a 02 July:
Benedict XVI [16
Apr 1927~] issues the “motu
Unitatem putting the pontifical
commission Ecclesia Dei (charged with facilitating the return of the
of St Pius X to the Church) under the jurisdiction of the Congregation
for the Doctrine of the Faith. —(090930)
elections in Mexico. The presidential election is narrowly won by Felipe
de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa [18 Oct 1952~] of the Partido
Acción Nacional (PAN).
The close second is Andrés
Manuel López Obrador [13 Nov 1953~] of the center-left Partido de la
Revolución Democrática (PRD)
in coalition with the Partido
de Convergencia Para la Democracia and the Partido de los Trabajadores
in the Alianza
Por el Bien de Todos. Roberto
Madrazo [30 Jul 1952~], of the Partido Revolucionario Institucional
a distant third despite having formed Alianza
Para México with the PVEM
(which is NOT the Partido de la Violencia Extremista en México, but
the Partido Verde Ecologista de México). The other two presidential
candidates never had a chance of winning. The are Patricia
Mercado Castro [1957~] of Alternativa
Socialdemócratica y Campesina and Roberto
Campa Cifrián [1957~] of Nueva
Alianza. — (060703)
2000: Mexican elections, not yet completely
fair, but the "fairest" ever, evidence of which is that an opposition
candidate is given a chance to become the first non-PRI (Partido Revolucionario
Institucional) president in 71 years. The results announced the next day
would prove that the election is fair enough: Vicente Fox, the canditate
of PAN (Partido Acción Nacional) is elected, to assume the presidency
on December 1.
Artificial heart is implanted in patient.
Surgeons from the University of Louisville implant the first self-contained
artificial heart, a titanium and plastic pump, into Robert Tools at
Jewish Hospital. Doctors said they expect the new implant to extend
the patient's life only a month or so. But the device is considered
a technological leap from mechanical hearts used in the 1980s, which
were attached by wires and tubes to machinery outside the body.
The new grapefruit-sized pump, known
as AbioCor, is designed to allow recipients to maintain a productive
lifestyle while wearing it. No wires, no tubes. Power is sent from
a battery pack worn outside the body through the skin to an implanted
coil, control package and backup battery. The internal battery, about
the size of a typical pager, can work on its own for about 30 minutes
between charges long enough for a patient to take a shower,
Drs. Laman Gray
and Robert Dowling, who trained by implanting the pump in baby cows,
performed the surgery. Surgical teams at four other hospitals around
the country had been trained to do the surgery, but Louisville was
first. Experts hope that the experimental heart, made by Abiomed Inc.
of Danvers, Massachusetts, will lead to new hope for patients with
M. Lederman, Abiomed's
president and chief executive officer, said earlier in 2001 that the
company had received Food and Drug Administration approval to perform
at least five human trials with the artificial heart. If the experiments
are successful, more patients could be added to the trial later. Patients
selected for the trial must be suffering from a chronic, progressive
heart disease expected to result in death within 30 days. They had
to be ineligible for receiving a human heart transplant. The goal
of the experimental trials with the artificial heart is to double
the life span of these patients to 60 days, but every patient is expected
to die on the AbioCor.
A second goal is to evaluate how the
mobile mechanical heart affects the quality of life of those patients,
most of whom are so ill that they cannot walk or perform the daily
routine of life, such as getting dressed.
The first recipient of an artificial heart, Barney Clark, a Seattle-area
dentist, lived 112 days after receiving a Jarvik-7 device on 02 December
1982. The survival record for a total artificial heart is held by
William Schroeder of Jasper, Indiana, who lived 620 days on one before
he died in August 1986. But artificial heart patients of the 1980s
all had a variety of complications, and use of the devices as permanent
replacements for diseased hearts was largely suspended.
Still, the scientists building the next generation of devices -including
those that assist rather than replace a diseased heart - learned too
much to consider those early tests mistakes. The second man to receive
a Jarvik-7, Thomas Gaidosh, of Sutersville, Pennsylvania, was on the
device only a few days before he received a human heart transplant.
He lived 11 more years, long enough to be best man at the wedding
of inventor Dr. Robert Jarvik.
Five hospitals were approved as sites for implanting the AbioCor.
The others were Brigham & Women's and Massachusetts General in Boston;
Hahnemann University Hospital in Philadelphia; the Texas Heart Institute
in Houston; and the UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles.
PATIENT SURVIVES LONGER THAN EXPECTED.
Tools, center, the recipient of the first totally self-contained artificial
heart, addressed the media on 21 August 2001 alongside his surgeons
Drs. Laman Gray Jr., left, and Robert Dowling.]
than six weeks after he received the experimental device, Robert Tools,
59, a former telephone company employee and teacher, is introduced
to the news media via closed circuit television at Jewish Hospital
in Louisville. "I had a choice to stay home and die or come here and
take a chance," said Robert Tools of Franklin, Kentucky. "I decided
to come here and take a chance." advertisement "I asked for it because
I knew I had no more chances to survive," said Tools, who appeared
frail and spoke with an airy voice while holding his throat because
of a tracheotomy. Tools smiled as he said the whirring sound of the
device took some getting used to, but he liked it because he knew
he was alive.
Tools, a diabetic
with a history of heart problems, was deemed too ill to receive a
heart transplant. Before the surgery, he was so weak he could take
only a few steps at a time and couldn't raise his head to talk to
his doctors. Tools was given only a slight chance of surviving 30
days. Tools moved to Kentucky from Colorado in 1996 hoping to receive
a transplant, but he grew so weak he could barely cross the street.
BUT HE SUFFERS A STROKE ON 11 NOVEMBER 2001
Robert Tools suffers a stroke in the afternoon of 11 November and
is put back on a ventilator at Jewish Hospital.
AND DIES ON 30 NOVEMBER 2001.
dies on 30 November 2001, having lived with the artificial heart for
151 days, much longer than his estimated life expectancy of 30 days
before the implantation operation and of 60 days after it. Tools began
bleeding on 10 November and his organs began failing later that night.
His abdominal bleeding was caused by continuous anti-coagulation problems
Tools had experienced since the surgery. His death was unrelated to
his 11 November stroke. The deterioration of his condition was not
caused by complications or any malfunction of the experimental AbioCor
heart device. Blood-thinning drugs are often given to patients to
prevent the clots that can cause strokes, but Tools could not be given
high doses, because such drugs can also cause internal bleeding. Doctors
had said early on that strokes were among the risks for the artificial
heart patients. The AbioCor was designed with a smooth plastic lining
to decrease the chance of blood clots forming.
2000 et tous les ans: Tous
les 2 juillet, la terre se trouve à son aphélie. Dans son
mouvement de rotation autour du Soleil, la Terre décrit une ellipse dont
le demi-grand axe est de 149'598'600 km. En janvier, la Terre est plus proche
du Soleil, soit 147'100'000 km (périhélie) et en Juillet, elle est la plus
éloignée, soit 152'100'000 km (aphélie). Cela fait une variation de 3,3%
dans l'intensité de la radiation solaire, négligeable par
rapport à la variation due à l'inclinaison de l'axe de la
1998 Un grupo de extremistas protestantes
incendia diez capillas católicas en Irlanda del Norte.
Electricity and phone service was knocked out for millions of customers
from Canada to the Southwest after power lines throughout the West failed
on a record-hot day.
1996 Seven years after they
had shot their parents to death in the family's Beverly Hills mansion, Lyle
and Erik Menendez were sentenced to life in prison without parole.
1995 La cadena comercial española Galerías Preciados
cierra sus puertas tras más de 60 años de actividad, absorbida por su eterno
competidor El Corte Inglés.
Unidos comunica a la OTAN la retirada de sus armas nucleares tácticas en
1992 One millionth Corvette
Corvette engineer Zora Arkus Duntov drives the one-millionth
Chevrolet Corvette off the assembly line in Bowling Green, Kentucky.
The event is monumental to both America's first sports car and the
man that made the car possible.
Duntov was born in Belgium, the son of Russian immigrants. He pursued
an interest in motorcycle racing and engineering until the outbreak
of World War II, at which point he joined the French Air Force. After
the French surrender, Duntov managed to secure exit visas to Spain
for his entire family. He later resettled in Manhattan, and started
a performance engineering firm, called Ardun, with his brother. The
firm enjoyed a reputation for quality, but eventually went out of
business as the result of questionable financial practices on the
part of a third partner that Duntov and his brother had taken on.
Duntov moved to England to work on
the Allard sports car, which he co-drove at Le Mans in 1952 and 1953.
Duntov earned a reputation as an exacting driver and engineer in the
European tradition of performance car racing. After witnessing the
prototype Corvette on display at the 1953 Motorama in New York City,
he decided to join Chevrolet. While Duntov was visually taken by the
car, he expressed dismay at what lay under the hood. He wrote Chevrolet
chief engineer Ed Cole and offered his services to improve the Corvette,
including with his note a technical paper outlining his plan to increase
the Corvette's performance capabilities. Chevrolet was so impressed
that engineer Maurice Olley, then in charge of the Corvette, offered
Duntov a position as a staff engineer.
Soon after arriving at Chevrolet, Duntov set the tone for his career
at the company by distributing a paper to his superiors entitled "Thoughts
Pertaining to Youth, Hot Rodders, and Chevrolet." The paper laid the
foundation for a strategy to create both racing and performance parts
programs for Chevy. It was his desire that the Corvette measure itself
against the best sports cars in the world: Porsche, Ferrari, and Mercedes.
He helped develop the small-block V-8
engine to increase the little Corvette's power; he introduced the
Duntov high-lift cam-shaft; and he introduced fuel injection, seeing
the Corvette through from its inauspicious beginnings to its triumphant
end. He created the Corvette Grand Sport Program in 1963, making the
Corvette competitive on all levels of international performance competition.
Duntov also helped to build the Corvette culture, appearing at Corvette
shows, clubs, and rallies all over the US He retired from Chevrolet
in 1975, but Duntov's legacy will stay alive as long as Corvettes
roam the open road.
1991 A European Community-brokered truce between Yugoslavia
and the breakaway republic of Slovenia was shattered as the federal army
battled Slovene militias.
1992 Stephen Hawkings breaks
British bestseller records
Theoretical physicist Stephen Hawkings
breaks British publishing records on this day in 1992. His book, A
Brief History of Time, has been on the nonfiction bestseller
list for three and a half years, selling more than 3 million copies
in 22 languages. A Brief History of Time explains the latest
theories on the origins of the universe in language accessible to
educated lay people.
was made into an acclaimed documentary in 1992, which focused largely
on Hawkings' own story. Diagnosed with Lou Gehrig's disease in his
20s, Hawkings was told he had only two years to live. Despite the
sobering prognosis, Hawkings pursued his studies in theoretical physics,
married, and had a son. Eventually, his disease left him paralyzed
except for his left hand. He was able to speak, although his speech
was difficult to understand, until he underwent a tracheotomy in 1985
during a bout with pneumonia. Afterward, he relied on a mouse-controlled
voice synthesizer, which improved the clarity of his speech.
1990 Imelda Marcos (on her 61st birthday) & Adnan Khashoggi
found not guilty of racketeering
1991 Electronic forgery thwarted
The US Commerce Department announces
a standard to protect electronic documents from tampering. The method,
developed jointly with the National Security Agency, would make it
impossible to alter some documents by creating an "electronic signature."
The Commerce Department hopes that the measure will encourage the
use of electronic documents in government transactions.
1986 Se inicia
en Chile la primera jornada de huelga general contra Pinochet.
Andrei Gromiko es nombrado presidente del Soviet Supremo de la URSS y sustituido
en la cartera de Exteriores por Eduard Shevardnadze.
US Supreme Court rules death penalty not inherently cruel or unusual
1976 Formal reunification of North & South Vietnam
1975 El Frente Polisario es expulsado de Mauritania.
|1976 Proclamation de
la République Socialiste du Vietnam.
approche les 75 millions d’habitants. La démographie est importante,
même si elle a subi une diminution importante lors des guerres d’indépendance,
contre les Japonais (40 - 45) contre les Français (45 - 56) et contre
les Américains (56 - 76). De même les nouvelles conditions de vie,
exode vers les villes et urbanisation galopante, industrialisation
forcée, ouverture au monde capitaliste, retour de la propriété privée,
ont contribué à fléchir le taux de croissance.
Le régime politique reste "Communiste", un anachronisme peut-être,
mais qui semblait convenir à ce peuple qui a essayé de penser ses
plaies sans l’aide des Occidentaux, et sans aide importante de la
part du bloc Communiste. Depuis 5 ans, une réforme constitutionnelle
amorce un virage prudent vers l’économie de marché, mais la gérontocratie
gouvernementale, malgré l’apport de quelques conseillers et techniciens
plus jeunes, reste puissante et désireuse de ne pas "brûler" les étapes.
Ce pays vaut 10 fois la Belgique, il
mesure plus de 331"000 km². Il s’étend tout en longueur dans
la partie orientale de la Péninsule Indochinoise, avec une plaine
à chaque extrémité. Il offre un peu l’image d’un "fléau" d’épaule,
une espèce de bambou qui soutiendrait un sac de riz à chaque extrémité,
car ces deux plaines sont deux deltas très fertiles ; le delta du
Sông Hông (fleuve rouge) au nord et du Mékong (fleuve jaune) au sud.
Les 3 régions importantes sont le Tonkin
au nord (capitale Hanoï), l’Ammam au centre et la Cochinchine au sud
(capitale Saïgon). Si les plaines fertiles des deux deltas et du littoral
au centre sont très peuplées, les montagnes couvrent près des deux
tiers du territoire et la densité d’habitants y est faible.
Sur les plans philosophique et religieux,
les Vietnamiens ont jadis reçu de la Chine le bouddhisme Mahayana,
le confucianisme et le taoïsme, qui ont profondément marqué leur mentalité.
Mais ils ont aussi pratiqué des cultes autochtones, comme celui des
ancêtres, célébré devant les tablettes funéraires de l’autel familial,
du génie gardien du village, honoré dans le temple communal (d–ình),
ceux de certains arbres, animaux ou pierres.
Aujourd’hui, le confucianisme et le taoïsme sont en voie de disparition,
les cultes locaux perdent de plus en plus d’adeptes, mais le bouddhisme
(amidisme et école du Dhyana) fait preuve d’une grande vitalité et
80 % des Vietnamiens déclarent y adhérer. Trois autres mouvements
religieux comptent un nombre notable de croyants ; ce sont le catholicisme
(près de 2 millions de baptisés) et, dans le Sud, les sectes Cao-–Dài
(1,5 million de fidèles) et Hoà-Ha’o.
1966 Francia realiza su primer experimento atómico en el
atolón de Mururoa.
|1964 US President
Johnson signs Civil Rights Act
In a nationally televised
White House ceremony, US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil
Rights Act of 1964 into law, after lobbying hard for its passage.
The act, which is the most sweeping civil rights legislation passed
by Congress since Reconstruction, prohibits racial discrimination
in employment and education, and outlaws racial segregation in public
This landmark legislation
comes ten years after the US Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board
of Education that racial segregation in public educational facilities
is unconstitutional. In the decade that followed the historic decision,
the Black civil rights movement made great strides in winning federal
support for integration, and in 1960, John F. Kennedy made passage
of a new civil rights bill one of the platforms of his successful
President Lyndon Johnson served as chairman of the President's Committee
on Equal Employment Opportunities, and, after the president was assassinated
on 22 November 1963, Johnson vowed to carry out Kennedy's proposals
for civil rights reform.
1959 Juan XXIII publica su primera encíclica Ad Petri
1964 Republicans attack LBJ's Vietnam policy.
At a joint news conference, Senate Republican leader Everett Dirksen
(Illinois) and House Republican leader Charles Halleck (Indiana) say
that the Vietnam War will be a campaign issue because "Johnson's indecision
has made it one." President Lyndon B. Johnson had assumed office after
the assassination of John F. Kennedy on 22 November 1963. Kennedy
had supported Ngo Dinh Diem, the president of South Vietnam, who was
assassinated during a coup just before Kennedy was killed. The deaths
of both Diem and Kennedy provided an opportunity for the new administration
to undertake a reassessment of US policy toward Vietnam, but this
was not done. Johnson, who desperately wanted to push a set of social
reforms called the Great Society, was instead forced to focus on the
deteriorating situation in South Vietnam.
Caught in a dilemma, he later wrote: "If I...let the Communists take
over South Vietnam, then I would be seen as a coward and my nation
would be seen as an appeaser and we would both find it impossible
to accomplish anything for anybody anywhere in the entire globe."
Faced with having to do something about Vietnam, Johnson vacillated
as he and his advisers attempted to devise a viable course of action.
The situation changed in August 1964 when North Vietnamese torpedo
boats attacked US destroyers off the coast of North Vietnam. What
became known as the Tonkin Gulf incident led to the passage of the
Tonkin Gulf Resolution, which passed 416 to 0 in the House, and 88
to 2 in the Senate. This resolution, which gave the president approval
to "take all necessary measures to repel an armed attack against the
forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression," provided
the legal basis for President Johnson to initiate a major commitment
of US troops to South Vietnam, which ultimately totaled more than
540'000 by 1968.
1957 El senador demócrata J. F.
Kennedy solicita que su gobierno intervenga a favor de la independencia
1947 Dimite el Gobierno chileno y González
Videla forma un nuevo Ejecutivo con personalidades sin filiación política.
1944 Los alemanes bombardean Inglaterra con munición V-1,
los primeros misiles autopropulsados empleados en la historia bélica.
1947 Soviet Union rejects Marshall Plan assistance
Soviet Foreign Minister V. M. Molotov walks out of a meeting with
representatives of the British and French governments, signaling the
Soviet Union's rejection of the Marshall Plan. Molotov's action indicated
that Cold War frictions between the United States and Russia were
intensifying. On 04 June 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall
gave a speech in which he announced that the United States was willing
to offer economic assistance to the war-torn nations of Europe to
help in their recovery. The Marshall Plan, as this program came to
be known, eventually provided billions of dollars to European nations
and helped stave off economic disaster in many of them. The Soviet
reaction to Marshall's speech was a stony silence. However, Foreign
Minister Molotov agreed to a meeting on 27 June with his British and
French counterparts to discuss the European reaction to the US offer.
Molotov immediately made clear
the Soviet objections to the Marshall Plan. First, it would include
economic assistance to Germany, and the Russians could not tolerate
such aid to the enemy that had so recently devastated the Soviet Union.
Second, Molotov was adamant in demanding that the Soviet Union have
complete control and freedom of action over any Marshall Plan funds
Germany might receive. Finally, the Foreign Minister wanted to know
precisely how much money the United States would give to each nation.
When it became clear that the
French and British representatives did not share his objections, Molotov
stormed out of the meeting on 02 July. In the following weeks, the
Soviet Union pressured its Eastern European allies to reject all Marshall
Plan assistance. That pressure was successful and none of the Soviet
satellites participated in the Marshall Plan. The Soviet press claimed
that the US program was "a plan for interference in the domestic affairs
of other countries." The United States ignored the Soviet action and,
in 1948, officially established the Marshall Plan and began providing
funds to other European nations. Publicly, US officials argued that
the Soviet stance was another indication that Russia intended to isolate
Eastern Europe from the West and enforce its Communist and totalitarian
doctrines in that region. From the Soviet perspective, however, its
refusal to participate in the Marshall Plan indicated its desire to
remain free from US "economic imperialism" and domination.
La Unión Soviética rechaza el plan Marshall mientras los representantes
francés y británico deciden proseguir su aplicación.
1940 Gonvernement ira à Vichy. C'est parce que Bordeaux
où le gouvernement s'est réfugié pendant la débâcle fait, depuis l'armistice,
partie de la France occupée, qu'il lui faut trouver dans la zone libre une
ville qui puisse l'accueillir ainsi que la Chambre. Le casino et les nombreux
hôtels de la station balnéaire qu'est Vichy offrent des conditions de vie
acceptables. Pétain y convoque le Parlement pour le 10 juillet prochain.
1944 Mines, bombs, and leaflets
As part of Operation Gardening, the British and US strategy to lay
mines in the Danube River by dropping them from the air, US aircraft
also drop bombs and leaflets on German-occupied Budapest. Hungarian
oil refineries and storage tanks, important to the German war machine,
were destroyed by the US air raid. Along with this fire from the sky,
leaflets threatening "punishment" for those responsible for the deportation
of Hungarian Jews to the gas chambers at Auschwitz were also dropped
on Budapest. The US government wanted the SS and Hitler to know it
Horthy, regent and virtual dictator of Hungary, vehemently antiCommunist
and afraid of Russian domination, had aligned his country with Hitler,
despite the fact that he little admired him. But he, too, demanded
that the deportations cease, especially since special pleas had begun
pouring in from around the world upon the testimonies of four escaped
Auschwitz prisoners about the atrocities there. Hitler, fearing a
Hungarian rebellion, stopped the deportations on 08 July. Horthy would
eventually try to extricate himself from the war altogether
only to be kidnapped by Hitler's agents and consequently forced to
One day after the deportations
stopped, a Swedish businessman, Raoul Wallenberg, having convinced
the Swedish Foreign Ministry to send him to the Hungarian capital
on a diplomatic passport, arrived in Budapest with 630 visas for Hungarian
Jews, prepared to take them to Sweden to save them from further deportations.
1926 US Army Air Corps created; Distinguish Flying Cross
1937 Amelia Earhart lost:
Lockheed aircraft carrying legendary aviator Amelia Earhart and her
copilot Frederick J. Noonan is reported missing. In 1928, Earhart
was the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean, and in 1932
she became the first female pilot to cross it solo. She disappeared
on the last leg of her global journey somewhere between New Guinea
and Howland Island in the South Pacific. Two radio amateurs picked
up a signal that she was low on fuel the last trace the world
would ever know of Amelia Earhart. New
York Times story (370703)
The Lockheed aircraft carrying US aviator Amelia Earhart and navigator
Frederick Noonan is reported missing near Howland Island in the Pacific.
The pair were attempting to fly around the world when they lost their
bearings during the most challenging leg of the global journey: Lae,
New Guinea, to Howland Island, a tiny island 2227 nautical miles away,
in the center of the Pacific Ocean. The US Coast Guard cutter Itasca
was in sporadic radio contact with Earhart as she approached Howland
Island and received messages that she was lost and running low on
fuel. Soon after, she probably tried to ditch the Lockheed in the
ocean. No trace of Earhart or Noonan was ever found.
Amelia Earhart was born in Atchison, Kansas, in 1897. She took up
aviation at the age of 24 and later gained publicity as one of the
earliest female aviators. In 1928, the publisher George P. Putnam
invited her to become the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean.
The previous year, Charles A. Lindbergh had flown solo nonstop across
the Atlantic, and Putnam had made a fortune off Lindbergh's autobiographical
book We. In June 1928, Earhart and two men flew from Newfoundland,
Canada, to Wales, Great Britain. Although Earhart's only function
during the crossing was to keep the plane's log, the flight won her
great fame, and people in the US were enamored of the daring young
pilot. The three were honored with a ticker-tape parade in New York,
and "Lady Lindy," as Earhart was dubbed, was given a White House reception
by President Calvin Coolidge.
Earhart wrote a book about the flight for Putnam, whom she married
in 1931, and gave lectures and continued her flying career under her
maiden name. On 20 May 1932 she took off alone from Newfoundland in
a Lockheed Vega on the first solo nonstop transatlantic flight by
a woman. She was bound for Paris but was blown off course and landed
in Ireland on May 21 after flying more than 3000 km in just under
15 hours. It was the fifth anniversary of Lindbergh's historic flight,
and before Earhart no one had attempted to repeat his solo transatlantic
flight. For her achievement, she was awarded the Distinguished Flying
Cross by Congress. Three months later, Earhart became the first woman
to fly solo nonstop across the continental United States.
In 1935, in the first flight of its kind, she flew solo from Wheeler
Field in Honolulu to Oakland, California, winning a $10'000 award
posted by Hawaiian commercial interests. Later that year, she was
appointed a consultant in careers for women at Purdue University,
and the school bought her a modern Lockheed Electra aircraft to be
used as a "flying laboratory."
On March 17, 1937, she took off from Oakland and flew west on an around-the-world
attempt. It would not be the first global flight, but it would be
the longest 47'000 km, following an equatorial route. Aboard
her Lockheed were Frederick Noonan, her navigator and a former Pan
American pilot, and co-pilot Harry Manning. After resting and refueling
in Honolulu, the trio prepared to resume the flight. However, while
taking off for Howland Island, Earhart ground-looped the plane on
the runway, perhaps because of a blown tire, and the Lockheed was
seriously damaged. The flight was called off, and the aircraft was
shipped back to California for repairs.
In May, Earhart flew the newly rebuilt plane to Miami, from where
Noonan and she would make a new around-the-world attempt, this time
from west to east. They left Miami on 01 June, and after stops in
South America, Africa, India, and Southeast Asia, they arrived at
Lae, New Guinea, on 29 June. About 35'000 km of the journey had been
completed, and the last 11'000 km would all be over the Pacific Ocean.
The next destination was Howland Island, a tiny US-owned island that
was just a few miles long. The US Department of Commerce had a weather
observation station and a landing strip on the island, and the staff
was ready with fuel and supplies. Several US ships, including the
Coast Guard cutter Itasca, were deployed to aid Earhart and Noonan
in this difficult leg of their journey.
As the Lockheed approached Howland Island, Earhart radioed the Itasca
and explained that she was low on fuel. However, after several hours
of frustrating attempts, two-way communication was only briefly established,
and the Itasca was unable to pinpoint the Lockheed's location or offer
navigational information. Earhart circled the Itasca's position but
was unable to sight the ship, which was sending out miles of black
smoke. She radioed "one-half hour fuel and no landfall" and later
tried to give information on her position. Soon after, contact was
lost, and Earhart presumably tried to land the Lockheed on the water.
If her landing on the water was perfect,
Earhart and Noonan might have had time to escape the aircraft with
a life raft and survival equipment before it sank. An intensive search
of the vicinity by the Coast Guard and US Navy found no physical evidence
of the fliers or their plane. Additional searches through the years
have likewise failed to find any trace of the Lockheed or of Earhart
and Noonan, who almost certainly perished at sea.
1917 Jozef Pilsudski dimite del Consejo de Estado Polaco
en protesta por la tutela a que se ve sometido este órgano por las administraciones
militares alemana y austro-húngara. Los alemanes, en represalia, le hacen
1917 First plane-to-ground phone call
The first phone call from an airplane is received at Langley Field,
Virginia. The call, placed from an airplane three kilometers away,
come through loud and clear: Unfortunately, the plane can only transmit,
not receive, the call. The first two-way, ground-to-air conversation
would occur the following month.
1912 Bulgaria, Serbia y Grecia firman un convenio militar
|1914 Thursday : in the aftermath of the June 28 assassination
in Sarajevo of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary and of
his wife, Sophia: Emperor
Franz Josef sends a letter to Kaiser
Wilhelm II thanking him for his condolences regarding the Archduke's
death. The letter contains undertones of the actions to follow.
text of the letter]
1905 Entra en vigor en Francia
una ley que limita el horario laboral de los menores a nueve horas.
1894 Government obtains injunction against striking Pullman
1900 Zeppelin demonstrates airship
the sky over Germany's Lake Constance, Count Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin,
a retired Prussian army officer, successfully demonstrated the world's
first rigid airship. The 128-meter, cigar-shaped LZ-1 is lifted by
hydrogen gas and powered by a sixteen-horsepower engine.
Zeppelin had first become interested in lighter-than-air travel in
1863, when as a military observer in the US Civil War he had made
several ascents in Union observation balloons. In 1891, he retired
from the Prussian army to devote himself to the building of motor-driven
dirigibles, and in 1900 he successfully tested his first airship.
Although a French inventor had built a power-driven airship several
decades before, the Zeppelin's rigid dirigible, with its steel framework,
was by far the largest airship ever constructed. Size, however, was
exchanged for safety as the heavy steel-framed airships were vulnerable
to explosion because they had to be lifted by highly flammable hydrogen
gas, instead of non-flammable helium gas.
During World War I, several "Zeppelins," as all rigid airships became
popularly known, were used by the Germans in bombing missions over
Britain. After the war, commercial passenger service increased, and
one of the most famous rigid airships, the Graf Zeppelin, traveled
around the world in 1929. In the 1930s, the Graf Zeppelin also pioneered
the first transatlantic air service, leading to the construction of
the largest dirigible ever built: the Hindenburg.
On 06 May 1937, at the end of its maiden voyage across the Atlantic,
the Hindenburg burst into flames upon touching its mooring mast in
Lakehurst, New Jersey, killing thirty-six passengers and crew [however
a recent theory is that the hydrogen was not responsible but the envelope
of the airship, with a flammable coating including aluminum powder,
caught fire from static electricity, while the hydrogen vented harmlessly
upward]. Lighter-than-air passenger travel rapidly fell out of
favor after the Hindenberg disaster, and no existing rigid airship
survived World War II.
1892 Lock-out at Carnegie's
By the late nineteenth century, the workers at Andrew Carnegie's Homestead,
PA plant had eked out a modicum of power. They won a key strike in
1889, and in the process became a potent unit of the Amalgamated Association
of Iron and Steel Workers. Still, these victories hardly erased the
harsh working conditions at the Homestead mills. Nor did they mean
that the Carnegie Company was pleased with or readily recognized the
union. Ever mindful of Amalgamated's potentially deleterious impact
on his profit margins, Andrew Carnegie looked to erode the power of
In 1892, the company
made its move against Amalgamated, though not with Carnegie at the
helm: the steel baron had departed for a vacation in Scotland, leaving
the task of smashing the union in the hands of his partner, Henry
Clay Frick. Frick took his mission all too seriously: after refusing
to renew the company's contract with Amalgamated, he dug in for war,
erecting a three-mile long steel wire fence around the plant. Frick
also enlisted the aid of the Pinkerton Detective agency, which sent
three hundred men to Homestead to ensure the plant's transition to
non-union workers. Amalgamated's leaders responded in kind, lining
up scores of workers, as well as a good chunk of the town, to wage
battle against the plant.
showdown begins in earnest on 02 July as Frick halted work at Homestead
until the plant was staffed entirely by non-union workers. Three days
later, the Homestead affair turned bloody, as the Pinkerton agents
made their first appearance on the scene. Attempting to reach the
plant via the Monongahela River, the agents were met by Amalgamated's
forces; the two sides engaged in a long and vicious battle that left
nine strikers and seven agents dead. Despite the losses, Amalgamated's
motley army was able to turn back the detectives.
Sensing that they were on the verge of disaster, officials for Carnegie
enlisted the aid of the Pennsylvania Government. And, on 09 July,
1892, the state sends 7000 troops to Homestead to "restore law and
order." The militia effectively squelched Amalgamated's strike: the
troops helped the Carnegie restaff its plant with non-union workers
and by September, the Carnegie company would have resumed production.
Later that November, the union conceded defeat and called off its
strike; Carnegie responded by summarily firing and even blacklisting
1885 Canada's North-west Insurrection ends with surrender
of Big Bear
1890 Sherman Anti-Trust Act
The federal government tackled the
rising specter of outsized business conglomerations by passing the
Sherman Anti-Trust Act. Sponsored by Ohio Senator John Sherman, the
bill is designed as a direct strike against "every contract, combination
in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of
trade of commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations."
Along with attempting to block
the future creation of monopolies, the Sherman Anti-Trust Act also
calls for existing monopolies to be disbanded. But, such seemingly
strong tactics betray the bill's weak language. Written by Senator
George Hoar (Mississippi) and Senator George F. Edmunds (Vermont),
the Sherman Act is fraught with ambiguous terms like "trust," leaving
it ripe for exploitation by both litigious business officials and
savvy attorneys. Sure enough, the ensuing years would see anti-labor
forces manipulate the bill in their crusade against organized labor
unions. In 1894, these anti-labor efforts were legally sanctioned
by the Supreme Court which ruled in United States v. Debs
that the Sherman Act did indeed cover unions, as well as hulking business
1876 Se promulga en España la Constitución de 1876.
1881 US President shot and incapacited.
Is the VP promoted?
After only four months in office, while
on his way to visit his ill wife in Elberon, New Jersey, President
James A. Garfield, 49, is shot in the back and the arm at the Baltimore
& Potomac railroad station in Washington, D.C., by Charles J. Guiteau,
, a mentally disturbed man, who had been tracking President Garfield
for a while. When Garfield was running for office, Guiteau sent him
a deranged speech to read to his audience. Not surprisingly, Garfield
never read the speech, but Guiteau insisted that it was instrumental
in getting him elected and demanded the position of ambassador to
France in return.
Since the White
House did not have standard security in place at this time, Guiteau
became a frequent visitor and even met the president on one occasion.
He began to harass the secretary of state every day about the ambassador
position. When he was summarily rejected, Guiteau decided to seek
revenge by shooting the president. He later told authorities that
he followed Garfield for weeks, once sitting directly behind him at
church. After checking out the prisons in Washington DC, to make sure
the accommodations would suit him, Guiteau makes his attack on the
president on 02 July. Guiteau peaceably surrendered to police, calmly
announcing, "I am a Stalwart. Arthur is now president of the United
With the bullet lodged
near his pancreas, Garfield, mortally ill, was treated in Washington
and then taken to the seashore at Elberon, New Jersey, where he attempted
to recuperate with his family. For 80 days he performed only one official
act the signing of an extradition paper. It was generally agreed
that, in such cases, the vice president was empowered by the Constitution
to assume the powers and duties of the office of president. But should
he serve merely as acting president until Garfield recovered, or would
he receive the office itself and thus displace his predecessor?
Because of an ambiguity in the Constitution,
opinion was divided, and, because Congress was not in session, the
problem could not be debated there. On 02 September 1881, the matter
came before a cabinet meeting, where it was finally agreed that no
action would be taken without first consulting Garfield. But in the
opinion of the doctors this was impossible, and no further action
was taken before the death of the president, the result of slow blood
poisoning, on 19 September.
following day, Arthur was inaugurated as the twenty-first president
of the United States. Garfield had three funerals: one in Elberon,
another in Washington, where his body rested in state in the Capitol
for three days, and a third in Cleveland, Ohio, where he was buried.
Charles Guiteau's murder trial began
in November. Despite strong indications of insanity, prosecutors would
tried him for murder. Acting as his own attorney during the 10-week
trial, Guiteau screamed incessantly and sometimes danced around the
courtroom. But the court did not put a stop to his antics, even after
he called the prosecutors "dirty liars." During his closing argument,
he claimed that God had told him to kill the president. When the jury
pronounced him guilty of murder, Guiteau shouted at them, "You are
all low, consummate jackasses!" Guiteau was hanged on 30 June 1882.
Two hundred spectators at the jail watched as hundreds more gathered
outside. From the gallows, Guiteau recited a poem in a high, childlike
voice, "I am going to the Lordy, I am so glad."
1871 Víctor Manuel II, primer [entonces ¿porqué
el II] rey de Italia, entra en el palacio del Quirinal,
antigua residencia papal.
1864 The US Congress passes
the Wade-Davis Bill, requiring a majority of a seceded state's white citizens
to take an oath of loyalty to the Constitution and guarantee black equality,
but President Abraham Lincoln pocket vetoes the harsh plan for dealing with
the defeated Confederate states.
1864 General Early
& Confederate forces reach Winchester
raiders cross the Cumberland River near Burkesville, Kentucky
Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania continues
Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
Land Grant Act approved by President Lincoln
Partial emancipation of Russian serfs
en Cataluña la primera huelga general realizada en España, que duró ocho
1852 Portugal decreta la abolición de la pena
de muerte por motivos políticos.
bearing the 1st US 10 cent stamps, still exists today
An alligator falls from the sky during a Charleston SC thunderstorm
1798 Napoleón Bonaparte dirige una expedición militar francesa
en Egipto y toma Alejandría al asalto. (Batalla de las Pirámides.)
1809 Tecumseh urges Amerindians to fight for their
by the growing encroachment of whites squatting on Amerindian lands,
the Shawnee Chief Tecumseh calls on all Indians to unite and resist.
Born around 1768 near Springfield, Ohio, Tecumseh early won notice
as a brave warrior. He fought in battles between the Shawnee and the
white Kentuckians, who were invading the Ohio River Valley territory.
After the US Army won several important battles in the mid-1790s,
Tecumseh reluctantly relocated westward but remained an implacable
foe of the white men and their ways. By the early 19th century, many
Shawnee and other Ohio Valley Indians were becoming increasingly dependent
on trading with the US invaders for guns, cloth, and metal goods.
Tecumseh spoke out against such dependence and called for a return
to traditional Indian ways. He was even more alarmed by the continuing
encroachment of white settlers illegally settling on the already diminished
government-recognized land holdings of the Shawnee and other tribes.
The US government, however, was reluctant to take action against its
own citizens to protect the rights of the Ohio Valley Indians. On
this day in 1809, Tecumseh began a concerted campaign to persuade
the Indians of the Old Northwest and Deep South to unite and resist.
Together, Tecumseh argued, the various tribes had enough strength
to stop the whites from taking further land. Heartened by this message
of hope, Indians from as far away as Florida and Minnesota heeded
Tecumseh's call. By 1810, he had organized the Ohio Valley Confederacy,
which united Indians from the Shawnee, Potawatomi, Kickapoo, Winnebago,
Menominee, Ottawa, and Wyandot nations. For several years, Tecumseh's
Indian Confederacy successfully delayed further white settlement in
the region. In 1811, however, the future president William Henry Harrison
led an attack on the confederacy's base on the Tippecanoe River. At
the time, Tecumseh was in the South attempting to convince more tribes
to join his movement. Although the battle of Tippecanoe was close,
Harrison finally won out and destroyed much of Tecumseh's army. When
the War of 1812 began the following year, Tecumseh immediately marshaled
what remained of his army to aid the British. Commissioned a brigadier
general, he proved an effective ally and played a key role in the
British capture of Detroit and other battles. When the tide of war
turned in the favor of the US, Tecumseh's fortunes went down with
those of the British. On October 5, 1813, he was killed during Battle
of the Thames. His Ohio Valley Confederacy and vision of Indian unity
died with him.
1787 de Sade shouts from Bastille that prisoners are
1777 Vermont becomes 1st American
colony to abolish slavery
1776 Continental Congress
resolves "these United Colonies are & of right ought to be Free & Independent
1652 Bataille de la porte Saint-Antoine
(Paris) entre Turenne et Condé. Les troupes de Condé sont sauvées par la
duchesse de Montpensier (cousine de Louis XIV) qui leur fait ouvrir les
portes de Paris. El Congreso Continental norteamericano ratifica
su decisión de separarse de Inglaterra.
1648 Le roi fait
des réformes. Devant le Parlement réuni, Saint Louis fait donner
la lecture d'un texte. Les membres du Parlement sont étonnés par les vingt-sept
articles dont le contenu peut passer pour être révolutionnaire. Les impôts
sont diminués. Les intendants sont rappelés. L'habeas corpus est
établi à l'exemple de l'Angleterre.
of Marston Moor; Parliamentary forces defeat royalists
0310 or 311 Saint
Miltiades is elected 32nd pope. During his pontificate, Christianity
was finally tolerated by Rome, following the Emperor Constantine's conversion
to the Christian faith.
1560 Michel de L'Hospital, chancelier
La place de chancelier du royaume est vacante depuis la mort d'Olivier
, mort de chagrin (?). Celui-ci avait dû juger les conjurés d'Amboise
qui avaient voulu soustraire le roi à l'influence du très catholique
Guise, il ne s'en serait pas remis moralement. Les partisans de Condé
qui ont participé à cette conjuration ont été pendus, décapités, noyés
dans la Loire. Catherine de Médicis trouve qu'il est temps d'apaiser
les esprits. Elle impose à son fils, François II, Michel de L'Hospital
pour cette charge. Il est catholique. Il est modéré. Il est humaniste.
Il ne tarde pas à en faire la preuve. Lors des Etats généraux qui
se tiennent à Orléans en décembre 1561 il déclare : " Otons ces mots
diaboliques, noms de partis, de factions, de séditions, luthériens,
huguenots, papistes : ne gardons que le nom de chrétiens. "