaining a law degree from the National University of Córdoba in 1958, Menem began a career as a trade union lawyer in the northwestern city of La Rioja. He was elected governor of La Rioja province in 1973 but was expelled from office in 1976 by the military junta that had overthrown the government of Isabel Perón. After regaining the governorship in 1983, Menem expanded the size of government, gave favourable tax breaks to businesses, and pursued other policies typical of the Peronist movement. His support base among Peronists grew, and in May 1989, amid the worst economic crisis in the country's history, he was elected president of Argentina. High inflation forced Menem to abandon his party orthodoxy in favour of a fiscally conservative, market-oriented economic policy. With the aid of many non-Peronist cabinet members, he succeeded in stabilizing the economy. Menem cultivated a flamboyant image and enjoyed great national popularity despite sharp criticism for pardoning convicted human-rights violators connected with the period of military rule (1976–83).
          Reelected president in 1995, Menem sought to improve relations with Great Britain. His 1998 trip marked the first time an Argentine leader had visited Britain since the Falkland Islands War (1982). Menem and British Prime Minister Tony Blair agreed to promote bilateral trade and investment. Barred constitutionally from running for a third consecutive term, Menem was succeeded by Fernando de la Rúa of the Alliance party in December 1999.
    1929 Imelda Visitación Romuáldez (the future Imelda Marcos, wife of Ferdinando Marcos, the Philippine dictator). — Imelda Visitación Romuáldez, será conocida como Imelda Marcos, esposa del dictator filipino Ferdinando Marcos, y coleccionista de zapatos.
    1926 The US Army Air Corps is created
    1923 Wislawa Szymborska, poetisa y crítica literaria polaca.
    1908 Thurgood Marshall Md, 1st black Supreme Court justice (1967-91)
    1906 Hans Bethe physicist (Nobel 1967), peace worker
    1903 Olav V England, King of Norway (1957)
    1903 Lord Alex Douglas-Home (C) British PM (1963-64)
    1895 Eugène Paul “Gen Paul”, French artist who died in April 1975
    1884 Félix Albrecht Harta, Austrian artist who died in 1967.
    ^ 1877 Hermann Hesse, novelist and poet, in Calw, Germany.
          He was a bookseller and antiquarian in Basel (1895-1902). His earliest novels, Peter Camenzind (1904) and Beneath the Wheel (1906) express his long-smoldering resentment of his pious and repressive upbringing. He published the realistic Rosshalde in 1914.
        At the beginning of World War I, the strain of Hesse's pacifist beliefs and domestic crises led him to undertake psychoanalysis with a follower of Carl Gustav Jung. Jungian psychology gave his work a new dimension; Demian (1919), Siddhartha (1922), and Steppenwolf (1927) also reveal the influence of Nietzsche, Dostoyevsky, Spengler, and Buddhist mysticism. These novels are based on the conviction that Western civilization is doomed and that man must express himself in order to find his own nature.
          A third phase of Hesse's writing began in 1930. In Narziss und Goldmund (1930) Goldmund, an unfocused existentialist, wants a taste of everything in life. Narziss, a wise and contemplative intellectual, knows more by his perceptive reflection than Goldmund will ever learn by experience, they need each other. In Journey to the East (1932) and Das Glasperlenspiel (1943) the quest for freedom conflicts with tradition and leads to personal sacrifice suffused with optimism.
         Hesse did not write any novels after 1943 but continued to publish essays, letters, poems, reviews, and stories. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1946. From 1912 he lived in Switzerland. His psychological and mystical concerns made him something of a cult figure after his 09 August 1962 death.
    HESSE ONLINE: (English translation:) Siddhartha: An Indian Tale
    1871 Nicolás Rauric Petre, pintor español.
    1855 Georg Vilhelm Pauli, Swedish artist who died in 1935.
    1852 William Burnside, English mathematician who died on 21 August 1927. He wrote the first treatise on mathematical groups in English and was the first to develop the theory of groups from a modern abstract point of view. Author of The Theory of Groups of Finite Order (1897), The theory of Probability (1928).
    1838 Pascual Bravo Echeverri, escritor y militar colombiano.
    1828 Jules Jacques Veyrassat, French artist who died on 12 April 1893.
    1820 William John Macquorne Rankine, Scottish physicist who died on 24 December 1872. Among his most important works are Manual of Applied Mechanics (1858), Manual of the Steam Engine and Other Prime Movers (1859), and On the Thermodynamic Theory of Waves of Finite Longitudinal Disturbance.
    1810 Eduard Jakob Steinle, Austrian artist who died on 18 September 1886.
    y^4 = 2(4-x)^3 * x^21800 Piotr Michalowski, Polish artist who died on 09 June 1855. — more
    1714 Christoph Willibald Ritter von Gluck, Erasbach, Germany, composer.
    1693 Louis-Fabricius Dubourg (or du Bourg), Dutch artist who died on 16 September 1775.
    1654, 1655, or 1656 Kaspar Jasper van Opstal, Flemish artist who died on 12 January 1717.
    1625 Jan Jacobszoon Jordaens, Flemish artist.
    1622 René François Walter de Sluze, Liège (Belgium) Catholic priest, abbot, mathematician who died on 19 March 1685. The family of curves yn = k(a–x)pxm for positive integer exponents, were given the name Pearls of Sluze by Blaise Pascal [19 Jun 1623 – 19 Aug 1662 ]. De Sluze did not write exclusively on mathematics. He also wrote on astronomy, physics, natural history, history and theological matters connected with his work in the Church. [n = 4, k = 2, a = 4, p = 3, m = 2 in this diagram >]
    1597 Theodor Rombouts, Flemish artist who died on 14 September 1637. — MORE ON ROMBOUTS AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1489 Thomas Cranmer, first Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury and primary author of the Book of Common Prayer and 'Thirty-Nine Articles' of the Anglican Church. Il sera le soutien du roi Henri VIII [28 Jun 1491 – 28 Jan 1547]. Artisan de la rupture du roi avec l'Église de Rome, il sera arrêté et brûlé pour trahison et hérésie (21 Mar 1556) par Marie Tudor [18 Feb 1516 – 17 Nov 1558], fille de Henri VIII mais très catholique (il n'y a pas de raison de croire que sa sévérité se devait à ce que ça l'agaçait qu'il lui dise “Marie Tudor” malgré qu'elle répondait chaque fois: “Pas du tout! Je suis tout à fait éveillée.”).
    0419 Valentinian III, who in 425 would become Roman emperor, in name only, because, while he is still a child his mother Galla Placidia [390 – 27 Nov 450] rules, and starting about 437, it is Flavius Aetius [–21 Sep 454] who exercises power. Valentinian III died on 16 March 455.
     
    Holidays Italy : Corso de Palio, horse-race / Norway : King's Birthday / Depuis plus d’un demi millénaire, à Sienne, en Italie, la course de chevaux la plus ancienne: le "Pallio", en ville, comme à l’époque, sans règle …

    Religious Observances Old Catholic : Visitation of Mary / Santos Vidal, Otón de Bamberg, Bernardino, Urbano, Martiniano, Félix y Justo.
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “I ain`t broke, but I`m badly bent.”
    “The instinctive feeling of a great people is often wiser than its wisest men.”
    — Louis Kossuth, Hungarian statesman [19 Sep 1802 – 20 Mar 1894].
    “The instinctive feeling of a great people that they are broke will often badly bend its wisest men.”
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