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Events, deaths, births, of JAN 22
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KM 5-year price chart^  On a 22 January:
2005 Parliamentary elections in the Maldives, posponed from 31 December 2004 tsunami, which killed 82 Maldivians and devastated the islands. The government has used aid to survivors to win votes, and arrests today 20 opposition supporters.
2005 On tiny Pillow Panja Island, one of the Andaman and Nicobar islands of India, Michael Mangal has been alone since the tsunami of 26 December 2004, whose first giant wave sucked him out to sea before subsequent waves flung him back onto the island. Everyone else from the tribal village was gone. Since then he has survived on a diet of nothing but coconuts. Today Mangal sights a rescue dinghy out at sea. He waves a flag made of a branch and a shirt. He is noticed and rescued.

2002 Kmart, which has 2100 discount stores and 250'000 employees, files for bankruptcy protection after poor December 2001 sales and competition from rivals Wal-Mart Stores and Target leave KM short of cash. Kmart stock (KM) has plunged to a 38-year low, last closing at $1.74 a share on 18 Jan 2002, and dropping further today (the exchanges were closed on 19 and 20 Jan for the weekend, and on Monday 21 Jan for Martin Luther King holiday) to $0.55 intraday and a $0.69 close. [5~year price chart >]
2002 In Egypt, Sayed Ragab al-Sawirki, owner of a chain of stores selling clothes and home appliances, is sentenced to 7 years at hard labor for having five wives at once (he had married 19 women, although not all at the same time). Polygamy is not widely practiced in Egypt.The Koran allows a man to have four wives as long as he treats them equally. It then says that this is impossible, which some think means that polygamy is not allowed. One of the wives, Dina Shukri, is sentenced to 3 years at hard labor for illegally marrying Sawirki a fourth time after previously divorcing him three times. Under Islamic law, a woman who divorces the same man three times cannot remarry him again unless she has married a different man in the intervening period. Others, guilty of various frauds in relation to the marriages, receive lesser sentences.
Johnny and Luther Htoo 010122 ^ 2001 Twin boy guerrilla leaders hold press conference.
      The teen-age twins who led the God's Army rebel group acknowledge that they have no mystical powers to repel bullets and say that they want to give up fighting. Wearing oversized soccer shirts, Johnny and Luther Htoo, who led a hit-and-run campaign for three years against the Myanmar military, say their days as soldiers are at an end. "I want to live as a family with my parents," Luther tells reporters at a border police base near the Myanmar frontier with Thailand. "I want to study." Luther says that the God's Army, a rag tag guerrilla group, had 150 soldiers at its peak while fighting to try to win autonomy for the ethnic Karen minority. When they surrendered to the Thai army last week, driven by hunger and exhaustion, the God's Army had probably not more than 20 followers. Seventeen of them, including the twins, surrendered 16 and 17 January. Luther says that he knows of only three comrades still in the jungles.
      The twins' legend began around 1997 when Myanmar troops came to their village during a sweep of Karen areas. The mainstream guerrillas group, the Karen National Union, reportedly fled while the twins rallied some men and directed a successful counterattack. After that, the twins' followers said the boys — who are Christians — had powers from God. Their followers believed bullets couldn't hit them and mines wouldn't explode under their feet. "God sent me to be the leader to fight against Burma," said Luther, who like his twin does not know his exact age. "I am not afraid because God is always with me." Asked if he has mystical powers to repel bullets, Luther said: "It is not true."
      Thai authorities say they believe the twins are 15 years old. But the undernourished boys, who are vegetarians, look little more than 10. Luther says that the God's Army has stopped fighting since it lost its base at Ka Mar Pa Law, just inside Myanmar, in early 2000 when it was attacked by Myanmar forces. At that time, the boys became separated from their parents. The parents trekked to Thailand, where they live in one of the refugee camps strung out along the Thai-Myanmar border.
      "If God did not help us, we all would have died a long time ago," says Luther. He says that he is unsure if he would stay in Thailand. "If I could go back (to Myanmar) I would," he says.
      The twins appear at the news conference with a dozen armed Thai border police standing guard alongside 12 other God's Army followers, most of them children. The police camp is about 160 km west of Bangkok near the border. Officials says all of them have been deloused and given haircuts — all except Johnny, who had his customary long hair in a ponytail. "If I have a hair cut, I will get sick," says the waif-like Johnny, gazing timidly at the sky as he spoke. Asked if they would give up smoking, Luther — a chain smoker — shakes his head.
Haitian mom and kids reunited Elian phones his dad in Cuba 2001 Antonio Todde celebrates his 112th birthday in Tiana, Sardinia, saying: “I eat a bit of meat every day and drink a nice glass of wine. I want to make it to 120 and then 130.”

2000 IT TOOK A PUBLIC OUTCRY, but at last Yvena Rhinvil can hug her two children, Germanie, 8, left, and Marc Yvens Dieubon, 10, after being reunited today in Miami [< photo].
      The three were separated after the ship they and more than 400 others fled Haiti on ran aground on New Year's Day off the coast of Florida.
      Rhinvil, who was sick and four months pregnant, was one of four people allowed to stay in the US as the children, despite their pleas, and the others were taken back by force to Haiti.

2000 Elian Gonzalez [photo >], 6, in Miami phones his father in Cuba, who still does not come to fetch him (possibly because Fidel Castro does not allow it, as it suits his propaganda to prolong the dispute as to whether the child should stay in the US, his mother having drowned in the effort to get him here, or return to his divorced father in Cuba). Meanwhile the boys grandmothers are in Washington, serving Castro's purposes by refusing to go to visit in Miami their relatives with whom Elian is staying. They meet privately with US Attorney General Janet Reno.

^ 1999 Clinton impeachment trial: debate

(1) Under generally partisan questioning by senators, House prosecutors and President Bill Clinton's lawyers spar for nearly five hours over the perjury and obstruction-of-justice case against the president. The impeachment trial's question-and-answer process — written questions from the senators are read by Chief Justice William Rehnquist — is slow and ungainly. But it gives the president's accusers and defenders a chance to debate their dueling interpretations of Clinton's alleged misdeeds in the tangled Monica Lewinsky affair.

(2) House prosecutors continue to press for witnesses, saying it is important for the Senate to fully try the case against Clinton. "I believe that you should only remove a president who has in a calculated fashion put the legal and political interest of himself over the good of the nation in a selfish way, that you only should remove a president who after being begged by everybody in the country 'don't go into a grand jury and lie,' and he in fact lied," says Rep. Lindsey Graham (R-South Carolina). "Nothing trivial should remove my president. We need to try this case, ladies and gentlemen, because you need to know who your president is," Graham declares. Still fighting the good fight.

(3) The proceedings reach a critical fork in the road on Jan. 25, when there could be a decision on a motion to dismiss the charges. Sen. Robert Byrd (D-West Virginia) says today he intends to introduce such a motion. If the motion to dismiss fails, a decision on whether to call witnesses could follow. If that happens, there likely will be depositions first, before any live testimony before the Senate.

(4) Kenneth Starr's prosecutors and lawyers for Monica Lewinsky go to court late this afternoon to argue whether she has to cooperate with the house trial managers. In his filing, Starr says his office "has its own, continuing duty to provide the House with information relating to impeachment" and denies he is acting as an agent for the House prosecutors. The July 28 immunity agreement says Lewinsky "will testify truthfully before grand juries in this district (Washington) and elsewhere, at any trials in this district and elsewhere, and in any other executive, military, judicial or congressional proceedings." In a letter today to Starr, Lewinsky's lawyers contend that the immunity agreement with him "does not require us to be interviewed" by the House impeachment prosecutors.

1998 Mary Bono, widow of famed entertainer and politician, Sony Bono, announces that she will run for the Congressional seat held by her husband until his 05 Jan 1998 death at the age of 62 (killed by a tree while skiing). She will win the election.
The US Senate confirmed Madeleine Albright as the nation's first female secretary of state.
1996 Online service Prodigy announces that it will start an Internet division to provide Internet services. Prodigy was one of the first major online services to offer Web access. Over the next two years, Prodigy attempted to build business as an Internet service provider, while still offering proprietary content through its original service.
1986 In the Iran-Contra affair, Oliver North says that Ghorbanifar first suggested diversion of cash from arm sales to Iran to contras
1985 Cold wave damages 90% of Florida's citrus crop
^ 1984 Macintosh "1984" commercial airs
      One of the most talked-about commercials in history, the Macintosh "1984" commercial aired only once, during the Super Bowl on this day in 1984. The commercial showed thousands of expressionless, bald-headed workers entranced by a Big Brother — style authoritarian figure haranguing them from a giant screen. A woman wearing a T-shirt with a Macintosh logo threw a sledgehammer into the screen, and the ad went on to explain that in a few days, the Macintosh would show the world why "1984 won't be like 1984." Ironically, Apple executives had tried unsuccessfully to pull the commercial and sell their ad slot to another advertiser at the last minute.
1982 75% of North America is covered by snow
^ 1981 Regan sworn in as US Treasury Secretary
      Donald Regan took the oath as the nation's sixty-sixth Secretary of the Treasury on this day. With that, Regan, the former Merrill Lynch CEO who was tabbed for the Treasury post by President Ronald Reagan in late 1980, completed his move from the corporate world to the public sector. Regan's term at the top of the Treasury was not without its rough patches: he had little, if any, contact with Reagan; and though he was a staunch proponent of tax cuts for citizens in the top earnings brackets, Regan was dismissed as a "mouthpiece for Wall Street" by some of the president's more conservative supporters. Regan's run in the Treasury came to a close in 1985, when he and Secretary of State James Baker made the unusual decision to swap jobs. In the wake of the announcement, some wondered if Regan would be able to match Baker's political acumen and Beltway connections.
^ 1980 Sakharov arrested in Moscow
      In Moscow, Andrei Dmitriyevich Sakharov, the Soviet physicist who helped invent the USS.R.'s first hydrogen bomb, and his wife Elena Bonner are arrested after criticizing the Soviet military intervention in Afghanistan. Sakharov is subsequently stripped of his numerous scientific honors, and both are banished to remote Gorky.
      Born in Moscow in 1921, Sakharov studied physics at Moscow University, and in June of 1948 was recruited into the Soviet nuclear weapons program. In 1948, after detonating the first Soviet atomic bomb, the Soviets joined the United States in the race to develop the hydrogen bomb, a weapon theorized to be dozens of times more powerful than the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Sakharov's concept of the "Layer Cake" H-bomb showed some promising results, but in late 1952, the Americans successfully detonated "Mike," the world's first "super bomb." The Soviet team rushed to catch up, and within two years they had hit upon the same winning concept as the Americans — radiation implosion. On November 22, 1954, the Soviet Union successfully detonated its first hydrogen bomb. Although, Sakharov was decorated with numerous Soviet scientific honors for his achievement, the scientist became increasingly concerned with the implications of the terrifying weapon, and he later regretted his responsibility in its creation. In 1957, his concern about the biological hazards of nuclear testing inspired him to write a damning article about the effects of low-level radiation, and he called for the cessation of nuclear tests. The Soviet government kept his criticism quiet until 1969, when an essay Sakharov wrote was smuggled out of the country and published in The New York Times. In the essay, he attacked the arms race and the Soviet political system, and called for a "democratic, pluralistic society free of intolerance and dogmatism, a humanitarian society which would care for the Earth and its future." Following the publication of his essay, Sakharov was fired from the weapons program, and became a vocal advocate of human rights. In 1975, he was the first Soviet to win the Nobel Peace Prize. After he denounced the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Soviet authorities were quick to respond, exiling him to Gorky where he lived in difficult conditions. In December of 1986, Sakharov's exile ended when Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev invited him to return to Moscow. He was subsequently elected to the Congress of People's Deputies as a democratic reformer and appointed a member of the commission responsible for drafting a new Soviet constitution.
1976 Bank robbery in Beirut nets $20-50 million (record)
^ 1973 US Supreme Court legalizes abortion
      In a historic decision, the US Supreme Court rules in Roe vs Wade (410 US 113) that women, as part of their constitutional right to privacy, can terminate a pregnancy during its first two trimesters. Only during the last trimester, when the fetus can survive outside the womb, would states be permitted to regulate abortion in a healthy pregnancy. The controversial ruling, essentially reversing a century of anti-abortion legislation in the United States, is the result of a widespread call by American women for control over their own reproductive processes. Although defended by the Supreme Court on several occasions, the legalization of abortion becomes a divisive and intensely emotional public issue. The debate intensifies during the 1980s, and both pro-choice and pro-life organizations strengthen their membership and political influence. Republican presidents Ronald Reagan and George Bush use their executive authority to legislate abortion clinic guidelines that restricted free practice of the procedure. However, in 1986, and again in 1989 and 1992, the Supreme Court narrowly reaffirms the decision, and in 1993, President Bill Clinton, a Democrat, overturns his predecessors' anti-abortion legislation within days of taking office. In recent years, some opponents of abortion rights have increasingly turned to violent methods in their campaign to make abortion illegal again.
USS Pueblo1973 US, North and South Vietnam and Vietcong sign boundary accord
1971 Communist forces shell Phnom Penh, Cambodia, for the first time. As the war in Vietnam wound down, the war in neighboring Cambodia was going from bad to worse.
1970 First commercial 747 flight (Pan Am), New York to London in 6½ hours
1968 The USS Pueblo, shown underway at sea, is captured late in the day by North Korean patrol boats who took it into Wonsan. There were 83 men aboard the vessel who would be kept as hostages for months..
1964 Kenneth Kaunda having led North-Rhodesia to independence as Zambia becomes that nation's president and will serve until 1991.
1964 World's largest cheese (15'723 kg) made, Wisconsin
1960 French President De Gaulle escapes attempt by General Massu
1957 Israeli forces withdraw from the Sinai Penisula.
1955 Norwegian government of Einar Gerhardsen forms
^ 1950 Tucker declared innocent, but his car company is ruined.
      Throughout the twentieth century, independent automobile manufacturers have fallen again and again before the industrial power of the "Big Three"—Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler. Most often, these independent firms are swallowed, bought up, like Nash, Austin, Studebaker, Hudson, Packard, and many others. The story of Preston Tucker is a little darker. Tucker was a Chicago businessman who built fifty extraordinary automobiles in 1947 and 1948. His cars had many modern amenities and remarkable horsepower. But he was indicted on thirty-one counts of fraud, and as he fought for his freedom in court, his company failed. On this day in 1950, Preston Tucker was cleared of all fraud charges against him. But it was too little, too late. The Tucker automobile was history. Many believe that the legal actions against Tucker were sponsored by the Big Three auto makers, who feared his competition.
1945 Burma highway reopens.
1945 Heavy US air raid on Okinawa.
1944 Battle of Anzio (Italy) begins; Allies land and are stopped on the beach.
1943 Axis forces pull out of Tripoli for Tunisia, destroying bases as they leave. The intercepted communications of a US person in Cairo provided intelligence for Rommel.
1943 The US Joint Chiefs of Staff decide the invasion in Sicily for 10 July.
1943 In two minutes, in Spearfish, South Dakota, the temperature rises from -19ºC to 7ºC
1942 Japanese air raid on Rabaul, New Britain.
1941 British/Australian troops capture Tobruk from Italians
1939 Uranium atom first artificially split, Columbia University
1936 French Laval government falls
1932 Government troops crush a Communist uprising in Northern Spain
1932 British Anglicans and Old-Catholic church merge
1931 French government of Steeg falls
1930 Admiral Richard Byrd charts a vast area of Antarctica. The more we look to history for absolute answers, the more we seem to find that there are no such things. Was Byrd the first one to actually fly over the North Pole?
1925 Albania Republic proclaimed under President Achmed Zogu
1924 Baldwin government resigns in England
1918 Ukraine proclaimed a free republic (German puppet)
1913 Turkey consents to the Balkan peace terms and gives up Adrianople.
^ 1905 “Bloody Sunday” The first Russian revolution begins
      In Russia, the Revolution of 1905 begins when czarist troops open fire on a peaceful group of workers marching to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to petition their grievances to Czar Nicholas II. Some five hundred protestors are massacred on "Bloody Sunday," setting off months of protest and disorder throughout Russia. By January of 1905, discontent with the czar's regime permeated nearly all classes in Russia, especially after the crushing military defeat at Port Arthur on January 2 during the Russo-Japanese War. In October of 1905, Nicholas, embattled on all sides, was forced to grant basic civil liberties and a representative national body, which would be elected by narrowly limited suffrage. However, this parliament, known as the Duma, was dissolved after it opposed Nicholas's authority, and the remnants of the revolutionary movement were brutally suppressed by czarist troops. A decade later, czarist Russia was again bogged down in the mire of another war, prompting the Bolshevik-led Russian Revolution of 1917 which crushed the czar's opposition and declared Russia the world's first Marxist state.
Dimanche rouge à Saint-Petersbourg
      Le 22 janvier 1905 est qualifié de «Dimanche rouge» par les Russes. Ce jour-là, à Saint-Pétersbourg, devant le Palais d'Hiver où réside Nicolas II, 100'000 grévistes manifestent en silence et sans armes, en portant des icones du tsar. Sous la conduite d'un personnage équivoque, le pope Gapone, les manifestants désirent transmettre une supplique à leur souverain. Sur un terrible malentendu, l'armée tire et fait des centaines de morts. «Il n’y a plus de Dieu ni de tsar», s'écrie Gapone. C'est le début de la Révolution de 1905. La Russie traverse une crise économique aggravée par les désastres militaires, en Extrême-Orient, face aux armées japonaises. Au bout de quelques mois, Nicolas II sera obligé d'accorder de très larges concessions aux réformistes. Mais ces concessions ne suffiront pas à rétablir la confiance entre les ouvriers et le tsar. Et très vite, Nicolas II fera en sorte de restaurer l'autocratie
General Burnside and his sideburns1881 Ancient Egyptian obelisk "Cleopatra's Needle" erected in Central Park
1879 James Shields (D) elected US senator from Missouri after previously serving as US senator from Illinois and Minnesota .
In an attempt to outflank Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, Union General Ambrose Burnside leads his army on a march to north Frederickburg, but foul weather bogs his army down in what will become known as "Mud March." While Union commander George McClellan fumed and the Battle of Antietam hung in the balance, a handful of Rebels held off Federal troops at "Burnside Bridge." This and other failures led to Burnside's replacement by Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker before the end of the month. He is best know for the “sideburns” named after him. [photo >]
1862 Confederate government raises premium for volunteers from $10 to $20.
1862 Bombardment of Fort Henry, Tennessee by USS Lexington.
^ 1840 British colonists reach New Zealand
      Under the leadership of British statesman Edward G. Wakefield, the first British colonists to New Zealand arrive at Port Nicholson on Auckland Island. In 1642, Dutch navigator Abel Tasman became the first European to discover the South Pacific island group that would later become known as New Zealand. While attempting to land, several of Tasman's crew were killed by warriors from the native Maori people, who interpreted the Europeans' exchange of trumpet signals as a prelude to battle. The islands, which were named after the Dutch province of Zeeland, do not attract much additional European attention until the late eighteenth century, when English explorer Captain James Cook traveled through the area and wrote detailed accounts of New Zealand. Whalers, missionaries, and traders followed, and in 1840, Britain formally annexed the islands and established New Zealand's first permanent European settlement at Wellington. The same year, the Maori signed the Treaty of Waitangi, by which they recognized British sovereignty in exchange for guaranteed possession of their land. However, armed territorial conflict between the Maori and white settlers continued until 1870, when there were few Maori left to resist the European encroachment. Originally part of the Australian colony of New South Wales, New Zealand became a separate colony in 1841, and was made self-governing in 1852. Dominion status was attained in 1907, and full independence was granted in 1931 and ratified by New Zealand in 1947.
1831 Charles Darwin takes his Bachelor of Arts exam.
1813 Americans capture Frenchtown, Canada.
1808 Napoléon propose à l'ambassadeur d'Autriche Metternich qu'ils joignent leurs forces à celles de la Russie pour démembrer l'Empire ottoman.
1807 President Thomas Jefferson exposes a plot by Aaron Burr to form a new republic in the Southwest.
^ 1804 Décret de dissolution des "Pères de la Foi".
      Ces " Pères de la Foi " sont des membres d'une congrégation religieuse née de la fusion, en 1799, de la Société du Sacré-Cœur et de la Société de la foi de Jésus. La première fut fondée en 1794, à Louvain, par l'abbé Éléonor de Tournély, et la seconde en 1797, à Rome, par Nicolas Paccanari. L'une et l'autre se donnaient pour but de reprendre, dans le même esprit et plus ou moins selon les mêmes règlements, les œuvres de la Compagnie de Jésus, supprimée par Clément XIV en 1773. La Société des Pères de la foi s'implanta rapidement en divers pays d'Europe. En France, sous la direction du père Joseph Varin, des collèges furent ouverts à Lyon (1801, mais celui-ci fut fermé de suite sur ordre de Fouché), à Amiens (1802), à Belley (1803)... Vite dénoncés comme des "jésuites déguisés" (Portalis), les Pères de la foi voient leur société dissoute par un décret impérial du 22 janvier 1804, décret dont l'exécution ne sera vraiment effective qu'à partir de 1807, entraînant alors la dispersion et la clandestinité. Depuis 1804, le mauvais gouvernement de Paccanari (qui n'était pas prêtre) avait fait éclater la société en plusieurs formations autonomes (la scission en France eut lieu le 21 juin 1804), tandis que vingt pères anglais rejoignaient individuellement à Saint-Pétersbourg le noviciat de la Compagnie de Jésus, officiellement reconnue en Russie par Pie VII depuis le 7 mars 1801. Les Français accomplirent la même démarche en 1814, lorsque la Compagnie, rétablie définitivement dans l'Église le 7 août 1814, eut repris vie en France sous l'autorité d'un ancien profès, le père de Clorivière.
1798 Coup of Midderigh
1775 Marshal Oscar von Lubomirski expels Jews from Warsaw Poland
1771 Spain cedes the Falkland Islands to Britain
1760 Battle at Wandewash India British troops beat French
1758 Russian troops occupy Königsberg, East Prussia
1690 Iroquois tribes renew allegiance to British against French
1689 Lord Halifax becomes Speaker of English House of Lords, Prince Willem III calls English parliament together, and England's "Bloodless Revolution" reaches its climax when parliament invites William and Mary to become joint sovereigns.
1673 Postal service between New York City and Boston begins. It is the first organized postal route in American history.
^ 1588 By Immense aeterni Pope Sixtus V decrees a reform of the papal curia.
       Before his pontificate, ecclesiastical business was generally discharged by the pope in consistory with the cardinals. There were, indeed, a few permanent cardinalitial congregations, but the sphere of their competency was very limited. In his Bull "Immensa aeterni Dei", of 11 February, 1588, he established fifteen permanent congregations, some of which were concerned with spiritual, others with temporal affairs. They were the Congregations: (1) of the Inquisition; (2) of the Segnatura; (3) for the Establishment of Churches; (4) of Rites and Ceremonies; (5) of the Index of Forbidden Books; (6) of the Council of Trent (7); of the Regulars; (8) of the Bishops; (9) of the Vatican Press; (10) of the Annona, for the provisioning of Rome and the provinces; (11) of the Navy; (12) of the Public Welfare; (13) of the Sapienza; (14) of Roads, Bridges, and Waters; (15) of State Consultations. These congregations lessened the work of the pope, without in any way limiting his authority. The final decision belonged to the pope.
1584 Parts of Switzerland adopt Gregorian calendar (and parts in 1812)
1528 England and France declare war on Emperor Charles V
1517 Turks conquer Cairo
1510 Jews are expelled from Colmar Germany
1371 King Robert II Stuart of Scotland crowned
0871 Battle at Basing Danish invasion army beats Ethelred of Wessex
< 21 Jan 23 Jan >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 22 January:

2007 Henri Grouès abbé Pierre, born on 05 August 1912 in Lyon, France, who became Capuchin friar “frère Philippe” in 1931, was ordained a priest in 1938, took the name “abbé Pierre” when active in the Résistance (1940-1944) against German occupation, was a député (=representative) (1945-1951) in the Assemblés constituantes and the Assemblée nationale, in 1949 founded the Compagnons d'Emmaüs (formally organized on 23 March 1954) to help the poor, and became well know by his 01 February 1954 appeal for the homeless during that frigid winter. —(070122)
2005 Rose Mary Woods, born on 26 December 1917, devoted secretary to US President Nixon [09 Jan 1913 – 22 April 1994] who, to cover up for the real culprit (never discovered), lied that she had inadvertently caused a 18 1/2-minute gap in the tape of a 20 June 1972 conversation between Nixon and his chief of staff H.R. Haldeman [27 Oct 1926 – 12 Nov 1993], which was crucial to determine what Nixon knew about the break-in at Democratic headquarters in the Watergate complex (17 Jun 1972), and when he knew it.
2004 All 4 US Marines aboard a UH-1 Huey cargo helicopter, which crashes in the evening at Camp Pendleton, California.
2004 Muhsan Da'aor, 11, Palestinian, as he tries to flee, 300 meters from where he was shot by Israeli troops in the Gaza Strip within 25 meters of the electronic security fence at the border with Israel. Two boys with him, aged 11 and 16, are wounded. Two more boys manage to flee.
2004 Valery Prilovsky, 35, drunk, stabbed with a kitchen knife “for being an alcoholic” by his father, slightly drunk, in their apartment on Shlonsky Street in Netanya, Israel.
Mauldin2004 Policeman Ibrahim Khalid Ibrahim, another policemen, and a civilian, Iraqis, near Fallujah, Iraq, in an attack on a checkpoint on the highway to the town of Ramadi, by kaffiyeh-masked attackers in a passing car, who throw a grenade and fire Kalashnikov assault rifles. Five policemen are wounded.
2004 Chea Vichea, 36, shot while reading at a newsstand next to Lanka Pagoda in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. He was the president of Cambodia's Free Trade Union of Workers, and, in March 1998, a founding member of the opposition party led by Sam Rainsy [10 Mar 1949~]. Vichea was an outspoken critic of corruption and human rights abuses under the government of Hun Sen.
2003 William Henry “Bill” Mauldin [photo >], US cartoonist born on 29 October 1921. — more
2002 Geneva McNicholl, in Oregon, where she was born on 10 December 1889.
2002 Two Israeli women, aged 56 and 78, and their killer, Saeed Ramadan, 24, member of the Al Aqsa Brigades, shot by Israeli police after he shot at Israelis waiting at a bus stop in the center of Jerusalem and wounded 16, 2 of which die soon afterwards of their wounds.
2002 Abdullah Syafei and six others from wounds received in fight in the Aceh's Sigli region, at the northern tip of Sumatra, between Free Aceh Movement guerillas, of which Syafei was the leader, and Indonesian police. For decades the conflict has been claiming innocent lives almost daily and about 1500 were killed in 2001 alone.
2001 Larry Jamen Harper, suicide while negotiating with police in Woodland Park, Colorado, while 4 other were arrested of the group of seven convicts who broke out of a Kenedy, South Texas, prison on 13 December 2000. They overpowered guards, took their clothes and sped away in a prison vehicle. On 24 December, they robbed an Oshman's sporting goods store in Irving, Texas, and gunned down police officer Aubrey Hawkins who came on the scene. Harper was serving a 50-year sentence for aggravated sexual assault.
2000 Deux agents, assassinés en Algérie. Un policier et un garde communal sont tués à un "faux barrage" dressé à Kadiria, dans la région de Lakhdaria, par un groupe armé habillé en tenues de policiers. Lors du ratissage qui a suivi, les forces de sécurité découvrent quatre cadavres en état de décomposition.
1999 4 membres du GLD local (Groupe Local de Défense, milice anti-islamiste locale armée par les autorités) et une personne de 62 ans sont abattus par un groupe armé à Sidi el Kebir, dans la région de Blida, Algérie.
^ 1999 Graham Stuart Staines, 58, and his sons, Philip, 10, and Timothy, 8, shortly before midnight, burnt alive in the vehicle in which they had been sleeping.
      Staines, an Australian missionary in India since 1965, and his two young sons were sleeping in their vehicle after attending a Bible study in Manoharpur village in Keonjhar district in eastern Orissa state. They are survived by Staines' wife, Gladys, and their daughter, Esther. The Staines had lived in the are since 1965 as a missionaries for the Evangelical Missionary Society and ran a home for lepers. Nearly 40 persons doused the vehicle with gasoline and set it ablaze, beating up anyone who tried to rescue the family.
     For this crime, on 22 September 2003, a member of the anti-Christian and anti-Muslim Hinduist fanatic group Bajrang Dal, Dara Singh aka Rabindra Pal Singh [02 Oct 1962~], would be sentenced to death as leader of the mob, and these 12 to life imprisonment: Dipu Das, Suratha Nayak, Mahendra Hembram, Renta Hembram, Harish Mahanta, Kartik Lohar, Mahadev Mahanta, Thoram Ho, Daya Patra, Ojen Hansda, Rabi Soren, Umakanta Bhoi. Three others accused in the case were fugitives at the time, and another accused, Chenchu Hansda, was tried by a separate court for being a minor, and was sentenced to 7 years' imprisonment. — more
1998 Un père de famille et ses deux fils de 10 et 15 ans, tués par un commando armé, à Haouch el Messaoudi, dans la région de Médéa, Algérie. Deux jeunes filles aînées sont enlevées par les assaillants.
1997 En Algérie, deux attentats à la bombe font respectivement 2 à 8 morts et une vingtaine de blessés sur un marché de Blida et 8 morts et 28 blessés sur un carrefour commerçant près de Boufarik. — 23 personnes sont massacrées à El-Omaria , près de Berrouaghia, lors de l'attaque du village par un groupe armé. — Cinq membres de la famille d'un policier sont égorgés à Baraki, dans la banlieue est d'Alger.
1995: 21 killed in Palestinian bomb attack in Beit Lid Israel
1995 Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy, 104, mother of President John F Kennedy
1990 Ferrar, mathematician.
1989 Goldstein, mathematician.
1988 Georgi M. Malenkov, 86, Russian premier (1953-1955)
1987 du Val, mathematician.
1982 Eduardo Frei Montalva, 71, President of Chile (1964-1970)
1981 Rudolf Oskar Robert Williams Geiger, German physicist and meteorologist born on 24 August 1894. Einer der Begründer der Mikroklimatologie, der Studie der Klimabedingungen innerhalb einiger Meter über der Erdoberfläche. Mit dem 1927 erschienenem Buch Das Klima der bodennahen Luftschicht und dessen 1942, 1950 und 1961 folgenden erweiterten Auflagen, die weit über den Bereich der Forstlichen Meteorologie hinaus führten, gingen entscheidende Impulse für die Umweltforschung und für das Umweltbewußtsein aus. Geiger wurde auch mit der von W. Köppen erarbeiteten Klimaklassifikation bekannt.
1979 Ali Hassan Salameh [Abu Hassan], killed by car bomb; believed to have helped mastermind massacre of 1972 Munich Olympics athletes
1975 Montel, mathematician.
1973 Lyndon B Johnson, 64, US President (1963-1969)
1973:: 170 of the 202 passengers and 6 of the 9 crew members on board an Alia Royal Jordanian Airlines Boeing 707-3D3C, chartered to fly hadjis back from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, to Lagos, Nigeria, where bad weather forces it to divert to Kano, Nigeria. There, after touchdown, the right main gear leg collapses as it hits a depression in the runway or the edge of the runway, the Boeing turns 180 degrees, skids off the side of the runway and catches fire.
1960: 417 die as coal mine of Johnburg caves in.
1952:: 23 persons as an American Airlines Convair airplane crashes on landing in New Jersey.
1951 Harald Bohr, mathematician.
1942 Walter Richard Sickert, British Post-Impressionist Painter born on 31 May 1860. MORE ON SICKERT AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images, and was he “Jack the Ripper“?
1941 first mass killing of Jews in Romania.
^ 1940 Day 54 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

Finnish troops capture three Soviet spies.
      Ladoga Karelia: Soviet troops continue their offensive at Kollaa, on the River Aittojoki and in Ilomantsi.
      Mikkeli: General Headquarters turns down the proposal by the Lapland Group to continue their advance to Märkäjärvi. The available forces are to be concentrated to consolidate the ground already taken.
      Sortavala in Ladoga Karelia and Ivalo in Lapland are the focus of enemy bombing.
      Three Soviet spies dressed in Finnish-style military uniforms have been captured off Ylläppäänniemi on Lake Ladoga.
      Finland welcomes foreign volunteers willing to serve in the Finnish armed forces.
      Abroad: in Leningrad, staff officers are executed for failing to provide proper protection for field kitchens.
      The Norwegian rucksack collection for Finland reaches its goal of 50'000 filled rucksacks, which are duly surrendered to the collection committee.
      The monarchist government led by the pretender to the Russian throne, Grand Duke Vladimir, recognizes Finnish independence and urges Russian émigrés to join in the work of freeing their country.
      The great Finnish runners Paavo Nurmi and Taisto Mäki set out for the United States to publicize the situation at home and take part in exhibition races on behalf of Finland.
      The French Academy invites Jean Sibelius to become an associate member of its composers section.
      A correspondent on the English paper News of the World describes the Finns as the equal of the American Indians in forest warfare.

^ Kolme neuvostovakoojaa jää kiinni Talvisodan 54. päivä, 22.tammikuuta.1940
       Neuvostojoukot jatkavat hyökkäystään Kollaalla, Aittojoella ja Ilomantsissa.
      Päämaja ei hyväksy Lapin Ryhmän esitystä hyökkäyksen jatkamisesta Märkäjärvelle. Voimat keskitetään saavutettujen asemien lujittamiseen.
      Vihollinen pommittaa Sortavalaa ja Ivaloa.
      Kolme suomalaismallisiin sotilasvarusteisiin pukeutunutta neuvostovakoojaa jää kiinni Ylläppäänniemen edustalla Laatokalla.
      Suomi ilmoittaa ottavansa vastaan ulkomaalaisia vapaaehtoisia taistelemaan joukoissaan.
      Ulkomailta: Leningradissa teloitetaan esikuntaupseereita heidän laiminlyötyä kenttäkeittiöiden suojelemisen.
      Norjassa selkäreppukeräys Suomelle saavuttaa tavoitteensa 50 000 reppua, jotka sisältöineen luovutetaan keräystoimikunnalle.
      Venäjän kruununtavoittelijan, suuriruhtinas Vladimirin johtama Venäjän monarkistinen hallitus tunnustaa Suomen itsenäisyyden ja kehottaa ulkomailla asuvia venäläisiä osallistumaan maansa vapauttamiseen.
      Suurjuoksijat Paavo Nurmi ja Taisto Mäki lähtevät tiedotus — ja kilpailumatkalle Yhdysvaltoihin.
      Säveltäjä Jean Sibelius kutsutaan Ranskan Akatemian sävellysosaston kirjeenvaihtajajäseneksi.
      Englantilaisen News of the World-lehden kirjeenvaihtajan mielestä suomalaiset ovat intiaanien veroisia metsäsodan taitajia.

^ Tre sovjetspioner blir fast  Vinterkrigets 54 dag, den 22 januari 1940
      Ryssland fortsätter sin offensiv vid Kollaa, Aittajoki och Ilomants.
      Huvudkvarteret godkänner inte Lapplandsgruppens förslag om att fortsätta offensiven till Märkäjärvi. Krafterna koncentreras nu till att befästa de uppnådda positionerna.
      Fienden bombar Sordavala och Ivalo.
      Tre ryska spioner iklädda soldatutrustning av finsk modell tas fast på Ladoga utanför Ylläppäänniemi.
      Finland meddelar att landet tar emot utländska frivilliga som vill strida i de egna trupperna.
      Utrikes: I Leningrad avrättas stabschefer som har försummat att skydda fältköken.
      I Norge uppnår ryggsäcksinsamlingen för Finland sitt mål på 50 000 ryggsäckar. Ryggsäckarna med innehåll överlämnas till kommittén för insamlingen.
     Den monarkistiska regeringen i Ryssland leds av storfursten Vladimir, som strävar efter kronan. Regeringen erkänner Finlands självständighet och uppmanar de ryssar som bor utomlands att delta i befriandet av sitt land.
      Stjärnlöparna Paavo Nurmi och Taisto Mäki åker på PR — och tävlingsresa till USA.
      Kompositör Jean Sibelius kallas till korrespondentmedlem för Frankrikes Akademis kompositionsavdelning.
      Enligt korrespondenten för den engelska tidningen News of the World kan finnarna jämföras med indianerna som är skickliga i skogskrigföring.
Pope Benedict XV1922 Benedict XV [Giacomo della Chiesa], 67, pope (1914-22). He was created archbishop of Bologna in 1907 and cardinal in 1914, shortly before his election to the papacy. During World War I, Benedict won the good will of belligerents by his impartiality, his peace proposals, his charitable donations, and his prisoner-of-war services. [photo >] He would be succeeded by Pius XI.
1922 Jordan, mathematician.
1921 Georges Humbert, mathematician.
1919 Carl Olof Larsson, Swedish painter born on 28 May 1853. MORE ON LARSSON AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1905 Robert Brough, Scottish painter born on 20 March 1872. — a little more with link to an image.
1905 (09 January Julian) “Krovavoye Voskresenye”: more than 100 petitioners, including women and children, massacred by the Czar's troops in the courtyard of the Winter Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia. The peaceful petitioners are headed by Father Georgy Apollonovich Gapon [1870 - March 1906], leader of the Assembly of Russian Factory Workers of St. Petersburg, who is among the hundreds of wounded. He would then flee to Geneva, there announce that he had abandoned his ideas of liberal reforms and joined the join the Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRP). However, a member of the SRP, Pinchas Rutenberg, discovered that Gapon was sending messages to the Russian Minister of the Interior. Evno Azev (who was secretly on the payroll of the Okhrana for 1000 rubles a month) gave orders for Gapon to be murdered. George Gapon was killed by members of the SRP when he visited Finland. — At the end of the 19th century, industrial workers in Russia had begun to organize. Police agents, in order to undercut the influence of revolutionaries and their broad social and political agenda, organized legal labor unions such as the Assembly, intending them to focus exclusively on making economic gains. In the midst of a wave of strikes in St. Petersburg, Father Gapon had notified the authorities of the march to present to the czar petitions for reforms (mainly a working day oy 8 hours, instead of 11, and a minimum wage of one ruble a day; but also an end of the war with Japan [26 Jan 1904 – 23 Aug 1905] and elections by universal suffrage). Czar Nicholas II is out of town. His uncle, Grand Duke Vladimir, head of the Okhrana, orders a halt to the marchers, who are carrying religious icons, pictures of the czar, and their petitions. When the march regroups, Vladimir orders the Semenovsky regiment to fire on the petitioners and mounted Cossacks to stop them. — Arousing widespread revulsion, the massacre would result in the strikes spreading to other cities, to peasant uprisings, and to military mutinies (of which the best known is that of the battleship Potemkin in Odessa): the 1905 Revolution.
1904 Salmon, mathematician.

1901 Queen Victoria, 81.
     This ends an era in which most of her British subjects know no other monarch. Spanning more than half-a-century, her reign, the longest in British history, saw the growth of an empire on which the sun never set. As a young woman ascending to the throne, she was described as one whose extreme obstinacy was constantly at war with her good nature. On 15 Ocober 1839 she proposed to her German cousin, Prince Albert, and when he died, she entered a forty-year period of mourning for a love that had bequeathed her nine children and no fewer than thirty-seven surviving great-grandchildren in many of the royal families of Europe. She was born Alexandrina Victoria on 24 May 1819.
—La reine d'Angleterre Victoria meurt après une brève agonie en son château d'Osborne, sur l'île de Wight. A 81 ans, elle a régné pendant 64 ans (1837-1901), soit plus longtemps qu'aucun autre souverain anglais. Elle remet à son fils Edouard VII une couronne plus populaire et plus illustre que jamais. Mais déjà apparaissent les premières fissures dans la suprématie britannique sur le monde avec la guerre des Boers.

1900 William Louis Sonntag, US Hudson River School painter specialized in Landscapes, born on 02 March 1822. — more with links to images.
1879 Zulus defeat British at Isandhlwana
      At the Battle of Isandhlwana in present-day South Africa, the British army suffers one of its worst defeats of the nineteenth century against a regiment of Zulus armed primarily with spears and cowhide shields. The British-Zulu War had begun ten days before when British troops under Lieutenant General Frederic Augustus invaded Zululand in an attempt to suppress the Zulu forces of King Cetshwayo. The first major confrontation came at Isandhlawana, where the British 24th Regiment, completely surrounded by a force of Zulus, suffered approximately 800 soldiers killed and 500 wounded.
      At Hlobane Mountain, the British suffered another grave defeat, while 82 British soldiers hold off attacks by 4000 Zulu warriors at the Battle of Rorke's Drift. Colonel Henry Evelyn Wood had expected little trouble as his cavalry ascended Hlobane Mountain. What he got was a Zulu army, 22'000 men strong.
     But on March 29, at the Battle of Khambula, the tide finally turned in favor of the British. By July, Zulu forces were utterly routed and King Cetshwayo was forced to surrender. In 1887, faced with continuing Zulu rebellions, the British formally annexed Zululand and in 1897 it became a part of Natal, which joined the Union of South Africa in 1910. —
Les Zoulous écrasent l'armée de Sa Majesté
      Une armée zouloue de 20'000 hommes attaque les Anglais à Isandhlwana, au Transvaal, en Afrique australe. Trop confiants dans leur supériorité, les Anglais ont négligé de fortifier leur campement. Ils perdent dans l'attaque près d'un millier d'hommes (et plus d'officiers qu'à Waterloo!). Les Zoulous eux-mêmes en perdent 2000. C'est la plus grande défaite coloniale de l'Angleterre. Quelques années plus tôt, des diamants avaient été découverts dans la région de Kimberley, à la limite de la colonie britannique du Cap, du royaume zoulou et des petites communautés de paysans hollandais (les Boers). Sous la pression des colons et des prospecteurs, le gouverneur du Cap, sir Bartle Frere, avait décidé de soumettre l'ensemble de la région et il avait lancé un ultimatum au roi zoulou Cetewayo. Après le désastre d'Isandhlwana, de violents débats s'ensuivent à Londres entre l'austère William Gladstone, chef de l'opposition libérale (whig), et le Premier ministre conservateur (torie) Benjamin Disraeli, au pouvoir depuis 1874 et farouche partisan des conquêtes coloniales. Piqué au vif, le Premier ministre envoie 10.000 hommes en Afrique australe, pour combattre les Zoulous. Après six mois de campagnes meurtrières, les Britanniques s'emparent enfin du roi Cetewayo, le 4 juillet 1879. C'est la fin des guerres zouloues... et bientôt la fin de l'Afrique indépendante. Les dirigeants européens rivalisent de vitesse pour planter leur drapeau sur les dernières terres insoumises de la planète, malgré une opinion publique majoritairement opposée à ces expéditions coûteuses et vaines. A l'exemple de Benjamin Disraeli, le républicain français Jules Ferry, l'empereur allemand Guillaume 1er et le roi des Belges Léopold II s'appuient sur les aventuriers et les militaires pour achever de soumettre le continent africain.
Drame princier
      Le 1er juin 1879, au cours des guerres contre les Zoulous, une patrouille anglaise est assaillie lors d'une reconnaissance à Ulinda, non loin du campement royal de Cetawayo. Les Anglais battent en retraite et abandonnent l'un des leurs, tombé de cheval. Le malheureux ne tarde pas à succomber sous le nombre.
      Le drame serait passé inaperçu s'il ne s'était agi du prince Eugène Louis-Napoléon (23 ans), fils unique de l'ex-empereur Napoléon III et ultime espoir des bonapartistes français. Il s'était engagé dans les troupes anglaises pour servir son pays d'accueil et la reine Victoria, qui lui avait donné toute son affection.
1850 Vincenzo Pallotti, 51, Italian saint, founder of the Pious Society of Missions
1837 Thousands in earthquake in southern Syria.
1824 A British force is wiped out by an Asante army under Osei Bonsu on the African Gold Coast. This is the first defeat for a modern colonial power.
1799 Horace B de Saussure, 58, Swiss physicist/geologist/alpinist.
1737 Jean-Baptiste Vanmour, Flemish artist born on 09 January 1671.
1649 Alessandro Turchi “L'Orbetto” (Veronese), Italian painter born in 1578. MORE ON TURCHI AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1557 Giulio Raibolini Francia, Bolognese painter and goldsmith born in 1487.
< 21 Jan 23 Jan >
^  Births which occurred on a 22 January:

1996 The New York Times's web site
      The New York Times, which previously offered its content through America Online, starts its own Web site. As consumers moved from proprietary services to the Web throughout late 1995 and 1996, proprietary services began to lose members. At the same time, content providers found they had more control of their presentation on the Web than on proprietary services, and many publishers began migrating their content to the Web.
1953 The Crucible, by Arthur Miller, opens on Broadway.
1946 CIA, Central Intelligence Agency.
1938 Our Town, by Thornton Wilder, is performed publicly for the first time, in Princeton, N.J.
1937 Eden Pastora Gomez Nicaraguan contra leader
^ 1932 Reconstruction Finance Corporation is founded.
      President Herbert Hoover [10 Aug 1874 – 20 Oct 1964] leads the government into action against the Depression and signs the legislation that establishes the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC). Conceived by Hoover in 1931, and passed by the House earlier that January, the RFC was an independent agency charged with funding banks, railroads, insurance companies, and other institutions that could help kick start the moribund economy. When Franklin Roosevelt [30 Jan 1882 – 12 Apr 1945] became president, he made the agency a key engine of the New Deal recovery program. The RFC was also a key player during World War II, making disbursements that financed the US’s burgeoning defense industry, as well as cash-strapped foreign governments.
      However, by 1951 rumors that the agency was awash in impropriety swirled around RFC, prompting congressional officials to initiate a wide-reaching investigation. The probe not only revealed an agency riddled with corruption, but pointed figures at some of the RFC’s highest-ranking officials. Coupled with the push by President Eisenhower [14 Oct 1890 – 28 Mar 1969] to curtail the government's role in the economy, the findings resulted in the end of the RFC. Eisenhower signed the RFC Liquidation Act into law in 1953, which effectively stripped the organization of its duties as a lender. By 1957, the RFC’s remaining powers had been shuttled to other government agencies and it was shut down.
1912 Florida East Coast Railway is completed, connecting to the mainland to the then nearly 20'000 residents of Key West, on a small island about 206 kilometers south of the Florida peninsula. The rail link served the island until 1935, when it was destroyed by a hurricane. It was replaced in 1938 by the Overseas Highway and its 42 bridges, bringing automotive traffic to the Florida Keys for the first time.
1911 Bruno Kreisky, chancellor of Austria (1970–1983) who died on 29 July 1990. Kreisky joined the Social Democratic Party in 1926; he was active in the party until it was outlawed in 1934. In 1935 he was arrested for political reasons and imprisoned for 18 months. He was imprisoned again in 1938, shortly after graduating as doctor of law from the University of Vienna. Persecuted by the Gestapo because of his political beliefs and Jewish birth, he fled to Sweden, where he engaged in journalism and business during World War II. From1946 to 1950 he served at the Austrian legation in Stockholm and then returned to Vienna to serve at the foreign ministry. From 1956 he was a member of the Austrian Parliament, and in 1959 he was elected deputy chairman of the Social Democrats and became foreign minister. After the party's decisive defeat in the 1966 general election, he took the lead in an intraparty reform movement. He was narrowly elected chairman of the Social Democrats in 1967, and he became chancellor of Austria when the Social Democrats emerged from the 1970 elections as the strongest party; in 1971 they acquired an absolute majority. Kreisky was credited with successfully pursuing a policy of “active neutrality,” smoothing relations with neighboring Communist Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia and seeking cooperation with other nonaligned nations. Under his leadership, the Social Democrats preserved their parliamentary majority in elections in 1975 and 1979. He resigned in 1983.
1909 [Sithu] U Thant, Burma, 3rd UN Secretary-General (1962-1972). He died on 25 November 1974.
1904 George Balanchine composer/choreographer
1892 Marcel Dassault [Bloch], French airplane builder who died on 18 April 1986. [Il a inventé des avions Dassault mais pas les chars d'assaut].
1891 Moïse Kisling, French artist who died on 29 April 1953.
1891 Jack Lockett, Australian who would die on 25 May 2002.
1890 Fred M. Vinson, 13th Chief Justice of the United States, who died on 08 September 1953.
1889 Willi Baumeister, German painter who died on 31 August 1955. MORE ON BAUMEISTER AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
1889 Antonio Todde. He would grow up to become a shepherd, and to celebrate his 112th birthday as the oldest man in the world, together with his 97-year-old sister, four children, a dozen or so grandchildren and a flock of great-grandchildren, in Tiana, Sardinia, a village of about 600, which has a high percentage of people over the age of 80, many of whom enjoy a glass of red wine every day and for whom cheese and red meat are a regular part of the diet. He would die on 03 January 2002.
^ 1882 Louis Pergaud, French writer who died fighting in World War I, on 08 April 1915.
     Il est né à Belmont, petit village du Doubs. Son père, déjà instituteur public, descend d’une longue lignée de paysans francs-comtois. Il connaît une enfance campagnarde, tout à fait semblable à celle de ses futurs héros (" Le p’tit Gibus ").
      En 1898, il entre à l’école normale de Besançon, où il s’intéresse aux sciences naturelles, au point d’envisager de se présenter à l’École normale supérieure de Saint-Cloud. Par malheur, il perd son père et sa mère, coup sur coup, pendant l’hiver 1901. À sa sortie de l’école normale, quelques mois plus tard, il accepte donc un poste d’instituteur stagiaire, à Durnes. C’est là qu’il compose et fait publier, à compte d’auteur, son premier ouvrage, un recueil de vers intitulé L’Aube . Quatre ans plus tard, il est nommé titulaire à Landresse, où il se marie.
      En août 1907, il renonce provisoirement à l’enseignement pour tenter sa chance à Paris. Il obtient un modeste emploi à la Compagnie des eaux, qu’il conserve jusqu’en décembre 1909, date à laquelle il réintègre l’enseignement. A la suite d’un concours, il est nommé expéditionnaire au service des beaux-arts de la préfecture de la Seine.
      Il compose son premier volume de prose, De Goupil à Margot . Il s’agit d’un recueil de nouvelles que le Mercure de France publie et qui obtient le prix Goncourt en 1910.
      À partir de 1911, Louis Pergaud écrit avec une sorte de fièvre : La Revanche du corbeau , autre série de nouvelles, paraît en 1911 ; La Guerre des boutons , (qui a contribué à sa gloire puisque tous les potaches de plusieurs générations l’ont lu … de force " (?)) en 1912 ; Le Roman de Miraut , en 1914. À la veille de sa mobilisation, il remet le manuscrit des Rustiques au Mercure de France.
      Le 03 Aug 1914, il est mobilisé à Verdun. Il disparaît pendant la nuit du 07 Apr au 08 Apr 1915, à Marchéville. Son corps n’a jamais été retrouvé. Il laisse des articles, des notes, des brouillons et un roman inachevé, Lebrac bûcheron, où l’on retrouve un des héros de La Guerre des boutons .
      Rien n’est poignant comme une œuvre brutalement interrompue, au moment même où elle prenait forme. Avec les cinq ouvrages et demi qui la constituent (en mettant de côté les deux recueils de vers), celle de Louis Pergaud nous laisse sur une faim cruelle. Pourtant, elle offre curieusement un panorama assez complet de la vie des paysans francs-comtois au début de ce siècle. Pour la décrire, Pergaud n’a eu qu’à regarder autour de lui, à rassembler des souvenirs d’enfance, à écouter les récits de ses parents et de ses voisins.
      Dans les deux premiers recueils, De Goupil à Margot et La Revanche du corbeau , l’ancien étudiant amateur de sciences naturelles exprime son amour des habitants de la forêt. Deux romans, Le Roman de Miraut, chien de chasse , et Lebrac bûcheron , mettent l’accent sur la rudesse de la condition paysanne, dans une région où la terre est dure et les hivers bien longs. Enfin, Les Rustiques , nouvelles malicieuses, et La Guerre des boutons , cette Iliade burlesque et attendrissante, renouent avec la lointaine tradition de la gaieté terrienne, où le rire (pas toujours complice) est le seul moyen de triompher de la misère et du désespoir.

      Auteur: De Goupil à MargotLa Revanche du corbeauLa Guerre des boutons (1912) — Le Roman de MirautLes RustiquesLebrac bûcheron.
     La Guerre des boutons ce sont des enfants de deux communes voisines tout le temps en train de se battre. Cela commence à l'épée et ça finit avec la cavalerie (un cheval et un âne). Il y a un petit qui s'appelle p'tit Gibus qui dit tout le temps "si j'aurais su, j'aurais pas v'nu". Ils font plein de bétises, et se reçoivent des raclées par les parents. A la fin, les deux chefs de guerre se reconcilient en pension. Leur trésor, c'étaient des boutons volés aux prisonniers ennemis.
1879 Francis Martínez de Picabia, French Dadaist-Surrealist painter who died on on 30 November 1953. MORE ON PICABIA AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1875 D[avid] W Griffith 1874 D.W. [David Wark] Griffith, US movie producer and director, the most influential figure in early film history, made The Birth of A Nation and Intolerance.
1874 Leonard E. Dickson, mathematician. He died in 1954.
1863 Joseph Bail, French artist who died on 26 November 1921.
1856 Walter Gay, US artist who died in 1937.
1850 Robert Brookings, US businessman and philanthropist who died on 15 November 1932.
1849 Johan August Strindberg, Stockholm Swedish painter, sculptor, and playwright, who died on 14 May 1912. — more
1822 Karoly Marko II, Hungarian artist who died in 1891. — more
^ 1788 George Gordon Noel Byron, in Aberdeen, Scotland, romantic and satirical poet.
      Byron was raised in near poverty. Afflicted with a clubfoot, he endured a painful childhood. At age 10, he inherited his great uncle's title. He attended Harrow, then Trinity College, Cambridge, where he ran up enormous debts and wrote poetry. His first published volume of poetry, Hours of Idleness (1807), was savaged by critics, especially in Scotland, and his second published work, English Bards and Scotch Reviewers (1809), attacked the English literary establishment.
     Byron went on a 2-year tour of Europe and the Near East and returned to England on 14 July 1811. His travels inspired his first highly successful work, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (1812). The poem brought him almost instant acclaim in England, and Byron's taste, manners, and fashion all become widely imitated. "I awoke one morning and found myself famous," he says.
      In 1815, he married Anne Isabella Milbanke, and the couple had a daughter, August Ada, who proved to be a mathematical prodigy and contributed to the first digital-computer design, conceived by Charles Babbage. Byron and his wife separated as scandal broke out over Byron's suspected incestuous relationship with his half-sister, Augusta Leigh. He was ostracized by polite society and forced to flee England in 1816. He settled in Geneva, near Percy Bysshe Shelley and his wife, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, and became intimately involved with Mary's half-sister, Claire Clairmont. She bore Byron's daughter Allegra in January 1817.
      Byron moved to Venice that year and entered a period of wild debauchery. In 1819, he began an affair with the Countess Teresa Guiccioli, the young wife of an elderly count, and the two remained attached for many years. Byron, always an avid supporter of liberal causes and national independence, supported the Greek war for independence. He joined the cause in Greece, training troops in the town of Missolonghi, where he died of malaria on 19 April 1824.
Don Juan, Hebrew Melodies, ManfredSelected Poetry     
1782 Franz Xaver Lampi, Austrian Polish painter who died on 22 July 1852. — more
1775 André-Marie Ampère, à Lyon, savant.
1762 Jean-Baptiste Joseph Wicar (or Vicart), French Neoclassical painter who died on 27 February 1834. — more with links to images and information on queen Julie Bonaparte, who sat for a portrait, and on some of her relatives.
1690 Nicolas Lancret, French genre painter who died on 14 September 1743. MORE ON LANCRET AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1592 Pierre Gassendi, mathematician.
1561 Francis Bacon, English philosopher, statesman, essayist. BACON ONLINE: Novum OrganumHistoria Regni Henrici Septimi Regis AngliæSermones FidelesThe Advancement of LearningThe Advancement of LearningThe Essayes or Counsels, Civill and MorallThe EssaysNew AtlantisNew Atlantis.
1440 Ivan III Vasilyevich “the Great”, grand prince of Moscow, from the death of his father Vasily II [1415 – 27 Mar 1462] until his own death on 27 October 1505. He subdued most of the Great Russian lands by conquest or by the voluntary allegiance of princes, rewon parts of Ukraine from Poland–Lithuania, and repudiated the old subservience to the Mongol-derived Tatars. He also laid the administrative foundations of a centralized Russian state.
Holidays   Ukraine : Ukrainian Day (1918) / Tu B'shvat, Jewish New Year of the Trees.

Religious Observances Roman Catholic, Anglican : St Vincent, martyr/patron of wine growers / Roman Catholic : St Anastasius, martyr / Saint Vincent, diacre de l'évêque de Saragosse, a été torturé et tué par le gouverneur romain pendant la persécution de Dioclétien (304). L'abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, à Paris, sera fondée plus tard pour abriter ses reliques. Vincent est le patron des vignerons. Il est généreusement fêté en Bourgogne.
TINIBRAINER DICTIONARY: supervisor: the adjustable panel that keeps the sun out of your eyes on the windshield of a supercar.
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Thought for the day:
“Ce qui vient au monde pour ne rien troubler ne mérite ni égards, ni patience.” — René Char.
updated Saturday 17-Jan-2009 17:31 UT
Principal updates:
v.7.01 Monday 22-Jan-2007 15:36 UT
Thursday 19-Jan-2006 4:06 UT
v.5.01 Sunday 23-Jan-2005 23:33 UT
Friday 30-Jan-2004 1:49 UT

safe site site safe for children safe site