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Sharon 28 Jan 03^  On a 28 January:
2003 (Tuesday) National elections in Israel (workers have the day off) for the 120-seat 16th Knesset Likud obtains 38 seats (it had 19 before), Labor-Meimad 19 (it had 26), in the lowest voter turnout (68.5% of the 4'720'074 registered) in the history of modern Israel. [Criminal Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, head of Likud, casts his vote >] The secularist Shinui Party, let by Yugoslav-born Yosef “Tommy” Lapid, 71, gets 15 seats (it had 6). The extreme-right ultra-Orthodox Shas gets 11 seats (it had 17), the leftist Meretz, led by Yossi Sarid gets 6 seats (it had 10). The Ashkenazi Haredi party, United Torah and Shabbat Judaism, maintains its 5 seats. Amir Peretz's One Nation (National Unity = HaIchud HaLeumi) gets 3 seats (had 2). The National Religious Party gets 6 seats. The Arab parties collectively get 9 seats: the Communist Hadash-Ta'al (Democratic Front for Peace and Equality) 3 (had 5); Balad (National Democratic Assembly), headed by Azmi Bishara, 3 (had 2), and Ra'am 2 as before. 27 parties competed, but 14 fail to get any seat, including Ahavat Yisrael, a Shas rival from the Sephardi-Haredi community; the pro-marijuana Ale Yarok (= “Green Leaf”) party; Am Ehad; Center; Citizen and State; Democratic Action Organization; Greens (Hayerukim); Herut; Lahava; Leeder; Men`s Rights in the Family (Ra-ash); National Religious Party (Mafdal); Progressive National Alliance; Tzomet; United Arab List; Yisrael Aheret; Yisrael B`Aliya; Za-am - Social Justice . [MORE PHOTOS]
2003 State of the Union address by USurper President Dubya Bush. The Democratic response is made by Washington Governor Gary Locke.
2003 World chess champion Garry Kimovich Kasparov [13 April 1963-], with Black, draws against computer program Deep Junior in the second game of a match whose first game was on 26 January and which will end in a draw with its 6th game on 07 February (30 Jan Game 3 — 02 Feb Game 4 — 05 Feb Game 5). The match score is now Kasparov 1.5, Deep Junior 0.5 The game:
1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 e6 3. d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 a6 5. Bd3 Bc5 6. Nb3 Ba7 7. c4 Nc6 8. Nc3 d6 9. 0~0 Nge7 10. 0~0 Nge7 11. B.3 e5 12. Nd5 a5 13. Rc1 a4 14. Bxa7 Rxa7 15. Nd2 Nd4 16. Qh5 Ne6 17. Rc3 Nc5 18. Bc2 Nxd5 19. exd5 g6 20. Qh6 f5 21. Rh6 f5 22. b4 axb3 23. Rxa7 bxc2 24. Rc1 e4 25. Rxc2 Qa1+ [? why not ... f4?] 26. Sf1 f4 27. Ra8 e3 28. fxe3 fxe3 29. Rxf8+ Kxf8 30. Rxc8+ Kf7 Kasparov offers a draw and Deep Junior's team accepts [31. Re2 Ne4 32. Rc7+ Kf8 33. Rxe3 Nd2! and White would have nothing better than a perpetual check with its rooks]

another pygmy hippo2002 Pygmy hippopotamus is seized by authorities from the Escondido, Califormia, backyard of Dr. Arthur Stehly, who does not have a permit for the animal, a 220-kg female about 12 to 15 years old (pygmy hippos can live into their 40s), who has been living in the 2-hectare property for about 10 years, in company with some 100 other animals, including emus, peacocks, geese, goats and ducks. The hippo was well cared for except that it did not have shade nor a pool to immerse itself, so that it suffers from severely dried and cracked skin with open bloody wounds. There are 2000 to 4000 pygmy hippos (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) remaining in the wild, along streams and in wet forests and swamps in West Africa from Sierra Leone to Nigeria.
[< photo: another individual of the same species]
2001 In the quake-devastated town of Bhuj, Gujarat, Sikh soldiers pull out from a collapsed eight-story building Kusam D. Soni, in her mid-thirties, alive. She had been pinned down by a ceiling fan for 56 hours.
^ 2001 Five more cardinals.
      Pope John Paul II announces more cardinals, adding to the 37 he named on 21 February. They are Lubomyr Husar, US citizen newly appointed Greek rite archbishop of Lviv, Ukraine; Joahannes Joachim Degenhart, archbishop of Paderborn, Germany; Julio Terrazas Sandoval, archbishop of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia; Wilfrid Fox Napier, archbishop of Durban, South Africa, and Karl Lehmann, bishop of Mainz, Germany. The pope also reveals two cardinals secretly named in 1998: Marian Jaworski, Latin rite archbishop of Lviv, and Janis Pujats, archbishop of Riga. All 42 new cardinals will assume their rank at the 21 February consistory, bringing to 135 the number of those aged less than 80 and therefore eligible to vote for the next pope.
2000 Elian's hopes to be a US citizen are dashed.
Elian waves to onlooking media. A little boy who lost his mom Elizabeth Brotons Rodríguez [10 Sep 1969 – 24 Nov 1999] in a shipwreck and was lost at sea himself.

Here he is watching the crowd of reporters and onlookers outside the Miami home of his great-uncle Lázaro González where he is staying.

He was expecting to be made a US citizen today, but it did not happen, maybe it never will. He says he wants to stay in the US, but is it just because of the influence of those around him?

His father Juan Miguel González Quintana [1969~] wants him back in Cuba, but did not come to the US to get him, why?

Castro, the anti-Castro lobby, and now other politicians too, the Congress, the President of the US, the Pope, the Russian president, and others have been involved or have been asked to be involved. The boy seems to have adapted well to the media and the crowds that observe his every move.

But all Elián González Brotons [06 Dec 1993~] needs is to be loved. He is loved by his Miami relatives and he is loved by his dad and his grandparents. Cuba and the US should stop fighting over him and see him as a reason to set aside our differences. Why not give him US citizenship AND let his father come and be with him in Miami for a few days and see if he can convince him to go back to Cuba with him?

^ 1999 Clinton impeachment trial: Senate votes 54-44 to have witnesses

(1) Lawmakers work throughout the day to strike a compromise for proceeding with the deposition phase of the impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton, but a key sticking point concerning videotaped depositions stalls the talks. Despite last-minute plans to postpone the vote to give the two sides more time, the Senate convenes shortly after 5 p.m. EST when it becomes apparent they the sides are hopelessly deadlocked. The Democrats' proposal for proceeding with the deposition phase of the impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton is rejected by a 54-44 margin. On the videotaping of witnesses, Democrats want to ensure that the tapes would only be viewed by senators but never shown on the Senate floor.
      The senators next vote down a Democratic attempt to move immediately to a final vote on the articles of impeachment. In a party-line 54-44 vote, Republicans push through their proposal for proceeding with the deposition phase of the impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton. Under the plan, witnesses will be deposed starting Feb. 1 and Feb. 12 has been set as the trial's target end date. The Republicans' proposal says the Senate will vote on making the tapes public after the depositions. The individual depositions of Monica Lewinsky, White House aide Sidney Blumenthal and lobbyist and presidential friend Vernon Jordan will begin Feb. 1 and extend through Feb. 3. Lewinsky is expected to testify first but the order of all three witnesses has not been finalized. During the eight-hour depositions, the House prosecutors and White House counsel will have equal time for questioning, and two senators — one from each party — will preside. Senators will be able to review the videotapes and transcripts of those sessions as they become available, starting Feb. 2. Democrats receive some slight concessions from the majority: The only way the House prosecutors will be able to call another round of witnesses is if both Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott (R-Mississippi) and Minority Leader Tom Daschle (D-South Dakota) agree to do so. Republicans also agree to the Democrats' demand of establishing 12 noon EST February 12 as a target date to end the trial. But that date is not firm because provisions in the blueprint allow for the case to be re-opened.

(2) Maryland Democratic Sen. Barbara Mikulski misses all three votes, opting to rest before her surgery on Jan. 29 for an "inflamed gall bladder".

(3) Matt Drudge reports: 'JANE DOE' INTERVIEW CAUSES DEEP SPLIT INSIDE OF NBC; BROADDRICK FEELS 'BETRAYED' AFTER NETWORK PUTS STORY ON ICE **World Exclusive** 01/28/99 02:41 UTC — Juanita Broaddrick has now told associates that she feels "betrayed" by NBC NEWS, the DRUDGE REPORT has learned. One week ago, Broaddrick sat for an exclusive in-depth interview with NBC NEWS reporter Lisa Myers — an interview that she was told would immediately air on DATELINE! Broaddrick doesn't hold Lisa Myers responsible for the building media nightmare, according to a source. Talk in the cafeteria at NBC'S 30 Rock headquarters on Wednesday had head anchorman Tom Brokaw threatening to resign if Andy "I am 'America's News Leader'" Lack green-lights the completed Lisa Myers package, said one NBC producer who asked not to be identified. NBC NEWS president Lack was not immediately available for comment. Broaddrick is now being described as "emotionally drained" after the session with Myers. And since giving the interview, Broaddrick has confessed to a friend: "I'm so afraid over what is going to happen now." Myers first reported details of Broaddrick's story last March on NBC NIGHTLY NEWS. . . . . The DRUDGE REPORT revealed earlier this week that network executives have come under enormous pressure from the White House not to air their interview with Broaddrick. "There is a civil war developing," one network insider said. "Between those pushing for the interview to air and those who think it is completely reckless."
      Pro-Myers associates inside of the network question why the original Myers piece on Broaddrick aired, and now the actual interview with "Jane Doe #5" has hit a broadcast wall. "It was a go signal, but now that Lisa has put the house up with the nails there is resistance by executives," said one pro-Myers source. And while no final decision on airing the interview has been made, the Myers situation has caused confusion throughout the ranks at NBC. Is NBC's Washington bureau chief Tim Russert AWOL on the subject of the Myers interview? "Where is Russert?" asked another Myers supporter. "Why isn't he standing up for his reporters?" "Who is really in charge of NBC's Washington coverage? Is Russert just a pretty face for Sunday morning? Does someone else call the shots Monday through Saturday?" And the Myers firestorm threatens to pull in other high profile NBC talent. Even though Broaddrick is now said to be afraid to give any more interviews [because of the aggressive White House pressure], the DRUDGE REPORT has learned that she may have a standing offer to appear on CNBC's HARDBALL WITH CHRIS MATTHEWS. "I trust Chris," Broaddrick told a close confidant. It is not clear if the same powers inside of NBC NEWS that allowed Geraldo Rivera's interviews with Larry Flynt would now somehow block Matthews from interviewing Broaddrick. Elsewhere, new MSNBC recruit John McLaughlin bravely raised the Broaddrick interview issue on his show Wednesday night during a bizarre exchange. "He didn't read the memo that outlined the network's news rules," laughed one competitor. A year ago, this report decided readers deserved to know about an explosive story NEWSWEEK was sitting on. Now, an even bigger news organ is sitting on what is potentially as explosive a story, and unlike NEWSWEEK and Monica Lewinsky, NBC NEWS actually has an on-the-record interview with the subject! Use it or lose it.

1998 Computer store chain Egghead Inc. announces that it will close its 80 retail stores across the US and lay off 80% of its workforce, focusing its sales efforts on the Web.
1998 Christ and the Woman of Samaria (48 x 39 cm) by Michelangelo Anselmi (1491-1554) is auctioned. Anselmi helped revive the art of painting in Parma, Italy. He painted in an eclectic but highly individual mannerist style. The power of this particular painting is expressed in the faces of Jesus and the Samaritan woman. Jesus faces her with an intent gaze, but the Samaritan woman turns her face away. In the background a figure is waving at Jesus' approching disciples.
1998 El socialista y ex ministro de Interior José Luis Corcuera Cuesta es implicado por un juez español en el secuestro de un miembro del grupo terrorista GRAPO (Grupos de Resistencia Antifascista Primero de Octubre).
1997 Apartheid police admit to killing Steven Biko
      In South Africa, several apartheid-era police officers, appearing before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, admit to the 1977 killing of Stephen Biko, a leader of the South African "Black Consciousness" movement.
      In 1969, Biko, a medical student, founded an organization for South Africa's black students to combat the minority government's racist apartheid policies and to promote black identity. In 1972, he helped organize the Black People's Convention, and in the next year, was banned from politics by the Afrikaner government. Four years later, in September of 1977, he was arrested for subversion. While in police custody in Port Elizabeth, Biko was brutally beaten, and then driven eleven hundred kilometers to Pretoria, where he was thrown in a cell. On September 12, 1977, he died naked and shackled on the floor of a police hospital. News of the political killing led to international protests, and the U.N. imposed an arms embargo against South Africa.
      In 1995, after the peaceful transfer to majority rule in South Africa, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established to examine decades of apartheid policy and to address the widespread call for justice for its perpetuators. However, as a condition of the transfer of power, the out-going white minority government requested that the commission be obligated to grant amnesty to people making full confessions of politically motivated crimes during apartheid.
      Over the next two years, despite the fact that the commission was headed by Nobel Peace Prize laureate Desmond Tutu, the South African public became increasingly skeptical of the commission's apparent willingness to grant pardons. In early 1997, several former police officers appeared before the commission and admitted to the killing of Stephen Biko twenty years earlier. The commission agreed to hear their request for political amnesty, but in February of 1999 refused to grant amnesty due to the brutal nature of the act.
1997 Los presidentes de Centroamérica, reunidos en Honduras, acuerdan intensificar sus esfuerzos para lograr los mismos beneficios que los miembros del Tratado del Libre Comercio, así como una mayor integración con los mercados comunes americanos: CARICOM (Comunidad y Mercado Común del Caribe) y Mercosur.
^ 1997 Hacker cracks exportable encryption
      In less than four hours, Ian Goldberg, a graduate student at Berkeley, broke into the most secure encryption code that the United States allowed to be exported. Goldberg responded to a prize offer from RSA Data Security for anyone who could hack into the code: The company wished to demonstrate the inadequacy of the encryption standards that the US government permitted to be exported. Goldberg linked 250 idle workstations to break the code within a few hours.
1994 Por primera vez se reúnen en Dublín los gobiernos de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda para la pacificación del Ulster.
1992 State of the Union Address by US President George Bush (Sr.).
1991 Dictator Siad Barre flees Somalia ending 22 year rule
1990 East German agreement to form all-party government.
1989 El Consejo Político de Democracia Cristiana de España aprueba la integración de esta formación política en el Partido Popular.
1989 Cuban Missile Crisis adversaries gather in Moscow
      At an unusual gathering in the capital of the Soviet Union, US, Soviet, and Cuban officials who had been involved in the Cuban Missile Crisis during October of 1962 meet in Moscow to discuss one of the most perilous For the Cold War. On October 22, 1962, after US spy planes discovered missile launching sites in Cuba, US President John F. Kennedy announced his intent to order a naval blockade to prevent Soviet ships from transporting any more missiles or their nuclear warheads to the island. Over the next six days, the crisis escalated to a breaking point and the world tottered on the brink of full-scale war between the two nuclear superpowers.
      Finally, on October 28, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev announced his country's willingness to remove the weapons from Cuba, in exchange for a secret US pledge not to invade Cuba and to dismantle US missile sites in Turkey. The Cuban missiles were shipped back to Russia, and Kennedy called off the naval blockade. At the 1989 Moscow conference to discuss the infamous event, Soviet officials reveal that, unknown to U.S intelligence, there were twenty nuclear warheads in Cuba before President Kennedy declared the naval blockade. The warheads had not been attached to missiles but the Soviets said that this could have been done within a few hours.
1988 Canada's Supreme court declares anti-abortion law unconstitutional.
1988 Las delegaciones del Gobierno de Daniel Ortega Saavedra (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional) y de la Contra se reúnen en San José de Costa Rica para negociar un alto el fuego.
1987 US Foreign minister George Shultz meets ANC-leader Oliver Tambo
1986 Angolan Unity Leader Jonas Savimbi visits Washington, DC.
1985 Seis buques que componen una escuadra permanente de la OTAN sufren un atentado en el puerto de Lisboa, reivindicado por la organización portuguesa FP-25.
1982 Durante la liberación del general de la OTAN James Lee Dozier, secuestrado por las Brigadas Rojas, son detenidos cinco terroristas.
1981 William J Casey becomes the 13th director of CIA (until 1987)
1977 The Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of Faith published an 18-page document ruling out the admission of women to the Roman Catholic priesthood because women lacked a "natural resemblance which must exist between Christ and his ministers."
^ 1975 Ford asks for additional aid for South Vietnam
      US President Gerald Ford asks Congress for an additional $522 million in military aid for South Vietnam and Cambodia. He revealed that North Vietnam now had 289,000 troops in South Vietnam, and tanks, heavy artillery, and antiaircraft weapons "by the hundreds." Ford succeeded Richard Nixon when he resigned the presidency in August 1974. Despite his wishes to honor Nixon's promise to come to the aid of South Vietnam, he was faced with a hostile Congress who refused to appropriate military aid for South Vietnam and Cambodia; both countries fell to the communists later in the year.
1974 Se decreta el estado de sitio en Bolivia.
1974 Un estudio de cinco años del National Cancer Institute en Hawai demuestra que existe una relación evidente entre el cáncer de intestino grueso y el consumo de grandes cantidades de carne.
^ 1973 Vietnam cease-fire goes into effect
      A cease-fire goes into effect at 08:00 Saigon time (00:00 UT). Then Saigon controlled about 75 percent of South Vietnam's territory and 85 percent of the population. The South Vietnamese Army was well equipped via last-minute deliveries of US weapons and continued to receive US aid after the cease-fire. The CIA estimated North Vietnamese presence in the South at 145'000 men, about the same as the previous year. The cease-fire began on time, but both sides violated it. South Vietnamese forces continued to take back villages occupied by communists in the two days before the cease-fire deadline and the communists tried to capture additional territory. Each side held that military operations were justified by the other side's violations of the cease-fire. What resulted was an almost endless chain of retaliations. During the period between the initiation of the cease-fire and the end of 1973, there were an average of 2980 combat incidents per month in South Vietnam. Most of these were low-intensity harassing attacks designed to wear down the South Vietnamese forces, but the North Vietnamese intensified their efforts in the Central Highlands in September when they attacked government positions with tanks west of Pleiku. As a result of these post-cease-fire actions, about 25'000 South Vietnamese were killed in battle in 1973, while communist losses in South Vietnam were estimated at 45'000.
1972 Se produce en Zarauz un intenso tiroteo entre la policía y cinco activistas de ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna).
1970 Israeli fighter jets attack the suburbs of Cairo.
^ 1965 Record GM earnings in 1964.
      Not only did the nation’s biggest automaker unveil the beloved Pontiac GTO, but strong sales and a strong economy helped push GM’s profits into the record books. According to an earnings estimate released on January 28, 1965, GM hauled in $1.735 billion during the previous year, making what is the largest profit reported until then by an American company.
1964 Se inaugura en Heidelberg el centro de investigaciones del cáncer.
1961 Republic of Rwanda proclaimed.
1960 El diputado Jean Marie le Pen es detenido en París por la policía.
1957 El Ejército argelino desarticula la huelga general organizada por el FLN.
1955 The US Congress passes a bill allowing mobilization of troops if China should attack Taiwan.
1949 UN Security council condemns Dutch aggression in Indonesia.
1949 Los ministros de la Unión Europea Occidental (UEO) acuerdan crear el Consejo de Europa.
1949 Polonia se adhiere al COMECON.
1948 Stalin desaprueba el proyecto de federación balcánica.
1947 In NY City, a copy of the 1640 Bay Psalm Book was purchased at an auction at Parke-Bernet Galleries for $150'000 — the highest price ever paid to date for a single volume. (The original title of the book was: The Whole Book of Psalmes Faithfully Translated into English Metre)
^ 1945 Burma Road is reopened
     General "Vinegar Joe" Stillwell and truck convoy reopen the Ledo-Burma Road to China. Chiang Kai-shek renames it the Stilwell Road.
      Part of the 717-mile "Burma Road" from Lashio, Burma to Kunming in southwest China is reopened by the Allies, permitting supplies to flow back into China. At the outbreak of war between Japan and China in 1937, when Japan began its occupation of China's seacoast, China began building a supply route that would enable vital resources to evade the Japanese blockade and flow into China's interior from outside. It was completed in 1939, and allowed goods to reach China via a supply route that led from the sea to Rangoon, and then by train to Lashio. When, in April 1942, the Japanese occupied most of Burma, the road from Lashio to China was closed, and the supply line was cut off. The Allies were not able to respond until 1944, when Allied forces in eastern India made their way into northern Burma and were able to begin construction of another supply road that linked Ledo, India, with the part of the original Burma Road still controlled by the Chinese. The Stillwell Road (named for Gen. Joseph Stillwell, American adviser to Chiang Kai-shek, China's leader) was finally opened on this day in 1945, once again allowing the free transport of supplies into China.
1944 683 British bombers attack Berlin.
1943 Alemania moviliza a toda persona de 16 a 65 años en la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
1942 German troops occupy Benghazi Libya.
1942 General Timoshenko's troops move into Ukraine.
1941 French General Charles DeGaulle's Free French forces sack south Libya oasis.
^ 1938 All-time highway speed record
      Driver Rudolf Caracciola set a new land-speed record (not recognized by all organizations) of 432.1 km/h on the German Autobahn between Frankfurt and Darmstadt. His record remains the highest speed ever achieved on a public road. Later in the same day, a young driver named Bernd Rosemeyer dies in a crash on the Autobahn in an attempt to surpass Caracciola’s record.
1935 Iceland becomes first country to legalize abortion.
1933 German government of Von Schleicher falls.
1933 French government of Paul Boncour falls.
1933 Getúlio Vargas, jefe del Gobierno provisional de la República de Brasil, convoca una asamblea constituyente.
1933 Los seguidores de Eamon de Valera vencen en las elecciones celebradas en Irlanda.
1932 first US state unemployment insurance act enacted-Wisconsin
1932 The Japanese attack Shanghai, China, and declare martial law.
1930 José Antonio Primo de Rivera presenta su dimisión a Alfonso XIII, lo que pone fin a la dictadura y permite el advenimiento de la segunda República Española.
1930 Comienza en la URSS la campaña de liquidación de los kulaks.
^ 1928 Christopher Andersen Hornsrud, 68, becomes Prime Minister (and Minister of Finance) of Norway.
      That was the first Labor Party (Arbeiderpartiets) government in the history of Norway, but it lasted only until 280215, included Edvard Bull (Minister of Foreign Affairs), Christian Fredrik Monsen (Minister of Defense), Olav Martinus Knutsen Steinnes (Minister of Church and Education), Alfred Martin Madsen (Minister of Social Affairs), Johan Nygaardsvold (Minister of Agriculture), Anton Ludvig Alvestad (Minister of Trade), Cornelius Holmboe (Minister of Justice), and Magnus Nilssen (Minister of Labor). Hornsrud lived to be 101:
     Han ble født i Øvre Eiker i Buskerud 15. november 1859 og døde 13. desember 1960. Han var Handelsbestyrer i Vikersund 1883-92 og gårdbruker i Modum fra 1891 før han engasjerte seg på heltid i politikken.
      I 1880-årene var han medlem av Venstre, men hadde han hadde stiftet Buskerud amts arbeiderforening, og i 1893 gikk hele foreningen over til Arbeiderpartiet. I partiet engasjerte han seg først og fremst i jordbruksspørsmål og var hovedarkitekten bak partiets ny jordsbruksprogram som ble vedtatt i 1912.
      I årene 1900-09 bodde Hornsrud i Oslo og var medlem av bystyret, og i årene 1914-16 var han ordfører i Modum kommune. Fra 1913 - 1936 satt han på Stortinget som representant for Buskerud. Han var i flere år Arbeiderpartiets parlamentariske leder og ble dessuten stortingspresident.
      Han var medlem av en rekke offentlige kommisjoner og nemnder, blant annet valutakommisjonen, , gjeldskommisjonen, Svalbardkommisjonen og ankenemnda for den ekstraordinære formuesbeskatningen. Han var dessuten direktør for Hyptekbanken fra 1926-38 og senere direksjonens formann. I 1953 var Christopher Hornsrud som da var 94 år gammel, en av initiativtakerne til stiftelse av ukeavisen "Orientering".
1927 Serbian-Croatian-Slavic government of Oezonowitsj falls.
1924 Los laboristas ocupan el poder, por primer vez, en Gran Bretaña.
1923 first "Reichs Party" (NSDAP) forms in Munich.
1921 Albert Einstein startles Berlin by suggesting the possibility of measuring the universe.
1920 Turquía renuncia al Imperio Otomano y a las provincias no turcas.
1920 Se crea en España la Legión con el nombre de Tercio de Extranjeros, que conservó hasta 1937.
1918 Leon Trotsky becomes leader of Reds. — organiza el Ejército Rojo.
1918 La nobleza de Estonia y Livonia anuncia la separación de ambos países de Rusia y los declara independientes.
^ 1917 US ends 11-month search for Pancho Villa
      US forces are recalled from Mexico after nearly eleven months of fruitless searching for Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa, accused of leading a bloody raid against Columbus, New Mexico. In 1914, following the resignation of Mexican leader Victoriano Huerta, Pancho Villa and his former revolutionary ally Venustiano Carranza battled each other in a struggle for succession. By the end of 1915, Villa had been driven north into the mountains and the US government had recognized General Venustiano Carranza as the president of Mexico.
      In January of 1916, a group of people from the US were killed by unknown bandits in Chihuahua, and on 09 March 1916, Villa, angered by President Woodrow Wilson's support for Carranza, led a band of several hundred guerillas across the border and raided the town of Columbus, New Mexico, killing seventeen US citizens. US troops pursued the Mexicans, killing fifty on US soil and seventy more in Mexico.
      On 15 March 1916under orders from President Wilson, US Brigadier General John J. Pershing launched a punitive expedition into Mexico to capture Villa dead or alive. Over the next eleven months, Pershing, like Carranza, failed to capture the elusive revolutionary, and Mexican resentment over the US intrusion into their territory led to a diplomatic crisis.
      On 21 June 1916, the crisis escalated into violence when Mexican government troops attacked Pershing's forces at Carrizal, Mexico, leaving seventeen Americans killed or wounded, and thirty-eight Mexicans dead. On 28 January 1917, having failed in their mission to capture Villa, and under pressure from the Mexican government, the US troops are ordered home.
      Villa continued his guerilla activities in northern Mexico until Adolfo de la Huerta took power over the government and drafted a reformist constitution. Villa entered into an amicable agreement with Huerta and agreed to retire from politics. In 1920, the government pardoned Villa, but three years later he was assassinated at Parral.
^ 1917 At US border, Mexican maid refuses to strip for delousing.
      Carmelita Torres, 17, a maid from Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, on her way to work in El Paso, Texas, rides the trolley which crosses the Santa Fe Street bridge. US border officials, as was then the practice, require all Mexicans entering the US to strip naked to be deloused with gasoline based insecticides, something for which anti-Mexican El Paso Mayor Tom Lea Sr. had lobbied. Carmelita Torres refuses to get off the trolley and is denied entry. She then leads a riot by hundreds of women who block the bridge, protesting the deaths of Mexicans by fire at one delousing session into which someone threw a spark into the gasoline spray.
      This did not succeed in stopping the US delousing practice, which continued for decades. In 1929 the pesticide used was Zyklon B. Later, the Nazis, after learned about the use of Zyklon B by the US, adopted the deadly chemical to rid the Reich of Jews and other human “pests”. In death camps they subjected them to what the Nazis told them were “delousing showers”, but were in reality gassing to death by Zyklon B.
—(060128)
1916 first Jewish Supreme Court justice, Louis Brandeis, nominated.
1916 German colony of Cameroon surrenders to Britain and France.
1915 US President Wilson refuses to prohibit immigration of illiterates
^ 1915 Germany sinks US ship
      Nearly six months after the outbreak of World War I in Europe, the first US ship is lost as a result of the conflict when the German cruiser Prinz Eitel Friedrich sinks the William P. Frye, a private American vessel transporting grain to England. The US government is outraged, but the German government apologizes and calls the attack an unfortunate mistake.
      However, on 07 May of the same year, a German submarine torpedoes the British steamship Lusitania, the queen of the Cunard Line, off the coast of Ireland. The unarmed vessel sinks and 1198 people are killed, including 114 Americans and sixty-three infants. The German government maintains that the Lusitania was sunk in self-defense, but the US demands reparations and an end to German attacks on unarmed passenger and merchant ships.
      Despite diplomatic promises, Germany continues to attack American vessels sailing between the US and Britain, and on 31 January 1917, the German ambassador delivers a note to the US State Department announcing the renewal of submarine warfare against both neutral and belligerent ships. Three days later, the US severs diplomatic relations with Germany, and hours later, the US liner Housatonic is sunk by a German submarine after a one-hour warning.
      Two months later, the US Congress formally declares war against Germany at the request of President Woodrow Wilson, and America officially enters World War I.
1914 Beverly Hills, California, is incorporated.
1910 In the flood of the century, the Seine in Paris, at noon, reaches the 8.49 m level at the Austerlitz bridge, and 8.62 m at shoulder level of the zouave of the Alma bridge. As a precaution against even worst flood, Paris art museums would complete on 07 April 2003 a massive transfert of their underground-stored treasures to a safe undisclosed location north of Paris.
1909 US military forces leave Cuba for 2nd time.
1905 Raimundo Fernández Villaverde preside un nuevo Gobierno en España.
^ 1902 $10 million to start Carnegie Institution
      Andrew Carnegie spent a good chunk of his life building a chokehold over the steel industry. However, after years at the lead of the second Industrial Revolution, he decided to cash in his chips in 1901 and sold his stake in the mighty Carnegie Steel concern—then worth roughly $40 million—to the United States Steel Corporation for $250 million. Rather than retire and play with his riches, Carnegie followed his belief that a "man who dies rich dies disgraced" and set to doling out his fortune to various philanthropic causes. All told, Carnegie donated $350 million, $10 million of which he handed over on this day in 1902 to establish the Carnegie Institution in Washington, D.C. According to Carnegie, the Institution was designed "to encourage, in the broadest and most liberal manner, investigation, research, and discovery, and the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind." Carnegie’s lofty mission translated into an organization dedicated to research and education in "biology, astronomy, and the earth sciences."
1887 Se coloca la primera piedra de la torre Eiffel. [¿piedra? ¡si es de fierro!]
1881 Battle at Laing's Neck Natal Boers beat superior powered British.
1871 Besieged by Prussian troops and suffering from famine, the French army in Paris surrenders. The Paris civilians were famished too, they had already eaten zoo animals, and cats, dogs, and rats.
1865 President Jefferson Davis names 3 peace commissioners
1864 Battle of New Bern, North Carolina
1860 Britain formally returns Mosquito Coast to Nicaragua
^ 1855 First train crosses the Panama isthmus
      The Panama Railway, which carried thousands of unruly miners to California via the dense jungles of Central America, dispatches its first train across the Isthmus of Panama. Even before the United States took California from Mexico in 1848 as a spoil of war, Americans heading for the West Coast by ship often cut months off their voyage by crossing the isthmus to the Pacific through Nicaragua. When gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill early in 1848, the trickle of western emigrants across the narrow ribbon of land turned into a flood.
      Before 1855, sea travelers not wishing to endure the long and treacherous passage around the tip of South America would disembark on the East Coast of Nicaragua. They would then proceed by light boat up the San Juan River to Lake Nicaragua, cross the lake in larger steamers, and complete the final overland leg of the journey via carriages. They traveled on a modern road that deposited them on the West Coast, where they boarded a steamer for San Francisco. Most of the early travelers preferred to cross the isthmus via this safe and well-planned route through Nicaragua rather than through Panama, because the latter was a dense jungle swarming with malarial mosquitoes.
      A glance at the map, though, showed that Panama was the narrowest barrier between the two oceans and might offer a faster crossing if properly developed. In 1847, a group of New York financiers organized the Panama Railroad Company to do just that, and in 1850, workers began laying track through Panamanian jungle roughly along the route followed by the present canal. Completed in early 1855, the first train departed from the Atlantic side for the Pacific on January 28. A ship voyage punctuated by a brief train ride across the isthmus now became the fastest and most comfortable means of traveling to California, and tens of thousands of gold-hungry emigrants were soon racing through Panama every year.
      The railroad and the California-bound emigrants proved a boon to Panama's economy, giving rise to the prosperous new city of Colon at the Atlantic terminus, where passengers often complained about the greatly inflated prices for room and board. The Panamanians had their own complaints about the hordes of young men headed for the California gold fields, who often brought an unwelcome taste of the "Wild West" to Central America. Boredom, guns, and alcohol proved a volatile mix among the impatient travelers, and Panamanians resented the arrogant superiority and racism many of them displayed. The traffic of freight and human beings moving both ways across the isthmus kept the Panama Railway busy until 1869, when the first transcontinental railroad was completed in the United States. However, the railway continued to carry a great deal of commercial freight destined for Europe or Asia until the Panama Canal was completed in 1914.
1848 King of Naples grants his subjects a constitution
1846 Battle of Allwal, Brits beat Sikhs in Punjab (India)
1835 San Salvador se convierte en la capital federal de Centroamérica.
^ 1819 Julia Ward Howe, 88, abolitionist and suffragette who wrote the words of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic," becomes the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters.
Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord
He is trampling out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are stored,
He has loosed the fateful lightening of His terrible swift sword
His truth is marching on.

Glory! Glory! Hallelujah!
Glory! Glory! Hallelujah!
Glory! Glory! Hallelujah!
His truth is marching on.

I have seen Him in the watch-fires of a hundred circling camps
They have builded Him an altar in the evening dews and damps
l can read His righteous sentence by the dim and flaring lamps
His day is marching on. (Chorus)

I have read a fiery gospel writ in burnish`d rows of steel,
"As ye deal with my contemners, So with you my grace shall deal;"
Let the Hero, born of woman, crush the serpent with his heel
Since God is marching on. (Chorus)

I have read a fiery gospel writ in burnish`d rows of steel,
"As ye deal with my contemners, So with you my grace shall deal;"
Let the Hero, born of woman, crush the serpent with his heel
Since God is marching on. (Chorus)

He has sounded forth the trumpet that shall never call retreat
He is sifting out the hearts of men before His judgment-seat
Oh, be swift, my soul, to answer Him! be jubilant, my feet!
Our God is marching on. (Chorus)

He has sounded form the trumpet that shall never call retreat
He is sifting out the hearts of men before His judgment-seat
Oh, be swift, my soul, to answer Him! be jubilant, my feet!
Our God is marching on. (Chorus)

ln the beauty of the lilies Christ was born across the sea,
With a glory in His bosom that transfigures you and me:
As He died to make men holy, let us die to make men free,
While God is marching on. (Chorus)

1807 London's Pall Mall is first street lit by gaslight
1792 Rebellious slaves in Santo Domingo launch an attack on the city of Cap.
1788 Lord Gordon found guilty of libel of queen of France.
1757 Ahmed Shah, the first King of Afghanistan, occupies Delhi and annexes the Punjab.
1689 English parliament ends king Charles II reign.
1671 El filibustero galés Henry John Morgan, tras un ataque de tres horas, se apodera de la ciudad de Panamá.
1613 Galileo may have unknowingly viewed undiscovered planet Neptune
1581 Scotland's King James VI, who in 1603 would become England's James I, signed the Second Scottish Confession of Faith.
1561 By Edict of Orleans persecution of French Huguenots is suspended
1495 Pope Alexander VI gives his son Cesare Borgia as hostage to Charles VIII of France.
1479 Las cortes de Tudela eligen como reina de Navarra a Leonor de Foix, tras la muerte de su padre Juan II.
^ 1077 Emperor Henry IV at Canossa
      At Canossa Pope Gregory VII pardons excommunicated German emperor Henry IV, with whom he had a long and bitter dispute concerning investitures. Threatened by the German lords with loosing his throne, Henry had come to submit to the pope, but the pontiff, mindful of his former faithlessness, treated him with extreme severity. Stript of his royal robes, and clad as a penitent, Henry had to come barefooted mid ice and snow, and crave for admission to the presence of the pope. All day he remained at the door of the citadel, fasting and exposed to the inclemency of the wintry weather, but was refused admission. A second and a third day he thus humiliated and disciplined himself, and finally on January 28, he was received by the pontiff and absolved from censure, but only on condition that he would appear at a council and submit himself to its decision. Henry then returned to Germany, but his severe lesson failed to effect any radical improvement in his conduct.
Depuis qu'au XIXe siècle, le chancelier Bismarck, en conflit avec l'Église catholique, lança: «Je n'irai pas à Canossa!», l'expression «aller à Canossa» signifie que l'on se rend aux injonctions de l'adversaire. Elle rappelle une fameuse querelle entre le pape et l'empereur d'Allemagne qui se dénoua le 28 janvier 1077 par une humiliation feinte de ce dernier.
      Le pape Grégoire VII avait affirmé que les évêques devaient être nommés par lui et non plus par l'empereur. L'empereur d'Allemagne Henri IV s'opposa à cette réforme qui ruinait la soumission du clergé envers le pouvoir séculier (les seigneurs). Il tenta de déposer le pape mais celui-ci l'excommunia et autorisa ses vassaux à rompre leur serment d'obéissance.
      Des seigneurs en profitèrent pour récupérer des biens qui leur avaient été confisqués et ils élurent même un roi concurrent. Peu à peu abandonné de tous, Henri IV se rendit en Italie auprès de son ennemi, qui était en visite chez la comtesse Mathilde de Toscane, dans son château de Canossa. Pieds nus dans la neige, il attendit pendant trois jours que le pape voulut bien le recevoir et le relever de l'excommunication.
      Le pape n'eût d'autre choix que de pardonner au pénitent. Celui-ci en profita pour restaurer son autorité et... reprendre la Querelle des Investitures. L'humiliation feinte de Canossa débouche sur la victoire de l'empereur. Henri IV réunit un concile à sa dévotion qui nomme un nouveau pape. Grégoire VII doit s'enfuir de Rome. La papauté devra encore lutter pendant un demi-siècle avant de gagner définitivement la Querelle des Investitures.
      Stabilisée par la séparation du pouvoir spirituel et du pouvoir séculier (c'était déjà une forme de laïcité), la chrétienté occidentale entamera alors une magnifique expansion. Elle s'épanouira dans une foi naïve et puissante dont l'art roman nous conserve le souvenir.
0028 The Roman Emperor Nerva names general Trajan as his successor.
TO THE TOP
^  Deaths which occurred on a 28 January:

2007 Robert Frederick Drinan, born on 15 November 1920, he joined the Jesuits in 1942, was ordained a priest in 1953, became a lawyer in 1956, was dean of the Boston College Law School and taught law from 1956 until 1970, was the US Congressman (Democrat) from the 3rd district of Massachusetts (1971-1981), insisted that abortion is not to be restricted by civil law, and was a law professor at Georgetown University Law Center from 1981 to 2007. —(070129)

2006 Elvis Morales Mendez, 8, and twins Samanta Morales Mendez, 6, and Samuel Morales Mendez, 6, smothered in De Queen, Arkansas, by their mother Paula Eleazar Mendez, 43, mentally deranged and who believed that her husband, Arturo Morales, 37, who had stayed behind to keep his job in New York, from which they had, was planning a divorce. Paula Mendez then attempts suicide by drinking poison. A practicing Catholic, she had immigrated from Mexico in 1995. —(060130)
2006 Some 70 persons after the 17:30 (16:30 UT) collapse of the roof of an exhibition hall in Katowice, Poland, where a pigeon show was being held. Some 160 persons are injured. —(060129)

Car bomb exploding2005 Vitaly Ivanov, 42, and his wife Natalya Ivanov, 38, Israelis of Kiryat Gat, in a car collision at 21:00 (19:00 UT). Their son Alexei, 19, who was driving their sedan, and his friend, Andrei Metpenov, are moderately injured. The driver of the SUV that collided with them, an Israeli of Moshav Ben Zakai, is lightly injured and driver's license was suspended for 90 days. He had swerved from his lane around a poorly lit sharp bend, where there was road work, and entered their lane, about 150 meters from Metzudat Yoav, in the Ashkelon area.
2005 Five Palestinians when a van attempts to pass another vehicle illegally and collides head-on with an oncoming truck near Hebron on Highway 60 between the West Bank enclave settlements Kiryat Arba and Karmei Tzur, in the morning.
2005 Four Iraqi civilians, by a car bomb next to a police station in southern Baghdad [< photo].
2005 Six Iraqi collaborationist soldiers, in ambushes, in Ramadi, Iraq.
2005 A US soldier, shot in northern Baghdad, Iraq.
2005 A US soldier, by a roadside bomb in the south of Baghdad, Iraq. Two US soldiers are wounded.

2004 Iyad Mahmoud al-Ra’i, 39, Othman Jundiya, 21, Marwan Atiya Bassal, 38, Mousa Sulaiman Dallol, 31; Iyad Abu Ruchab, Moussa Balout, Samah Watach, Mohammed Dakhdar, Sami Badawi, Iyad el-Gha'i, and 3 other Palestinians, in the Zaitoun neighborhood of Gaza City by Israeli army attacks, including tanks, coming from the nearby enclave settlement Netzarim, which the Israeli say is attacked nightly from that neighborhood by mortar round and the planting of bombs. Al-Ra'i was a field commander and member of the military council of the Quds Brigades (Islamic Jihad's fighters), of which Jundiya was another field commander, and Bassal and Dallol were members. The other dead, most of them in their twenties, include one Hamas fighter, a boy, 11, shot in the eye; and 7 other Palestinian civilians, including at least three working at a nearby cement factory. Seven Palestinians are wounded, including a paramedic arriving in an ambulance and two 14-year-olds. The fighting was occasioned by soldiers from the Israeli Shimshon Brigade, accompanied by armor and bulldozers, crossing at 04:30 (02:30 UT) the Tancher route, which runs the length of Gaza, and penetrating about a kilometer into Zeitun farmlands, near the used-car market in the neighborhood. Dozens of Palestinians from all the armed resistance factions deployed throughout the buildings in the neighborhood's industrial zone, trying to repel the Israeli invaders, who fired back, killing two Palestinians, and called for reinforcements. The ensuing 6-hour firefight included the use of heavy machine guns, submachine guns, land mines, and anti-tank rockets aimed at the Israeli troops, who suffered no casualties.
2004 A South African man and four Iraqis, including the driver of a suicide car bomb disguised as a Red Crescent ambulance, outside the Shaheen Hotel in the Karadah neighborhood of Baghdad, Iraq, at 06:50. At least 17 persons are injured.
2004 British army Pvt. Jonathan Kitulagoda, 23; an Afghan civilian; and the driver of a suicide taxi bomb of the Taliban, which explodes next to a British army vehicle, in which three other British soldiers and an Afghan translator are wounded, in Kabul, on the road toward Jalalabad, at 11:00 (07:30 UT).

Hekmatyar 2003 Mohammed Atel Sr., his son Mohammed Atel Jr., 17, and daughter Sabrin Atel, 15, in the early hours, by explosion which levels a one-story house in the Sheik Radwan neighborhood of Gaza, near the seacoast, as two Israeli missile-armed helicopters had been patroling in the area for two hours. Mohammed Ater Sr. was the bodyguard of senior Hamas official Ismail Abu Shanab, and the house belonged to Ihab Salame, another Hamas militant. The AP body count of the al-Aqsa intifada is now 2071 Palestinians and 720 Israelis.
2003 Four Palestinians by Israeli soldiers searching in Jenin, West Bank. Two Israeli soldiers and French correspondent Seif Dahala are wounded.
2003 Captain Kim Hyo-sung, 33, shot by Major Lee Kyu-sang, 37, when Kim refuses an order to speak quietly on the telephone while Lee is discussing the leasing of construction equipment with some Afghans, near Bagram Air Base north of Kabul, Afghanistan, in the barracks of the 99-man South Korean medical unit, to which both men belong, and which is in Afghanistan since February 2002 as part of the UN peacekeeping force.
2003:: 18 Afghan rebels, in fighting which began on 27 January as US and Afghan soldiers were searching a compound near Adi Ghar mountain in southeast Afghanistan. Attacked, they killed one attacker, wounded one, and captured one, who said that he was among some 80 fighters commanded by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar [photo >], an Islamic fundamentalist who wants to overthrow President Hamid Karzai's government. Apache helicopters were called in and came under small arms fire. A rapid reaction force of the US 82nd Airborne Division counterattacked with air support from B-1 bombers, F-16s and AC-130 gunships, and B~1 bombers which dropped two 500-pound and 19 2000-pounds bombs during 12 hours of fighting. In recent months Hekmatyar's rebels, as well as al-Qaida and Taliban remnants have been crossing the border from the Pakistan tribal areas.
Pippi Longstocking2002 All 9 crew members and 83 passengers, including 7 children, onboard TAME airlines flight 120, a Boeing 727-134 which had left Quito at 10:03 and crashes at 10:23 into the 4775-meter-high Chiles Volcano (near Ipiales, Colombia) as it circles in approach to its destination, Tulcán, at the Colombia-Ecuador border.
2002 Donata Breggia-DiBiase, in Maine, who was born in Italy on 29 December 1891.
2002 Six al-Qaida fighters, who refuse to surrender and are killed by Afghan troops and US special forces soldiers in a 04:00 to 12:00 assault on the second floor of the Mir Wail hospital in Kandahar, Afghanistan, which the al-:Qaida fighters had transformed into a fortress after being left there, sick or wounded but heavily armed, by the retreating Taliban two months earlier. [It is not explained why they were allowed food and water during their 2-month defiance].
2002 Astrid Lindgren, born on 14 November 1907, Swedish author of 88 children's books, featuring characters Pippi Långstrump (in the English translations Pippi Longstocking) [< image], the mischievious Emil, and Ronja Rövardotter (Ronia the Robber's daughter). Examples: Pippi Långstrump (1945) — Pippi Långstrump går ombord (1946 = Pippi Goes on Board) — Pippi Långstrump i Söderhavet (1948 = Pippi in the South Seas) — Pippi Goes To The Circus — Pippi Longstockings in the Park — Pippi's Ordinary Day — Pippi to the Rescue — Pippi Goes to School. — Pippi is a precocious little girl with great wealth and extraordinary strength. She never goes to school (?), and lives completely without adult supervision. The majority of adults cannot reason with Pippi, and eventually find themselves lifted into the air by her.
2001 Naina Badrasen, after surviving 50 hours under earthquake rubble in Ghuj, Gujarat, while Indian Air Force personnel and policemen frantically try to free her. They do manage to pull out alive her year-and half-old daughter Namrata, whose faint sobbing had alerted them to the location.
2001 José María Sánchez Casas, activista político español, fundador de los Grupos de Resistencia Antifascista Primero de Octubre (GRAPO).
1996 U San Yu, 77, soldier/politician, President of Burma in 1981-88
1996 Jerry Seigel, 81, writer who, with artist friend Joe Shuster, in the 1930s created the character Superman.
1989 Choekyi Gyaltsen, the 10th Panchen Lama, 53, supposedly of a heart attack. The Panchen Lama is considered to be an emanation of Amitabha Buddha. Amitabha means "infinite light." Amitabha is the Head of the Lotus family of Buddhas and He is the principal Buddha of the Blissful Pureland of the West. He is the embodiment of the enlightened speech of all the Buddhas. Amitabha Buddha is very important to all Buddhists, especially those in China, Japan, & Korea. The 11th Panchen Lama, Gendhun Choekyi Nyima, would be born on 25 April 1989, recognized by the Dalai Lama on 14 May 1995, and abducted by Chinese Communist officials on 17 May 1995, together with his family, and the Abbott, Chadrel Rinpoche (Cha Tsa Chagbazeling) and his secretary, who had discovered him.. On 30 November 1995, The People's Republic of China “installed” its' own puppet Panchen Lama, Gyaltsen Norbu, 6. But only The Dalai Lama has the authority to declare who is the Panchen Lama.
— GYALTSEN ONLINE: “A poisoned arrow” (English translation of “A report on the sufferings of the masses in Tibet and other Tibetan regions and suggestions for future work to the central authorities through the respected Premier Zhou Enlai”) (1962)
Secret Report
[in Chinese]
^ 1986 16:39 UT Sharon Christa (Corrigan) McAuliffe, [02 Sep 1948–], astronaut/teacher, in Challenger disaster, together with Francis R. “Dick” Scobee [19 May 1939–], (the commander), Michael J. Smith [30 Apr 1945–], (the pilot, last voice heard as communications go dead: "Uhoh!"), Judith A. Resnik [05 Apr 1949–], Ellison S. Onizuka [24 Jun 1946–], Ronald E. McNair [21 Oct 1950–], and Gregory B. Jarvis [24 Aug 1944–], as 25th Space Shuttle (51L)-Challenger 10 explodes 73 seconds after liftoff. A presidential commission appointed to investigate the accident later determined that the explosion was caused by faulty O-ring gaskets.
[photo below, left to right: Onizuka, Smith, McAuliffe, Scobee, Jarvis, McNair, Resnik]
Challenger crew     
At 11:38 EST, the space shuttle Challenger lifts off from Cape Canaveral, Florida, and Christa McAuliffe is on her way to becoming the first ordinary US civilian to travel into space. McAuliffe, a high school social studies teacher from New Hampshire, won a competition that earned her a place among the seven-member crew of the Challenger. She underwent months of shuttle training but then, beginning on 23 January was forced to wait six long days as the Challenger's launch countdown was repeatedly delayed because of weather and technical problems.
      Finally, on 28 January the shuttle lifted off more than two-and-one-half hours after the astronauts took their seats inside. Seventy-three seconds later, hundreds on the ground, including Christa's family, stared in disbelief as the shuttle exploded in a forking plume of smoke and fire. Millions more watched the wrenching tragedy unfold on live television. There were no survivors. In 1976, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) unveiled the world's first reusable manned spacecraft, the Enterprise. Five years later, space flights of the shuttle began when Columbia traveled into space on a 54-hour mission. Launched by two solid-rocket boosters and an external tank, only the aircraft-like shuttle entered into orbit around Earth. When the mission was completed, the shuttle fired engines to reduce speed and, after descending through the atmosphere, landed like a glider.
      Early shuttles took satellite equipment into space and carried out various scientific experiments. The Challenger disaster was the first major shuttle accident. In the aftermath of the explosion, President Ronald Reagan appointed a special commission to determine what went wrong with Challenger and to develop future corrective measures. The presidential commission was headed by former secretary of state William Rogers, and included former astronaut Neil Armstrong and former test pilot Chuck Yeager. The investigation determined that the explosion was caused by the failure of an "O-ring" seal in one of the two solid-fuel rockets. The elastic O-ring did not respond as expected because of the cold temperature at launch time, which began a chain of events that resulted in the massive explosion. As a result of the explosion, NASA did not send astronauts into space for more than two years as it redesigned a number of features of the space shuttle. In September 1988, space shuttle flights resumed with the successful launching of the Enterprise. Since then, the space shuttle has carried out numerous important missions, such as the repair and maintenance of the Hubble Space Telescope and the construction of the International Space Station. By the end of the 20th century, there would have been more than 100 space shuttle flights.
1985 Pars, mathematician.
1975 Antonin Novótny, former Czechoslovakian President (1957-1968) born on December 1904. A Stalinist, he was a puppet of the Soviet Union.
^ 1964 Three US airmen in jet shot down by Soviets over East Germany.
      The US State Department angrily accuses the Soviet Union of shooting down an American jet that strayed into East German airspace. Three US officers aboard the plane were killed in the incident. The Soviets responded with charges that the flight was a "gross provocation," and the incident was an ugly reminder of the heightened East-West tensions of the Cold War era. According to the US military, the jet was on a training flight over West Germany and pilots became disoriented by a violent storm that led the plane to veer nearly 100 miles off course. The Soviet attack on the plane provoked angry protests from the Department of State and various congressional leaders, including Senator Hubert H. Humphrey, who charged that the Soviets had intentionally downed the plane "to gain the offensive" in the aggressive Cold War maneuvering. For their part, the Soviets refused to accept US protests and responded that they had "all grounds to believe that this was not an error or mistake...It was a clear intrusion." Soviet officials also claimed that the plane was ordered to land but refused the instructions. Shortly after the incident, US officials were allowed to travel to East Germany to recover the bodies and the wreckage. Like numerous other similar Cold War incidents — including the arrest of suspected "spies" and the seizure of ships — this event resulted in heated verbal exchanges between the United States and the Soviet Union, but little else. Both nations had bigger issues to contend with: the United States was engaged in the Vietnam War, and the Soviet Union was dealing with a widening split with communist China. The deaths were, however, another reminder that the heated suspicion, heightened tension, and loaded rhetoric of the Cold War did have the potential to erupt into meaningless death and destruction.
1963 Jean Felix Piccard, on his 79th birthday, Swiss explorer.
1963 Eight persons as a Continental Airlines Vickers Viscount 812 crashes on landing at Kansas City.
^ 1960 Zora Neale Hurston, novelist and folklorist, born on 07 January 1903 in Eatonville, Florida..
      Although at the time of her death Hurston had published more books than any other Black woman in the US, she was unable to capture a mainstream audience in her lifetime, and she died poor and alone in a welfare hotel. Today, she is seen as one of the most important Black writers in US history. Eatonville, Fla., was an all-black town when Hurston was born. The daughter of a Baptist preacher, Hurston had little contact with white people until her mother's death, when Hurston was 11. Until her teens, Hurston was largely sheltered from racism. A talented, energetic young women with a powerful desire to learn, she didn't finish high school but prepared herself for college and excelled at Howard University. In 1925, she moved to New York, where she became a central figure in the Harlem Renaissance. High-spirited, outgoing, and witty, she became famous for her storytelling talents. She studied anthropology with a prominent professor at Barnard and received a fellowship to collect oral histories and folklore in her home state. She also studied voodoo in Haiti.
      In 1931, she collaborated with Langston Hughes on the play Mule Bone. Her first novel, Jonah's Gourd Vine, featuring a central character based on her father, was published in 1934. Mules and Men, a collection of material from her research in oral folklore, was published in 1935 and became her bestselling work during her lifetime, but even so, it earned her only $943.75. In 1937, she published Their Eyes Were Watching God, the story of a Black woman looking for love and happiness in the South. The book was criticized at the time, especially by black male writers, who condemned Hurston for not taking a political stand and demonstrating the ill effects of racism. Instead, the novel, now considered her masterwork, celebrated the rich tradition of the rural Black South.
      Hurston's work remained uplifting and joyful despite her financial struggles. She published a memoir, Dust Tracks on a Road, in 1942. Hurston worked on and off as a maid near the end of her life, and she died in poverty in 1960. In the 1970s, her work, almost forgotten, was revived by feminist and black-studies scholars, and an anthology, I Love Myself When I Am Laughing...And Then Again When I Am Looking Mean and Impressive, was published in 1979.
1958 Marion and Velda Fugate, by shotgun, Betty Jean Fugate, 2, choked, by Charles Starkweather, lover of the Fugates other daughter, Caril Ann, 14, who watches, in Lincoln, Nebraska. Fleeing a couple of days later, the pair kills another 7 persons, including in Nebraska wealthy businessman, C. Lauer Ward, his wife, Clara, and their maid, Lillian Fenci, and in Wyoming salesman Merle Collison. Starkweather would go to the electric chair on 24 June 24 1959. Caril Ann Fugate would receive a life sentence.
1954 Ernest Benjamin Esclangon, French mathematician and astronomer born on 17 March 1876.
1946 Dmitriy Sintsov, Russian mathematician born on 21 November 1867.
^ 1940 Day 60 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

Finns take 'motti' at Kelivaara
      We extend our heartiest congratulations to K.J. Ståhlberg, independent Finland's first President, who is 75 years old today.
      Karelian Isthmus: a reconnaissance patrol from the Finnish 1st Division has returned from a successful two-day mission along the railway line to Raivola and back along the frozen Gulf of Finland.
      Ladoga Karelia: Detachment Pajari repulses the Soviet offensive on the River Aittojoki.
      During the afternoon, the Soviet troops in Vieksinki voluntarily withdraw from the village, leaving behind over 200 fallen comrades.
      The Finns take the Kelivaara 'motti'.
      The assault on West Lemetti 'motti' is unsuccessful.
      In the Ilomantsi sector the enemy makes several attempts to take Petkelniemi.
      Karelian Isthmus: enemy bombers hit a field hospital marked with a red cross in a vicarage in Johannes. The bomb kills 20 patients, two members of the women's auxiliary defence forces and two nurses. Several others are wounded in the attack.
      The enemy also bombs the coastal towns of Kotka, Loviisa, Hanko and Rauma.
      29 fallen servicemen are buried in a joint service in Uurainen church.
      The crew of a Blenheim bomber on a transfer flight from Tampere to Luonetjärvi are killed when the plane crashes in Siikakangas.
      'Père Clément', the renowned French general Clément Grandcourt arrives in Helsinki to enlist as a volunteer in the Finnish Army-

^ Pienen Kelivaaran motti saadaan vallatuksi Talvisodan 60. päivä, 28.tammikuuta.1940
       Tänään täyttää presidentti K.J.Ståhlberg 75 vuotta. Parhaimmat onnittelumme.
      Suomalaisten 1. Divisioonan kaukopartio palaa 26.päivä kuluvaa kuuta alkaneelta onnistuneelta tiedusteluretkeltä, joka suuntautui rautatien vartta Raivolaan ja jäätä pitkin takaisin. Osasto Pajari torjuu neuvosto-joukkojen hyökkäyksen Aittojoella.
      Iltapäivällä neuvostoliittolaiset poistuvat vapaaehtoisesti Vieksingin kylästä. He jättävät jälkeensä yli 200 kaatunutta.
      Pienen Kelivaaran motti saadaan vallatuksi.
      Läntistä Lemetin mottia vastaan tehdään tulokseton hyökkäys.
      Ilomantsin suunnalla vihollinen yrittää useaan otteeseen vallata Petkelniemen.
      Karjalan kannaksella Johanneksessa vihollinen pommittaa punaisella ristillä merkittyä rovastinpappilassa sijainnutta kenttäsairaalaa. Lentopommi surmaa 20 potilasta, kaksi lottaa ja kaksi sairaanhoitajaa.Useat ihmiset loukkaantuvat.
      Lisäksi vihollinen pommittaa Kotkaa, Loviisaa, Hankoa ja Raumaa.
      Uuraisten kirkossa siunataan yhdellä kertaa 29 sankarivainajaa. Siirtolennolla Tampereelta Luonetjärvelle matkalla oleva BL-108-pommikone syöksyy maahan Siikakankaalla. Koko miehistö saa surmansa.
      Tunnettu ranskalainen kenraali "Isä Clement" eli Clément Grandcourt saapuu Helsinkiin liittyäkseen vapaaehtoisena Suomen armeijaan.

^ Den lilla mottin i Kelivaara erövras Vinterkrigets 60 dag, den 28 januari 1940       .
       Idag fyller president K. J. Ståhlberg 75 år. Bästa lyckönskningar.
      Den finska 1. Divisionens fjärrpatrull återvänder från en lyckad spaningsfärd som började den 26 den här månaden och som gick längs järnvägen till Raivola och tillbaka utmed isen.
      Avdelning Pajari slår tillbaka de ryska truppernas anfall vid Aittojoki.
      På eftermiddagen avlägsnar sig de sovjetiska trupperna frivilligt från byn Vieksinki. De lämnar efter sig över 200 stupade.
      Den lilla mottin i Kelivaara erövras.
      Ett resultatlöst anfall företas mot mottin i västra Lemetti.
      I riktning Ilomants gör fienden upprepade försök att inta Petkelniemi.
      I S:t Johannes på Karelska näset bombar fienden fältsjukhuset som är placerat i prostgården och som är utmärkt med ett rött kors. Vid bombningen dödas 20 patienter, två lottor och två sjuksköterskor. Flera människor såras.
      Dessutom bombar fienden Kotka, Lovisa, Hangö och Raumo.
      I Uurainen kyrka välsignas på en gång 29 stupade krigshjältar. Ett BL-108-bombplan på väg från Tammerfors till Luonetjärvi störtar vid Siikakangas. Hela besättningen omkommer.
      Den kända franska generalen "Fader Clement", dvs. Clément Grandcourt anländer till Helsingfors för att som frivillig ansluta sig till Finlands armé.
^ 1939 William Butler Yeats, 77, poet.       ^top^
      Yeats was born in Dublin on 13 June 1865 but moved to London when he was two. His family returned to Dublin in 1880. His father was a former lawyer turned painter, and Yeats, too, planned to pursue art. He entered the Metropolitan School of Art in Dublin after high school but soon left to focus on poetry. His first poems appeared in 1885 in the Dublin University Review.
      In 1887, he moved to London and became a writer, devoting himself to visionary, mystic poetry. His first book of verse, The Wanderings of Oisin and Other Poems, was published in 1889, the same year he fell hopelessly in love with actress Maude Gonne, who refused to marry him. In 1891, he helped found the Rhymers Club, a society of poets. In 1898, he met Lady Gregory and spent many subsequent summers at her estate. He later purchased a nearby ruined castle, which he called The Tower, and which figures as an important symbol in his later work.
       On 8 May 1899, his play, The Countess Cathleen, opened at the Irish Literary Theatre in Dublin, the theater's inaugural performance.
      Yeats had been persuaded to help launch the theater by his friend Isabella Augusta, Lady Gregory, a writer and collector of Irish folklore. Until 1907, Yeats managed the theater's business affairs and wrote numerous plays. On occasion, his experimental works sparked riots in the audience.
      As manager of the Irish National Theatre, Yeats became increasingly appreciated as a writer of national stature. His poetry, once ecstatic and dreamy, became tighter, sparser, and more realistic. He published Responsibilities: Poems and a Play in 1914 and The Wild Swans of Coole in 1917. Some of his best work was written after 1917, including Sailing to Byzantium and The Second Coming. In 1922, he was appointed a senator of the new Irish Free State, and the following year he won the Nobel Prize. Yeats died in France.
YEATS ONLINE: Michael Robartes and the Dancer, Responsibilities, and Other Poems, The Wild Swans at Coole, The Wind Among the Reeds
1928 Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, escritor español.
1913 Segismundo Moret y Prendergast, político español.
1912 El general Eloy Alfaro Delgado, asesinado en Quito por una turba furiosa, tras 17 años de ser presidente de la República de Ecuador.
1905 Lemuel Maynard Wiles, US artist born on 21 October 1826.
1889 Joseph Émile Barbier, French mathematician born on 18 March 1839.
1882 Alexander Hugo Bakker-Korff, Dutch artist born on 03 August 1824. — more
1881 (Julian date: go to Gregorian date 09 Feb) Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky.
1874 John Christian Schetky, British artist born in 1778.
1864 Benoit-Paul-Émile Clapeyron, Parisian mathematician born on 26 February 1799.
1856 Albert Edouard Moerman, Belgian artist born in 1808.
1839 Sir William Beechey, British artist born on 12 December 1753. MORE ON BEECHEY AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1831 Wybrand Hendriks, Dutch artist born on 24 June 1744.
1793 Alexandre César d’Anterroches, évêque de Condom. D’une famille auvergnate du diocèse de Saint-Flour, fils de Charles Louis, gouverneur de Murat, lieutenant des maréchaux de France, et de Jeanne Cécile de Lastic de Fournels, Alexandre César d’Anterroches naquit le 23 mars 1719 au château d’Anterroche à Murat. D’abord chanoine de Saint-Julien de Brioude de 1731 à 1737, il fit ses études au séminaire Saint-Sulpice et fut reçu licencié en théologie en 1748. Ordonné prêtre l’année précédente, il fut choisi comme vicaire général par Mgr. de Saint-Albin, archevêque de Cambrai, qui le sacra évêque de Condom le 05 Jun 1763. Il déploya beaucoup d’activité dans son nouveau diocèse. Député aux États généraux, il fit partie des 30 prélats députés qui, le 30 May 1791, signèrent une lettre d’adhésion au bref de Pie VI condamnant la Constitution civile du clergé. Émigré, il mourut à Londres.
1725 Julian date of the death of Peter I the Great [09 Jun 1672 – 08 Feb 1725] <<< click on link for Gregorian date.
1621 Paul V [Camillo Borghese], 68, 233rd pope (1605-1621)
1596 Sir Francis Drake, born in 1540, English navigator and pirate, off Portobelo, Panamá.DRAKE AT MORE “4” JANUARY — (060118)
1547 Henry VIII, 55, King of England (since 21 April 1509), luckily for his 6th wife who is thus spared the beheading or divorce that befell the first five. He is succeeded by his nine-year-old son Edward VI.
^ 1393 Le comte de Joigny, Huguet de Guisay, Aimery Poitiers, Yvain de Lescar, 35 ans, (fils batard de Gaston III Phoebus comte de Foix), qui avait décidé d'enlever Jeanne de Boulogne au cours du bal, and perhaps one or more other French noblemen, burned at bal des ardents. Un grand bal masqué est donné à l'hôtel Saint-Pol, ce mardi 28 janvier 1393, pour les noces d'une demoiselle d'honneur de la reine Isabeau. Vers minuit, on éteint les lumières et six hommes déguisés en bêtes poilues font irruption au millieu des danseurs. Ce sont des jeunes seigneurs accompagnés par le roi Charles VI. Le duc d'Orléans arrive à la fête avec ses gens équipés de torches. Voulant voir de plus près qui se cache derrière les masques, il approche une torche près de l'un d'eux. Une étincelle saute sur un des déguisements et c'est le drame: les costumes englués de poix et d'étoupe s'embrasent un par un. Le roi est sauvé des flammes par la duchesse de Berry et le sire de Nantouillet a la vie sauve en se jetant dans un récipient d'eau à vaisselle, les autres périssent.
1256 Wilhem II, 22, Earl of Holland / German emperor (1238, 1247-1256)
0814 Charlemagne, born on 02 April 742, German emperor and Holy Roman Emperor (800-814) In some parts of the empire, popular affection placed him among the saints. For political purposes and to please Frederick I Barbarossa [1123 – 10 Jun 1190] he was canonized (1165) by the antipope Paschal III [–20 Sep 1168], but this act was never ratified by insertion of his feast in the Roman Breviary or by the Universal Church; his cult, however, was permitted at Aachen. The Saint-Charlemagne feast day was celebrated in Reims when I was in first grade there (it may still be); even we young children drank a glass of champagne at the school party. The celebration was instituted for schools by Nicolas de Maistre, rector of the University of Paris, and first held on 29 January 1629. It was not limited to Reims, but that may be the only place where first graders toasted Charlemagne with champagne.
 
^  Births which occurred on a 28 January:

1942 Francisco Sánchez Cárdenas, político y médico panameño.
1940 Miguel Barnet, escritor y etnólogo cubano.
1937 Rolls-Royce Wraith car makes its first test run. The first post-World War II model would be called the Rolls-Royce Silver Wraith and become the principal Rolls-Royce sedan.
1935 Manuel dos Santos Lima Angolan revolutionary/poet (Pele do Diabo)
1933 Susan Sontag, US essayist and novelist whose works included The Style of Radical Will and Illness as a Metaphor.
1929 Claes Oldenburg, Swedish US Pop sculptor. — LINKS
1924 Marcel Broodthaers, artista belga.
1924 Wilhelm P. A. Klingenberg, German mathematician.
1916 Edward Elmer Carlson [–15 Aug 2007], in El Paso, Texas, weighing 5 lbs, his survival seeming doubtful. But he would become a very good neighbor at 3021 Harrison Avenue, where he would live for more than half his life. Ed was the youngest of the five children of Swedish immigrants Ellis A. and Hannah Carlson. Growing up during the depression, Ed helped his brother, Ellis, delivered newspapers in the Highland Park area, he rode a bicycle for Western Union, caddied golf, and helped pave Scenic Drive under FDR’s WPA. He apprenticed as a machinist at Southern Pacific Railroad where he worked for 20 years and then took his trade to Standard Oil Refinery where he worked another 26 years. Predeceasing him were his parents, his 4 siblings, his first wife and mother of his children, Frances Hobson, who died in 1956 from cancer, and 2nd wife, Elizabeth Wettermark, with whom he shared 44 years before her death in 2002. Ed is survived by son David Carlson of Houston, daughter Sylvia Evans of El Paso, granddaughter Michelle Evans of Dallas, grandson Jon M Evans and wife Genevieve, great-grandson William Carlson Evans, all of Houston, several grandnieces and nephews, and his faithful, beloved, cocker spaniel “Goldie”, grossly overweight, because, after a fall and hip fracture in 2001, he had to give up the morning walks which he used to take with his previous dogs. Another fall, in early 2007, while he was alone in his locked home, resulted in injuries for which he was immediately taken to the hospital and from which he never recovered. —(070822)
1916 Virgilio Ferreira, Portuguese teacher and novelist who died on 01 March 1996.
1915 US Coast Guard created from Life Saving and Revenue Cutter services, to fight contraband and aid vessels in distress.
1914 La Lepra, de Santiago Rusiñol y Prats, se estrena en Barcelona.
1912 Jackson Pollock, US Abstract Expressionist painter who died on 11 August 1956. MORE ON POLLOCK AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1911 Robert Schatten, Ukrainian US mathematician who died on 26 August 1977.
1912 Jackson Pollock Cody WY, abstract artist (Lavender Mist)
1908 Oriente es publicado por el escritor y político valenciano Vicente Blasco Ibáñez.
1892 Carlo Emilio Bonferroni, Italian mathematician who died on 18 August 1960.
1888 Louis Joel Mordell, US mathematician who died on 12 March 1972. He is best known for his investigations of equations of the form of y2 = x3 + k (y^2 = x^3 + k) which had been studied by Fermat [17 Aug 1601 – 12 Jan 1665].
1884 Auguste Piccard, Swiss-born Belgian physicist, balloonist, deep sea diver, who died on 24 March 1962.
^ 1873 Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette, in Burgundy France, novelist.
     Raised in the country, Colette married writer and critic Henri Gauthier-Villars and moved to Paris, where she began writing. She published her earliest writings, a racy series of novels about a young girl named Claudine, under the name Willy, her husband's pen name. During her marriage to Gauthier-Villars, Colette grew from a naive and provincial country girl to a sophisticated Parisienne. She took mime lessons in 1903 and began acting before she separated from her husband in 1906.
      They divorced in 1910, the same year Colette published her novel The Vagabond, based partly on the failed marriage. After the divorce, Colette supported herself as a music-hall actress. She also began publishing essays and articles, notably in the newspaper Le Matin. She married the paper's editor, Henry de Jouvenel, in 1912. Her book Music-Hall Sidelights (1913) was based on her experiences as an actress. She began writing her best work in the 1920s, including Chéri (1920) and The Last of Chéri (1926), about a handsome young man who lives for pleasure and kills himself when he cannot recapture the joy of his first love affair.
      Colette divorced Jouvenel in 1924 and later married the much younger Maurice Goudeket. She continued writing and won many awards and honors. Her novel Gigi (1944), the story of a girl raised to be a courtesan, was adapted for stage and screen, and included one of Colette's rare happy endings. Colette died in Paris on 03 August 1954.
^ 1855 William Seward Burroughs, father of the Calculator,
      William Burroughs, a young inventor with little formal education, invented the first commercially successful adding machine and founded the American Arithmomter Company of St. Louis. The company later became Burroughs Adding Machine Company. His earliest version of the machine, like other adding machines of the time, was accurate but impractical. However, in 1892 he patented a practical adding machine that would become a commercial success. Burroughs, who died on 15 September 1898, did not live to see the profits of his invention or the thriving success of his company.
1856 El Banco de España, se crea de la fusión del Banco Español de San Fernando y del Banco de Isabel II.
1855 Karl Rohn, German mathematician who died on 04 August 1920. He made major contributions to algebraic geometry.
1853 José Julián Martí y Pérez, escritor y político independentista cubano.
1841 Henry Morton Stanley England, journalist/explorer (found Livingston in Africa). He died on 10 May 1904.

^ 1814 Vies de Haydn, de Mozart et de Métastase, first book of Marie Henri Beyle (not yet using the pseudonym Stendahl), 31, is published.
STENDHAL ONLINE: Armance ou Quelques scènes d’un salon de Paris en 1827Le Rouge et le Noir : chronique de XIXe siècleLe Rouge et le NoirRacine et ShakespeareChroniques italiennesArmanceMémoires d'un touriste (Voyage en Bretagne et en Normandie)La Chartreuse de Parme.
Stendhal, sa vie et son oeuvre

1833 Charles George Gordon, London, England, military hero/general (China, Khartoum)
1813 Johannes Hilverding, Dutch artist who died on 01 October 1902. — more
1768 Frederick VI Danish king (1808-1839); in 1914 lost Norway to Sweden's Charles XIV Jean [Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, 26 Jan 1763 – 08 Mar 1844]
1761 Marguerite Gérard, French Romantic portrait and genre-scene painter who died on 18 May 1837. MORE ON GÉRARD AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1749 Jacob (or Jacques) Henri Sablet du Soleil, Swiss artist who died on 04 April 1803. — more
1706 John Baskerville, inventor of the "hot-pressing" method of printing.
1701 Charles Marie de La Condamine, Parisian mathematician who died on 04 February 1774.
1688 Jan Morits Quinckhardt, Dutch artist who died on 11 November 1772.
1674 Jean Ranc, French artist who died on 01 July 1735.
1608 Juan Alfonso Borelli, médico, matemático y físico napolitano.
1600 Clement IX [Giulio Rospigliosi], Pistoia, Italy, 238th pope (1667-1669)
1587 Andrea (or Andries) Snellinck, Flemish artist who died on 12 September 1653.
1540 Ludolph van Ceulen, German Dutch mathematician. is famed for his calculation p (pi) to 35 places which he did using polygons with 262 (2^62) sides. In Germany p (pi) used to be called the Ludolphine number. Here are his 35 places: 3.1415926535897932384626433832795028
1457 Henry VII, Pembroke Castle, first Tudor king of England, from his crowning on 30 October 1485 to his death on 21 April 1509. He succeeded in ending the Wars of the Roses between the houses of Lancaster and York.
 
^  Celebrations on 28 January:
Unmovable (omitted on Sundays):
Saint Thomas Aquinas (obligatory memory): Dominican priest, the Church's greatest theologian and philosopher, born in 1225, who died on 07 March 1274. — bio. Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913 _ wiki
works: Summa Theologica: English _ Latin (part 1)
Corpus Christi poem
Epistola de Modo Studendi
De Ente et Essentia
De Principio Individuationis
Expositio in Orationem Dominicam —(100128)
Holidays    Rwanda : Democracy Day (1961)

Religious Observances Anglican, Roman Catholic : St Thomas Aquinas, priest, friar / Santos Tomás de Aquino, Julián, Flaviano y Tirso. / Saint Thomas d'Aquin - Né près de Naples, Thomas d'Aquin enseigna la théologie sous l'habit des Dominicains à l'Université de Paris. Il s'acquit le surnom de Docteur Angélique. Son œuvre majeure, la Somme Théologique, met la philosophie d'Aristote au service de la révélation chrétienne. Il meurt le 7 mars 1274. Ses reliques reposent dans l'église des Jacobins, à Toulouse.
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Thoughts for the day:
“Cropping a donkey's ears will not produce a race horse.”
“Make sure that your train of thought has a caboose.”
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updated Thursday 28-Jan-2010 17:51 UT
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