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Events, deaths, births, of JAN 25
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2006 The first encyclical of Pope Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927~], Deus Caritas Est, is published. It bears the date 25 December 2005, but was delayed by revisions. In it he mentions saints Francis of Assisi [1182 – 03 Oct 1226], Ignatius of Loyola [1491 – 31 Jul 1556], John of God [08 Mar 1495 – 08 Mar 1550], Camillus of Lellis [1550 – 14 Jul 1614], Vincent de Paul [1580 – 27 Sep 1660], Louise de Marillac [12 Aug 1591 – 15 Mar 1660], Giuseppe B. Cottolengo [03 May 1786 – 30 Apr 1842], John Bosco [16 Aug 1815 – 1888], Luigi Orione [23 June 1872 – 12 March 1940], Teresa of Calcutta [27 Aug 1910 – 05 Sep 1997] as a few of those who “stand out as lasting models of social charity for all people of good will.” — en Françaisen EspañolLatin. — Italiano . — Português. — PolishDeutsch — (060303)

2004 The Israeli government belatedly recognizes Eirinaios I, 65, as Greek Orthodox Patriarch “of Jerusalem, Palestine, Syria, beyond Jordan river, Cana of Galilee and Holy Zion”. After his 14 August 2001 election by the synod of 17 bishops, he had been promply recognized in the other areas under his jurisdiction, by the Palestinian Authority and by the government of Jordan. But Israeli right-wing expansionists are not happy that the Greek Orthodox Church is the largest landholder in Israel after the Jewish National Fund, and the patriach favors just and humane policies toward the Palestinians. Eireneos succeeded Patriarch Diodoros I, who died on 20 December 2000.

2003 The following ad, signed by 52 Israeli officers and soldiers, appears in Ha'aretz (on 24 September 2003, there would be a similar letter from Israeli Air Force pilots):
     We, combat officers and combat soldiers of the Israel Defense Forces, raised on the values of Zionism, sacrifice, and service to the Jewish people and the State of Israel, who have always served on the front line and were the first to fulfill every mission, regardless of how difficult, in order to defend and strengthen the State of Israel -
      We, combat officers and combat soldiers, who serve the State of Israel for long weeks every year, despite the high personal price we pay, who have performed reserve duty throughout the territories and have been issued orders and instructions that have nothing to do with the security of our country, orders with the sole purpose of perpetuating control over the Palestinian people -
      We, who have witnessed with our own eyes the terrible cost in blood that the occupation exacts from both sides -
      Who have seen how the orders given to us there corrupt all the values we grew up with in this country -
      Who understand today that the price of the occupation is loss of humanity of the I.D.F. and corruption of Israeli society as a whole -
      Who know that the territories are not Israel, and that ultimately all the settlements will be evacuated -
      We hereby declare that we will not continue to fight the war of "Peace for the Settlements". We will not go on fighting beyond the Green Line for the purpose of domination, expulsion, starvation, and humiliation of an entire people.
      We hereby declare that we shall continue to serve the Israel Defense Forces in any mission that serves to defend the State of Israel. The mission of occupation and repression does not serve this goal - and we refuse to participate in it.

[— Note: I.D.F. stands for Israel Defense Forces; the war of "Peace for the Settlements" hints at the Lebanon war, officially named "Peace for the Galilee"; the Green Line is Israel's internationally recognized border, i.e. the actual border from 1948 to 1967.]

2003 The “SQ Hell” worm (aka Slammer or Sapphire) attacks the Internet, starting at 05:30 UT and spreading around the world in one minute to some 40'000 computers running the Microsoft database software SQL server 2000. These computers in turn jam the Internet with millions of message, making it impossible for many users to send or receive E-Mail, or to access web sites (including those of banks). Some banks ATM machines are temporarily rendered non-operational. Some police and fire dispatchers have to return to paper and pencil. Companies, including Microsoft itself, are crippled in their Internet activities. The vulnerability had been reported by David Litchfield of Next Generation Security Software Ltd. on 24 July 2002 and a patch provided by Microsoft (http://www.microsoft.com/ Downloads/ Release.asp? ReleaseID=40602), but the negligent system administrators (including some at Microsoft) of the now infected computers had failed to install it.

2001 El nuevo primer ministro serbio, Zoran Djindjic [01 Aug 1952 – 12 Mar 2003], y los miembros de su gabinete toman posesión oficial de sus cargos, tras la caída definitiva del régimen de Slobodan Milosevic [29 Aug 1941~].
2001 The Colombian Commerce Ministry announces butterfly export program, expecting to get 50 cents to $8 per butterfly, 30 cents to $5 per cocoon, depending on which of the 3000 Colombian species it is.
2000 Islamic sharia law system goes into effect in Northern Nigeria.
2000 Pressured by US government, the Florida relatives of Elian Gonzalez agreed to make the boy available for a meeting at “a neutral site” with his Cuban grandmothers, who refuse to go to their home in Miami.
^ 1999 (Monday): Clinton impeachment trial in US Senate: Motion to Dismiss

(1) During their morning caucus, Republicans reject a plan that would have dropped Byrd's pending motion to dismiss, as well as a motion for witnesses, and wrapped up the trial by the end of the week. Meanwhile, an informal GOP proposal that was gaining steam among the Republican conference to condemn Clinton's conduct before the Senate votes on articles of impeachment is criticized by Senate Democrats. The proposal being floated by Senate Republicans would call for drafting a "finding of fact" — a list of condemnations of presidential conduct that would go on the Senate record prior to the vote on the two articles of impeachment. The idea behind that, says a GOP source, is to "get condemnation on the record before acquittal, so the White House cannot run out and celebrate any acquittal vote as total exoneration."

(2) After multiple delays this afternoon as senators continue behind-the-scenes discussions on how to proceed with the impeachment trial, the session finally resumes to consider Sen. Robt. Byrd's motion "that the impeachment proceedings against William Jefferson Clinton, president of the United States, be ... duly dismissed." Rep. Charles Canady (R-Florida) leads off the House managers' arguments against dismissal, urging the senators "not to depart from the Senate's well-established practice of fully considering cases of impeachment and rendering a judgment of either conviction or acquittal." Dismissal, Rep. Asa Hutchinson (R-Arkansas) says, "would be damaging to the Constitution because the Senate would fail to try the case. It would be harmful to the body politic because there's no resolution of the issues of the case. But most importantly, it would show willful blindness to the evidentiary record that has thus far been presented." But Clinton attorney Nicole Seligman says the charges brought by the House are a vague "prosecutorial grab bag" and do not meet the Constitution's threshold for impeachable offenses as "high crimes or misdemeanors." "The time to end this is now," she says. Seligman insists that Clinton presents no danger to the state. "The moment has arrived where the best interest of the nation, the wise prescription of the framers, and the failure of the managers' proof all point to dismissal," she says. "Impeachment was never meant just to be another weapon in the arsenal of partisanship," says Seligman. "The constitutional standard for impeachment is not met here. The president did not obstruct justice. The president did not commit perjury. The president must not be removed. The facts don't permit it," she says. Delivering the final argument of the day, lead prosecutor Henry Hyde characterizes Clinton's trial as "a search for truth — and it should not be trumped by a search for an exit strategy. It seems to me this motion elevates convenience over constitutional process." "I don't think this sad, sad drama will end," Hyde says, echoing Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott's earlier prediction that the Republican majority will defeat the dismissal motion, introduced by Sen. Robert Byrd (D-West Virginia). "And we will never get it behind us until you vote up or down on the articles."

(3) Following hour-long presentations by both sides, the Senate votes down, by a 57-43 margin, a motion from Sens. Tom Harkin (D-Iowa) and Paul Wellstone (D-Minnesota) that would have opened the senators' debate on the motion to dismiss. Five Democrats, including Byrd, side with 52 Republicans to keep the deliberations closed. Three Republicans favor opening the deliberations. The senators plan to deliberate in secret until the "close of business" today, Lott said earlier. (ROLL CALL)

(4) The Senate emerges from a rare closed-door session tonight after debating for nearly four hours on whether to dismiss impeachment charges of perjury and obstruction of justice against President Clinton. The deliberations end around 10 p.m. It is the first time since the trial began nearly two weeks ago that House prosecutors, White House counsel, television cameras, reporters and members of the public are barred from the proceedings. The senators decline comment after the session. No vote is taken on dismissal of the case — which is expected to fail — until after the senators hear arguments Jan. 26 on a motion to depose witnesses. The Senate is scheduled to convene at noon ET. Another one of "Clinton's Angels" steps up

(5) Lott fires off a list of 10 questions to the president today about the Lewinsky case, despite renewed insistence from the White House that Clinton will not respond. The letter, signed by Lott and nine other Senate Republicans, follows an apparent off-hand comment by White House counsel Gregory Craig during the Jan. 23 defense presentation that the Senate could ask the president about certain matters if members requested. Lott immediately seizes on the comment and is now asking for the president to answer the questions under oath. The inquiries seek to clarify the most critical disputes over the evidence. (TEXT OF QUESTIONS) The White House, confident of Clinton's ability to win eventual acquittal, announces it will ignore the written list of questions submitted by Lott and other Republicans.

(6) Sure that the answers lie deeper than the Y2K bug or endless New Year's toasts, President Clinton welcomes scholars to the East Room of the White House to ponder the significance of the fast-approaching new millennium as part of the White House's so-called "Millennium Evenings". "You all know I am a walking apostle of hope," Clinton gushes, but adds that the challenge remains how to pursue hope without arrogance and with humility. If Clinton wouldn't answer Hyde's 81 questions, why would he answer 10?

(7) Matt Drudge reports: Web Posted: 01/25/99 17:37:45 PST NBC SAID TO BE HOLDING INTERVIEW WITH 'JANE DOE' **WORLD EXCLUSIVE** NBC NEWS hotshot Lisa Myers has reportedly conducted an in-depth interview with "Jane Doe #5", according to media sources in an around the network. The interview with Juanita Broaddrick of Arkansas is said to have gone down late last week and is now being held tight by NBC NEWS. It is not known if and when the network plans on airing the interview, or what exactly it was that Broaddrick told Myers, but media circles in Washington have been buzzing with word of the development for days. "I'm looking forward to the interview," Rep. Lindsey Graham, a House floor manager in the Senate impeachment trial, told a reporter over the weekend. Lisa Myers, out of character, did not return repeated calls seeking comment. A well-placed source inside of NBC's Washington bureau said Myers "remained out of town." NBC NEWS president Andy Lack could not be reached. Media excitement grew after a well-armed NBC crew was spotted outside of Broaddrick's home late last week. "It was obvious that something was going down," reports one eyewitness. "The were cameras and a sound crew." A second news network, reacting to reports that NBC was conducting the interview, later captured Broaddrick arriving and leaving a Tennis Club. "They chased her car, at times going at high speeds... her husband went wild," says one network insider. Last February, the DRUDGE REPORT alerted readers who were following the Paula Jones sex case that there was great interest swirling around a woman named "Juanita." She was code named "Jane Doe #5." A month later, NBC's Myers explored the "Juanita" story in a nightly news shocker: A woman claims she was sexually assaulted by Bill Clinton back in the 1970s! The White House called that allegation "outrageous."

1999 The US Supreme Court rules, 5-4, that the 2000 census may not use statistical sampling to enhance its accuracy.
1999 A Louisville, Kentucky, man received the first hand transplant in the United States.
1998 La doctora Teresa Wright, del servicio de Hepatología del Centro Médico de San Francisco, comunica el hallazgo de un virus de la hepatitis, responsable del 9% de las hepatitis fulminantes que se producen en el mundo.
1998 La poetisa María Victoria Atencia y el escritor Antonio Prieto Martín son galardonados con el Premio Andalucía de la Crítica.
1993 Puerto Rico adds English as its 2nd official language.
1993 Sears announces it is closing its catalog sales department after 97 years
1991 During the Gulf War, military officials said Iraq had sabotaged Kuwait's main supertanker loading pier, dumping millions of gallons of crude oil into the Persian Gulf.
1990 Former Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega is transferred to a Miami jail
1990 West-Europe's strongest cyclone.
1989 Pekín y Hanoi llegan a un acuerdo sobre Camboya, por el que las tropas vietnamitas abandonarán totalmente el vecino país en septiembre.
1987 Tras las elecciones generales celebradas en la RFA, el canciller Helmut Kohl se mantiene en el poder con el apoyo de los liberales de Dietrich Genscher.
1986 General Tito Okello's government flees Kampala Uganda.
1986 La nave espacial estadounidense "Voyager 2" envía a la Tierra fotografías de 12 nuevas lunas que rodean el planeta Urano y cuya existencia se desconocía hasta entonces.
1984 US President Ronald Reagan's State of the Union address.
1983 US President Ronald Reagan's State of the Union address.
1983 China's supreme court commutes Jiang Qing's death sentence to life imprisonment. She died in prison eight years later, officially a suicide.
1983 Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie arrested in Bolivia
1981 52 Americans held hostage by Iran for 444 days arrived back in US
1981 Mao's widow Jiang Qing receive a death sentence, suspended
1980 Highest speed attained by a warship, 167 kph, USN hovercraft
1980 Abolhassan Bani-Sadr elected Iran's first president since the 1979 Islamic revolution. Though we won an overwhelming majority of the popular vote, he did not have the support of the predominantly fundamentalist parliament. On June 22, 1981, he was dismissed from the presidency by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Shortly thereafter he fled to Paris, where he had lived in exile during the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi .
1979 22.2-km Oshimizu railroad tunnel holed through, central Honshu, Japan
1979 Pope John Paul II's first overseas trip as supreme pontiff.
1978 Se inician las primera elecciones sindicales en España tras la dictadura de Francisco Franco Bahamonde.
1976 Primeras elecciones municipales en España tras la Guerra Civil.
1975 Bangladesh's independence leader and first prime minister, sheik Mujibur Rahman , 54, assumes the presidency. He would be killed, along with most of his family, in a coup d'état seven months later 750815.
1974 Bülent Ecevit forms government in Turkey
1974 Christiaan Barnard performs the first human heart transplant without removal of old. He had performed the first human heart transplant 671203
^ 1972 Nixon reveals secret Vietnam negotiations
      President Richard Nixon, in response to criticism that his administration has not made its best efforts to end the war, reveals that his National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger has held 12 secret peace negotiating sessions between August 4, 1969, and August 16, 1971. The negotiations took place in Paris with Le Duc Tho, a member of Hanoi's Politburo, and/or with Xuan Thuy, Hanoi's chief delegate to the formal Paris peace talks.
      Nixon also disclosed the text of an eight-point peace proposal presented privately to the North Vietnamese on October 11, 1971. The main features of the eight-point plan were: withdrawal of all US and Allied troops and all communist troops from South Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos within six months of an agreement; simultaneous release of all military and civilian prisoners of both sides; supervision of the cease-fire by an international commission; and presidential elections in South Vietnam organized and supervised by a coalition of factions including the Viet Cong, with President Nguyen Van Thieu and Vice President Tran Van Huong resigning one month after the voting.
      The North Vietnamese rejected the US peace proposal and presented a proposal of their own. While Washington wanted the withdrawal of all foreign forces from South Vietnam with the condition of an agreement in principle on a final solution, Hanoi insisted on the withdrawal of US and Allied troops from all of Indochina without condition. Hanoi also wanted the immediate resignation of the Thieu regime. With the secret talks now public and at an impasse, the North Vietnamese leadership decided to order a massive invasion of South Vietnam, which was launched in March 1972.
1971 Himachal Pradesh becomes the 18th state of India. It is located in the extreme northern part of the subcontinent and occupies a region of scenic splendor in the western Himalayas. It has towering snow-clad mountains divided by deep valleys with thick woods, green fields, lakes, and cascading streams.
Idi Amin ^ 1971 Coup by Idi Amin Dada Oumée, 46, military officer who becomes president (1971-79) of Uganda.
      A member of the small Kakwa tribe of northwestern Uganda, Amin had little formal education and joined the King's African Rifles of the British colonial army in 1943. He served in the Allied forces' Burma (Myanmar) campaign during World War II and in the British action against the Mau Mau revolt in Kenya (1952-56). Amin was one of the few Ugandan soldiers elevated to officer rank before Ugandan independence in 1962, and he became closely associated with the new nation's prime minister and president, Milton Obote. He was made chief of the army and air force (1966-70).
      Conflict with Obote arose, however, and on this day Amin stages a successful military coup. He became president and chief of the armed forces in 1971, field marshal in 1975, and life president in 1976. Amin ruled directly, shunning the delegation of power. He was noted for his abrupt changes of mood, from buffoonery to shrewdness, from gentleness to tyranny. He was often extreme in his nationalism.
      He expelled all Asians from Uganda in 1972, an action that led to the breakdown of Uganda's economy, and he publicly insulted Great Britain and the United States. A Muslim, he reversed Uganda's amicable relations with Israel and befriended Libya and the Palestinians; in July 1976 he was personally involved in the Palestinian hijacking of a French airliner to Entebbe.
      Amin also took tribalism, a long-standing problem in Uganda, to its extreme by allegedly ordering the persecution of Acholi, Lango, and other tribes. Amidst reports of the torture and murder of 100'000 to 300'000 Ugandans during Amin's presidency, Uganda was invaded by Ugandan nationalist and Tanzanian troops in October 1978. When the invasion forces reached Kampala, Uganda's capital, on 13 April 1979, Amin had fled the city. Escaping first to Libya, he finally settled in Saudi Arabia.
1971 In Los Angeles, cult leader Charles Manson is convicted, along with followers Susan Atkins, Leslie Van Houten, and Patricia Krenwinkle, of the brutal 07 and 08 August 1969 murders of Rosemary and Leno LaBianca, actress Sharon Tate, and foursix others.
1969 The first fully attended meeting of the formal Vietnam peace talks in Paris is held. Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, the chief negotiator for the United States, urged an immediate restoration of a genuine DMZ as the first "practical move toward peace." Lodge also suggested a mutual withdrawal of "external" military forces and an early release of prisoners of war. Tran Buu Kiem and Xuan Thuy, heads of the National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese delegations respectively, refused Lodge's proposals and condemned American "aggression."
1961 Military coup in El Salvador.
1960 Father Samuel Ruiz García is ordained a bishop, for the diocese of Chiapas (name changed to San Cristóbal de Las Casas on 27 October 1964), to which he was appointed on 14 November 1959, and from which he would retire on 13 March 2000. He was born on 03 November 1924 in Irapuato, Mexico, and ordained a priest on 02 April 1949.
1959 First transcontinental commercial jet flight (American) (Los Angeles to New York for $301)
1959 Pope John XXIII, 90 days after his election, announced his intention to hold an ecumenical church council. (The Vatican II Council would open on 11 October 1962 and close on 08 December 1965.)
1957 L'Inde tente de reconquérir le Cachemire. — La India se anexiona Cachemira.
^ 1956 Khrushchev declares that Eisenhower is “striving for peace”
      In a long interview with visiting American attorney Marshall MacDuffie, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev adopts a friendly attitude toward the United States and indicates that he believes President Dwight Eisenhower is sincere in his desire for peace. The interview was the precursor to Khrushchev's announcement later that same year that he wanted "peaceful coexistence" between the United States and the Soviet Union.
      MacDuffie, a long-time acquaintance of the Soviet leader and a proponent of closer relations between the US and the Soviet Union, spent three hours conducting the interview. During the discussion, Khrushchev indicated that it was his desire that "We should have disarmament and we should think how to avoid a new war." He was critical of some US officials that he accused of making belligerent statements towards the Soviet Union, but he was also quick to point out that he did not hold Eisenhower responsible for those statements. In fact, the Soviet leader praised the president's leadership, and apparently hoped that Eisenhower might negotiate seriously on a number of issues.
      Later that year, Khrushchev announced that the goal of the Soviet Union was "peaceful coexistence" with the United States. Eisenhower and his secretary of state, John Foster Dulles, were cautiously optimistic about this new Soviet approach-an American response that was markedly different from the pessimistic vigilance assumed during the harsh confrontational Stalin era. Later in the year, however, much of the new optimism was shattered when Soviet troops brutally suppressed revolts in Hungary, as any talk of striving for peace was overshadowed by that use of armed force.
1959 Pope John XXIII announces that the Catholic Church's Code of Canon Law is to be revised..
1956 96.5 cm of rainfall, Kilauea Plantation, HI (state record)
1955 Russia ends state of war with Germany
1955 Columbia University scientists develop an atomic clock accurate to within one second in 300 years
1955 US and Panama sign canal treaty
1951 UN begins counter offensive in Korea
1950 73ºF (23ºC) highest temperature ever recorded in Cleveland in January
1949 first Israeli election — Ben-Gurion's Mapai party wins
1946 United Mine Workers union (on the 56th anniversary of its founding) rejoins American Federation of Labor
1945 Grand Rapids MI becomes first US city to fluoridate its water
1945 Japanese occupiers of Batavia arrest Indo-European youths
1944 In the Anglican Diocese of Hong Kong and South China, Florence Tim-Oi Lee of Macao was ordained a priest in Kwangtung Province, China. Although considered an emergency wartime measure (owing to the lack of male priests in Macao), it nevertheless made Florence Tim-Oi Lee the first-ever ordained female Anglican clergyperson.
^ 1942 Japanese puppet Thailand declares war on the US and UK
      Thailand, a Japanese puppet state, declares war on the Allies. When war broke out in Europe in September 1939, Thailand declared its neutrality, much to the distress of France and England. Both European nations had colonies surrounding Thailand and hoped Thailand would support the Allied effort and prevent Japanese encroachment on their Pacific territory. But Thailand began moving in the opposite direction, creating a "friendship" with Japan and adding to its school textbooks a futuristic map of Thailand with a "Greater Thailand" encroaching on Chinese territory.
      Thailand's first real conflict with the Allies came after the fall of France to the Germans and the creation of the puppet government at Vichy. Thailand saw this as an opportunity to redraw the borders of French Indochina. The Vichy government refused to accommodate the Thais, so Thai troops crossed into French Indochina and battled French troops. Japan interceded in the conflict on the side of the Thais, and used its political alliance with Germany to force Vichy France to cede 21,000 square miles to Thailand.
      On December 8, 1941, the Japanese made an amphibious landing on the coast of Thailand, part of the comprehensive sweep of South Pacific islands that followed the bombing raid at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The Japanese had assistance, though: Thailand's prime minister, Lang Pipul, collaborated with the Japanese, embracing the Axis power's war goal of usurping territory in China and ruling over the South Pacific. Pipul wanted to partake in the spoils; toward that end, he declared war on the United States and England. In October, he took dictatorial control of Thailand and became a loyal puppet of the Japanese.
Russian soldier1940 Nazi decrees the establishment of Jewish ghetto in Lodz Poland.
1931 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi es puesto en libertad en la India.
1929 Rusia y Alemania firman un tratado de conciliación y se comprometen a someter todos los conflictos que pudieran surgir entre ambas naciones al arbitraje de una Comisión Permanente.
1919 La Conferencia de Paz acepta la propuesta del presidente estadounidense, Thomas Woodrow Wilson, de crear una Asociación General de Naciones.
1918 Russia is declared a republic of Soviets [< Soviet soldier]
1917 Estados Unidos compra a Dinamarca las islas Vírgenes o Antillas danesas por 25 millones de dólares.
1916 Montenegro surrenders to Austria-Hungary
1915 The inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell, inaugurates US transcontinental telephone service, talking from New York to his former associate Thomas A. Watson in San Francisco. The same two had held the first phone conversation on 09 October 1876 over a 3 km wire between Cambridge and Boston.
1912 El Partido Socialdemócrata Alemán gana las elecciones al Reichstag pero no obtiene la mayoría absoluta, por lo que tuvo que apoyarse en los liberales.
1907 Dimite el Gobierno español del marqués de la Vega de Armijo. El Rey encarga a Antonio Maura y Montaner formar nuevo Gobierno.
1890 Reporter “Nellie Bly” (Elizabeth Cochrane) proves that she can do better than make “Le tour du monde en 80 jours” (as did Phileas Fogg and Passepartout in the Jules Verne story). She made it in 72 days, 6 hours, 11 minutes, and 14 seconds. This made her name famous and a synonym for the feminine star reporter.
1877 US Congress creates an electoral commission to determine the presidential election between Hayes and Tilden. The commission proceded to steal the election from Tilden and give it to Hayes ("His Fraudulency")..
1863 Battle of Kinston NC.
^ 1863 Yank General Burnside relieved of command
      After two months, General Ambrose Burnside [23 May 1824 – 13 Sep 1881] is removed as commander of the Army of the Potomac. Burnside assumed command of the army after President Lincoln removed General George B. McClellan from command in November 1862. Lincoln had a difficult relationship with McClellan, who built the army admirably but was a sluggish and overly cautious field commander.
      Lincoln wanted an attack on the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, which was commanded by Robert E. Lee. Burnside drafted a plan to move south towards Richmond. The plan was sound, but delays in its execution alerted Lee to the danger. Lee headed Burnside off at Fredericksburg, Virginia, on 13 December 1862. Burnside attacked repeatedly against entrenched Confederates along Marye's Heights above Fredericksburg with tragic results. More than 13'000 Yankees fell; Lee lost just 5000. Northern morale sunk in the winter of 1862-1863.
      Lincoln allowed Burnside one more chance. In January, Burnside attempted another campaign against Lee. Four days of rain turned the Union offensive into the ignominious "Mud March," during which the Yankees floundered on mud roads while the Lee's men jeered at them from across the Rappahannock River. Lincoln had seen enough, General Joe Hooker took over command of the army on 26 January 1863.
     Burnside is best remembered for his sideburns.
1856 Battle of Seattle; skirmish between settlers and Indians.
1856 Se celebra el Congreso de París, que intenta poner fin a la guerra de Crimea.
1841 The Oxford Movement in England reached its apex with the appearance of John Henry Newman's Tract No. 90. The storm of controversy which ensued brought the series (begun in 1833) to an end. Later, Newman resigned his Anglican parish and in 1845 converted to Roman Catholicism.
1813 A Fontainebleau Napoléon et Pie VII signent un semblant de concordat en onze articles. Le pape le paraphe à contrecœur et les cardinaux vont se rétracter. Le pape en fait autant le 24 mars. Dès le lendemain, en manière de riposte, Napoléon nomme douze évêques.
1802 Napoleon elected President of the Italian (Cisalpine) Republic
1787 Shays' Rebellion suffers a setback when debt-ridden farmers, led by Captain Daniel Shays, fail to capture an arsenal at Springfield MA
1721 Czar Peter the Great ends Russian-Orthodox patriarchy.
1711 Gerona se rinde al sitio del ejército de Felipe de Anjou y, con ella, toda la provincia.
1579 Treaty of Utrecht signed, marks beginning of Dutch Republic.
1569 Se hace la Real Cédula por la que se establece el Santo Oficio en América, concretamente en las provincias de México y Lima.
1565 Battle at Talikota India Moslems destroy Vijayanagar's army
1554 Sir Thomas Wyatt gathers an army in Kent, rebels against Queen Mary.
1533 (approximate date) England's King Henry VIII secretely marries the 2nd of his six wives, Anne Boleyn, who would give birth to Elizabeth I.
1494 Alfonso II replaces his father as king of Naples.
1515 Sacre de François Ier, 19 ans, à Reims, en l'absence de la reine qui est sur le point d'accoucher. Elle sera couronnée en 1517.
1327 King Edward III accedes to the British throne.
^ 1077 L'Empereur Henri IV s'humilie à Canossa devant le Pape.
      L'épisode célèbre témoigne de la lutte entre le pape saint Grégoire VII [1020 – 25 May 1085] et l'empereur Henri IV [11 Nov 1050 – 07 Aug 1106]. Depuis le milieu du XIème siècle, les papes tentent de réformer l'Église pour la débarrasser de la simonie et du nicolaïsme et la soustraire à l'emprise laïque. Ils rompent ainsi avec la tradition constantinienne, reprise par les Carolingiens et les Ottoniens, de collaboration étroite des deux pouvoirs. Or, les empereurs germaniques tiennent à la nomination des évêques, l'un des fondements de leur pouvoir en Germanie et en Italie. D'où l'exaltation théorique par le pape de sa propre puissance, en particulier dans les vingt-sept propositions du Dictatus papae de 1075. La "lutte du sacerdoce et de l'empire" n'est qu'une conséquence politique de la réforme. En février 1075, un synode romain interdit toute investiture laïque pour les ecclésiastiques ; en décembre 1075, Grégoire VII se prononce en faveur de l'archevêque élu de Milan contre les prétentions d'un concurrent nommé par l'empereur.
      Mais Henri IV, victorieux en Germanie, fait déposer le pape par les évêques allemands réunis à Worms (24 janvier 1076), puis par les évêques lombards réunis à Plaisance. Dans la ligne du Dictatus papae, Grégoire VII répond en déposant Henri IV et en déliant ses sujets de leur serment de fidélité (concile romain de février 1076), ce qui provoque des remous en Germanie : le 16 octobre, à Tribur, les princes invitent le pape à venir juger le roi déchu. Henri IV veut alors devancer les événements: il part pour l'Italie par le Mont-Cenis. Le pape s'est arrêté à Canossa, château de la comtesse Mathilde de Toscane situé au sud-ouest de Reggio d'Émilie; le roi y arrive le 25 janvier 1077 avec une faible escorte ; pendant trois jours, pieds nus, en costume de pénitent, il implore le pardon du pape, qui se laisse fléchir par Mathilde et par Hugues de Cluny, exigeant seulement de Henri IV un vague serment. Le 13 mars, cependant, Henri IV est déposé par les princes allemands qui élisent pour roi Rodolphe de Souabe. Henri vainc Rodolphe en 1078 et 1080, et Grégoire dépose Henri de nouveau le 7 mars 1080 : Canossa n'a servi pratiquement à rien. L'événement montre, cependant, le changement des rapports entre pape et empereur, qui se manifeste à partir du pontificat de Grégoire VII.
0844 Archdeacon John is elected (anti)pope by the populace, against the nobility's candidate, Sergius II [— 27 Jan 847]. John withdraws to the Lateran Palace, his stronghold for a brief period. Concurrently, Sergius is consecrated pope at St. Peter's without imperial sanction. John was saved from being murdered by the noble faction through the intervention of Sergius, who then imprisoned him in a monastery. In the following June, Sergius was finally approved by the Frankish emperor Lothair I, and John's subsequent history is unknown.
^ 0042 Conversion de Saint Paul (date de la fête liturgique)
      Né à Tarse, en Anatolie, vers l'an 9, Saül est un citoyen romain d'origine juive et de langue grecque. Il fait de solides études hébraïques. Devenu rabbin, il enseigne les Ecritures à Jérusalem. C'est l'époque où les disciples de Jésus commencent à prêcher la doctrine chrétienne. Saül prend violemment parti contre eux. Il approuve même la condamnation du diacre Etienne et assiste à son martyre. Il obtient du Sanhédrin, le tribunal juif qui siège au Temple, la mission de pourchasser les chrétiens de Syrie. Mais sur le chemin de Damas, il est terrassé par une force surnaturelle. Une voix lui crie: "Saül, Saül, pourquoi me persécutes-tu?" L'événement se déroule vers l'an 42, soit quelques années après la crucifixion du Christ, et l'Eglise a choisi de le commémorer le 25 janvier. Saül se convertit peu après. Il prend le nom de Paul, traduction latine de Saül, pour se faire mieux accepter dans le monde gréco-romain. Paul va effectuer au total trois grands voyages d'évangélisation en Asie mineure, en Grèce et jusqu'à Rome, multipliant partout les conversions. En l'an 48, se tient à Jérusalem ce qu'il est convenu d'appeler le premier concile ou le concile des Apôtres. A cette occasion, Paul plaide avec succès l'abandon des rituels juifs comme la circoncision, au nom de l'universalité du message chrétien. En butte à l'hostilité des juifs, il est arrêté. Mais il fait valoir sa qualité de citoyen romain et ce statut privilégié lui vaut d'être jugé à Rome... et acquitté. Il rencontre le martyre à Rome après quinze ans d'apostolat. Il est décapité et enseveli en un lieu où s'élève aujourd'hui la superbe basilique de Saint-Paul-hors-les-murs. C'est à Paul que la religion chrétienne doit sa séparation d'avec le judaïsme et sa vocation à l'universalité. Appelé l'Apôtre des "Gentils", c'est à dire des non-juifs, il est considéré comme le deuxième fondateur du christianisme, après le Christ lui-même. Ses quatorze lettres ou épîtres sont un élément central du Nouveau Testament, aux côtés des Quatre Evangiles. Les artistes représentent Paul comme un homme chauve et plutôt laid.
< 24 Jan 26 Jan >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 25 January:

2005:: 258 persons, in stampede among the nearly 300'000 persons attending the yearly full moon festival at the hilltop temple of the Hindu goddess Mandra Devi, near village Wai, Satara district, Maharashtra state, India. The stampede started when pilgrims slipped on the temple's steep stone steps, which were wet with coconut juice spilled from offerings. Scores were crushed to death on the narrow path to the temple, on a craggy hilltop about 1200 weters above sea-level. The commotion then spread to the bottom of the hill, where some people attacked mandaps and pandals (temporary booths of bamboo and canvas, quite flammable, housing shops or shrines) along the lane selling flowers and food. Fire then swept through the shops after cooking gas cylinders exploded, possibly sparked by an overhead power cable. More than 200 persons are injured.
2005 At least 3 Thais and 4 Westerners in a speedboat which capsizes in the Gulf of Thailand in the early hours. The boat was coming from this month's full moon party at Pha-Ngan Island, and was about 5 km from its destination at the larger resort island Samui. About 30 of the approximately 40 persons (most of them drunk) on the boat (designed for 25 passengers) are rescued. About four persons are missing, including the skipper of the boat, Samran Rungruen, who may have fled. Nine persons are injured, including four from Estonia and one from the US. Samui, one of Thailand's top tourist destinations, was not affected by the 26 December 2004 tsunami that killed some 8000 persons in Thailand, most of them on the island Phuket.
2004 Six persons in a fire starting at 04:20 (09:20 UT) on the third floor of the five-story motel Comfort Inn on Congaree Road near Roper Mountain Road, in Greenville, South Carolina. At least 12 persons are injured, including at least two by jumping out of windows. A few others escape unharmed by climbing down on bed sheets tied together, before firefighters arrive and rescue more people. The dead are a boy, about 2, his mother, three other women, and one man.
2004 A US soldier, from wounds sustained the previous day in a grenade attack on his Bradley vehicle on patrol in Beiji, Iraq.
2003 Twelve Palestinians, by Israeli rocket-firing helicopters and some 35 tanks which penetrate at 22:00 (20:00 UT) to nearly the center of Gaza City, in the Zaitoun neighborhood, said to be a stronghold of Hamas, and fire at machine shops and at crowds in the streets, including gunmen called out from mosque loudspeakers. Dozens of Palestinians are wounded. No Israeli is hurt. The incursion is retaliation for 10 Kassam rockets fired the previous day by Hamas from the Gaza Strip on the Israeli Negev town of Sderot, which caused minor material damage and one injury.
2002 T. J. Clifford Baxter, 43, suicide by gunshot to the head. He had resigned as Enron vice chairman in May 2001 after criticizing the company's financial dealings. Baxter said he was distressed over the collapse of the company and concerned about testifying in hearings, possibly against his former colleagues. Baxter had complained mightily to all who would listen about the inappropriateness of our transactions with two LJM partnerships. Related-party transactions conducted within the partnerships cost Enron and caused the company to take a $1.2 billion equity reduction in the third quarter of 2001. The transactions prompted the Securities and Exchange Commission to launch a formal investigation. The revelation of the equity reduction, along with a $1 billion third-quarter charge the company began the process, led to Enron's Chapter 11 bankruptcy filing on 02 December 2001 and to a collapse in the price of its stock, in which the employees' pension plan was locked in, while executives sold their shares before the collapse. Amalgamated Bank named Baxter in a federal lawsuit that alleges 29 officers and directors of Enron sold $1.1 billion in stock while simultaneously misrepresenting the company's financial status. According to the suit, Baxter sold 577'436 shares, netting $35.2 million from October 1998 to November 2001
2002 A suicide bomber who detonates explosives strapped to his body shortly after 11:00 in a pedestrian mall near Tel Aviv's abandoned bus station, 24 bystanders are wounded,
2001 Akiva Pashkus, 45, Israeli shot as he was driving back from dropping off Palestinian employees at the A-Ram Junction, near his business in the Atarot industrial zone of northern Jerusalem.
2001 All 20 passengers and 4 crew members aboard a Rutaca airline Douglas DC-3C airplane, which bursts into flames after it crashes into a large tree on Vía La Piscina in the residential El Perú neighborhood of Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela, as it was trying to return to the airport after experiencing engine problems shortly after takeoff from a refueling stop as it was flying tourist back from Canaima to Partamar, a non scheduled flight.
2000 Herta Taussig Freitag, Austrian US mathematician born on 06 December 1908.
1998 Mohammad Yusuf Khan prime minister of Afghanistan in (1963-1965)
1997 Manuel Tuñón de Lara, historiador español.
1994 Stephen Cole Kleene, US mathematician born on 05 January 1909. Working with Kurt Godel, Alan Turing, and others, he developed recursion theory, a model that predicted whether certain types of mathematical problems could be solved. Recursion theory eventually led to the development of theoretical computer science.
1993 Ttwo CIA employees shot outside agency headquarters in Virginia by a Pakistani, Mir Aimal Kansi, who would be convicted and sentenced to death.
1992 Manuel Hernández Mompó, pintor español.
1991 One Israeli, as missiles fired from western Iraq strike in the Tel Aviv and Haifa areas. More than 40 are injured.
1990 Dámaso Alonso, poeta y académico español.
1990:: 65 of the 158 passengers and 8 of the 9 crew members aboard Avianca Flight 052 from Medellín, which crashes at Cove Neck NY when it runs out of fuel after being ordered near New York into 3 holding patterns totaling 77 minutes before it was allowed to make a desperate attempt to land, which failed on the first try because of wind shear, a 100-meter ceiling, 400-meter visibility, and crew fatigue and stress.
1982 Mihail A Suslov, 79, Soviet party ideologist.
1962 André Lhote, French painter and sculptor born on 05 July 1885. MORE ON LHOTE AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
1952 Sveinn Björnsson, 70, Danish first President of Iceland (1944-1952)
1947 Al[phonse] “Scarface” Capone, of syphilis, in Florida, Chicago gangster born on 17 January 1899.
1940 Day 57 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

British aid fund for Finland already over £100'000
      Central Isthmus: an enemy detachment of company strength attempts another attack on the island of Suursaari in Lake Muolaanjärvi.
      Ladoga Karelia: enemy pressure on the Finnish positions to the northeast of Lake Ladoga continues for the fifth day.
      Eastern Isthmus: in the Taipale sector, Finnish troops repulse an attempted enemy assault in the early morning.
      The Finnish 7th Division defending Taipale announces its overall losses since the beginning of the war: 37 officers and 779 men killed, and 40 officers and 1,980 men wounded.
      Ladoga Karelia: the difficult situation causes the Commander-in-Chief to change Group Talvela's mission in the Tolvajärvi sector to allow it to adopt delaying tactics if necessary.
      Enemy offensives on different fronts are successfully repulsed.
      Elias Simojoki, a former Member of Parliament for the People's Patriotic Movement, is killed by an enemy bullet on the ice of Lake Ladoga as he is destroying an injured horse.
      The voluntary defence organization Maan Turva is collecting musical instruments, games and books to entertain the patients in the military hospitals.
      Abroad: the British aid fund for Finland has already collected over £100'000 (about 25 million markkaa).
      The Norwegian author Sigrid Undset is donating her 1928 Nobel Medal to Finland.
      The French Academy expresses its warm sympathy for the Finnish people.

^ Englannin Suomen rahastoon on kertynyt varoja jo yli 100'000 puntaa Talvisodan 57. päivä, 25.tammikuuta.1940
       Komppanian vahvuinen vihollisosasto yrittää uudelleen hyökätä Muolaanjärven Suursaareen.
      Laatokan koillispuolella jatkuu jo viisi päivää kestänyt vihollisen painostus suomalaisten asemia vastaan.
      Varhain aamulla Taipaleen lohkolla vihollinen suorittaa hyökkäyksen, mutta se torjutaan.
      Taipaletta puolustavan 7. Divisioonan kokonaistappioiden ilmoitetaan olevan sodan alusta lukien kaatuneina 37 upseeria ja 779 miestä sekä haavoittuneina 40 upseeria ja 1980 miestä.
      Ylipäällikkö muuttaa Ryhmä Talvelan tehtävää vaikean tilanteen takia siten, että tarvittaessa se saa siirtyä viivytykseen Tolvajärven suuntaan.
      Vihollisen hyökkäykset eri tahoilla torjutaan.
      Isänmaallisen Kansanliikkeen entinen kansanedustaja Elias Simojoki saa surmansa vihollisen luodista Laatokan jäällä ollessaan lopettamassa haavoittunutta hevosta.
      Maan Turva kerää soittimia, pelejä ja kirjoja sotasairaaloiden potilaiden viihdykkeeksi.
      Ulkomailta: Englannin Suomen rahastoon on kertynyt varoja jo yli 100'000 puntaa eli noin 25 miljoonaa markkaa.
      Kirjailija Sigrid Undset lahjoittaa vuonna 1928 saamansa Nobelin palkinnon mitalin Suomelle.
      Ranskan Akatemia ilmaisee lämpimän myötätuntonsa Suomen kansalle.

^ Finlandsfonden i England har redan gett över 100'000 pund Vinterkrigets 57 dag, den 25 januari 1940
        En rysk avdelning på ett kompani försöker på nytt anfalla ön Suursaari i Muolaanjärvi.
      Nordost om Ladoga fortsätter för femte dagen inkräktarens tryck mot de finska ställningarna.
      Tidigt på morgonen går fienden till attack i Taipaleavsnittet, men attacken avvärjs.
      De totala förlusterna för den 7. Divisionen, som försvarar Taipale, uppges från krigets början vara 37 stupade officerare, 779 stupade soldater, 40 sårade officerare och 1980 sårade soldater. På grund av det svåra läget ändrar överbefälhavaren Grupp Talvelas uppgift så att den vid behov får flytta till fördröjningsställningarna i riktning Tolvajärvi. Fiendens anfall på olika håll avvärjs. Den fosterländska folkrörelsens (IKL:s) före detta riksdagsman Elias Simojoki dödas av fiendens skott på Ladogaisen medan han håller på att avliva en skadad häst. Maan Turva, organisationen för landets trygghet, samlar in instrument, spel och böcker som sysselsättning för patienterna i krigssjukhusen.
      Utrikes: Den engelska Finlandsfonden har samlat medel på över 100 000 pund, dvs. ungefär 25 miljoner mark.
      Författarinnan Sigrid Undset donerar medaljen som hon fick i Nobel-pris år 1928 åt Finland. Frankrikes Akademi uttrycker sitt varma sympati för Finlands folk.
1939: 10'000 die in earthquake in Chillán Chile.
1935 Alfred Loewy, German mathematician born on 20 June 1873. He worked on linear groups, the algebraic theory of differential equations and actuarial mathematics.
1927 Pompeo Mariani, Italian painter born on 09 September 1857. — more with links to images.
1906 Pierre L Goossens, 78, Belgian archbishop of Malines / Cardinal.
1896 Lord Frederick Leighton, English Pre-Raphaelite painter and sculptor born on 03 December 1830. [photo] MORE ON LEIGHTON AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
1896 Vicente Palmaroli González, pintor español.
1894 Emil Weyr, Austrian mathematician born on 21 July 1848.
1891 Karl Stauffer~Bern, suicide, Swiss printmaker, painter, sculptor, and poet, born on 02 September 1857. — more with link to an image.
1864 Markus Simeon Larsson (or Larson), Swedish artist born on 05 January 1825.
1632 Abraham Janssens van Nuyssen, Flemish figure and portrait painter born in 1775. MORE ON JANSSENS AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1516 Fernando II, rey de Aragón, y (V) de Castilla.
1494 Ferdinand I, cruel king of Naples.
1348: 5000 die in earthquake which destroys Villach.
1138 Anacletus II [Cardinal Pietro Pierleone], Jewish anti-pope (1130-1138)
0844 Pope Gregory IV
^ 0098 Marcus Cocceius Nerva, Empereur romain.
     Il est né en 30 après Jésus-Christ. Il nous est bien connu grâce à un livre d'A. Garzetti. Il illustre bien ce que fut la noblesse du Ier siècle de notre ère. Issu d'une famille entrée au Sénat sous Auguste, il est né à Narnia en Ombrie, sans doute le 8 novembre 30. Prêtre salien, questeur puis prêteur sous Néron, il accède au consulat en 71. Il s'entend mieux avec Vespasien qu'avec Domitien : en 93, il s'exile à Tarente. On dit de lui qu'il fut honnête, modeste, effacé, maladif. Son passage à la tête de l'Empire, pour bref qu'il ait été (96-98), n'en fut pas moins marquant ; cependant, malgré la volonté de rupture avec les pratiques de Domitien, Nerva, en raison de sa modération, fut aussi en partie un continuateur : l'opposition entre les deux règnes fut moins grande qu'on ne l'a dit. Certes, il assura au Sénat, sous le nom de " liberté", la sécurité et le respect, et il fit revenir les exilés de Domitien. A la plèbe il fit distribuer du blé (loi frumentaire) et des terres (lois agraires), et il s'occupa beaucoup des provinces (nombreuses inscriptions en Afrique, à Delphes, etc.). Il s'efforça de rétablir l'équilibre budgétaire obéré par les dépenses de Domitien et par un allégement de l'impôt sur les successions. En outre, ses troupes vainquirent les Germains. Mais il n'eut pas le temps de s'occuper des Daces, et les prétoriens lui imposèrent l'exécution des meurtriers de Domitien. Âgé et sans enfants, il adopta Trajan en 97 et mourut le 25 janvier 98. Sous ce prince, l'Empire passa sans à-coups du despotisme de Domitien au paternalisme des Antonins.

 
< 26 Jan 24 Jan >
^  Births which occurred on a 25 January:

1990 Bakhtwar Zardari, in Pakistan, daughter of the first prime minister anywhere to give birth while in office: Benazir Bhutto [21 Jun 1953~], who has a son, Bilawal Zardari [Sep 1988~] born before she first became prime minister on 01 December 1988, and will have another daughter, Asifa Zardari. Their father is Benazir's husband, Asif Ali Zardari [22 Jul 1954~].
1936 Louis Lambert is born in Sanford, Florida. In 1939 he moved to Tampa, where he attended Ballast Point School (except for 4th grade at the Academy of the Holy Names) and Jesuit High School, 1949-1953. He entered the Jesuit Novitiate at St. Charles College in Grand Coteau, LA, on 14 August 1953, together with Michael Alchediak. His brother Jim Lambert had entered in 1952. He studied four years at St. Charles College and three years at Spring Hill College in Mobile, Alabama and graduated in 1960 with a BA in Education and an MA in Philosophy. He taught two years at Jesuit High School in New Orleans, LA and one year at Jesuit High School in El Paso, Texas, before going to Woodstock College near Baltimore, Master of Divinity for 4 years of theology studies, 1963-1967, finishing with his Licentiate of Sacred Theology. He was ordained a priest at Sacred Heart Church, Tampa together with his brother Jim and Michael Alchediak on 07 June 1966. He did his Tertianship in Dublin, Ireland and then two years of further theology studies at Fordham University. 1970-1973 he was Socius to the Novice Director and Academic Dean at St. Charles College; 1973-1978 Vice-Provincial of Formation; 1978-1985 in East Africa as co-founder of Mwangaza Spirituality Centre and Assistant Regional Superior; 1986-1987 Pastor of St. Charles Church in Grand Coteau, LA; 1987-1988 teaching at Jesuit High in New Orleans and Tampa; 1988-1992 at Spring Hill College in Mobile, AL as Campus Minister and Dean of Students; 1992-2000 Pastoral Assistant at Sacred Heart Church in El Paso, Texas; 2000-2004 Pastoral Assistant at Immaculate Conception Church in Albuquerque, New Mexico and since March 2004, Pastoral Assistant at Sacred Heart Church in Tampa. Later he returned to Sacred Heart Church in El Paso, Texas. —(091012)
1935 Antonio dos Santos Ramalho Eanes, político portugués.
1933 Corazon Aquino President of Philippines (1986-1992) — María Corazón Cojuangco, (Corazón Aquino), política filipina.
1931 Paul R. Shanley, who would become a Catholic priest of the Boston archdiocese and have an apostolate to street kids. The Church authorities began receiving molestation complaints about Shanley in 1967. The Boston Archdiocese paid out a $40'000 settlement with an alleged victim in 1991. In 1993, they excluded him from priest duties. In 2002, he was arrested in San Diego, California. The Church laicized him in May 2004. Shanley was put on trial on 18 January 2005, for molesting one accuser who said in his separate civil lawsuit against the Boston Archdiocese that Shanley repeatedly molested him from 1983 to 1989, beginning when he was 6 years old. The accuser said he began to remember the abuse in February 2002, after he read a newspaper story. Prosecutors had considered three other accusers, but had to drop them when they disappeared or their allegations seemed unreliable. On 15 February 2005, Shanley was sentenced to 12 to 15 years in prison.
1928 Eduard Amvroseyevich Shevardnadze Soviet Georgia, foreign minister of USSR (1985-1991), then president of independent Georgia.
1919 League of Nations is founded, first meeting 1 year later.
1917 Ilya Prigogine, científico belga de origen ruso, Premio Nobel de Química 1977.
1906 Le tunnel du Simplon est franchit par son premier train. Long de 19'750 mètres, le tunnel ferroviaire du Simplon restera longtemps le plus long tunnel du monde.
1899 Paul-Henri Spaak Belgium, statesman, leader in European integration He died on 31 July 1972.
1892 Ruby Drakeford, in North Carolina, where she would live past her 112th birthday.
1892 Jessamine Nicholls, English, who would die on 30 October 2002.
1891 William C Bullitt first US ambassador to USSR He died on 15 February 1967.
1890 United Mine Workers of America forms. This labor union has engaged in bitter, and often successful, disputes with coal-mine operators for fair pay, safe working conditions, and other worker benefits. An industrial union, the UMWA includes miners in the bituminous and anthracite coal mines, as well as workers outside the mines.
^ 1886 Wilhelm Furtwängler, German orchestra conductor, who died on 30 November 1954. He was one of the great exponents of Romantic music. Known for his passionate, romantic style, he excelled in the works of Beethoven [17 Dec 1770 – 26 Mar 1827] and Wagner [22 May 1813 – 13 Feb 1883].
—      Né à Berlin, fils de l'archéologue bien connu, Adolf Furtwängler [30 Jun 1853 – 10 Oct 1907], il fut éduqué par des précepteurs. Il étudia pendant de nombreuses années auprès d'Heinrich Schenker [19 Jun 1868 – 14 Jan 1935], théoricien allemand influent, avec qui il analysait les partitions. Le principal poste de direction d'orchestre de sa carrière fut celui de chef du Philharmonique de Berlin, grâce auquel il se fit une réputation pour la puissance et l'expressivité de son approche et pour avoir apporté à la section des cordes un son très riche. Demeuré en Allemagne pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale en dépit de son opposition au régime nazi, il dut prouver, le conflit terminé, sa bonne foi en raison des soupçons de collaboration qui pesaient fortement sur lui (en 1934, il avait publiquement défendu la musique de Paul Hindemith [16 Nov 1895 – 28 Dec 1963], mis en cause par les Nazis). Après la guerre, il reprit une carrière internationale.
      Dans le monde de la direction d'orchestre Wilhelm Furtwängler fait figure d'exception : plus d'un siècle après sa naissance, il est le seul chef dont les témoignages sonores n'ont connu aucune éclipse, continuant à susciter l'admiration ou à provoquer la discussion. Sa stature, sa démarche d'interprétation, les fonctions qu'il a occupées en ont fait un chef hors du commun. Un peu réticent à l'égard du disque, surtout dans ses premiers temps, Furtwängler a bénéficié des recherches d'admirateurs infatigables qui ont exhumé des enregistrements de concert partout où ils pouvaient se trouver. Tous ces documents ont été " modernisés " et ont connu d'emblée les honneurs de la gravure numérique.
      Au cœur de cette action figurent toutes les sociétés Wilhelm Furtwängler qui ont vu le jour principalement dans les pays occidentaux et qui jouent, en outre, un rôle médiatique non négligeable. Cette médiatisation de son art, qu'il avait toujours refusée, n'a pas fait pour autant de lui une vedette. Il reste celui qui était " l'art de diriger fait homme ". Paradoxalement, alors qu'il n'avait pas fait école de son vivant, n'apportant aucun enseignement direct à de jeunes chefs d'orchestre, il semble inspirer la démarche de toute une génération qui a grandi plusieurs années après sa disparition, de Daniel Barenboïm à Simon Rattle, génération qui a su dépasser les problèmes politiques ou les choix d'un répertoire pour recevoir ce qui existe et non supputer ce qui aurait pu exister. L'admiration des jeunes pour ce chef d'orchestre est aussi un élément peu rationnel.
^ 1882 Virginia [Adeline] Woolf London, author (Jacob's Room, To the Lighthouse).
     Her novel To the Lighthouse (1927) is one of her most successful and accessible experiments in the stream-of-consciousness style. The three sections of the book take place between 1910 and 1920 and revolve around various members of the Ramsay family during visits to their summer residence on the Isle of Skye in Scotland. A central motif of the novel is the conflict between the feminine and masculine principles at work in the universe. With her emotional, poetical frame of mind, Mrs. Ramsay represents the female principle, while Mr. Ramsay, a self-centered philosopher, expresses the male principle in his rational point of view. Both are flawed by their limited perspectives. A painter and friend of the family, Lily Briscoe, is Woolf's vision of the androgynous artist who personifies the ideal blending of male and female qualities. Her successful completion of a painting that she has been working on since the beginning of the novel is symbolic of this unification. Virginia Woolf died on 28 March 1941.
WOOLF ONLINE: Monday or TuesdayMonday or TuesdayNight and DayNight and DayThe Voyage Out The Voyage Out. In her writing, Virginia Woolf attempted to reveal the truth of human experience, emotion, and thought: all of the things that the couples in a play (also made into a movie) by Edward Alby try to cover up when they sing “Who's afraid of Virginia Woolf?”.
1879 Gabriel Maura y Gamazo, escritor y político español.
1874 Hewlett Johnson [Red Dean of Canterbury], English bishop.
^ 1874 William Somerset Maugham
     Somerset Maugham is born at the British embassy in Paris on 25 January 1874. Both his father and his grandfather were lawyers, and his brother later became Lord Chancellor of England. Maugham was unsuited to the law profession, however, due to his pronounced stammer and extreme shyness, exacerbated by the death of his parents when he was 10. Maugham chose medicine instead of law. His first novel, Liza of Lambeth, describes his experiences working in London's slums. Maugham took up writing full time but did not turn out another successful novel for more than 10 years. He did, however, become an immensely popular playwright. By 1908, he had four successful plays running in London at once, which brought him great financial success.
      During World War I, Maugham worked as a secret agent. He later wrote about his experiences in Ashendon (1928), a collection of short stories. His portrayal of a suave, sophisticated spy influenced his friend Ian Fleming, creator of James Bond. In 1915, Maugham published Of Human Bondage (1915), a semi-autobiographical account of a young medical student's artistic awakening.
      On 4 December 1916, Maugham sailed off on a voyage to Pago Pago. Characters he meets on the voyage, including a prostitute and a missionary, inspire the story Miss Thompson, which is published in his 1923 story collection, The Trebling of a Leaf. The story becomes the play Rain, which is filmed three times, once starring Gloria Swanson, once with Joan Crawford, and once with Rita Hayworth.
      In 1917, he married the mother of his 18-month-old daughter, but during their 10-year marriage he carried on a long affair with an American man, with whom he later shared an elaborate villa in the south of France.
      In 1919, Maugham published The Moon and Sixpence, featuring an unconventional artist based on Paul Gauguin. He denied that the writer portrayed in his 1930 novel, Cakes and Ale, was based on Thomas Hardy, but many saw striking similarities between the two. His 1944 novel, The Razor's Edge, about an American war veteran, was also successful. Maugham also continued to write plays, short stories, and critical essays. He died on 16 December 1965 in Nice, France.
MAUGHAM ONLINE: The Moon and SixpenceOf Human BondageOf Human Bondage

1870 Niels Fabian Helge von Koch, Stockholm Swedish mathematician who died on 11 March 1924. He is best known for the fractal Koch curve.
1870 Hugo Vilfred Pedersen, Danish artist who died in 1959.
1863 Rufus Matthew Jones, US Quaker and author who died on 16 June 1948.
1860 Charles Curtis, US 31st vice president, who died on 08 February 1936.
1857 Alexander-Demetrius Goltz, Hungarian artist who died in 1944.
1857 Max Nonnenbruch, German artist who died on 13 March 1922.
1855 Sophus Christian Juel, Danish mathematician who died on 24 January 1935.
1851 Adolfo Tommasi, Italian artist who died on 04 October 1933.
1843 Hermann Amandus Schwarz, German mathematician who died on 30 November 1921. He worked on the conformal mapping of polyhedral surfaces onto the spherical surface and on a problem of the calculus of variation, namely surfaces of least area.
1834 Otto Scholderer, German painter who died on 22 January 1902. — more with links to images.
1829 Carlos de Haes, pintor español de origen holandés.
1816 Hermann Werner, German artist who died in February 1905.
1812 William Shanks, English mathematician who died in 1882. In 1873 he calculated p (pi) to 707 places, of which the first 527 were correct. Note that 30 places would suffice to calculate the circumference of the universe to the nearest millimeter. Here are the 527 correct places:
3.141592653589793238462643383279502884197169399375105820974944592
3078164062862089986280348253421170679821480865132823066470938446
0955058223172535940812848111745028410270193852110555964462294895
4930381964428810975665933446128475648233786783165271201909145648
5669234603486104543266482133936072602491412737245870066063155881
7488152092096282925409171536436789259036001133053054882046652138
4146951941511609433057270365759591953092186117381932611793105118
548074462379962749567351885752724891227938183011949129833673362

1806 Daniel Maclise, Irish painter who died on 25 April 1870. MORE ON MACLISE AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1786 Benjamin Robert Haydon, English historical painter and writer who died on 22 June 1846.

^ 1759 Robert Burns, Alloway, Scotland, poet
      Robert Burns, the son of a poor farmer, received little formal schooling, though he was well-read. A restless, dissatisfied spirit, he fell in love with Jean Armour in the mid-1780s but, on 6 August 1786, after she became pregnant, got released from a questionable marriage contract. (Later, the pair finally married and had nine children, the last one born on the day of Burns' funeral.)
      His first poetry collection, Poems and Songs, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, had just been published and had started attracting favorable attention. Burns soon became the darling of elite Edinburgh intellectuals. Burns is perhaps more famous for his lively lyrics in the Scottish dialect than for his longer, more literary poems.
      Burns is still beloved and celebrated today. Burns fans around the world celebrate his birthday, January 25, with rowdy and ribald dinners of haggis and other Scottish delicacies, and his words resound every New Year's Eve, when For Auld Lang Syne is sung (an old song to which he added a part). He died on 21 July 1796.
     Burns wrote “Ode to a Haggis”, a national dish of Scotland, which is a large spherical sausage made of the liver, heart, and lungs of a sheep, all chopped and mixed with beef or mutton suet and oatmeal and seasoned with onion, cayenne pepper, and other spices. The mixture is packed into a sheep's stomach and boiled. Haggis is usually accompanied by turnips and mashed potatoes; Scotch whisky is customarily drunk with it (presumably to overcome the urge to vomit).
—      Another site for Poems and Songs.
AULD LANG SYNE (2.2 M wav)
Should auld acquaintance be forgot / and never brought to mind? / Should auld acquaintance be forgot / and days of auld lang syne?
(Chorus:) For auld lang syne, my dear, / for auld lang syne, / we'll take a cup o' kindness yet / for auld lang syne.
We twa hae run aboot the braes / And pou'd the gowans fine; / we've wander'd mony a weary foot / Sin' auld lang syne. (Chorus)
We twa hae paidl't i' the burn, / Frae mornin' sun till dine; / But seas between us braid hae roar'd / Sin' auld lang syne. (Chorus)
And here's my hand my trusty frien', / and gie's a hand o' thine; / we'll take a right gude-willi waught / for days of auld lang syne. (Chorus)
And surely ye'll be your pint-stowp, / And surely I'll be mine; / And we'll tak a cup o' kindness yet / For auld lang syne. (Chorus)
Meaning of some words:
lang syne = long ago / braes = hillsides / pou'd = pulled / gowans = daisies / paidl't = waded / burn = stream / braid = broad / stowp = payer
1741 Benedict Arnold General /traitor (US revolution)
1635 L'Académie Française: Richelieu n'ayant guère de prise les assemblées qu'il ne domine. Il assoit son pouvoir par leur création et en tire un nouveau prestige. Ce jour, il érige le petit groupe des "amis des lettres françaises" en une académie dont il devient le protecteur. Le nombre d'académiciens est fixé à quarante. Parmi les plus influents du jour, il y a Vaugelas, Séguier, Voiture.
1739 Charles François du Périer, plus connu sous le nom de Dumouriez, naît à Cambrai. Il lui reviendra la gloire de repousser l'invasion ennemie à Valmy. Demain: Le 26 janvier 1788, premier convoi de bagnards en Australie.
1736 Joseph-Louis comte de Lagrange, Turin, French mathematician. He died on 10 April 1813.
1627 Robert Boyle, British mathematician, natural philosopher, and theological writer, who died on 31 December 1691. He was a preeminent figure of 17th-century intellectual culture. He was best known as a natural philosopher, particularly in the field of chemistry, but his scientific work covered many areas including hydrostatics, physics, medicine, earth sciences, natural history, and alchemy. His prolific output also included Christian devotional and ethical essays and theological tracts on biblical language, the limits of reason, and the role of the natural philosopher as a Christian. He sponsored many religious missions as well as the translation of the Scriptures into several languages. In 1660 he helped found the Royal Society of London. also called Mariotte's Law, a relation concerning the compression and expansion of a gas at constant temperature. In 1662 he discovered empirically that at constant temperature pv = k, where p is the pressure of a given quantity of gas, v its volume, and k a constant. This is Boyle's Law, which gases obey at sufficiently low pressures, although the product pv generally decreases slightly at higher pressures.
1708 Pompeo-Girolamo Batoni, Italian painter who died on 04 February 1787. MORE ON BATONI AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1627 Boyle, mathematician and chemist who died on 30 December 1691.
1585 Hendrick van Avercamp “de Stomme van Kampen”, Dutch painter who died in 1664 give or take a year. MORE ON VAN AVERCAMP AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1574 Lucas Franchoys Sr., Flemish artist who died on 16 September 1643.
1554 La misión de San Pablo es fundada por el jesuita vasco José de Anchieta.
1540 Edmund Campion London, saint / Jesuit martyr (December Rationes)
1509 Giovanni Morone, Italian cardinal and diplomat who died on 01 December 1580. {not a moron}
1477 Anne de Bretagne wife of Maximilian of Austria and Louis XII
0749 Leo IV (the Khazar) Byzantine emperor (775-780)
Religious Observances   Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran : Conversion of St Paul the Apostle / La Conversión de San Pablo, santa Elvira, santos Donato y Sabino.
Holidays Uganda : 2nd Republic Day / Russia: Tatiana Day, [story in Russian]
QUESTION OF THE DAY: Which US city is two letters away from a soft drink? (Answer tomorrow).
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Thoughts of the day:
“A clean, tidy house is a sign of a misspent life.”
“Cleanliness is next to godlessness.”
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updated Monday 12-Oct-2009 21:37 UT
Principal updates:
v.9.00 Saturday 17-Jan-2009 17:36 UT
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v.6.20 Saturday 18-Mar-2006 3:57 UT
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Sunday 25-Jan-2004 18:28 UT