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Events, deaths, births, of JAN 24
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ALOY price chart^  On a 24 January:
2005 At the Knesset in Jerusalem, Erela Golan (Shinui party), and several other women members which she organized, come dressed in red, in protest against a ritual ruling by rabbi Eliyahu Abergil, head of the rabbinical court in Beersheba, prohibiting Jewish women from wearing that color, as being distinctive of prostitutes.
2003 Alloy Online (ALOY) forecasts earnings much lower than previously expected. On the NASDAQ, 18 million of the 179 million ALOY shares are traded, dropping from their previous close of $9.10 to an intraday low of $4.15 and closes at $4.53. They had traded as high as $21.91 as recently as 21 January 2002. [4~year price chart >] Alloy is a catalog and mail order retailer which targets the age range 10 to 24.
2001 New Year's Day for the Year of the Snake, according to the Chinese Calendar (Details)
2001 Study of tree and two saplings, by Baccio Della Porta “Fra Bartolommeo” (1472-1517) goes on auction at Christies. Is is expected to sell for close to $200'000. PICTURE AND MORE  AT ART “4” JANUARY
2001 The remaining two fugitives of the "Texas 7", Patrick Murphy Jr. and Donald Newbury, are arrested without incident in Colorado Springs, CO. The van they used had been seized there, and the hotel where the convicts where they were hiding surrounded the previous day.
^ 2001 Police dogs get bulletproof vests.
     Twelve K-9 police dogs in San Jose, California get bulletproof vests, thanks to a donation from the local family of Leslie Mayr. The San Jose dogs were the latest to benefit from publicity over programs like "Vest-a-Dog," an Orange County, Calif.-based nonprofit organization which aims to find public donors for canine bulletproof vests.
     Dog vests have only recently been introduced to law enforcement and provide police dogs with added protection during high-risk searches. The vests run from collar to tail, attaching under the animal's belly with Velcro straps. Made of the same materials used in human body armor, the jackets are designed to protect most vital organs of the dog from gunshots or stab attempts.
K-9 body armor      While the vests — which come in black, navy and olive green — are not cheap ( $500 to $600 each), officials say that is small price to pay considering police dogs themselves can cost as much as $8,000 apiece. Vest-A-Dog was launched in 1999 by an 11-year-old California girl who grew concerned about K-9 safety after reading about a New Jersey police dog killed in the line of duty. To date, the nonprofit organization has helped arrange funding to provide bulletproof vests for some 600 police dogs around the country.

K-9 Armor – Canine Vests are featured on the manufacturer's web page http://www.bulletproofme.com/Bomb_and_Canine_Armour.shtml
Comfortable design to protect the dog’s sides, back, underside and chest, yet still allow freedom of movement. Chest protection is vital for police canines, as that is one of the most exposed areas in a confrontation. Adjustable side elastic straps secured with Velcro to allow one size to fit police dogs ~25 - 45 kg.. (Measure your dog, base of neck to base of tail, if you are unsure of your dog being the standard size.). Outer carrier constructed of tough, water repellent Cordura Nylon - easy to wipe clean as necessary. Optional Nylon mesh inside pockets on each side for Thermal Wear cooling panels ($150) – critical for canine health in the heat. Large logo identification on each side (and we can add your local Identification patches at no extra charge)
     Prices: Level II-A $500 / Level II $550 / Level III-A $600
^ 1999 (Sunday) Clinton impeachment developments: Prosecutors question Lewinsky.       ^top^
(1) Three House impeachment managers meet for nearly two hours this afternoon with Monica Lewinsky in a session the managers describe as "productive" — but which her attorney says "adding nothing" to the record in President Bill Clinton's impeachment trial. Today's meeting takes place inside the posh Mayflower Hotel, where Lewinsky stays overnight. Hutchinson, McCollum and Rep. Ed Bryant, R-Tennessee, attend the session, along with David Schippers, the House Judiciary Committee's chief impeachment investigator.
      The House managers portray the meeting as a routine, get-acquainted session with the woman at the heart of the perjury and obstruction-of-justice case against Clinton. "We simply want her to understand that she's likely to be a witness," McCollum said earlier on ABC's "This Week." "We found her to be a very personable and impressive young woman, and we found that she might be a very helpful witness to the Senate if she's called," says Rep. Bill McCollum, R-Florida. "I believe that she would be a witness that would help (senators) determine the truth, and that's what we're all endeavoring to do during this process," says Rep. Asa Hutchinson, R-Arkansas.
      But Lewinsky's attorney, Plato Cacheris, says Lewinsky adds nothing new to what she has said previously about her relationship with Clinton. And he makes a plea to the managers not to put her through the ordeal of testifying in the Senate. "It is unnecessary to call her as a witness, because all of her testimony is fully and completely disclosed," he says. "We hope, on behalf of Monica and her family, that this long nightmare that has endured in their lives will come to a quick conclusion." Democrats criticize the interview as a last-minute fishing expedition and an attempt to intimidate Lewinsky into changing her testimony to help the House managers. America's best-known floozy

(2) Former Clinton political confidant Dick Morris also meets for two hours with staff lawyers from the House Judiciary Committee, though no impeachment managers are present. Morris describes it as "a very good and a cordial meeting" during which the lawyers went over his grand jury testimony related to conversations with Clinton after the Lewinsky scandal broke. He said he provided some "amplification" in response to their questions. Morris: Willing to talk to just about anyone, anytime, anywhere

(3) Today the woman who claimed she was propositioned by then-Gov. Bill Clinton in an Arkansas hotel room attends an event in Beebe, Arkansas, also attended by the president. Paula Jones is spotted in the audience as the president makes remarks to a crowd of residents outside a wrecked shell of the junior high school in an area hit hard by a tornado on 21 January. "I didn't come to see him," Jones tells the press. "I came to see what they're going to do about the community." Jones, who lives in California with her husband Steve, says she is visiting friends in the area when the tornado hit. Jones is from nearby Cabot, Arkansas. Clinton seems unaware that Jones is in the crowd. He ignores reporters who seek some reaction from him about Jones' presence.

1998 Estados Unidos sorprende a la comunidad internacional con la amenaza de iniciar una acción militar contra Irak y, por lo tanto, actuar fuera del marco del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas.
1996 The US Food and Drug Admnistration approves Olestra, the first zero-calorie artificial fat.
1996 Polish Premier, Jozef Oleksy, resigned due to allegations that he had spied for Moscow.
1996 MCI and News Corp. team up to win a Federal Communications Commission auction for a license to beam hundreds of television channels from a high-powered satellite. The companies paid a combined $682 million for the license and planned to start a direct broadcast satellite service (DBS). DBS, which broadcasts to small satellite dishes about the size of pizza boxes, was a fledgling industry at the time.
1994 Dow Jones closes above 3900 for first time (3914.48)
1994 Computer publisher Ziff-Davis announces its commercial online service, Interchange, offering e-mail, discussion groups, games, and articles from PC Magazine, MacUser, and other computer magazines. Later that year, the company sold Interchange to AT&T for $50 million, but AT&T shut the service down in 1996. Another Ziff-Davis venture, ZDNet, wauld become one of the most popular content sites on the Web.
^ 1994 Nynex telephone corporation reduces work force.
      The Nynex Corporation, one of New York's leading phone providers, announced that it was laying off 16'800 workers over the next three years. Along with the cuts, which represented 20% of Nynex's work force, the company reported that it would take a hefty $1.6 billion charge for the year. Although these moves partially stemmed from the company's disappointing fourth quarter performance, they also reflected Nynex's drive to protect its stake in one of the nation's prime communication markets. Company chairman and CEO, William C. Ferguson conceded that the layoffs were "painful," although he tended to focus more on the bottom line than on the human consequences. "This is a significant step," he reasoned. "We have to this to be a viable company moving forward."
1992 Muauiya Uld Taya vence en las primeras elecciones presidenciales libres en Mauritania.
1989 Amigos íntimos de Mitterrand son acusados en Francia de emplear información confidencial para negociar con acciones.
1989 The Rev. Barbara C. Harris, 55, of Boston, is confirmed as the first female bishop in the 450-year history of the Anglican Church.
1986 South Yemen Premier Haydar Bakr al-Attas becomes interim-president 1978
1986 The Voyager 2 space probe comes within 82'000 km of Uranus, giving scientists their best-ever look at the planet.
1985 José Antonio Ardanza es elegido presidente del Gobierno Autónomo Vasco, a consecuencia del acuerdo firmado días atrás entre el PNV y el PSOE.
^ 1984 Macintosh computers go on sale
      The first Macintoshes' price is $2495 on this day in 1984. Despite a frenzy of publicity, including a $500'000 commercial aired during the Super Bowl, the Mac failed to catch on immediately. In fact, it was not until Aldus introduced PageMaker, the first desktop publishing software, in mid-1985 that Macintosh sales took off. Eventually, the Macintosh transformed computing through its user-friendly graphics and use of the mouse. The machine also introduced small, hard, plastic disks that would replace the larger, flexible floppy disks used by personal computers at the time.
^ 1980 US announces military equipment sales to China
      In a reaction to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, US officials announce that America is ready to sell military equipment (excluding weapons) to communist China. The surprise statement was part of the US effort to build a closer relationship with the People's Republic of China for use as leverage against possible Soviet aggression. The announcement concerning military equipment sales was one of many actions on the U.S-China front taken in the wake of the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan in December 1979. The US Congress, on the same day, approved most-favored-nation trading status for China. In addition, an agreement was signed for the construction of a station in China that would be able to receive information from an American satellite; such information would aid China in such fields as agriculture and mining. The proposed sale of military equipment, however, was the most dramatic and controversial move made by the administration of President Jimmy Carter. Though such equipment would be limited to non-weapon materiel related to such areas as transportation and communications, the step was a significant one in terms of the developing US-China relationship. The fact that the announcement occurred so soon after the Soviet action in Afghanistan was no coincidence — as one US official noted, that action "sped up or catalyzed the process." The Carter administration's decision to sell military equipment to communist China barely a year after establishing diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China was an indication of just how seriously the United States government viewed the Soviet attack on Afghanistan. The US response to the Soviet Union was multi-faceted and vigorous, including diplomatic broadsides, economic sanctions, and even boycotting the 1980 Olympic games in Moscow. Many political analysts believed that the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan was a grievous diplomatic error, as it virtually ended any talk of détente with the United States.
1978 Carter Executive Order on Intelligence (#12036)
1978 A nuclear-powered Soviet satellite plunges through Earth's atmosphere and disintegrates, scattering radioactive debris over parts of northern Canada.
1977 Los GRAPO (Grupos de Resistencia Antifascista Primero de Octubre) secuestran en Madrid al presidente del Consejo Supremo de Justicia Militar, teniente general Villaescusa Quilis.
1975 Fastest Earth-bound object, 7200 kph, in vacuum centrifuge, England
1975 Rev. F. Donald Coggan, 66, is consecrated the 101th Archbishop of Canterbury (primate of Anglicanism). In the audience was Johannes Cardinal Willebrands, the first Vatican representative to attend this Anglican ceremony.
1973 Truce expected in Laos and Cambodia.       ^top^
      National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger announces that a truce is expected in Laos and Cambodia. Kissinger had been meeting privately with Le Duc Tho and other North Vietnamese and Viet Cong representatives in Paris since early January. They had worked out a peace agreement that was initialled in Paris on 23 January "to end the war and bring peace with honor in Vietnam and Southeast Asia." Under the provisions of the agreement, a cease-fire would begin in Vietnam at 08:00, 28 January, Saigon time (19:00, 27 January, US Eastern Standard Time). Kissinger said that the terms of the agreement would be extended to Cambodia and Laos, where government troops had been locked in deadly combat with the local communist forces (Khmer Rouge and Pathet Lao, respectively) and their North Vietnamese allies.
1972 the US Supreme Court strikes down laws that deny welfare benefits to people who have resided in a state for less than a year.
^ 1972 WW II ends at last for Japanese soldier on Guam
      After twenty-eight years of hiding in the jungles of Guam, local farmers discover Shoichi Yokoi, 57, a Japanese sergeant who was unaware that World War II had ended. Guam, a two-hundred-square-mile island in the western Pacific, became a US possession in 1898 after the Spanish-American War. In 1941, it was attacked and captured by the Japanese, and in 1944, after three years of Japanese occupation, US forces retook Guam.
      It was at this time that Yokoi, left behind by the retreating Japanese forces, went into hiding rather than surrender to the Americans. In the jungles of Guam, he handcrafted survival tools and for the next three decades waited for the return of the Japanese and his next orders. After he was discovered in 1972, he was finally discharged and sent home to Japan where he was hailed as a national hero. He subsequently married and returned to Guam for his honeymoon. In 1997, he died at the age of eighty-two. His handcrafted survival tools and threadbare uniform are on display in the Guam Museum in Agana.
1967 En su discurso presupuestario, el presidente de Estados Unidos, Lyndon Baines Johnson, pide al Congreso la concesión de 12'300 millones de dólares para la guerra de Vietnam.
^ 1966 “Search-and-Destroy” in Vietnam
       In the largest search-and-destroy operation to date — Operation Masher/White Wing/Thang Phong II — the US 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), South Vietnamese, and Korean forces sweep through Binh Dinh Province in the central lowlands along the coast. The purpose of the operation was to drive the North Vietnamese out of the province and destroy enemy supply areas. In late January, it became the first large unit operation conducted across corps boundaries when the cavalrymen linked up with Double Eagle, a US Marine Corps operation intended to destroy the North Vietnamese 325A Division. Altogether, there were reported enemy casualties of 2389 by the time the operation ended. Also on this day: Defense Secretary Robert McNamara, in a memorandum to President Johnson, recommends raising the number of US troops in Vietnam to more than 400,000 by the end of the year. However, he warned that planned deployments and increased bombing would not ensure military success. Ultimately, McNamara was correct and the war raged on even as total US troop strength in country went over 500'000 soldiers in 1969.
1964 24th Amendment to US Constitution goes into effect and states voting rights could not be denied due to failure to pay taxes
1962: 28 refugees escape from East to West Germany
1960 Algeria uprises against French President De Gaulle.
1959 Juan XXIII anuncia la convocatoria de un concilio ecuménico.
1958 After being heated to 100'000'000º, 2 light atoms are bashed together to create a heavier atom, resulting in first man-made nuclear fusion
1944 Allied troops occupy Nettuno Italy.
^ 1943 Hitler is asked to let his troops in Stalingrad surrender
       German Gen. Friedrich von Paulus, commander in chief of the German 6th Army at Stalingrad, urgently requests permission from Adolf Hitler to surrender his position there, but Hitler refuses. The Battle of Stalingrad began in the summer of 1942, as German forces assaulted the city, a major industrial center and a prized strategic coup. But despite repeated attempts and having pushed the Soviets almost to the Volga River in mid-October and encircling Stalingrad, the 6th Army, under Paulus, and part of the 4th Panzer Army could not break past the adamantine defense of the Soviet 62nd Army. Diminishing resources, partisan guerilla attacks, and the cruelty of the Russian winter began to take their toll on the Germans. On 19 November 1942, the Soviets made their move, launching a counteroffensive that began with a massive artillery bombardment of the German position. The Soviets then assaulted the weakest link in the German force-inexperienced Romanian troops. Sixty-five thousand were ultimately taken prisoner by the Soviets. The Soviets then made a bold strategic move, encircling the enemy, and launching pincer movements from north and south simultaneously, even as the Germans encircled Stalingrad. The Germans should have withdrawn, but Hitler wouldn't allow it. He wanted his armies to hold out until they could be reinforced. By the time those fresh troops arrived in December, it was too late. The Soviet position was too strong, and the Germans were exhausted. By 24 January, the Soviets had overrun Paulus' last airfield. His position was untenable and surrender was the only hope for survival. Hitler wouldn't hear of it: "The 6th Army will hold its positions to the last man and the last round." Paulus held out until 31 January 1943, when he finally surrendered. Of more than 280'000 men under Paulus' command, half were already dead or dying, about 35'000 had been evacuated from the front, and the remaining 91'000 were hauled off to Soviet POW camps. Paulus eventually sold out to the Soviets altogether, joining the National Committee for Free Germany and urging German troops to surrender. Testifying at Nuremberg for the Soviets, he was released and spent the rest of his life in East Germany.
^ 1943 Roosevelt aims at unconditional surrender of Axis powers
      At the end of an Allied conference at Casablanca, Morocco, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt publicly announces his doctrine of "unconditional surrender" for Germany, Italy, and Japan, including "total and political capitulation." Codenamed Symbol, the Allied conference was attended by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill [30 Nov 1874 – 24 Jan 1965] and Free French generals Charles de Gaulle and Henri Giraud. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin was too busy with the Battle of Stalingrad to attend. In light of the recent Allied successes in North Africa, Roosevelt and Churchill agreed that an attack on Sicily, rather than France, should be next in the Allied war plan. They also agreed to divide their resources equally between the Mediterranean and the Pacific theaters of war, and make plans for the continuation of highly secret talks begun in 1942 on the development of the atomic bomb.
      At the concluding press conference held on January 24, Roosevelt surprised Churchill by announcing his concept of unconditional surrender. Roosevelt and his military advisors had formulated the doctrine, which had its origins in the American Civil War, as early as 1941, but the British, who were accustomed to the European tradition of mutual peace accords, did not immediately support the concept. However, after Roosevelt's public announcement of his objective of unconditional surrender, Churchill promptly endorsed the plan and, by the end of 1943, the unconditional surrender of the Axis powers had become the primary war aim of the Allies.
1942 A court of inquiry into America's lack of preparedness for the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor places much of the blame on Rear Adm. Husband E. Kimmel and Lt. Gen. Walter C. Short, the Navy and Army commanders.
1941 British troops march into Abyssinia
1939 Spanish government moves to Figueras
1935 first canned beer, "Krueger Cream Ale," is sold by Kruger Brewing Co in Richmond VA
1924 Russian city of St Petersburg (or Petrograd) renamed Leningrad. It will revert to St. Petersburg after the fall of Communism.
1924 Mussolini outlaws non-fascist labor unions.
1924 Kingsford, Michigan, the Ford Motor Company’s planned community, is incorporated as a village. The company owned large tracts of timber in the area, which were used to produce wooden auto-body panels like those commonly seen on its station wagons in later decades.
^ 1916 US Supreme Court rules in favor of Income Tax constitutional amendment.
     An income tax was instituted during the Civil War and repealed in 1872. Congress passed an income tax bill in 1894, but the Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional because it failed to raise revenues proportional to the various populations of America’s states. Congress passed the Sixteenth Amendment in 1909 that, after state ratification in 1913, granted the federal government constitutional authority to levy an income tax.
1915 German-British sea battle at Doggersbank and Helgoland.
^ 1907: 219 km/h on a bike
      In Ormond Beach, Florida, Glenn Curtiss, an engineer who got his start building motors for bicycles, set an unofficial land-speed record on a self-built V-8 motorcycle on this day: 219.3 km/h. No automobile surpassed that speed until 1911. In 1907, four years after the Wilbur and Orville Wright accomplished the first successful airplane at Kitty Hawk, Curtiss established the Curtiss Aeroplane Company, the first airplane manufacturing company in the United States. In the next year, the "June Bug," an aircraft powered by a Curtiss engine, won the Scientific American Trophy for the first flight in the US covering one kilometer. In 1909, Curtiss, piloting his own planes, won major flying events in Europe and America. Over the next five years, Curtiss continued to be an innovator in airplane design, and in January of 1911, built and demonstrated the world’s first seaplane for the US Navy.
1905 Un decreto del zar establece la dictadura militar en San Petersburgo.
1900 Se adopta en Alemania la Ley Tirpitz sobre armamento naval.
1900 Londres y Pretoria inician una acción mediadora de paz en la Guerra de los Boers.
1900 Battle at Tugela-Spionkop, South Africa (Boers vs British army)
While imprisoned in Iolani Palace, Queen Liliuokalani is forced to abdicate by representatives of the Republic of Hawaii.
1892 Battle at Mengo, Uganda French missionaries attack British missionaries.
^ 1865 Confederate Congress to resume prisoner exchanges
      The Confederate Congress agrees to continue prisoner exchanges, opening a process that had operated only sporadically for three years. In the first year of the war, prisoner exchanges were conducted primarily between field generals on an ad hoc basis. The Union was reluctant to enter any formal agreements, fearing that it would legitimize the Confederate government. But the issue became more important as the campaigns escalated in 1862. On July 2, 1862, Union General John Dix and Confederate General Daniel H. Hill reached an agreement. Under the Dix-Hill cartel, each soldier was assigned a value according to rank. For example, privates were worth another private, corporals and sergeants were worth two privates, lieutenants were worth three privates, etc. A commanding general was worth 60 privates. Under this system, thousands of soldiers were exchanged rather than languishing in prisons like those in Andersonville, Georgia, or Elmira, New York.
      The system was really a gentlemen's agreement, relying on the trust of each side. The system broke down in 1862 when Confederates refused to exchange black Union soldiers. From 1862 to 1865, prisoner exchanges were rare. When they did happen, it was usually because two local commanders came to a workable agreement. The result of the breakdown was the swelling of prisoner-of-war camps in both North and South. The most notorious of all the camps was Andersonville, where one-third of the 46,000 Union troops incarcerated died of disease, exposure, or starvation. Though the prisoner exchanges resumed, the end of the war was so close that it did not make much difference.
1862 Romania principality arises under King Alexander Cuza
1861 Federal troops from Fort Monroe are sent to Fort Pikens
1861 Arsenal at Augusta GA seized by Confederacy 1861 Georgia state troops take over the US Arsenal at
1860 Internal-combustion engine is patented.
      French inventor Etienne Lenoir was issued a patent for the first successful internal-combustion engine. Lenoir’s engine was a converted steam engine that burned a mixture of coal gas and air. Its two-stroke action was simple but reliable — many of Lenoir’s engine were still working after 20 years of use. His first engines powered simple machines like pumps and bellows. However, in 1862, Lenoir built his first automobile powered by an internal-combustion engine — a vehicle capable of making a six-mile trip in two to three hours. It wasn’t a practical vehicle, but it was the beginning of the automobile industry.
1848 Gold discovered in California: James Marshall finds gold in Sutter's Mill in Coloma. It would be until after US President James K. Polk confirms the discovery in December for it to be generally believed and for the gold rush "California Gold Rush" of the Forty-Niners to start. [MORE]
1847: 1500 New Mexican Indians and Mexicans defeated by US Colonel Price
1839 Charles Darwin elected member of Royal Society.
1742 German leaders elect Charles Arbert, 44, "elector" of Bavaria Charles VII as Holy Roman Emperor, the only non-Habsburg one between 1437 and the end of the Holy Roman Emperor title in 1806.
1722 Czar Peter the Great begins civil system.
1679 King Charles II "the merry monarch", 48, during the English Restoration, disbands English parliament which had passed a Bill of Exclusion from succession to the throne of the king's Catholic brother James Duke of York (later James II) in the Anglican hysteria that had been fanned by the phony Popish Plot of 1678.
1652 Duke of Orléans joins Fronde rebels.
1643 Felipe IV despide a su valido, el conde-duque de Olivares, enfermo y hundido por el estrepitoso fracaso de su política.
1639 Connecticut colony organizes under Fundamental Orders.
1534 François I signs classified treaty with evangelical German monarchy.
1521 Fernando Magallanes descubre la isla de San Pablo en el archipiélago de Tuamotú.
1458 Matthias I Corvinus chosen king of Hungary.
1336 Pedro IV es proclamado rey de Aragón tras la muerte de su padre Alfonso IV.
1118 Giovanni Caetani elected Pope Gelasius II.
1076 Synod of Worms German King Henry IV fires Pope Gregory VII
0817 St Paschal I begins his reign as Pope succeeding Stephen IV.
< 23 Jan 25 Jan >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 24 January:

2005 A suicide car bomber, at a checkpoint on a street leading to the Baghdad party office of Iraq's puppet prime minister Iyad Allawi. Seven policemen and three civilians are wounded.
2004 Abdul Rahman Munif, 71, of kidney failure and heart disease, author whose critically praised novels looked at political oppression in the Middle East and were often banned by Arab governments. Munif wrote about 15 novels, including the five- part Mudun al- Milh (Cities of Salt) series, considered his masterpiece, and East of the Mediterranean. Cities of Salt deals with the changes that the exploitation of oil brought about among Bedouins in Saudi Arabia. No other Arab novelist has taken such a detailed look at the psychological and sociological impact of oil on a community. In The Ends he described the torture and suffering he endured as a political prisoner. The book did not reveal in which country the events took place, but it was believed to be Saudi Arabia. When Munif died, he was working on a book on Iraq, where he had studied and later worked. Many of his books were banned in Saudi Arabia and other countries for their political content. The Saudi authorities withdrew his Saudi citizenship in 1963 because of his political activities. Born in Jordan in January 1933 of a Saudi father and an Iraqi mother, he had lived in Syria since the late 1980's. The Syrians granted him citizenship, and he was married to a Syrian. His first novel was The trees and the assassination of Marzouq (1973). His other novels are A Majusi Love Story — When we had left the Bridge — The finals — The long distance race — and Ard al-Sawad (The land of the black), about the changes in the Iraq's Mesopotamia, a cradle of civilization.
2004 Three US soldiers and a suicide car bomber at a US checkpoint near a bridge across the Euphrates river, in Khaldiyah, Iraq. Six US soldiers and at least 8 Iraqis, including 6 women, are wounded.
2004 Two US soldiers, by roadside bomb striking their four-vehicle convoy north of Fallujah, Iraq.
2004 Ashraf al-Imbayed, 25, and Samir al-Imbayed, 23, distant relatives, Palestinians of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, unarmed, carrying binoculars and cell phones, shot by Israeli troops in the Gaza Strip, in an interdiction zone across the security barrier from the Israeli village Nahal Oz.
2004 Four Iraqi civilians, by truck bomb, as a US military police patrol arrives at a police station in Samarra, Iraq, 40 persons are wounded.
2003 Ito Konno Kinase, in Hawaii. She was born in Japan on 31 December 1889.
2002 Bakr Hamdan, 28, by two missiles fired from an Israeli helicopter at his car, late in the day. He was the Izzedine al Qassam commander in Gaza's Khan Yunis refugee camp.
^ Hobeika2002 Three bodyguards and Elie Hobeika, 45, Lebanese massacre leader.
     At 09:40 Hobeika [photo >] had just gotten into his sport utility vehicle with three body guards, just off the Beirut-Damascus highway, 5 km east of Beirut, when 10 kg of TNT in a sedan parked nearby are detonated by remote control, also making explode four diver's oxygen tanks in Hobeika's vehicle. Six other persons are wounded.
      Hobeika was a former Lebanese so-called-Christian warlord who had led the right-wing Lebanese Forces militia in the slaughter of some 800 to 2000 men, women (some raped first) and children in the Sabra and Chatilla Palestinian refugee camps in Muslim west Beirut in September 1982, after the militia's leader, Lebanese President-elect Bashir Gemayel, was assassinated in a bombing initially blamed on the Palestinians. Syria was also blamed for the assassination of Gemayel, who was allied with Israel, but responsibility for his death has never been established. An official Israeli inquiry said in 1983 that that then-Defense-Minister Ariel Sharon was indirectly responsible for the killings by the Christian militia. It recommended his removal from office, and he resigned as defense minister. Now Israel's prime minister, Sharon is being sued in a Belgian court by a 28 Palestinians who survived the massacres. The complaint, filed in June 2001, demands that Sharon be indicted for crimes against humanity in accordance with a Belgian law that allows for such trials of foreigners in another country. The complaint did not mention Hobeika's role. Hobeika said in July 2001 that he was willing to testify in the lawsuit. He said that he was just carrying out orders.A Belgian appeals court is expected to rule in March 2001 whether Sharon should stand trial.
     Hobeika had been a fighter since his teens, joining the Phalange Party's militia to fight Palestinians who were gaining strength in refugee camps in Beirut's Christian districts. By the age of 24, he was leading the Lebanese Forces' military intelligence agency — and earning his reputation as a daring and ruthless commander.
      Initially, like most of Lebanon's Maronite Christians, Hobeika was allied with Israel, which the Christians saw as a powerful friend to help them stand up to mostly Islamic Syria. Syria and Israel, the two main powers in the region, have been rivals over Lebanon for many years. Syria has maintained troops in much of south Lebanon since 1976, ostensibly in a peacekeeping capacity. By 1985, five years after Israel trained him and other officers of the Lebanese Forces militia to fight Palestinians, leftists and Muslims, he was Syria's ally. He remained close to the Syrians, the main power brokers in Lebanon, up until his death.
     After Lebanon's 15-year civil war ended in 1990, Hobeika was appointed to the government with the task of resettling the 1 million Lebanese displaced by the fighting and looking after 13'500 maimed victims of the conflict. In 1991 he benefitted from an amnesty for crimes committed during the civil war which the Lebanese Parliament passed. Hobeika was elected to Parliament in 1992, 1996, but lost a bid in 2000. He was considered a presidential aspirant. His death echoed the turmoil of Lebanon's war years. During the 1975-90 conflict, rival militias targeted politicians, militia leaders and civilians with car bombs, as a way to settle scores. Two presidents and a prime minister died in explosions.
2002 António Cunha, 61, suicide by lion in Lisbon zoo. Cunha terá saltado deliberadamente para o covil dos felinos, numa queda de cerca de três metros, sendo então atacado por um dos animais cerca das 10,30 horas. Dois tratadores aperceberam-se que algo de anormal se passava no covil e foram espreitar, deparando-se com o homem, aparentemente magoado nas pernas. Disseram-lhe para se manter quieto, mas o indivíduo não obedeceu e começou a rastejar até um dos túneis de acesso às jaulas dos leões. Ao ver o movimento, uma leoa terá sentido o seu espaço invadido e atacou o homem, mordendo e partindo-lhe o pescoço, após o que arrastou a vítima para o fundo do referido túnel. A vítima encontrava-se, aparentemente, transtornada. Ele quando entrou no Jardim perguntou logo onde ficava a zona dos leões. Terá mesmo tentado meter-se debaixo de um tractor antes de lá chegar. Um filho da vítima também se matou há pouco tempo, o que, de certa forma, ajuda a explicar o seu estado de desespero.A mulher de António Cunha faleceu recentemente vítima de doença súbita, enquanto o filho, um militar da GNR, pôs termo à vida com um tiro de pistola na cabeça em Outubro do 2001. A vítima já teria mesmo comentado com uma irmã que se iria atirar de uma ponte.
2001 Liu Chunling, after setting herself on fire on Tien An Min square in Beijing together with her daughter Liu Siying, 12 (a 5th-grader), Hao Huijin (a middle school music teacher) and her daughter Chen Guo, 19, and Wang Jingong, 50 (a male driver). These four survive with severe burns. Chinese authorities say the five, from Kaifeng in Henan province, belonged to the Falun Gong and use this as a pretext for an intensified campaign against the movement, whose leaders deny that the five could have been members, for suicide is against the Falun Gong's Buddhist-inspired principles.
1994 Michalis Vranopoulos, 48, head of Greek state bank, murdered.
1993 Thurgood Marshall, 84, in Bethesda, Md., retired US Supreme Court Justice.
1991 Iraqi airmen, as a Saudi warplane shoots down two Iraqi jets above the Persian Gulf.
1989 Theodore Bundy, confessed serial killer of 28 women aged 9 to 26 (and unconfessed possibly of many more), in Florida's electric chair, after three trials, each leading to a death sentence, the last one for the 09 Feb 1978 kidnap-murder of 12-year-old Kimberly Leach.
1982 Borsuk, mathematician.
1977 Cinco abogados laboralistas que se hallaban en un despacho de CC.OO (Comisiones Obreras) en Madrid, asesinados por un comando de ultraderechistas.
1966: All 106 passengers and 11 crew members aboard Air India Flight 101 from Beirut, a Boeing 707-437, with a defective No. 2 VOR, whose pilot misjudges his position and starts a descent that makes the plane crash into Mont Blanc at 4750 m, at 07:02 UT..

^ 1965 Winston Churchill, former PM of Britain (C) (1940-1945, 1951-1955)
     Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, the British prime minister who helped guide Great Britain and the world through the crisis of World War II, dies in London. He had once said: “I am ready to meet my Maker. Whether my Maker is prepared for the great ordeal of meeting me is another matter.”
      Born at Blenheim Palace on 30 November 1874, Churchill joined the British Fourth Hussars upon his father's death in 1895. Over the next five years, he enjoyed an illustrious military career, serving in India, the Sudan, and South Africa, and distinguishing himself several times in battle. In 1899, he resigned his commission to concentrate on his literary and political career, and in 1900 was elected to Parliament as a Conservative MP from Oldham. In 1904, he joined the Liberals, serving in a number of important posts before being appointed Britain's first lord of the admiralty in 1911, where he worked to bring the British Navy to a readiness for the war that he foresaw. In 1915, in the second year of World War I, Churchill was held responsible for the disastrous Dardanelles and Gallipoli campaigns and he was excluded from the war coalition government. However, in 1917, he returned to the politics as a cabinet member in the Liberal government of Lloyd George. From 1919 to 1921 he was secretary of state for war, and in 1924 returned to the Conservative party, where two years later played he a leading role in the defeat of the General Strike of 1926. Out of office from 1929 to 1939, Churchill issued unheeded warnings of the threat of Nazi and Japanese aggression. After the outbreak of World War II in Europe, Churchill returned to his post as first lord of the admiralty, and eight months later replaced Neville as prime minister of a new coalition government. In the first year of his administration, Britain stood alone against Nazi Germany, and Churchill promised his country and the world that the British people would "never surrender." During World War II, Churchill became the great leader of the Allies, inspiring the Royal Air Force to victory in Battle of Britain, securing US support for the British war effort, devising the successful strategy at El Alamein in North Africa, and forging the grand alliance between Britain, the US, and the USS.R. that crushed the Axis powers. In July of 1945, ten weeks after Germany's defeat, Churchill's Conservative government suffered a defeat against Clement Attlee's Labour party. However, Churchill became leader of the opposition and in 1951 was again elected prime minister. In 1953, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his six-volume historical study of World War II and for his oratory, and in the same year was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II. In 1955, he retired from the post of prime minister, but remained in Parliament until 1964, the year before his death.
     Had Churchill known that he was going to live that long, he might have taken better care of his health: he drank alcoholic beverages in abundance (once remarking: "I have taken more out of alcohol than alcohol has taken out of me."), continuously smoked cigars, and never exercised.
     Churchill was famous, among other things, for his witticisms such as the one he applied to the Puritan figure of Sir Stafford Cripps: "There, but for the grace of God, goes God."
     Lady Nancy Astor (1879-1964, first woman member of the British Parliment): "Winston, if I were your wife I'd put poison in your coffee." Winston: "Nancy, if I were your husband I'd drink it."
     On another occasion: Lady Astor: “Why, Sir Churchill you are drunk!” Churchill: “And you are ugly, but I shall be sober in the morning!”
      After receiving a Minute issued by a civil servant, objecting to the ending of a sentence with a preposition and the use of a dangling participle in official documents, Churchill red penciled in the margin: "This is the sort of pedantry up with which I will not put."
15 famous Churchill speeches

1962 André Lhote, French Cubist painter and sculptor born on 05 July 1885. MORE ON LHOTE AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1955 Heawood, mathematician.
1953 [Karl R] Gerd von Rundstedt, 77, General-field marshal (Normandy)
1943 Jewish patients/nurses/doctors incinerated at Auschwitz-Birkenau
1943 Martha James, 21, throat slashed at 04:00 in a lower berth on Southern Pacific Express by the train's Black cook, Robert E. Lee Folkes, who had a record of sexual assaults, and would be executed in the gas chamber for this crime in January 1945.
^ 1940 Day 56 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

Finnish convicts ask to be sent to the front

      Ladoga Karelia: Soviet forces continue their offensive on the River Aittojoki to the north of Lake Ladoga, with the main focus of the assault coming to the west of Lake Vegarusjärvi. The defending Finns manage to hold their positions.
      On the River Kollaanjoki, the enemy captures one of the bases of the 1st Battalion, 35th Infantry Regiment in the northern sector.
      Mikkeli: General Headquarters orders the setting up of evacuation centres for the bodies of soldiers fallen in combat.
      There has been a rise in the number of couples getting married. 75% of civil marriages are 'war weddings', which can be performed without the need for advance proclamation of the banns. Church war weddings require formal proclamation of the banns on the preceding Sunday.
     Turku: a four-strong delegation from the British Labour Party arrives in the city. In an interview, Sir Walter Citrine says 99.9% of people in Britain support Finland in her struggle.
      Finnish convicts ask to be sent to the front. However, the authorities are less than enthusiastic in their response.
      Abroad: the leaders of the International Amateur Athletic Federation call on the world's athletes to help Finland.
      Sweden's Red Star organization's horse ambulance leaves Stockholm en route to Finland.
      Finland's Minister of Social Affairs K.-A. Fagerholm arrives in Stockholm to discuss details of the evacuation of Finnish children.
^ Vangit haluavat päästä rintamalle Talvisodan 56. päivä, 24.tammikuuta.1940
      Neuvostojoukkojen hyökkäys Laatokan pohjoispuolella Aittojoella jatkuu painopisteen ollessa Vegarusjärven länsipuolella. Suomalaiset pystyvät pitämään asemansa.
      Kollaanjoella vihollinen saa haltuunsa yhden Jalkaväkirykmentti 35:n 1. pataljoonan tukikohdista pohjoisella lohkolla.
      Päämajan sotarovasti antaa käskyn kaatuneiden evakuomiskeskusten perustamisesta.
      Avioliittojen määrä on lisääntynyt. 75% siviiliavioliitoista on ns. sota-avioliittoja, jotka solmitaan ennen ennakolta otettua kuulutusta. Kirkolliseen sota-avioliittoon vaaditaan kuulutus edellisenä sunnuntaina.
      Englannin työväenpuolueen eli labourpuolueen nelihenkinen valtuuskunta saapuu Turkuun. Sir Walter Citrine antaa haastattelun, jossa hän toteaa 99,9% englantilaisista olevan Suomen puolella.
      Vangit haluavat päästä rintamalle. Viranomaiset suhtautuvat kuitenkin penseästi vankien anomuksiin.
      Ulkomailta: Kansainvälisen yleisurheiluliiton johto vetoaa maailman urheilijoihin Suomen auttamiseksi.
      Ruotsin Punainen Tähti-järjestön hevoshoitoambulanssi lähtee Tukholmasta kohti Suomea.
      Sosiaaliministeri K.-A. Fagerholm saapuu Tukholmaan neuvottelemaan suomalaisten lasten siirtoon liittyvistä kysymyksistä.
      The checked luggage of overweight persons and of all persons flying to Fresno is labeled FAT (Fresno Air Terminal).
^ Fångarna vill till fronten Vinterkrigets 56 dag, den 24 januari 1940
      Rysslands anfall vid Aittojoki norr om Ladoga fortsätter med tyngdpunkt på området väster om Vegarusjärvi. Finland lyckas hålla sina ställningar.
      Vid Kollaanjoki tar fienden en av Infanteriregementet 35:s 1. bataljonens baser i det norra avsnittet i besittning.
      Huvudstabens krigsprost ger order om att grunda evakueringscentraler för de stupade.
      Antalet äktenskap har stigit. 75 % av civiläktenskapen är så kallade krigsäktenskap som ingås före lysning som tagits ut i förväg. För ett kyrkligt krigsäktenskap krävs lysning söndagen före bröllopet.
      En delegation på fyra personer för arbetarpartiet i England, labour-partiet, anländer till Åbo. Sir Walter Citrine ger en intervju där han konstaterar att 99,9 % av engelsmännen står på Finlands sida.
      Fångarna vill till fronten men myndigheterna förhåller sig avogt till fångarnas anhållanden.
      Utrikes: Ledningen för det internationella friidrottsförbundet riktar en vädjan till världens idrottsmän att hjälpa Finland.
      Den svenska organisationen Röda Stjärnans ambulans för vård av hästar startar sin resa till Finland.
      Socialminister K.-A. Fagerholm anländer till Stockholm för att förhandla i frågor som gäller evakueringen av finska barn.
1939 30'000 killed by earthquake in Concepcion Chile
1935 Juel, mathematician.
1930 Kneser, mathematician.
1920 Amadeo Modigliani, Italian painter born on 12 July 1884.MORE ON MODIGLIANI AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1915 Carl Haag, German artist born in 1820.
1914 Adolf Eberle, German artist born on 11 January 1843.
1890 (27 Jan?) Anton Hartinger, Austrian artist born on 13 June 1806. — an image
1874 Thousand's die as General J. van Swieten conquers Kraton Atjeh.
1849 Casparis Haanen, Dutch artist born in 1778.
^ 1848 Horace Wells, US dentist born on 21 January 1815, a pioneer in the use of surgical anesthesia.
      On 10 December 1844, Wells noted the pain-killing properties of nitrous oxide (“laughing gas”, N20) after a demonstration of its inebriating effects by Gardner Q. Colton at the Union Hall in Hartford, Connecticut. Wells decided that the first guinea pig should be himself. An erupting wisdom tooth had been troubling him for some time. This seemed the ideal occasion to remove it. Both Colton and Well's partner Dr. Riggs were initially reluctant to contemplate using the higher dosages of nitrous oxide needed to induce insensibility rather than intoxication and euphoric excitement. But Wells insisted. The extraction was a success. Wells enlisted Colton's help in teaching him how to manufacture and administer nitrous oxide to his patients. Thereafter Wells used the gas to perform painless dental operations. He was allowed to demonstrate the method at the Massachusetts General Hospital in January 1845, but the anesthetic was withdrawn to soon and the patient experienced some pain.Wells was ridiculed.
     Badly emotionally bruised, Wells didn't give up. He continued his attempts to promote nitrous oxide anaesthesia, even going to Europe in the hope of finding a more receptive audience. The Paris Medical Society took a sympathetic interest in his work and recognised his claim to priority. But by the time Wells returned to the USA, the surgical scene had shifted dramatically. Ether anaesthesia was firmly established thanks to a successful performance by William Morton, a dental surgeon and Wells's former partner, in the same Massachusetts amphitheatre where his mentor had earlier been humiliated. Chloroform anaesthesia was vigorously under investigation too; nitrous oxide had been eclipsed.
      In January 1848, Wells self-experimented with chloroform for a week. He became addicted and increasingly deranged. One day, delirious, Wells rushed out into the street and threw sulfuric acid over the clothing of two prostitutes. He was committed to New York's Tombs Prison. As the influence of the drug waned, Wells' mind started to clear. In despair, he realised the horror of what he had done. Wells then committed suicide, slitting an artery in his leg with a razor after inhaling an analgesic dose of chloroform to blot out the pain.
Below: Horace Wells undergoes tooth extraction under nitrous oxide anaesthesia. His partner John Riggs extracts the offending molar after Gardner Quincy Colton administers the nitrous oxide.
Painless tooth extraction
1665 Carel van Savoyen, Dutch artist born in 1621.
1556, 830'000 victims of the deadliest earthquake in history, Shaanxi, China
1336 Alfonso IV the Benignant, 36, king of Aragon (1327-36)
0817 Stephen (IV) V, pope (816-817)
0661 Ali ibn Abu Talib kalief of Islam (656-61), murdered
0041 Caligula [G C Germanicus], 28, Roman emperor (37-41), assassinated
< 23 Jan 25 Jan >
^  Births which occurred on a 24 January:

2003 The US Department of Homeland Security comes into being, to bringing together by 01 March 2003 the Secret Service, Coast Guard, Customs Service, Immigration and Naturalization Service, Transportation Security Administration, Federal Emergency Management Agency, and 15 other federal agencies. It will total 170'000 employees. This is the largest reorganization of the US federal government since the Defense Department was created in 1947. The Department's Secretary, Tom Ridge [26 Aug 1945~], former governor of California, is sworn in. He was approved by the Senate on 22 January. He is 17th in the line of succession for the presidency. Preceding him (in accordance with the Presidential Succession Act of 1947) are 1. Vice President Richard Cheney [30 Jan 1941~] — 2. Speaker of the House John Dennis Hastert [02 Jan 1942~] — 3. President pro tempore of the Senate Ted Stevens [18 Nov 1923~] — 4. Secretary of State Colin Powell [05 Apr 1937~] — 5. Secretary of the Treasury Paul O19Neill [04 Dec 1935~] — 6. Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld [09 Jul 1932~] — 7. Attorney General John Ashcroft [09 May 1942~] — 8. Secretary of the Interior Gale A. Norton [11 Mar 1954~] — 9. Secretary of Agriculture Ann M. Veneman — 10. Secretary of Commerce Donald Evans [26 Jul 1946~] — 11. Elaine Chao (wife of US Senator Mitch McConnell, R-KY); she would be the Secretary of Labor, if she had been a “natural born citizen” (US Constitution II.7), but she was born in Taiwan (in 1953) — 12. Secretary of Health and Human Services Tommy G. Thompson [19 Nov 1941~] — 13. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Melquiades Rafael Martinez [23 Oct 1946~] — 14. Secretary of Transportation Norman Yoshiro Mineta [12 Nov 1931~] (the token Democrat in the Cabinet) — 15. Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham [12 Jun 1962~] — 16. Secretary of Education Roderick Paige [17 Jun 1933~] — 17. Secretary of Veterans Affairs Anthony J. Principi [16 Apr 1944~] —(091227)
2002 Mim and Alif, in Dhaka, Bangladesh, conjoined twin girls. They would die on 29 January 2002, 10 hours after being surgically separated.
1984 The Apple Macintosh computer is introduced.
1950 Matilde Fernández, política española.
1932 Jaime García Añoveros, político español.
1931 Hörmander, mathematician.
1922 Eskimo Pie patented by Christian K Nelson of Iowa (not an Eskimo)
1919 William Nelson Copley, US artist.

1918 Granville Oral Roberts [–15 Dec 2009], US money-loving Pentecostal TV evangelist and phoney faith-healer. He would found fundamentalist Oral Roberts University in 1965, in Tulsa. — wikibio —(091227)
1916 Rafael Antonio Caldera [–24 Dec 2009], Venezuelan politician, president of Venezuela (11 Mar 1969 - 12 Mar 1974 _ and 02 Feb 1994 - 02 Feb 1999). — wikibio —(091227)
1915 Robert Motherwell, US Abstract Expressionist painter who died on 17 July 1991. MORE ON MOTHERWELL AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
^ Scouting For Boys cover1908 Scouting for Boys publication begins.
     It is a nonmilitary field manual for teenagers interested in the outdoors, by Robert Baden-Powell. It begins the Boy Scouts movement. After leading several successful youth expeditions in which he taught camping and nature skills, Baden-Powell founded the Boy Scouts, and soon after the Girl Guides. The movements, which emphasized morality and good deeds along with outdoor education, soon spread to the United States. Within a decade, scouts could be found all around the world, and by 1920, Sir Baden-Powell had already convened the second international Boy Scout Jamboree.
     The Boy Scouts movement begins in England with the publication of the first installment of Robert Baden-Powell's Scouting for Boys. The name Baden-Powell was already well known to many English boys, and thousands of them eagerly bought up the handbook. By the end of April, the serialization of Scouting for Boys was completed, and scores of impromptu Boy Scout troops had sprung up across Britain. In 1900, Baden-Powell became a national hero in Britain for his 217-day defense of Mafeking in the South African War. Soon after, Aids to Scouting, a military field manual he had written for British soldiers in 1899, caught on with a younger audience. Boys loved the lessons on tracking and observation and organized elaborate games using the book. Hearing this, Baden-Powell decided to write a nonmilitary field manual for adolescents that would also emphasize the importance of morality and good deeds.
      First, however, he decided to try out some of his ideas on an actual group of boys. On 25 July 1907, he took a diverse group of 21 adolescents to Brownsea Island in Dorsetshire where they set up camp for a fortnight. With the aid of other instructors, he taught the boys about camping, observation, deduction, woodcraft, boating, lifesaving, patriotism, and chivalry. Many of these lessons were learned through inventive games that were very popular with the boys. The first Boy Scouts meeting was a great success.
      With the success of Scouting for Boys, Baden-Powell set up a central Boy Scouts office, which registered new Scouts and designed a uniform. By the end of 1908, there were 60'000 Boy Scouts, and troops began springing up in British Commonwealth countries across the globe. In September 1909, the first national Boy Scout meeting was held at the Crystal Palace in London. Ten thousand Scouts showed up, including a group of uniformed girls who called themselves the Girl Scouts. In 1910, Baden-Powell organized the Girl Guides as a separate organization.
      The US version of the Boy Scouts has it origins in an event that occurred in London in 1909. Chicago publisher William Boyce was lost in one of the city's classic fogs when a Boy Scout came to his aid. After guiding Boyce to his destination, the boy refused a tip, explaining that as a Boy Scout he would not accept payment for doing a good deed. This anonymous gesture inspired Boyce to organize several regional US youth organizations, specifically the Woodcraft Indians and the Sons of Daniel Boone, into the Boy Scouts of America. Incorporated on February 8, 1910, the movement soon spread throughout the country. In 1912, Juliette Gordon Low founded the Girl Scouts of America in Savannah, Georgia. In 1916, Baden-Powell organized the Wolf Cubs, which caught on as the Cub Scouts in the United States, for boys under the age of 11. Four years later, the first international Boy Scout Jamboree was held in London, and Baden-Powell was acclaimed Chief Scout of the world. He died in 1941.
Scouting for Boys Part I, Campfire Yarn No. 1. WHAT SCOUTS ARE
     I SUPPOSE EVERY Boy wants to help his country in some way or other. There is a way by which he can so do easily, and that is by becoming a Boy Scout.
     A scout in the army, as you know, is generally a soldier who is chosen for his cleverness and pluck to go out in front to find out where the enemy is, and report to the commander all about him.
      But, besides war scouts, there are also peace scouts — men who in peace time carry out work which requires the same kind of pluck and resourcefulness.
     These are the frontiersmen of the world.
     The pioneers and trappers of North and South America, the hunters of Central Africa, the explorers and missionaries in all parts of the world, the bushmen and drovers of Australia-all these are peace scouts, real men in every sense of the word, and good at scoutcraft. They understand how to live out in the jungle. They can find their way anywhere, and are able to read meanings from the smallest signs and foot tracks. They know how to look after their health when far away from doctors. They are strong and plucky, ready to face danger, and always keen to help each other. They are accustomed to take their lives in their hands, and to risk them without hesitation if they can help their country by doing so.
     They give up everything, their personal comforts and desires, in order to get their work done. They do it because it is their duty.
     The life of the frontiersman is a grand life, but it cannot suddenly be taken up by any man who thinks he would like it, unless he has prepared himself for it. Those who succeed best are those who learned Scouting while they were boys.
     Scouting is useful in any kind of life you like to take up. A famous scientist has said that it is valuable for a man who goes in for science. And a noted physician pointed out how necessary it is for a doctor or a surgeon to notice small signs as a Scout does, and know their meaning.
     So I am going to show you how you can learn scoutcraft for yourself, and how you can put it into practice at home. It is very easy to learn and very interesting when you get into it.
     You can best learn by joining the Boy Scouts.
1907 Maurice Couve de Murville [–24 Dec 1999], French diplomat and politician, Minister of Foreign Affairs from 01 June 1958 to 30 May 1968 and Prime Minister from 10 July 1968 to 20 June 1969. — wikibio —(091227)
1892 Johanne Svensson, in Denmark. She would die in Sweden on 29 May 2003.
1891 Abram S. Besicovitch, mathematician. He died in 1970.
1888 Ernst Heinrich Heinkel German inventor (first rocket-powered aircraft) who died on 30 January 1958.
1878 Edmond Bille [–08 Mar 1959], Swiss artist who died in 1959. — more at Art 4 January. —(091227)
1869 La Federación Regional Española de la Asociación Internacional de Trabajadores, al publicarse su manifiesto fundacional.
^ 1862 Edith Wharton.
     She is born to an old and wealthy New York family. She grew up in an opulent world where pre-Civil War society tried to keep the nouveau riche at bay. Wharton, expected to become a typical wife, mother, and hostess, instead showed intellectual talent and began to write at an early age. She had begun to fear spinsterhood but then, at age 23, married prominent socialite Edward Wharton-who had neither a profession nor fortune. The match was unhappy and troubled, but the couple did not divorce until 1913.
      Wharton returned to writing, often dealing with themes of divorce, unhappy marriages, and free-spirited individuals trapped by societal pressures. Wharton's 1905 novel, The House of Mirth, told the story of a New York socialite with a strong sense of individuality who cannot adapt to the roles expected of her. The book became a bestseller. Wharton traveled abroad frequently and after her divorce began writing for women's magazines. Her novella, Ethan Frome, detailing a New England farmer trapped by the demands of the women in his life, is still one of her best-known works. Her 1920 novel, The Age of Innocence, won the Pulitzer. Wharton published numerous other books, but some of her later work suffered from the deadlines and pressures imposed by writing for money. She remained in France during World War I, assisting refugees, and was made a Chevalier of the French Legion of Honor in 1916. She published another bestseller, Twilight Sleep, in 1927 and her autobiography, A Backward Glance, in 1934. She died in France on 11 August 1937.
  • The Age of Innocence
  • The Age of Innocence
  • Artemis to Actaeon and Other Verse
  • The Descent of Man, and Other Stories
  • Verse, 1879-1919, From Various Journals
  • Ethan Frome
  • Fighting France
  • The Glimpses of the Moon
  • The Hermit and the Wild Woman, and Other Stories
  • The House of Mirth
  • Madame de Treymes
  • The Reef
  • Summer
  • Tales of Men and Ghosts
  • The Touchstone
  • 1836 Gioacchino Toma, Italian artist who died on 12 January 1891. — more with links to the story and images of a woman who was decapitated in 1800 by monarchists for having leaked their plot against the Republic of Naples.
    1820 Henry Jarvis Raymond, US journalist and politician who died on 18 June 1869.
    1806 El sí de las niñas de Leandro Fernández de Moratín se estrena en Madrid.
    1798 von Staudt, mathematician.
    1776 Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann (in 1813 he changed Wilhelm to Amadeus), Prussian writer, composer, and painter, who died on 25 June 1822. He is known for his stories in which supernatural and sinister characters move in and out of men's lives, ironically revealing tragic or grotesque sides of human nature. — HOFFMANN ONLINE: Der Goldene Topf Klein Zaches, genannt Zinnober Ein MärchenNachtstücke (060124)
    ^ 1732 Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais
         French author of two outstanding comedies of intrigue that still retain their freshness, Le Barbier de Séville (1775) and Le mariage de Figaro (1784). He died on 18 May 1799.
         Although Beaumarchais did not invent the type character of the scheming valet (who has appeared in comedy as far back as Roman times), his Figaro, hero of both plays, became the highest expression of the type. The valet's resourcefulness and cunning were portrayed by Beaumarchais with a definite class-conscious sympathy. Le Barbier de Séville became the basis of a popular opera by the Italian composer Gioacchino Rossini. Thesecond play, which inspired W.A. Mozart's opera Le nozze di Figaro (1786), is openly critical of aristocratic privilege and somewhat anticipates the social upheavals of the Revolution of 1789.
          Beaumarchais's life rivals his work as a drama of controversy, adventure, and intrigue. The son of a watchmaker, he invented an escapement mechanism, and the question of its patent led to the first of many legal actions. For his defense in these suits he wrote a series of brilliant polemics (Mémoires), which made his reputation, though he was only partly successful at law.
          After 1773, because of his legal involvements, Beaumarchais left France on secret royal missions to England and Germany for both Louis XV and Louis XVI. Despite growing popularity as a dramatist, Beaumarchais was addicted to financial speculation. He bought arms for the American revolutionaries and brought out the first complete edition of the works of Voltaire. Of his dramatic works, only his two classic comedies were to have lasting success. Because of his wealth, he was imprisoned during the French Revolution (in 1792), but, through the intervention of a former mistress, he was released.

  • La folle journée, ou Le mariage de Figaro : comédie en 5 actes, en prose / représentée pour la première fois par les comédiens français ordinaires du Roi, le mardi 27 avril 1784
  • Œuvres complètes de Beaumarchais
  • Théâtre
  • 1712 Frederick II (the Great), king of Prussia (1740-86) — Le roi de Prusse Frédéric II le Grand est né à Berlin.
    1679 Christian Wolff, German philosopher who died on 09 April 1754.
    1670 William Congreve, English dramatist who died on 19 January 1729. — CONGREVE ONLINE:. The Double-DealerIncognita: or, Love and Duty Reconcil'dLove for LoveThe Old BachelorThe Way of the WorldThe Way of the World
    1544 Gillis van Coninxloo (or Konimksloo) III, Flemish painter who died on 04 January 1607. MORE ON CONINXLOO AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    0076 Publius Aelius Hadrianus, son of a cousin of the emperor Trajan [15 Sep 53 – 08 Aug 117], whom he succeeded, becoming, on 11 August 117, the 14th Roman Emperor, Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus. A cultivated admirer of Greek civilization, he unified and consolidated Rome's vast empire. He died on 10 July 138. He was succeded by Antoninus Pius [19 Sep 86 – 07 Mar 161], and then Marcus Aurelius [26 Apr 121 – 17 Mar 180], who together with him, Trajan, and Trajan's predecessor, Nerva [30 – 27 Jan 98], are the “Five Good Emperors”.
    Saint François de Sales est né en Savoie en 1567. Evêque de Genève, centre européen du calvinisme, il est devenu l'un des plus ardents prédicateurs de la Contre-Réforme catholique et inspirera notamment le renouveau religieux de l'abbaye de Port-Royal. Son «Introduction à la vie dévote» est l'un des premiers chef-d'oeuvre de la langue française. Docteur de l'Eglise depuis 1877 / Santos Francisco de Sales y Nuestra Señora de la Paz
    YESTERDAY'S QUESTION OF THE DAY: The checked luggage of overweight travelers on certain flights is labeled FAT. Why? — READ THE ANSWER.
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “Honesty is the best policy, but he who acts on that principle is not an honest man.”
    — Richard Whately, British theologian [1787-1863]
    “Honesty is the best policy, but he who acts on that principle is not a used car salesman.”
    “Honesty is the best policy, but she who acts on that principle ... does she conform to a stereotype or the opposite?”
    “The best honesty is not a policy.”
    “Even the best policy may lack honesty, when it's a matter of insurance.”
    “Never hold discussions with the monkey when the organ grinder is in the room.” —
    Winston Churchill [30 Nov 1874 – 24 Jan 1965]
    “Those who can win a war well can rarely make a good peace and those who could make a good peace would never have won the war.” — Winston Churchill
    “In war: resolution. In defeat: defiance. In victory: magnanimity. In peace: goodwill.” —
    Winston Churchill
    “It is a good thing for an uneducated man to read books of quotations.” —
    Winston Churchill (My Early Life, ch.9, 1930)
    “Men occasionally stumble over the truth, but most of them pick themselves up and hurry off as if nothing had happened.” —
    Winston Churchill
    “A fanatic is one who can't change his mind and won't change the subject.”—
    Winston Churchill
    “I like pigs. Dogs look up to us. Cats look down on us. Pigs treat us as equals”—
    Winston Churchill
    “A joke is a very serious thing.” —
    Winston Churchill
    “The inherent vice of capitalism is the unequal sharing of blessings; the inherent virtue of socialism is the equal sharing of miseries.” —
    Winston Churchill
    “Everyone has his day and some days last longer than others.” —
    Winston Churchill
    “History will be kind to me for I intend to write it.” —
    Winston Churchill
    It is best “to leave the past to history, especially as I propose to write that history myself.” —
    Winston Churchill
    “You can always count on Americans to do the right thing — after they've tried everything else.” —
    Winston Churchill
    “I am always willing to learn. I do not, however, always enjoy being taught.” —
    Winston Churchill
    "In wartime, truth is so precious that she should always be attended by a bodyguard of lies." —
    Winston Churchill
    “I always avoid prophesying beforehand, because it is a much better policy to prophesy after the event has already taken place.” —
    Winston Churchill
    “"I cannot forecast to you the action of Russia. It is a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma.” —
    Winston Churchill
    “MacDonald has the gift of compressing the largest amount of words into the smallest amount of thoughts.” —
    Winston Churchill
    “Democracy is the 'worst' form of Government except all those others that have been tried from time to time.” —
    Winston Churchill
    “Without tradition, art is a flock of sheep without a shepherd. Without innovation, it is a corpse.” —
    Winston Churchill
    “ An iron curtain has descended across the Continent.” —
    Winston Churchill (in a 05 March 1946 speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri).
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