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^  On a 30 January:
voter's finger2005 Elections in Iraq to 18 provincial legislatures and to a 275-seat Transitional National Assembly (for which there are 7471 candidates on 111 party lists !) charged with writing a draft constitution. The insurgents have promised to kill voters, which they will easily identify because, stupidly, the organizers of the election have ordered that a finger of each voter be stained with indelible ink [< photo], to prevent multiple voting. Many eligible voters stay away from the election, not willing to risk their lives, when the US occupiers (who stay at the ready, but out of sight today) and the Iraqi collaborationist police and National Guard have proved unable to even protect themselves. Streets are barricaded, borders sealed, airports closed, and only official vehicles allowed out. This prevents car bombings, but not other kinds of attacks, mostly by 9 pedestrian suicide bombers, which kill at least 50 persons.
     The election treats the whole country as one constituency. On the political parties' lists of candidates, every third name has to be a woman's. Candidates have to be aged at least 30. Parties or groups with militias cannot run for election and nor can current members of the armed forces and former senior members of the Baath Party. The seats will be allocated by exact proportional representation.
      The assembly will have law-making powers. But first it must elect a state presidency council made up of a president and two deputies. The council in turn will have two weeds to choose a prime minister who will then have four weeks to select ministers. The assembly will then vote on the make-up of the government. The prime minister will be the key figure, having control over the armed forces, for example. The assembly's other main role is to write a draft constitution by 15 August 2005 and submit this to referendum by 15 October 2005. Any three provinces can veto the constitution. Parliamentary elections are due in December.

2003 World chess champion Garry Kimovich Kasparov [13 April 1963-], with White, loses against computer program Deep Junior in the third game of a match which will end in a draw with its 6th game on 07 February first game of a match which will end in a draw with its 6th game on 07 February 2003 (26 Jan Game 1 — 28 Jan Game 2 — 02 Feb Game 4 — 05 Feb Game 5). The match score is now tied Kasparov 1.5, Deep Junior 1.5. — The game:
Oops! (K. has just made move 32)1. d4 d5 2. c4 c6 3. Nc3 Nf6 4. e3 e6 5. Nf3 Nbd7 6. Qc2 b6 7. cxd5 exd5 8. Bd3 Be7 9. Bd2 0~0 10. g4 [by transposing moves, Kasparov got Deep Junior out of its openings book and into a variation of the Semi-Slav] Nxg4 11. Rg1 Nd6 12. h3 Nh6 13. e4! [this ought to be a winning position] dxe4 14. Bxh6 exd3 15. Rxg7+ Kh8 16. Qxd3 Rg8 17. Rxg8+ Nxg8 18. Bf4 f6 19. 0~0~0 Bd6 20. Qe3 Bxf4 21. Qxf4 Bxh3 [Kasparov is down a pawn but has a lead in development and strong pressure against Deep Junior's king. However Kasparov ought to go for a draw, as the situation is risky and a computer never blunders] 22. Rg1 Qb8 23. Qe3 Qd6 24. Nh4 Be6 25. Rh1 Rd8 26. Ng6+ Kg7 27. Nf4 Bf5 28. Nce2 Ne7 29. Ng3 Kh8 30. Nxf5 Nxf5 31. Qe4 Qd7 32. Rh5?? [Kasparov puts his hand up to his head {photo >}: Ng6+ would have been better — Kasparov realizes that it was a blunder to expect ... Qxd4 33. Rxh7+ Kxh7 34. Qxf5+ perpetual check] Nxd4!! [a move Kasparov had overlooked] 33. Ng6+ Kg8 34. Ne7+ Kf8! [avoids the repetition of moves] 35. Nd5 [if Rxh7 Nb3+ 36. Kc2 Na1+ 37. Kc3 Qd2+ 38. Kc4 b5+ 39. Kc5 Qd6 #] Qg7 36. Qxd4 Rxd5 Kasparov resigns.
2002 At the reception desk of the hospital in Izola, Slovenia, Aleksandar Oven, 48, says: "I urgently need a psychiatrist. If I don't get one, I'll drive my car through this corridor." He is refused, Oven runs out of the hospital but and returns minutes later driving his car through the glass doors and down a 30-meter corridor to reception. The police is called and transfers him to a mental hospital. Asked why he did it, Oven replies: "I don't know — that's why I came here."
malnourished baby2000 A severely malnourished baby is given a high energy food at an emergency feeding center in Bujumbura, Burundi. [< photo]
      The feeding center takes care of hundreds of critically malnourished children and their mothers who had to be fetched from the "regroupment camps" where the army forced hundreds of thousands of people, mostly ethnic Hutus, to live.
      The "regroupment camps" have been created to empty whole areas in order to deprive of their bases the Hutu rebels fighting the Tutsi-dominated government.
      See the Human Rights Watch 2000 report on Burundi.
Activities of "Doctors Without Borders" in Burundi.
Links on the Burundi conflict.
2000 Elian Gonzalez's grandmothers return home to a hero's welcome in Cuba, vowing to continue the struggle to wrest the 6-year-old shipwreck survivor from relatives in Miami.
1999 (Saturday) Will Starr indict Clinton?

(1) Monica Lewinsky returns to the nation's capital to face questioning Feb. 1 by House impeachment managers and lawyers for President Bill Clinton in what could be one of the most dramatic moments in the yearlong impeachment saga. The former White House intern walks briskly into the Mayflower Hotel this afternoon, shortly after her flight from Los Angeles arrives at Dulles Airport. Crowds gather behind a cordoned-off area at the hotel's front door, forming a path through which she entered. One person in the crowd holds up a sign reading, "God bless the dress," referring to the stained clothing that contained DNA evidence of a sexual relationship between Lewinsky and Clinton. A fellow passenger in the first-class section of Lewinsky's flight, Mary Jo McGrath, says Lewinsky told her that she has been getting through her ordeal with the support of her family, "denial" and "a gallows sense of humor." Don't blow that deposition, Monica!

(2) Meanwhile, the White House announces that Clinton is postponing a scheduled trip to Central America. The president and first lady Hillary Rodham Clinton had planned a six-day trip to Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala, beginning February 10. Under the new schedule released Saturday by the White House, Clinton will go to Mexico on February 15 and take the rest of the trip in March. Though no reason is given, the delay will put the president in Washington on February 12 — the target date set by the Senate for final votes on two articles of impeachment.

(3) Matt Drudge reports: STARR WEIGHS WHETHER TO INDICT SITTING PRESIDENT 01/30/99 20:05 UTC — Independent counsel Kenneth Starr has concluded that he has the constitutional authority to seek a grand jury indictment of President Clinton before he leaves the White House, says a new report set for publication on Sunday. "Starr and his prosecutors have actively considered whether to ask a grand jury here to indict Clinton," the NEW YORK TIMES is planning to report in a Page One, the DRUDGE REPORT has learned. TIMES investigator Don Van Natta Jr. pushes details: "Starr and his prosecutors have had no communications with the House managers or the White House about the possibility of including the president's future criminal jeopardy in negotiations over a censure of the president." Van Natta quotes "associates" of Starr throughout his story. These associates emphasized that Starr had not decided whether, or when, but "neither the outcome of the Senate trial nor the public's wishes expressed in opinion polls would affect his decision.


1997 America Online announces that it will refund money charged to users who experienced repeated busy signals and service outages that plagued the online system during the previous year.
1997 El fundador de la organización Casa Alianza, Bruce Harris, recibe el Premio Olof Palme 1996, por su labor en favor de los niños de la calle en Centroamérica.
1997 A New Jersey judge ruled that the unborn child of a female prisoner must have legal representation. He denied the prisoner bail reduction to enable her to leave the jail and obtain an abortion.
1996 In an election billed as an early barometer for the national political season, Ron Wyden won a close race to become Oregon's first Democratic US senator in 30 years, replacing Bob Packwood.
1995 Researchers from the US National Institutes of Health announce that clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of the first preventative treatment for sickle cell anemia.
1994 Peter Leko became the world's youngest-ever grand master in chess.
1994 Guatemala decide en referéndum reformar la Constitución.
1994 Liamin Zerual, ministro de Defensa, nuevo presidente de Argelia.
1992 El presidente ruso, Boris Nikolaievich Yeltsin, toma posesión del escaño de la desaparecida URSS en el Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU.
1990 El Partido Comunista de Checoslovaquia pierde la mayoría absoluta en el Parlamento de Praga, tras 40 años de dominación.
1989 El Papa Juan Pablo II pide a los laicos católicos una participación más activa en la vida política, en un documento titulado Christi Fideles Laici.
1985 Firma del pacto de legislatura entre el PNV (Partido Nacionalista Vasco) y el PSE-PSOE (Partido Socialista de Euskadi) para gobernar en el País Vasco.
1985 Se aprueba la reforma de la Constitución en Guatemala por referéndum.
1981 Secuestrado por ETA el ingeniero encargado de los trabajos de la central nuclear de Lemóniz, José María Ryan, después asesinado.
1979 Rhodesia agrees to new constitution
1979 The civilian government of Iran allows Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who'd been living in exile in France, to return.
1976 George Bush becomes 11th director of CIA (until 1977), replacing William E Colby.
1974 US President Nixon's State of the Union Address.
1973 Jury finds G. Gordon Liddy and James W. McCord, former President Nixon CREEP members, guilty on all counts of breaking into and illegally tapping Democratic Party headquarters (Watergate hotel). [CREEP = Committee to RE-Elect the President]
^ 1973 Liddy and McCord convicted for Watergate break-in
      In the continuing Watergate sandal, G. Gordon Liddy and James W. McCord, former members of the President Richard M. Nixon reelection campaign, are convicted of breaking into and illegally tapping Democratic Party headquarters in the Watergate hotel in Washington, D.C. In addition to Liddy and McCord, five other men, all either directly or indirectly employed by the reelection committee, had already been convicted for the 1972 break-in. However, District Judge John Sirica, who presided over the case, suspects a high-echelon conspiracy, as do reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of The Washington Post and members of the Democratic Party. In February, the US Senate votes to establish a Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, and in March, James McCord writes a letter to Sirica charging a massive cover-up during the break-in trial. His letter, accusing the defense of perjury and coercion of witnesses, transforms the Watergate affair into a political scandal of unprecedented magnitude. The special Senate committee, headed by Senator Sam Ervin of North Carolina, begins televised hearings on 17 May 1973, and a week later Archibald Cox, a professor at Harvard Law School, is sworn in as special Watergate prosecutor.
      During the Senate hearings, John Dean, a former White House counsel, testifies that the Watergate break-in had been approved by former Attorney General John Mitchell with the knowledge of chief White House advisers John Ehrlichman and H. R. Haldeman, and that President Nixon had been aware of the cover-up. Meanwhile, Cox and his staff begin to uncover widespread evidence of political espionage by the Nixon reelection committee, illegal wiretapping of thousands of citizens by the administration, and corporate contributions to the Republican Party in return for political favors. In July, the existence of what are to be called the Watergate tapes, official recordings of White House conversations between Nixon and his staff, is revealed at the Senate hearings. Cox subpoenas these tapes, and after three months of delay, President Nixon agrees to send summaries of the recordings. Cox rejects the summaries, and Nixon fires him. His successor as special prosecutor, Leon Jaworski, eventually succeeds in obtaining the tapes and then levels indictments against several high-ranking administration officials, including Mitchell and Dean, who are duly convicted. Public confidence in the president rapidly wanes, and on 30 July 1974, the House Judiciary Committee adopts three articles of impeachment against President Nixon: obstruction of justice, abuse of presidential powers, and hindrance of the impeachment process. On 09 August 1974, Richard M. Nixon becomes the first president in US history to resign from office. One month later, he is pardoned by his successor, President Gerald Ford.
1972 Pakistan withdraws from the British Commonwealth.
^ 1971 In Vietnam, US troops attack to prepare interdiction of Ho Chi Minh Trail.
      Operation Dewey Canyon II begins as the initial phase of Lam Son 719, the South Vietnamese invasion of Laos that would commence on February 8. The purpose of the South Vietnamese operation was to interdict the Ho Chi Minh Trail, advance to Tchepone in Laos, and destroy the North Vietnamese supply dumps in the area.
      In Dewey Canyon II, the vanguard of the US 1st Brigade, 5th Infantry Division began moving from Vandegrift Combat Base along highway Route 9 toward Khe Sanh with an armored cavalry/engineer task force. These units were to clear the way for the move of 20,000 South Vietnamese troops along the highway to reoccupy 1,000 square miles of territory in northwest South Vietnam and to mass at the Laotian border in preparation for Lam Son 719.
      US ground forces were not to enter Laos, in accordance with a US congressional ban. Instead they gave logistical support, with some 2,600 helicopters on call to airlift Saigon troops and supplies. In addition, US artillerymen provided long-range artillery fires into Laos from American firebases just inside the South Vietnamese border.
^ 1968 In Vietnam, Communists start Tet Offensive.
      At dawn on the first day of the Tet holiday truce, Viet Cong forces — supported by large numbers of North Vietnamese troops — launch the largest and best coordinated offensive of the war, driving into the center of South Vietnam's seven largest cities and attacking 30 provincial capitals from the Delta to the DMZ. Among the cities taken during the first four days of the offensive were Hue, Dalat, Kontum, and Quang Tri; in the north, all five provincial capitals were overrun. At the same time, enemy forces shelled numerous Allied airfields and bases. In Saigon, a 19-man Viet Cong suicide squad seized the US Embassy and held it for six hours until an assault force of US paratroopers landed by helicopter on the building's roof and routed them. Nearly 1000 Viet Cong were believed to have infiltrated Saigon, and it took a week of intense fighting by an estimated 11,000 US and South Vietnamese troops to dislodge them. By February 10, the offensive was largely crushed, but with heavy casualties on both sides. The former Imperial capital of Hue took almost a month of savage house-to-house combat to regain. Efforts to assess the offensive's impact began well before the fighting ended. On February 2, President Johnson announced that the Viet Cong had suffered complete military defeat. General Westmoreland echoed that appraisal four days later in a statement declaring that Allied forces had killed more enemy troops in the previous seven days than the United States had lost in the entire war. Militarily, Tet was decidedly an Allied victory, but psychologically and politically, it was a disaster. The offensive was a crushing military defeat for the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese, but the size and scope of the communist attacks caught the American and South Vietnamese allies by surprise. The early reporting of a smashing communist victory went largely uncorrected in the media and led to a psychological victory for the communists. The heavy US and South Vietnamese casualties incurred during the offensive, coupled with the disillusionment over the earlier overly optimistic reports of progress in the war, accelerated the growing disenchantment with President Johnson's conduct of the war. Johnson, frustrated with his inability to reach a solution in Vietnam, announced on March 31, 1968, that he would neither seek nor accept the nomination of his party for re-election.
      In coordinated attacks all across South Vietnam, communist forces launch their largest offensive of the Vietnam War against South Vietnamese and US troops. Dozens of cities, towns, and military bases — including the US embassy in Saigon — were attacked. The massive offensive was not a military success for the communists, but its size and intensity shook the confidence of many Americans who were led to believe, by the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson, that the war would shortly be coming to a successful close. On 30 January 1968 — during the Tet holiday cease-fire in South Vietnam — an estimated 80'000 soldiers of the North Vietnamese Army and National Liberation Front attacked cities and military establishments throughout South Vietnam. The most spectacular episode occurred when a group of NLF commandos blasted through the wall surrounding the US embassy in Saigon and unsuccessfully attempted to seize the embassy building. Most of the attacks were turned back, with the communist forces suffering heavy losses. Battles continued to rage throughout the country for weeks — the fight to reclaim the city of Hue from communist troops was particularly destructive. US and South Vietnamese forces lost over 3000 men during the offensive. Estimates for Communist losses ran as high as 40'000. While the communists did not succeed militarily, the impact of the Tet Offensive on public opinion in the United States was significant. The American people, who had been told a few months earlier that the war was successful and that US troops might soon be allowed withdraw, were stunned to see fighting taking place on the grounds of the US embassy. Despite assurances from the Johnson administration that all was well, the Tet Offensive led many Americans to begin seriously questioning such statements, and to wonder whether US military might could truly prevail over the communist threat on foreign shores. In the 1950s, Americans had almost unconditionally supported a vigorous US response to communism; the reaction to the Tet Offensive seemed to reflect the growing skepticism of the 1960s, when Americans felt increasingly doubtful about the efficacy of such Cold War tactics. In the wake of the Tet Offensive, support for the US effort in Vietnam began steadily to decline, and public opinion turned sharply against President Johnson, who decided not to run for re-election.
1966 -19ºF (-28ºC), Corinth MS (state record)
1966 -27ºF (-33ºC), New Market AL (state record)
1964 Military coup of General Nguyen Khanh in South Vietnam
1962 UN General Assembly censures Portugal (because of Angola)
1961 JFK asks for an Alliance for Progress and Peace Corps
1960 CIA oks Lockheed to produce a new U-2 aircraft (Oxcart)
1958 The first two-way moving sidewalk (it is 305 m long) is put in service at Love Field in Dallas, TX.
1957 US Congress accepts "Eisenhower-doctrine" (which he had proclaimed on 05 January)
1956 Martin Luther King Jr's home is bombed by terrorists.
1956 Comienza a circular entre Chicago y Peoria (Estados Unidos) el primer tren español tipo Talgo. Su inventor, Alejandro Goicoechea Omar, morirá en esta misma fecha 28 años más tarde.
1954 Italy's Fanfani government resigns.
1953 España ingresa en la UNESCO (Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura).
1952 Lehmer or Robinson discovers that 2^521-1 (157 digits) and 2^607-1 (183 digits, beginning with 531137 and ending with 27) are Mersenne prime numbers. (primes of the form 2^n – 1, which requires n to be prime; and it is equivalent to [2^(n–1)]×(2^n – 1) being equal to the sum of its factors other than itself, i.e. a “perfect number”). On 1 June 1999, it was discovered that 2^6'972'593 – 1 is a Mersenne prime (the 38th found). They can all be found (with their date of discovery) at http://www.isthe.com/chongo/tech/math/prime/mersenne.html. For example
2^607 – 1 =
531 137 992 816 767 098 689 588 206 552 468 627 329 593 117 727 031 923 199 444 138 200 403 559 860 852 242 739 162 502 265 229 285 668 889 329 486 246 501 015 346 579 337 652 707 239 409 519 978 766 587 351 943 831 270 835 393 219 031 728 127

2^521 – 1 =
6 864 797 660 130 609 714 981 900 799 081 393 217 269 435 300 143 305 409 394 463 459 185 543 183 397 656 052 122 559 640 661 454 554 977 296 311 391 480 858 037 121 987 999 716 643 812 574 028 291 115 057 151

1951 Belgium refuses to allow communists to make speeches on radio
1944 US invades Majuro, Marshall Islands
1943 Japanese sink US cruiser USS Chicago
1943 German assault on French in Tunisia
1943 La loi, qui stipule la création et accorde un statut à la milice française, outil militaire de la politique de collaboration du gouvernement de Vichy avec le régime nazi, prend effet. Darnand en devient le secrétaire général.
^ 1943 British start massive daytime air raids on Berlin
      The British Royal Air Force begins a bombing campaign on the German capital that coincides with the 10th anniversary of Hitler's accession to power. The Casablanca Conference, held from January 14 to 23, saw Prime Minister Winston Churchill, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and the Combined Chiefs of Staff meet in Morocco to discuss future war strategy following on the success of the North African invasion, which heralded the defeat of Vichy forces. One of the resolutions of the conference was to launch a combined and sustained strategic bombing effort against the Germans. Strategic bombing was the policy of using bombers to destroy an enemy's warmaking capacity, also referred to as "area bombing." Churchill described it as an "absolutely devastating, exterminating attack by very heavy bombers...upon the Nazi homeland."
      To celebrate the anniversary of Hitler's 1933 appointment to the office of chancellor by then-President Paul von Hindenburg, both propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels and head of the Luftwaffe Hermann Goering planned to give radio addresses to the German masses. Goebbels intended to bolster morale by hailing an impending victory in Russia: "A thousand years hence, every German will speak with awe of Stalingrad and remember that it was there that Germany put the seal on her victory." As the speeches were broadcast, RAF fighters rained bombs on Berlin, the beginning of devastating attacks on German cities that would last until the very end of the war. To make matters even worse for the Germans, the next day a massive surrender of German troops occurred at Stalingrad. [Will historians in 2943 have rewritten history to the exact opposite of the truth?]
^ Traffic tie-up at Place de l'Opéra1942 Japanese troops land on Ambon.
1942 The last pre-war Chevrolet and DeSoto cars are produced. Wartime restrictions had shut down the commercial automobile industry almost completely, and auto manufacturers were retool their factories for military production.
1941 Australian troops conquer Derna Libya.
1939 Hitler calls for the extermination of Jews. — Hitler anuncia en el Reichstag alemán la "solución" del problema judío en Alemania. [Apparently the powers that be in the world's democracies must have chosen to believe that he was not serious.]
1937 2nd of Stalin's purge trials; leading Communists Pyatakov and 12 others sentenced to death for participating in a plot, allegedly led by Leon Trotsky, to overthrow the Soviet regime and assassinate its leaders.
1935 Ezra Pound meets Mussolini, reads from a draft of "Cantos"

1934 Paris taxicab drivers stage a protest to demonstrate their displeasure as a new gasoline tax is announced for France. The photo shows the chaotic intersection outside the Paris Opera House, as autos and pedestrians alike choke the streets. The taxi drivers hold up traffic for hours in the center of the city. [photo >]

1934 Hitler's proclamation on German unified states
^ 1934 Passage of the US Gold Reserve Act
      The value of American currency ping-ponged up and down wildly throughout the Great Depression. However, on this day in 1934, the House looked to put a halt to the oscillation by passing the Gold Reserve Act. The adoption of the act gave President Franklin Roosevelt license to peg the value of the dollar within a range of 50 to 60 cents in terms of gold. Roosevelt took swift action: the next day he announced that the dollar would be worth 59.06 cents, while gold would be valued at $35 per ounce. The Gold Reserve Act also paved the way for the "nationalization" of gold: as per the legislation’s mandate, the various Federal Reserve banks handed control of their gold supplies, including all coins, bullion and gold certificates, to the US Treasury. The US Treasury shuttled a good chunk of the gold to a well-protected spot in Fort Knox, Kentucky.
^ 1933 Hitler appointed German Chancellor
      IIn Germany, Nazi Party leader Adolph Hitler is appointed chancellor by President Paul von Hindenburg, who mistakenly believes that the powerful Nazi leader can be brought to heel as a member of the president’s cabinet. Hitler forms a government with Franz von Papen.
      In the early 1920s, the ranks of Hitler’s Nazi Party swelled with resentful Germans who sympathized with the party’s bitter hatred of Germany’s democratic government, leftist politics, and Jews. On November 8, 1923, after the German government resumed the payment of war reparations to Britain and France, the Nazis launched the "Beer Hall Putsch" — their first attempt to seize the German government by force. The uprising was suppressed and Hitler was sent to Landsberg jail, where he spent his nine months in prison writing his autobiography, Mein Kampf, and working on his oratorical skills. Upon his release, the Nazi Party was reorganized as a fanatical mass movement that gained a majority in the German parliament — the Reichstag — by legal means in 1932. In the same year, Hindenberg defeated a presidential bid by Hitler, but in January of 1933 appointed him as chancellor. However, Hindenburg underestimated Hitler’s political audacity, and one of Chancellor Hitler’s first acts was to order the burning of the Reichstag building. The Nazi Party’s propaganda officers advertised the attack as a Communist plot, and Hitler used it as pretext for calling general elections. In the weeks before the elections, the police under Nazi Hermann Goering suppressed much of the Party’s opposition before the election, and the Nazis won a bare majority. Shortly after, Hitler took on absolute power through the Enabling Acts. In 1934, Hindenburg died and the last remnants of Germany’s democratic government were dismantled, leaving Hitler, intent on war and genocide, the sole master of that bitter nation.
L'accession à la chancellerie d'Adolf Hitler.
      Le triomphe du parti Nazi. Le Parti national-socialiste (en allemand : Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei , littéralement, Parti ouvrier allemand national-socialiste ; abréviation : N.S.D.A.P.), ou Parti nazi, n'a pu s'emparer du pouvoir que parce qu'il avait réussi à devenir un parti de masse, flanqué d'organisations paramilitaires puissantes, telles les sections d'assaut (Sturm-Abteilungen, ou S.A.) qui ont essayé et réussi en partie à s'imposer par la terreur (massacre des militants ouvriers). Longtemps, ce parti, fondé par Hitler au lendemain de la Première Guerre mondiale, ne dépassa guère les dimensions d'un petit parti qui, aux élections de 1928, recueillit moins de 3 % du total des suffrages. Avec la crise économique qui frappa si durement l'Allemagne en 1929, il s'enfla et remporta ses premières grandes victoires. Ces succès sont moins dus à un programme original et précis (les vingt-cinq points du programme initial, d'ailleurs fort vagues, seront modifiés ou tout simplement oubliés avant et surtout après la prise du pouvoir) qu'à un certain nombre d'idées-forces inculquées inlassablement aux masses par une propagande habile et simplificatrice. Les nationaux-socialistes promettent aux classes moyennes ruinées par l'inflation et aux millions de chômeurs des changements radicaux. Pour ne donner qu'un exemple : le programme prévoit " la municipalisation des grands magasins " et " pour un loyer modique leur mise à la disposition des petits commerçants ", auxquels " l'État et les municipalités sont tenus de faire appel pour toutes les commandes qu'ils passent ". Les nazis se disent socialistes, insistent, sans préciser en quoi il consiste exactement, sur leur anticapitalisme, se proclament antimarxistes, mais ils réussissent à obtenir le soutien financier de puissants groupes industriels – qu'ils rassurent sur leurs intentions réelles –, nouent alliance avec la droite classique (front de Harzburg, oct. 1931), dont ils absorbent par ailleurs une grande partie de l'électorat (celle-ci ne recueille en juillet 1932 que 8 % du total des suffrages). Surtout ils mettent l'accent sur leur nationalisme. Ils veulent libérer l'Allemagne des contraintes imposées par le traité de Versailles et promettent aux Allemands un avenir de grandeur et de prospérité. Dans Mein Kampf , Hitler annonce aux Allemands " une paix [...] garantie par l'épée victorieuse d'un peuple de maîtres qui mettra le monde entier au service d'une civilisation supérieure ". En même temps, les nationaux-socialistes choisissent des " ennemis " auxquels ils attribuent la responsabilité de tous les maux dont souffre le pays : les juifs, les marxistes, le " système " (c'est — dire la république de Weimar)
1933 Hitler arrive au pouvoir Lorsque ce 30 janvier 1933 un officier allemand d’origine autrichienne, du nom d’Adolf Hitler, est nommé chancelier du Reich, il s’est trouvé peu de gens pour voir dans l’avènement de cet homme l’origine de la deuxième catastrophe du siècle : la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Hitler est vu comme un gouvernant ordinaire, sans danger excessif et se voit même félicité par les puissances européennes de l’époque. Mais le monstre est déjà dans la maison. Adolf Hitler va savoir exciter cette nation humiliée par la défaite de 1918 et le traité de Versailles qu’elle n’a jamais accepté et qui lui a fait rendre l’Alsace et la Lorraine à la France. Il va s’approprier, progressivement, de tous les leviers du pouvoir, organisant notamment l’incendie du Reichstag (assemblée législative allemande ) le 27 février de la même année, un incendie qui détruisit le Parlement et que Hitler imputa à « la subversion communiste ». Hitler, diabolisant cet ennemi invisible, exploita la terreur rouge pour asseoir son pouvoir et parla, le lendemain même de l’incendie, de lutte impitoyable contre ses adversaires « sans égards pour les considérations d’ordre juridique ». Dès le 28 février, en effet, le président Hindenburg, sous l’influence de Hitler, signait une ordonnance dite « Ordonnance de l’incendie du Reichstag » qui instaurait l’état d’urgence et suspendait toutes les libertés constitutionnelles : les libertés des personnes, l’inviolabilité des domiciles, le secret postal, la liberté de réunion, la liberté d’opinion, le droit d’association. Le 23 mars, le nouveau Parlement vote les pleins pouvoirs à Hitler. Un régime dictatorial au visage hideux venait de s’installer en Allemagne. Tous les partis sont interdits sauf le parti nazi qui est le seul à être reconnu. Hitler est maître à bord. Il va faire de l’Allemagne un nouvel Etat conquérant et tuer des millions d’êtres humains pour assouvir ses ambitions politiques.
^ 1933 Le gouvernement Daladier est formé en France.
      La France se dote d'un nouveau gouvernement, présidé par Daladier. Né en 1884, Edouard Daladier est resté dans l'histoire comme l'"homme de Munich". Maire de Carpentras en 1911, puis député en 1919, il le reste jusqu'en 1940 et le redevient de 1946 à 1958. Ministre dans une douzaine de gouvernements (ou de remaniements ministériels), son premier gouvernement est constitué le 30 janvier 1933, jour où Hitler prend en main les destinées de l'Allemagne. Confronté au problème difficile du déficit budgétaire, le gouvernement Daladier propose des économies par prélèvements exceptionnels sur le traitement des fonctionnaires qui dépassent les vingt mille francs, et des ressources fiscales nouvelles sans majoration de l'impôt sur le revenu, avec un renforcement général du contrôle fiscal. Cherchant à asseoir son autorité, Daladier prend l'initiative d'un pacte à quatre avec l'Allemagne, l'Italie et la Grande-Bretagne, le 07 Jun 1933, pacte qui se révélera inefficace dès la fin de l'année, Hitler s'étant retiré de la S.D.N. et de la Conférence du désarmement. Mis en minorité à propos de ses réformes budgétaires (oct. 1933), il revient à la tête du gouvernement le 30 janvier 1934, en pleine période d'effervescence politique et de scandale financier (Stavisky). Le gouvernement tombe sous la pression de la rue. Éloigné des premiers rôles, Daladier participe à la préparation de la victoire du Front populaire de 1936. Léon Blum, au pouvoir, lui confie le ministère de la Défense nationale avec le titre de vice-président du Conseil. En avril 1938, le troisième gouvernement Daladier obtient l'unanimité des voix ; l'extrême droite n'a pas voté. Sa politique va marquer l'échec du Front populaire. En août, Daladier demande au pays de "remettre la France au travail", ce qui heurte ceux pour qui les conquêtes sociales récentes ne peuvent être touchées.
      Le 29 septembre 1938, la crise tchécoslovaque met l'Europe au bord de la guerre, conjurée apparemment à Munich. Daladier reçoit un accueil triomphal à son retour à Paris. Sceptique, il savait seulement que l'Angleterre et la France avaient livré la Tchécoslovaquie. Le Parlement approuve par un vote massif les accords de Munich. Le gouvernement obtient de l'Assemblée nationale un vote des pleins pouvoirs ; mais la majorité s'est rétrécie et la gauche du gouvernement se trouve désormais au centre du Parlement. En octobre de la même année, sur proposition de Daladier, le congrès radical rompt les relations avec le Parti communiste. Le 30 novembre 1938, enfin, la C.G.T. réunifiée décrète une grève générale pour protester contre les accords de Munich et les décrets-lois économiques. Le gouvernement durcit ses positions et c'est l'échec de la grève. Daladier gouverne par décrets-lois avec l'appui des radicaux et des modérés. Le gouvernement s'attaque aux maux de l'économie française : stagnation de la production et dépréciation monétaire, donc agitation sociale. Il réalise une stabilisation de fait de la monnaie par action du fonds d'égalisation des changes.
      La guerre va modifier le déroulement de la vie politique normale: censure, comités secrets. Le dépècement de la Tchécoslovaquie avait déchaîné les passions et les discussions ; l'invasion de la Pologne se développera devant un Parlement muet, reflet d'une opinion politique résignée. En septembre 1939, le gouvernement décide la dissolution du Parti communiste en raison du pacte germano-soviétique ; le 16 janvier 1940, une loi prononcera même la déchéance du mandat parlementaire de tous les députés communistes. Ce sera la drôle de guerre. À la France qui avait tenté un simulacre d'attaque de la Sarre, Hitler offrait la paix, ainsi qu'à l'Angleterre, sur la base du fait accompli. Daladier refuse. En septembre 1939, Daladier occupe le portefeuille des Affaires étrangères. La France offre son aide à la Finlande attaquée par la Russie le 30 novembre 1939; le 12 mars 1940 la Finlande capitule et met le gouvernement en mauvaise posture. Le silence de Daladier devant les événements inquiète l'opinion. Le 20 mars 1940, la confiance au gouvernement est votée par 239 députés : il y a 300 abstentionnistes. On fait appel à Paul Reynaud. Daladier reste ministre de la Défense nationale. Le 10 mai, la guerre éclair déferle sur la France, la Belgique et la Hollande. Le 18 mai, Reynaud prend le portefeuille de la Défense nationale (et remplace Gamelin par Weygand). Daladier hérite de celui des Affaires étrangères pour dix-sept jours. Lors de l'ultime remaniement ministériel du 05 Jun 1940, il est éliminé. Il devra comparaître au procès de Riom en février 1942. Les occupants le déportent en Allemagne en avril 1943; il en reviendra en 1945; jusqu'en 1958, il poursuivra son activité politique: député, président du Rassemblement des gauches républicaines.
1930 El general Damaso Berenguer y Fuste forma, en España, el Gobierno que sustituye al del general Primo de Rivera.
1925 Turkish government throws Constantine VI out of Constantinople
1915 German submarine attack on Le Havre
1913 House of Lords rejects Irish Home Rule Bill — tras haber sido aceptada por los Comunes el día 16.
1892 Captain Lugard occupies Uganda's King Mwanga's hide out
1879 French President MacMahon resigns — Mac-Mahon refuse de signer le décret d'épuration de l'administration que les républicains voulaient lui imposer. Il donne sa démission. C'est Jules Grévy qui lui succède.
1877 Storm flood ravages Dutch coastal provinces
^ 1875 La 3ème République Française instituée par 353 voix contre 352.
      Au Palais-Bourbon, un amendement institue la République à une voix de majorité. Quatre ans plus tôt, après la chute de l'empereur Napoléon III, des élections précipitées avaient porté à l'assemblée une majorité conservatrice, favorable à la monarchie. Mais la restauration de celle-ci est empêchée par le refus du prétendant au trône, le comte de Chambord, d'accepter le drapeau tricolore. Sous l'effet de leur déception, les députés se constituent en Assemblée constituante et votent une première loi constitutionnelle. Celle-ci confère au chef du pouvoir exécutif, Adolphe Thiers, le titre de président de la République. Adolphe Thiers commence à se dire qu'il vaut mieux être président de la République que Premier ministre d'un roi, fût-il constitutionnel. Les députés l'obligent alors à céder la place au maréchal de Mac-Mahon, un royaliste de coeur. A nouveau, une tentative de restauration échoue par la faute du comte de Chambord. La France n'aura jamais d'Henri V... mais ne se décide pas à officialiser la République. Ses institutions gardent un air de provisoire.
      Enfin, en janvier 1875, l'assemblée met au vote deux projets de lois "relatifs à l'organisation des pouvoirs publics" tout en écartant le vocable République. Cependant, le 30 janvier, Henri-Alexandre Wallon, un député modéré du centre gauche, historien de profession, dépose un amendement au contenu anodin, ainsi conçu: "Le président de la République est élu à la majorité des suffrages par le Sénat et la Chambre des députés réunis en Assemblée nationale. Il est nommé pour sept ans. Il est rééligible". En fin d'après-midi, il est adopté avec 353 voix pour et 352 voix contre. C'est ainsi que la République, la fonction présidentielle et le septennat entrent d'un coup dans les lois constitutionnelles de la France. Par la même occasion, l'amendement Wallon consacre le retour au bicamérisme, avec deux assemblées: le Sénat et la Chambres des députés. Les institutions de la IIIe République, lentement mûries par des hommes d'expérience qui ont vécu sous des régimes très divers, perdureront jusqu'en 1940, soit plus longtemps qu'aucun autre régime français depuis 200 ans. Le septennat tiendra bon pendant.127 ans, jusqu'au référendum du 24 septembre 2000.
1847 Yerba Buena, California town of perhaps 600, is renamed San Francisco.
1841 Se proclama la República de El Salvador.
1835 Richard Lawrence misfires at President Andrew Jackson in Washington DC
^ 1835 Madman misfires at US President in the House of Representatives
      In the House chamber of the US Capitol, President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the United States, survives the first attempt against the life of the chief executive. During a funeral service honoring the late Representative Warren R. Davis of South Carolina, a man identified as Richard Lawrence discharges two separate pistols in the direction of President Jackson. Both weapons misfire, and Lawrence is promptly subdued and arrested. During the subsequent criminal investigation, the suspect is found to be insane and is sent to a mental prison. Three decades later, on April 14, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln becomes the first president to be assassinated when a bullet from the barrel of John Wilkes Booth’s gun hits its target in Ford’s Theater in Washington, D.C. President Lincoln, the sixteenth president, dies the following morning.
1820 Edward Bransfield aboard Williams discovers Antarctica (UK claim)
1806 Prussia takes possession of Hanover
1804 Mungo Park leaves England seeking source of Niger River
1800 US population 5,308,483; Black population 1,002,037 (18.9%).
1798 First literal floor fight in the US House of Representatives, in Philadelphia, starts when Matthew Lyon of Vermont spits in the face of Roger Griswold of Connecticut.
1797 US Congress refuses to accept first petitions from US Blacks
1781 Articles of Confederation ratified by 13th state, Maryland
1774 Captain Cook reaches 71º 10' S, 1820 km from S pole (record)
1713 England and Netherlands sign 2nd anti-French boundary treaty
1667 Peace treaty of Andrussovo between Russia and Poland.
^ 1661 Le corps de Cromwell est désenterré et pendu.
      Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658), était un homme politique et militaire anglais qui joua un rôle prédominant dans la guerre civile d'Angleterre, puis dans l'exécution du roi Charles Ier. Puritain intolérant à l'égard des catholiques mais doué d'un réel talent politique, redouté et impopulaire, il gouverna l'Angleterre de 1653 jusqu'à sa mort. Né le 25 avril 1599 dans une famille d'origine galloise, Olivier Cromwell étudia le droit à Londres, puis marié, vécut en rentier à Huntingdon, sa ville natale. Député 1628 à 1629, il critiqua durement la tolérance dont faisaient preuve le roi et l'Église protestante à l'égard des catholiques. C'est la guerre qui établit son influence : lorsque la guerre civile éclata en 1642, Cromwell, alors membre du Parlement, leva un régiment de cavalerie, baptisé les "Côtes de fer" (Ironside), animé d'un redoutable fanatisme religieux. Il fut promu lieutenant-général en 1644, et conduisit la même année les forces parlementaires à la victoire lors de la bataille de Marston Moor. En 1645, chargé de réorganiser toute l'armée sur le modèle de ses propres troupes, il fut nommé commandant de cavalerie et décima l'armée du roi à la bataille de Naseby. Après l'ultime défaite des régiments royaux à Preston, en 1648, il approuva la purge du Parlement, au sein duquel ne restèrent plus que quelques membres favorables à la désignation d'une commission chargée de juger le roi pour trahison. Le 30 janvier 1649, dès l'exécution du roi, que Cromwell provoqua ouvertement, le Commonwealth fut instauré. Sa première tâche fut de soumettre l'Irlande et l'Écosse, ce qu'il fit avec une rare cruauté : la victoire sur les Irlandais fut acquise à Drogheda en 1650, tandis que les Écossais furent écrasés à Dunbar puis à Worcester (1650-1651). Ces batailles apportèrent une fois encore la preuve de son génie militaire ou, plutôt, comme il aimait à le dire, de "l'illustre miséricorde" de Dieu. En 1653, après avoir renvoyé le "Parlement Croupion" et ne parvenant pas à réunir l'assemblée qu'il souhaitait, Cromwell accepta l'Instrument of Government, première Constitution écrite de l'Angleterre, lui conférant un pouvoir dictatorial avec le titre de protecteur. Il réussit à maintenir paix et stabilité dans le pays et à y apporter une certaine tolérance religieuse. Sa politique extérieure fut vigoureuse, à l'image de celle menée sous le règne élisabéthain : alliés avec la France, les Anglais prirent Dunkerque à l'Espagne en 1658, et regagnèrent la ville de Calais, perdue cent ans auparavant. Cromwell mourut, très impopulaire, le 3 septembre 1658 et fut enterré à l'abbaye de Westminster. Son fils Richard, qu'il désigna comme son successeur, dut abandonner le pouvoir dès 1659. En 1661, après la restauration de la royauté et l'arrivée de Charles II sur le trône d'Angleterre, le corps d'Olivier Cromwell fut exhumé pour être pendu comme celui d'un traître. La vie de l'homme d'État anglais a inspiré à Victor Hugo un drame en vers, Cromwell (1827), dont la préface est considérée comme un manifeste du romantisme.
1647 Scots agree to sell King Charles I to English Parliament for £400. — El rey Carlos I de Inglaterra, Escocia e Irlanda es entregado por los escoceses al Parlamento de Londres, aunque esto no puso fin a la guerra civil.
1592 Ippolito Aldobrandini elected Pope Clement VIII.
1483 Catalina es nombrada reina de Navarra tras la muerte de su hermano Francisco I.
1349 Günther of Schwarzburg chosen German anti-king.
0435 Rome recognized the Vandal territories in Northwest Africa as "federati," in an effort to stave off their invasion of Italy. (The invasion was successfully postponed for 20 years.)
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< 29 Jan 31 Jan >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 30 January:

2006 Beverly Graham, 54; Ze Fairchild, 37; Dexter Shannon, 57; Nicola Grant, 42; Guadalupe Swartz, 42; Maleka Higgins, 28; and Jennifer Sanmarco, 44, who, shoots Graham, a former neighbor, at her apartment in Goleta, California, then goes to the local US Postal Service Santa Barbara Processing and Distribution Center in Goleta, where she shoots the others, postal employees, and then herself. Sanmarco, considered weird and obnoxious by those who knew her, had been a night worker there until 2003, when she was removed; after which she moved to New Mexico. One other employee, Charlotte Colton, 44, is wounded; she dies on 01 February 2006. Within a few minutes, at the postal facility, with a semiautomatic 9mm-caliber pistol, Sanmarco shoots two of her victims, who are leaving after the 21:00 (05:00 UT on 31 Jan) end of their shift, in the parking lot, then one by the front door, and the other three and herself inside. — (060201)
2006 Coretta Scott King, US Black, human rights activist born on 27 April 1927. She married Martin Luther King Jr. [15 Jan 1929 – 04 Apr 1968] on 18 June 1953. — (060131)
2005 A Palestinian man, 65, shot by Israeli troops, when he enters an unauthorized area near their post in the south of the Gaza Strip.
2005 Islamic terrorist Nasser Slaif al-Enezi, a policeman, and an innocent resident of a six story building in the Salmiyah suburb of Kuwait City in which an hour-long gun battle results from the attempt by a police commando to arrest al-Enezi and two other terrorists, who are arrested. Four policemen are wounded. Nasser and his older brother Amer Khulaif al-Enezi, 29, were back from Iraq where there had gone to fight the US occupiers after seeing pictures of US soldiers abusing prisoners at the Abu Ghraib. Amer al-Enezi would be wounded and arrested on 31 January 2005, and die in prison on 08 February 2005, of a heart attack, according to authorities, but under torture according to suspicions.
2005 Flight Lt. Paul Pardoel, 8 other British airmen and one soldier, in the crash of a Royal Air Force C-130 Hercules transport plane, at 17:25 (14:25 UT) 30 km northwest of Baghdad, from where it was taking off headed to Balad, Iraq. It was hit by an antitank missile fired by Ansar al-Islam insurgents.
2005 A suicide bomber and Naim Rahim Yacoubi, 37, a fishmonger, Shiite, father of nine, who is leaving a polling station at Kurdis Primary School near the Baghdad airport, where Yacoubi had voted earlier and had returned to bring tea to the election workers.
2005 Seven persons including a suicide bomber in the waiting line at a voting station in east Baghdad, Iraq. [about the election]
2005 Five persons including a suicide bomber at a voting station in the Sadr City neighborhood of Baghdad.
2005 Four persons including a suicide bomber, near Abu Alwan and Hillah, Babil province, Iraq, in a minibus taking voters to the polls. 17 persons are injured.
2005 Two persons, by a mortar attack in Baghdad.
2005 A policeman, by a mortar attack at a polling station in Khan al-Mahawil, Iraq.
2005 A US Marine of the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force is killed during “combat operations against enemy forces” in Anbar province, Iraq.

Ruben Ponce2004 Gilberto Ponce, his daughters, Valeria Ponce, 2, and Jennifer Ponce, 7, and his nephew Ruben Castillo Ponce, 11 [photo >], from a fire in the family home, in the 8300 block of Hester Road in El Paso, Texas. At 21:55 a leaking 5-gallon propane tank is ignited by an open-flame portable camp heater, a 20-gallon propane tank then catches fire, falls over, and shoots flames down the hallway trapping those inside the children's back bedroom, whose steel-framed window is blocked by bunkbeds. Critically burned are Ruben's mother, Maria Teresa Ponce, 35, his grandmother, Julieta Ponce, 61, and Gilberto's son, Kevin Ponce, 6; they are taken to University Medical Center's Timothy J. Harnar Burn Center in Lubbock, Texas, where Kevin dies the next day. Two firefighters suffer less severe burns. Valeria, Jennifer, and Kevin lived across the Rio Grande in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, with their mother, but visited the El Paso home on weekends.
2003 Raz Mor, 20, Israeli soldier, at an evening party in Granot, Israel, stabbed by a 15-year-old Israeli boy (with a history of violence and property crimes) in a youth fight which Mor was trying to break up.
2003 Fadi Jabber and Ka'akur Abadiya, by an Israeli undercover unit after it surrounded the house where they were in Tul Karm, West Bank. Jabber was the local leader of Fatah's Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade, and Abadiya one of his aides. Jabber was a close associate of the militia's founder, Raed al-Karmi, who was assassinated by Israel on 14 January 2002. Several other Palestinians are wounded.
2003 Alan Fromme, 87, US psychologist and writer. Author 8 books including A B C of Child Care — Our Troubled Selves: A New and Positive Approach — The Book for Normal Neurotics — Life After Work: Planning It, Living It, Loving It — Sixty Plus: Planning It, Living It, Loving It — Ability to Love — A woman's critical years .
2003 Chief Warrant Officer Mark S. O'Steen, 43, of Alabama; Chief Warrant Officer Thomas J. Gibbons, 31, of Maryland; Sgt. Gregory M. Frampton, 37, of California; and Staff Sgt. Daniel L. Kisling Jr., 31, of Neosho, Missouri; the complete crew of a Black Hawk MH-60 helicopter which crashes at 19:30 (15:00 UT) 10 km east of Bagram Air Base, Afghanistan. O'Steen and Gibbons were pilots. Kisling and Frampton were maintenance crewmen. The four were members of the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment “the Night Stalkers”, based at Fort Campbell, Kentucky, which was one of the first units deployed to fight in the US~led “war on terrorism”.
2003 Kame Uei, Japanese woman born on 08 May 1892.
2002 Murad Abu Asal, 23, suicide bomber, a former Palestinian collaborator with Israel, who throws himself on a Shin Bet Israeli secret police car parked near of Taibe, Israel, about 100 meters from a checkpoint at the West Bank border by Tulkarem. The two Shin Bet operatives, which were on a mission in the car, are wounded.
2001 Ronald Sander, of the US, killed in Sucumbios Province, Ecuador, by kidnappers, led by former members of defunct Colombian terrorist organization the Popular Liberation Army (EPL), who, on 12 October 2000 hijacked a helicopter of Spanish energy consortium REPSOL, taking hostage 10 employees, including Sander, 4 other US citizens, 1 Argentine, 1 Chilean, 1 New Zealander, and 2 French pilots who escaped 4 days later. The remaining hostages would be released on 23 February 2001 following the payment of $13 million in ransom by the oil companies.
2000 All 11 crew members and 158 of the 168 passengers on board a Kenya Airways Flight 431, an Airbus A 310-304, bound for Lagos, which stalls and crashes into the Atlantic, 1 km offshore, shortly after takeoff from Abidjan, Ivory Coast.
1998 Samuel Eilenberg, Jewish Polish US mathematician born on 30 September 1913.
1998 Alberto Jiménez-Becerril y su esposa Ascensión García, asesinados por la banda terrorista ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna). El era concejal de Partido Popular (PP) [That is surely the worst of the “for better or for worse” of their marriage. But, at least, death did not do them part]
1997 Eugenio Olaziregi Borda, de 39 años, asesinado en San Sebastián de un tiro en la nuca. Era empleado en una empresa que había vendido dos bicicletas al etarra Valentín Lasarte, detenido unas horas después.
1995: 42 personnes, dans un attentat à la voiture piégée devant le commissariat central d'Alger (revendiqué par le Groupe Islamiste Armé). 286 blessés. — Cuarenta y dos muertos y 250 heridos al explotar un coche-bomba junto a la Comisaría Central de Argel. El atentado más sangriento desde el estallido de la violencia integrista, en marzo de 1992.
1995 Gerald Malcolm Durrell, naturalista y escritor británico.
^ 1993 Joan Vollmer, 49, after being brutalized for 4 days in an “exorcism”.
      Mr. and Mrs. Vollmer operated a small pig farm outside Antwerp, near Dimboola in western Victoria, Australia. They were part of a ‘charismatic’ breakaway Lutheran sect with some connection to the Salvation Army. Ralph Vollmer, 54, returned to his farm on 26 January 1993 to find his wife Joan barefoot in a nearby wheat field, "doing some sort of a war dance and making strange noises." She had been diagnosed schizophrenic in 1991 and finally cracked under the strain of her husband’s religious mania and parsimony. The only place he ever took Joan was to church.
     Ralph Vollmer telephoned his church associate John Reichenbach, who drove over and diagnosed demonic possession. For the next three days, the two men, along with Reichenbach’s wife Leanne, read the Bible over the afflicted woman, sang choruses and commanded the demons to depart. The exorcism team were joined by two more members of the church group, including David Klingner. They pinned Joan Vollmer to a mattress, oriented east-west so that she could derive no strength from "evil spirits of the north".
      The afflicted woman went through "dramatic mood changes" and her stomach swelled up. Her husband said she was possessed by "eight or ten" demons, including "the spirit of abuse", "the spirit of filth" and Jezebel, who would try her hand at enticement. "At other times she was Legion", said Vollmer, "the demon from the Bible with the strength of 2000, and she would be so powerful we could hardly hold her. Then she was a pig and a dog and would make sounds and pull faces, and then a shearer who spoke in a rough voice."
      Finally, there were evil spirits called "Princess Joan" and "Princess Baby Joan", who, Reichenbach told Vollmer, had attached themselves to Joan’s womb when she was three and had been fighting to control her ever since.
      On 29 January, the amateur exorcists called in a reputed expert, a tall, 22-year-old assistant greenkeeper at Melbourne’s Ringwood Municipal Golf Club called Matthew Nuske. It was his first exorcism, but he immediately took charge, ordering that all Joan Vollmer’s possessions – even her garden plants – should be destroyed. For two hours, he shouted at her demons to depart. All did, except Princess Joan and Princess Baby Joan, who were clutching each other in her stomach and wouldn’t move. The group all set about the poor woman, holding her down, pressing on her stomach and holding her mouth and eyes open. She hissed, cried and foamed at the mouth, actions interpreted as proof that the devils were being routed. Then, on 30 January, she gave a final groan and died.
      Nuske told Vollmer "not to worry because God would bring her back to life shortly". He then departed, while the others remained praying over the weekend – in 40ºC degree summer heat – for the corpse to revive. "It didn’t happen", said Vollmer. On 01 February they finally reported the death.
      In November 1994, Vollmer and Nuske would be found guilty of unlawful imprisonment, and Reichenbach and Klingner of manslaughter.
1992 George Frederick James Temple, English mathematician born on 02 December 1901.
1991: 11 US Marines are killed, 7 of them by "friendly fire" in the first major ground battle of the Gulf War, fought at the frontier port of Khafji in Saudi Arabia (2nd day).
^ 1991 John Bardeen, co-inventor of transistor.
      John Bardeen, along with William Shockley and Walter Bratton, invented the transistor, which set the stage for all modern micro-electronics. Bardeen was also the only person ever to win the Nobel Prize for physics twice. Bardeen worked as a physicist for the Navy during World War II. After the war, he joined Bell Telephone Laboratories, where he worked on the electronic conducting properties of semiconductors.
      In 1947, his team invented the transistor, which won the group a Nobel Prize in 1956. Semiconductors replaced vacuum tubes in electronic equipment, making electronics progressively smaller, faster, and more durable. Bardeen became a professor of physics at the University of Illinois in Urbana. In 1972, he won a second Nobel Prize, with Leon Cooper and John Schrieffer, for their work on the theory of superconductivity.
1991 José Ferrater Mora, filósofo y escritor español.
1987 Un comandante y el conductor de un autocar militar, al hacer ETA explotar un coche-bomba un su paso, en Zaragoza. 40 personas resultan heridas.
1984 Alejandro Goicoechea Omar, inventor español del tren Talgo.
1983 Víctor de la Serna Espina, escritor y periodista español.
1983 Ocho periodistas peruanos, asesinados por campesinos en Ayacucho (Perú). El Gobierno y Sendero Luminoso se culpan mutuamente.
1976 Philippe Bertrand, 7 ans, étranglé après avoir été kidnappé le même jour, par Patrick Henry, 23 ans, à Troyes. (détails)
1972 Thirteen unarmed peaceful Catholic civil rights demonstrators, shot by British soldiers in Londonderry: “Bloody Sunday”
1969 Dominique Georges Pire, 58, Belgian Catholic priest (Europe village, Nobel 1958)
^ 1969 Dominique Georges Henri Pire, Belgian Dominican priest born on 10 February 1910.
     Pire entered the Dominican monastery of La Sarte at Huy, Belgium, in 1928 and was ordained in 1934. From 1932 to 1936 he studied at the Dominican university in Rome and obtained his doctorate there in 1936. He returned to the monastery of La Sarte to teach moral philosophy (1937–1947). He was active in the World War II resistance movement and later became deeply involved in the enormous refugee problem. In 1949 he founded Aid to Displaced Persons, which sought to guarantee moral and material aid to refugees, regardless of their nationality or religion, and soon had branches throughout Europe. Between 1950 and 1954, Pire founded four “homes of welcome” in Belgium for aged refugees. Father Pire was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1958
      Seven European “villages” were subsequently founded in Germany, Belgium, and Austria (1956–1962). Pire also initiated the system of sponsors that allowed a refugee to be helped by a person in another country.
      In 1960 Father Pire established in Huy the Mahatma Gandhi International Peace Center, later known as the University of Peace, for instructing youths in the principles and practice of peace. He was also the founder of the World Friendships (to promote better understanding between races) and the World Sponsorships (to aid African and Asian refugees). Pire's Bâtir la paix was published in 1966.
1963 Francis Poulenc, French composer born on 07 January 1899.
1962 Two members of the “Great Wallendas” (founded by Karl Wallenda [1905 – 22 March 1978], when their seven-person pyramid collapses during a performance in Detroit. A third member is paralyzed. Three more members would be killed in later performance accidents: one in 1963, another in 1972, and Karl Wallenda in a fall from a wind-whipped wire stretched 37 meters above the ground between two hotels in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
1961 John Duncan Ferguson, Scottish painter born on 09 March 1874. — more
1958 Ernst Heinrich Heinkel, German airplane designer and builder born on 24 January 1888. The He 1 (1910) crashed and burned. In 1922 Heinkel started the Ernst Heinkel Flugzeugwerke. He built the He 70, which set eight world speed records in the early 1930s; the He 176, first aircraft to fly successfully with reaction motors; the He 178, first turbojet-powered aircraft; and the He 111 and He 162, used by Germany's air force during World War II.
1951 Ferdinand Porsche, born on 03 September 1875, Austrian automotive engineer who moved to Germany, where he founded his company in 1931, and, for Hitler, designed the Volkswagen car and military vehicles, including the Tiger tank.
^ 1948 “Mahatma” Gandhi, assassinated
      Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the political and spiritual leader of the Indian independence movement and the world's chief advocate of non-violence, is assassinated in New Delhi by a terrorist sponsored by a right-wing Hindu militia group. The murder comes only 10 days after a failed attempt on Gandhi's life. Nathuram Godse, 39, shoots the great Indian leader as he makes his way through a small crowd to lead a prayer session. The father of Indian independence had angered Hindu extremists by his efforts to bring peace in the wake of the British withdrawal from India. Moslems and Hindus had been fighting a civil war since the decision to partition the Moslem-dominated western India region as Pakistan. Religious-inspired riots were breaking out all over India when Gandhi went on a hunger strike in September 1947. The fast almost killed Gandhi but it successfully suspended the fighting.
      However, Gandhi was forced to fast again in January in order to finally bring the sides together for a peace pact. Hindu extremists saw this as selling out the nation and plotted Gandhi's death. On 20 January, a bomb exploded during a Gandhi-led prayer meeting but it did not reach its intended target. Gandhi was instrumental in driving the British out of India. His non-violent protests and boycotts crippled England's ability to control the populace and brought unwanted attention to one of the last major bastions of colonialism. Although he never held any title or office and was nearly destitute, Gandhi led the revolution for independence. His ideas and tactics were later borrowed by Martin Luther King Jr., who used them successfully in the 1960s civil rights protests. The assassin Godse tried to kill himself after the attack, but was grabbed before he had the chance. Eight accomplices were arrested over the next several days. Godse showed no remorse for his crime. Along with Narayan Apte, Godse would be hanged on 15 November 1949, against the wishes of Gandhi's sons, faithful to Gandhi's opposition to the death penalty.
      Gandhi was born on 02 October 1869, the son of an Indian official. Gandhi's Vaishnava mother was deeply religious and early on exposed her son to Jainism, a morally rigorous Indian religion that advocated nonviolence. Gandhi was an unremarkable student but in 1888 was given an opportunity to study law in England. In 1891, he returned to India, but failing to find regular legal work he accepted in 1893 a one-year contract in South Africa.
      Settling in Natal, he was subjected to racism and South African laws that restricted the rights of Indian laborers. Gandhi later recalled one such incident, in which he was removed from a first-class railway compartment and thrown off a train, as his moment of truth. From thereon, he decided to fight injustice and defend his rights as an Indian and a man. When his contract expired, he spontaneously decided to remain in South Africa and launched a campaign against legislation that would deprive Indians of the right to vote. He formed the Natal Indian Congress and drew international attention to the plight of Indians in South Africa. In 1906, the Transvaal government sought to further restrict the rights of Indians, and Gandhi organized his first campaign of satyagraha, or mass civil disobedience. After seven years of protest, he negotiated a compromise agreement with the South African government.
      In July 1914, Gandhi left South Africa to return to India, where he gave up Western ways to lead a life of abstinence and spirituality. Always nonviolent, he asserted the unity of all people under one God and preached Christian and Muslim ethics along with his Hindu teachings. He supported Britain in the First World War but in 1919 launched a new satyagraha in protest of Britain's mandatory military draft of Indians. Hundreds of thousands answered his call to protest, and by 1920 he was leader of the Indian movement for independence. He reorganized the Indian National Congress as a political force and launched a massive boycott of British goods, services, and institutions in India. Then, in 1922, he abruptly called off the satyagraha when violence erupted. One month later, he was arrested by the British authorities for sedition, found guilty, and imprisoned. After his release in 1924, he led an extended fast in protest of Hindu-Muslim violence. In 1928, he returned to national politics when he demanded dominion status for India and in 1930 launched a mass protest against the British salt tax, which hurt India's poor. In his most famous campaign of civil disobedience, Gandhi and his followers marched to the Arabian Sea, where they made their own salt by evaporating sea water. The march, which resulted in the arrest of Gandhi and 60,000 others, earned new international respect and support for the leader and his movement.
      In 1931, Gandhi was released to attend the Round Table Conference on India in London as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress. The meeting was a great disappointment, and after his return to India he was again imprisoned. While in jail, he led another fast in protest of the British government's treatment of the "untouchables" — the impoverished and degraded Indians who occupied the lowest tiers of the caste system. In 1934, he left the Indian Congress Party to work for the economic development of India's many poor. His protégé, Jawaharlal Nehru, was named leader of the party in his place.
      With the outbreak of World War II, Gandhi returned to politics and called for Indian cooperation with the British war effort in exchange for independence. Britain refused and sought to divide India by supporting conservative Hindu and Muslim groups. In response, Gandhi launched the "Quit India" movement it 1942, which called for a total British withdrawal. Gandhi and other nationalist leaders were imprisoned until 1944. In 1945, a new government came to power in Britain, and negotiations for India's independence began.
      Gandhi sought a unified India, but the Muslim League, which had grown in influence during the war, disagreed. After protracted talks, Britain agreed to create the two new independent states of India and Pakistan on 15 August 1947. Gandhi was greatly distressed by the partition, and bloody violence soon broke out between Hindus and Muslims in India. In an effort to end India's religious strife, he resorted to fasts and visits to the troubled areas. He was on one such vigil in New Delhi when Nathuram Godse, a Hindu extremist who objected to Gandhi's tolerance for the Muslims, fatally shot him. Known as Mahatma, or "the great soul," during his lifetime, Gandhi's persuasive methods of civil disobedience influenced leaders of civil rights movements around the world, especially Martin Luther King Jr. in the United States.
1948 Orville Wright, 76, US aviation pioneer.
1941 Heinrich Johann Zugel, German artist born on 22 October 1850.
^ 1940 Day 62 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

Group Talvela holds its ground on the Aittojoki

      Stockholm: Finnish Chargé d'Affaires Eljas Erkko passes on the main points of the Soviet Union's peace terms. The central question is the Soviet demand for bases on the Gulf of Finland. The Finnish answer is no.
      Ladoga Karelia: the Soviet offensive on the River Aittojoki ends in failure as Group Talvela holds its ground.
      Northern Finland: in the Salla sector the Russian 88th Division launches an offensive on the northern front at Saija, south of the River Tenniöjoki:
      Finland intercepts a telegram from the Soviet 9th Army's new commander, V.I. Chuikov, in which he asks the commander of the 54th Division fighting in Kuhmo whether he thinks his division is surrounded or not.
      The famous Spanish fighter pilot Nicolas Beries is on his way to Finland as a volunteer.
      Oslo: Finland's Minister of Social Affairs K.-A. Fagerholm explains the situation in Finland and appeals for Norway to send civilian labor to Finland. A group of iron and metal workers have already volunteered.
      Viktor Smeds, Chairman of the Finnish Amateur Boxing Association and President of the International Amateur Boxing Association proposes an international boxing tournament between Finland and Sweden to be held in Stockholm in February.
      Abroad: in Britain, the little princesses Elizabeth and Margaret have stopped knitting socks for British servicemen in favor of clothes for Finnish children.

^ Ryhmä Talvela torjuntavoittoon Aittojoella Talvisodan 62. päivä, 30.tammikuuta.1940
      Ministeri Erkko tiedottaa Tukholmasta Neuvostoliiton rauhanehtojen yleispiirteistä. Keskeinen kysymys on Neuvostoliiton vaatimus tukikohdista Suomenlahdella. Tähän Suomen vastaus on ei.
      Neuvostojoukkojen hyökkäys Aittojoella päättyy Ryhmä Talvelan torjuntavoittoon.
      Sallan suunnalla venäläinen 88. Divisioona aloittaa hyökkäyksen Saijassa pohjoisrintamalla Tenniöjoen eteläpuolella.
      Suomalaiset onnistuvat sieppaamaan vihollisen 9. Armeijan uuden komentajan V. I. Tsuikovin sähkeen, jossa tämä kysyy Kuhmossa taistelevan 54. Divisioonan komentajan mielipidettä siitä, onko divisioona saarroksissa vai ei.
      Kuuluisa espanjalainen taistelulentäjä Nicolas Beries on matkalla Suomeen vapaaehtoiseksi.
      Sosiaaliministeri Fagerholm selostaa Norjassa Suomen tilannetta ja vetoaa siviilityövoiman saamiseksi Norjasta Suomeen. Joukko rauta- ja metallityöläisiä on jo ilmoittautunut vapaaehtoisiksi.
      Suomen nyrkkeilyliiton puheenjohtaja ja kansainvälisen liiton presidentti Viktor Smeds ehdottaa Suomen ja Ruotsin välisen nyrkkeilymaaottelun järjestämistä helmikuussa Tukholmassa.
      Ulkomailta: Englannin pikkuprinsessat Elisabeth ja Margaret ovat alkaneet englantilaissotilaiden sukkien sijasta ommella pukuja Suomen lapsille.

^ Grupp Talvela avgår med seger i Aittojoki Vinterkrigets 62 dag, den 30 januari 1940
      . Minister Erkko informerar i Stockholm om de allmänna principerna i Sovjetunionens fredsvillkor. En central fråga är Sovjetunionens krav på baser i Finska viken. Finlands svar på detta är nekande.
      Grupp Talvela står emot de ryska truppernas framryckningar vid Aittojoki och avgår med seger.
      Åt Sallahållet inleder den ryska 88. Divisionen en offensiv i Saija vid den norra fronten söder om Tenniöjoki.
      Finnarna lyckas beslagta ett telegram från den nya kommendören för den ryska 9. Armén, V. I. Zuikov. I telegrammet frågar Zuikov kommendören för den 54. Divisionen som strider i Kuhmo om denne anser att divisionen är omringad eller ej.
      Den berömda spanska stridspiloten Nicolas Beries är på väg till Finland för att frivilligt ansluta sig vår armé.
      Socialminister Fagerholm redogör i Norge för Finlands situation och begär civil arbetskraft av Norge. En grupp järn- och metallarbetare har redan anmält sig som frivilliga.
      Viktor Smeds, ordföranden för Finlands boxningsförbund och president för det internationella förbundet, föreslår att en boxningslandskamp mellan Finland och Sverige ordnas i februari i Stockholm.
      Utrikes: Englands småprinsessor Elisabeth och Margaret har börjat sy dräkter åt barnen i Finland i stället för strumpor åt de engelska soldaterna
1911 Más de 700 personas en la erupción del volcán filipino Taal.
1908 David Johnson, US Hudson River School painter born on 10 May 1827. MORE ON JOHNSON AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1905 Hermann David Salomon Corrodi, Italian artist born on 23 July 1844.
1891 (20 Jan?) Charles Chaplin, French academic painter, of English nationality from his father, famed for his portraits of beautiful women. — more
^ 1889 L'archiduc Rodolphe, 31 ans, et Mary Vetsera, 17 ans, une de ses maitresses, double suicide.
      Au palais de Schönbrunn, près de Vienne, l'impératrice Élisabeth, dite «Sissi», est atterrée. Elle vient d'apprendre que son fils Rodolphe s'est tué dans la nuit, dans un pavillon de chasse de la forêt viennoise, à Mayerling. Il lui revient d'annoncer la tragique nouvelle à son mari, François-Joseph 1er (68 ans), empereur d'Autriche et roi de Hongrie. L'archiduc Rodolphe (31 ans) était le seul garçon du couple et l'héritier de la couronne des Habsbourg. Marié sans amour à Stéphanie de Belgique, il collectionne les maîtresses et fréquente les lupanars, ce qui lui vaut de contracter une maladie vénérienne grave. Tenu à l'écart des affaires par son père, Rodolphe se pique de libéralisme. Il commet des articles dans un journal de l'opposition et se prend à espérer une évolution de l'empire austro-hongrois vers davantage de démocratie et de fédéralisme, voire vers un rapprochement avec la France. Ces prises de position lui valent de fortes disputes avec son père qui ne l'en aime pas moins mais souhaite maintenir son pays dans l'alliance avec l'Allemagne de Guillaume II.
      Prématurément vieilli par la maladie, par l'interdiction qui lui est faite de divorcer et par la crainte de ne pouvoir avoir de fils, Rodolphe se prend à songer au suicide. Craignant de ne pouvoir y arriver seul, il convainc une jeune maîtresse de 17 ans, Mary Vetsera, de l'accompagner dans la mort. François-Joseph, pour préserver l'image de la dynastie, fera l'impossible pour cacher la présence de cette malheureuse auprès de son fils à Mayerling. Cette dissimulation alimentera longtemps des rumeurs fantasques sur l'hypothèse d'un double meurtre pour des raisons politiques.
      Ce sera désormais à l'archiduc François-Ferdinand, neveu de l'empereur, qu'il reviendra d'assumer l'héritage des Habsbourg. Il ne deviendra jamais empereur. Un terroriste Gavrilo Princip l'assassinera, lui et sa femme, le 28 Jun 1914, à Sarajevo... La tragédie de Mayerling, affaire privée d'une famille durement éprouvée par le sort, s'inscrit dans la descente de l'Europe vers les horreurs de 1914-1945. Elle a inspiré Mayerling, un film à succès de Terence Young, en 1968, avec Catherine Deneuve et Omar Sharif.
1885: 352 personas en el naufragio del vapor alemán Elba, en el Mar del Norte.
1881 Felice Schiavoni, Italian artist born on 19 March 1803.
1875 John James Wilson, British artist born in 1818.
1806 Vicente Martín y Soler, compositor español.
1730 Peter II Alekseyevitch, 14, emperor of Russia (1727-30)
1652 Georges de La Tour, French painter born (or baptized?) on 19 March 1593. MORE ON DE LA TOUR AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1649 (Julian date: go to 09 February Gregorian) Charles I king of England.
1584 Peeter Janszoon Pourbus (or Poerbus), Flemish painter born in 1523. MORE ON POURBUS AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1393 Aimery Poitiers French nobleman, burned at royal ball (“bal des ardents” was in the night of 28-29 January... did he die slowly???)
1393 Yvain bastard son of Earl of Foix, burned at royal ball (“bal des ardents” was in the night of 28-29 January... did he die slowly???)
1349 Jews of Freilsburg Germany are massacred
 
< 29 Jan 31 Jan >
^  Births which occurred on a 30 January:

2001 The Big Breach: From Top Secret to Maximum Security, memoirs of Richard Tomlinson, former British M16 spy, now a fugitive in Italy, are published in English in Moscow.
1987 Lionel Tate, in Florida, who would become infamous as the murderer of Tiffany Eunick, 6, on 28 July 1999. — (060519)
1950 Canto General, del poeta chileno Pablo Neruda, se publica.
1946 Antonio Colinas, poeta, escritor y traductor español.
^ 1945 Michael Dorris, Amerindian novelist, in Louisville, Kentucky.
      Dorris met his wife, Louise Erdrich, at a poetry reading at Dartmouth, where he had founded a Native American studies program. Dorris had already adopted three Native American children in the early 1970s, one of the first single men in America to be allowed to adopt children. The couple married in 1981 and had three children of their own. The two writers struggled to support their growing family until Erdrich won the Nelson Algren fiction prize in 1982, with an award of $5000. The pair edited each others' work and sometimes wrote together. Both writers began winning prestigious awards for their work, stating with the Algren prize and accelerating after Erdrich's first novel Love Medicine (1984) won the Nationl Book Critics Award. Dorris published A Yellow Raft in Blue Water, a novel about three generations of Native American women, in 1987. The Broken Cord (1989), his nonfiction account of his adoptive son's fetal alcohol syndrome, became a bestseller and was made into a TV movie starring Jimmy Smits in 1992. His second novel, The Cloud Chamber, was published in 1997. Erdrich and Dorris, who dedicated all their books to each other, seemed the perfect literary couple until Dorris took his own life in 1997. It turned out that Dorris was facing allegations of child abuse, which he denied. Meanwhile, Dorris had become deeply depressed, and the couple's marriage was unraveling — Erdrich had secretly been separated from Dorris for more than a year at the time of his death.
bloomers. 1850 Lithograph by E. S. Duval on a music cover1941 Dick Cheney, US Vice-President under George W. Bush Jr., CEO of Halliburton, an oil services company, 1995-2000; secretary of defense, 1989-93; House Republican whip, 1988-89; Wyoming congressman, 1979-89; White House chief of staff under President Ford, 1975-76; deputy assistant to Ford, 1974-75.
1937 Carlos Lleras de la Fuente, político liberal colombiano.
1937 Boris Spassky, ajedrecista ruso.
1934 Claudio Rodríguez, poeta y académico español.
1927 Sven Olof Joachim Palme, pacifist, prime minister of Sweden (1969-1976, 1982-1986), leader of the Sveriges Socialdemokratiska Arbetar Partiet. He would be assassinated on 28 February 1986. — Olof Palme, à Stockholm, futur premier ministre de la Suède. — Olof Palme, primer ministro sueco.
1920 The Toyo Kogyo Company, Ltd., is founded in Hiroshima. In 1960, it would begin manufacturing Mazda automobiles.
1915 John D Profumo England, politician (C)
1912 Barbara Tuchman, US historian and author who died on 06 February 1989.
1909 Saul David Alinsky Chicago IL, radical writer (John L Lewis)
1905 Gunhild and Siri, twin girls born in Malmö, Sweden. After their marriages they would be Gunhild Gallstedt and Siri Ingvarsson. Widowed, they would featured in the news as Sweden's oldest twins on their 100th birthday, still active and caring for themselves.
1901 Electra, obra de Benito Pérez Galdós Electra, se estrena. Dió origen a la revista del mismo nombre.
1894 Boris III tsar of Bulgaria (1918-1943)
1892 Ann Lindholm, in Minnesota, where she would die on 19 April 2002.
1882 Franklin Delano Roosevelt New Hyde Park NY, 32nd President (D) (1933-1945) ]: only US President to serve more than two terms. (celebrated in Kentucky and the Virgin Islands). He died on 12 April 1945, less than 3 months into his 4th term, being succeeded by Vice-President Harry Truman.
1865 Georg Landsberg, German mathematician who died on 14 September 1912.
1862 USS Monitor launched at Greenpoint, Long Island, New York.
1859 Edward Martyn, Irish dramatist who died on 05 December 1923.
1845 Bernardus Johannes Bloomers, Dutch artist who died on 15 December 1914. [“Bloomers,” women's pantaloons {image >}, were not invented by him but came to be call that after the somewhat different lower part, never widely adopted, of the clothing worn by US feminist Amelia Jenks Bloomer (27 May 1818 – 30 Dec 1894)]
1841 Félix Faure, 6th President of French Republic, who died on 16 February 1899.
1817 Adolphe Yoon, French artist who died on 11 September 1893.
1814 Jérome Thompson, US artist who died on 02 May 1886.
1805 Philip Henry Stanhope, English politician and historian who died on 24 December 1805.
1805 Edward Sang, Scottish mathematician, engineer, and actuary, who died on 23 December 1890. He wrote extensively on mathematical, mechanical, optical, and actuarial topics including vibration of wires, a theory of toothed wheels, an improved lighthouse light, railways, bridges, manufacturing and life insurance. He published actuarial, annuity and astronomical tables, books on Elementary Arithmetic and Higher Arithmetic and much-used tables of 7-place logarithms (1871). But his most remarkable achievement is his massive unpublished compilation of 26- and 15-place logarithmic, trigonometric and astronomical tables, filling 47 manuscript volumes. Compiled over forty years, latterly with assistance from two daughters Flora and Jane, these perhaps surpass in accuracy the (also unpublished) French 'Cadastre' tables of 1801.
1755 Nicolaus Fuss, {there was a little fuss that day...}, Swiss mathematician who died on 04 January 1826.
1720 Bernardo Bellotto, “Canaletto II”, Italian painter who died on 17 October 1780. MORE ON BELLOTTO AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1628 George Villiers Buckingham, English politician who died on 16 April 1687.
1619 Michelangelo Ricci, Roman mathematician who died on 12 May 1682.
58 BC Livia Drusilla, political wife of Roman Emperor Augustus. She died in 29 AD
 
England : Women Peerage Day (1958)
Religious Observances Christian : St Charles / Roman Catholic :St Martina, virgin/martyr / Roman Catholic : St Hippolytus of Rome (Orthodox) / Roman Catholic: St Felix IV, Roman Pope (526-530) / Santos Lesmes, Abad, Félix y Martina. / Sainte Martine aurait été martyrisée à Rome à l'occasion de la persécution ordonnée par Sévère Alexandre (IIIe siècle).
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