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^  On a 20 January:
2001 At 12:00 EST, George W. Bush (Jr.) is sworn in as 43rd President of the US, and Dick Cheney as Vice-President. They can be considered USurpers because they received fewer votes of the people than Democrats Al Gore Jr. and Joe Liebermann, but Bush and Cheney won by 1 vote in the Supreme Court, when it prevented a recount of the Florida votes (rigged by governor Jeb Bush, George W's brother), thus assuring the Republicans the presidency. — MORE (BUSH'S INAUGURAL ADDRESS)
 2001 Two hours before the presidency passes to G. W. Bush, US President Clinton pardons 151 persons. They include a leftist radical convicted of conspiring to bomb the US Capitol; a woman who illegally gave an eagle feather to now-Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton (D-N.Y.); some drug offenders serving long prison terms under mandatory sentencing laws and others. — MORE
2001 Philippines president Joseph Estrada resigns, finally giving in to popular pressure which became overwhelming after his impeachment trial for corruption had been stopped by his supporters in the senate. Vice-President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is sworn in as president.
^ 2001 (Saturday) 6 children's and their parents' fast since Christmas stopped by police.
(Report of 010121 in Kenya's The Daily Nation — >)
Six emaciated children confined to their home by an eccentric father are now (Sunday 21) in the custody of the Huruma Children's Home, Ngong. On Saturday, neighbours intervened to save the children after they became suspicious of the air of inactivity at the family's home in Ngong. The neighbours called the police, who arrested the father and mother, while the children were taken to the home. The father, Dr Peter Kamau Mwangi, is a former Nairobi University lecturer, while his wife, Hannah Wangui, is a housewife. The officer commanding Karen Police Station, Mr Joseph Ringera, said the father had recorded a statement. Dr Mwangi had told officers of a vision he in 1998, in which God instructed him to start worshipping at home instead of going to church. He had also been told to start fasting together with his family until he receives further instructions. As far as the former lecturer was concerned, none of his family members was sick and he expected the vision to indicate if this would happen. Dr Mwangi, a PhD holder in electrical engineering, had taught at the university for about 21 years before his resignation in 1992, the same year he claimed he became saved. Mr Ringera said the couple would be taken to the Mathare Mental Hospital for a check-up. Since his resignation, Dr Mwangi had been surviving on his savings. He said that he and his family did not have any financial problems. If that was the case, he said, he would have sold the family car or his property in Kinangop. Yesterday, Dr Mwangi accompanied his wife, who appeared to be ill, to a clinic near the police station. Hannah complained of stomach pains and vomited after she ate food given to her by the founder of the Huruma Children's Home, Mrs Zipporah Kamau. Mrs Mwangi had sought permission to eat the food from her husband, who himself refused to eat, saying he would continue fasting until he received a further message from God. "It is God's will that the children should fast and not go to school,'' he told the Nation in an interview. With a voice already weakened by hunger, Dr Mwangi, who only sipped water during the interview, said he attended the Chriscos fellowship meetings at City Hall between 1992 and 1996 but he left to "fellowship at home with my family''. A pastor in charge of the Ngong Chriscos Church, Mr Charles Maina, denied that Dr Mwangi was a church member, but said he had occasionally attended inter-denominational classes organised by the church at City Hall. A neighbour, Mrs Grace Wangui Njenga, told the Nation how she suspected things were going wrong after the family started cutting down trees within their compound for use as firewood. "I would give them food but they declined. Since 1992, l have seen them come out of their house on very few occasions,'' Mrs Njenga said. When she asked Dr Mwangi why he was fasting, he only told her that since he expected the end of the world to occur last year and he had decided to continue fasting until this happens. Yesterday, when asked to elaborate on this, Dr Mwangi refused to comment. When the Nation visited the home, all the six children, aged between two and 11 years, were visibly suffering from skin diseases and unable to stand up. The eldest, 11-year-old John Mwangi, walked with difficulty as his feet were swollen. All the children had distended stomachs from the meal of chapati and stew which they had scrambled for the previous night.
(Reuters 010122 — >)
Six emaciated Kenyan children who were kept indoors and deprived of food for four weeks "on God's orders" have been taken to a children's home and their fanatical Christian parents have been arrested, police said on Monday. Police at the weekend raided the home of former university lecturer Peter Kamau Mwangi and his wife Hannah in Ngong, on the outskirts of the capital Nairobi, after a tip-off from neighbors. Inside the six children were sitting together on a bed, weakened and listless from their ordeal, local television pictures showed. "The parents have been arrested but we are awaiting the results of a psychiatric examination before we proceed," said an officer from Ngong police station who declined to be named. Mwangi told police officers he had been instructed by God at Christmas to fast with his family until further notice. His family had drunk only water during the weeks of fasting. The six children, aged two to 11, were unable to stand up on stick-thin legs, and all were suffering from skin infections and hair loss. The youngest child weighed little more than a baby. Mwangi resigned from his job lecturing in electrical engineering at the University of Nairobi when he became a born-again Christian, and spent his days praying with his family, neighbors said.
2000 New York-based Human Rights Watch accuses Russian soldiers of raping Chechen women in Russian-controlled areas of Chechnya. Citing interviews with refugees who had spoken with the victims or seen their dead bodies, Human Rights Watch describes rapes in Shali, 26 km southeast of Grozny, and Alkhan-Yurt, just southwest of the Chechen capital.
^ 1999 (Wednesday) Clinton impeachment trial: Defense 2nd day (Congressional Record)
(1) President Bill Clinton's lawyers launch a point-by-point attack on the allegations against Clinton(of perjury and obstruction-of-justice), calling them vague and without merit. White House Special Counsel Gregory Craig, who leads off, says the House of Representatives erred in not outlining precisely what Clinton allegedly lied about during his August 17 grand jury appearance about his relationship with ex-White House intern Monica Lewinsky. That is what federal prosecutors have to do when they bring perjury cases, and the House's lack of specifics puts the president at an unfair disadvantage in trying to defend himself, Craig says. Clinton's lawyer, standing at a lectern in the well of the Senate, says no reasonable person could read the grand jury transcript and not see Clinton was owning up to his illicit affair with Lewinsky. "I urge you to read that transcript," Craig said. "You will see this president make painful, difficult admissions." Craig apologizes if his arguments seem overly legalistic or technical, but says Clinton is entitled to use all legal means to defend himself. "When an individual, any individual, is accused of committing a crime, such as perjury, the prosecutors must be put to their full proof," he says. "Every element of the crime must be proven. And if a criminal standard is going to be used here, it must be proven beyond a reasonable doubt." Craig also tries to explain the president's much-ridiculed answer to one question that his answer would depend on the definition of the word "is." Craig calls that "a political mistake" and says Clinton erred in trying to be his own lawyer and argue with prosecutors.
      White House Deputy Counsel Cheryl Mills (herself accused by the House Committee on Government Oversight and Reform with perjury and obstruction of justice) follows Craig, maintaining that Clinton did not ask his secretary, Betty Currie, to retrieve presidential gifts from Lewinsky after they had been subpoenaed in December 1997 by lawyers for Jones. Mills notes that Lewinsky has given 10 accounts of a December 28, 1997 meeting with the president where they discussed the gifts, but House prosecutors have quoted only the one least favorable to the president. Even based on that account, no one claims that Clinton ordered, suggested or even hinted that anyone should obstruct justice, Mills says. "Why haven't you heard these (other) versions?" Mills asks. "Because they weaken an already fragile circumstantial case." House prosecutors have ignored Lewinsky's own motivations for having Currie take the gifts, Mills says. When Lewinsky got the Jones subpoena, she feared lawyers for Jones would break into her apartment or tap her phone and she wanted the gifts moved. Why would Currie agree to hold the box of gifts? "Because she's a friend, and that is not obstruction of justice," Mills says. Mills also disputes the notion that Clinton tried to obstruct justice by asking Currie leading questions the day after his Jones deposition, trying to influence Currie's potential testimony. "There was no effort to intimidate or pressure Ms. Currie," Mills says, citing Currie's own grand jury testimony.
      (2) Outside the Senate chamber, some of the House prosecutors, known as "managers," rebuff the defense team's assertions. "It appears the White House strategy is to attack the managers more personally and to make it the managers versus the White House," says Rep. Asa Hutchinson (R-Arkansas). "This should not be a battle between the managers and the White House defense team," Hutchinson says. "This is a battle between the facts of this case. The concentration should be on the facts, not on the lawyers, not the managers." Rep. James Rogan (R-California) says the defense's statements are "riddled with inaccuracies and half-truths." Rep. James Sensenbrenner (R-Wisconsin) says it is frustrating not to have an opportunity for rebuttal.
      (3) NBC's Lisa Myers interviews Juanita Broaddrick, the woman who had been rumored to have been raped in 1978 by then-Arkansas Attorney General Bill Clinton, but who had since provided a sworn denial of the event in the Jones v. Clinton lawsuit.
1998 US researchers announce that they have cloned calves that may produce medicinal milk.
1997
Bill Clinton is sworn in as US President, for his 2rd term. [inaugural address]
1996 Arafat elected first leader of Palestine       ^top^
       Yasser Arafat is elected president of the Palestinian National Council with 88.1%t of the popular vote, becoming the first democratically elected leader of the Palestinian people in history. Arafat, the founder of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), originally employed guerilla warfare and terrorism against Israel in his struggle for an independent Palestinian state. However, in the late 1980s, he stunned Israel and the world when he began seeking diplomatic solutions in his quest for a Palestinian homeland. Arafat persuaded the PLO to formally acknowledge the right of Israel to co-exist with the independent state of Palestine, and in 1993 signed the historic Israel-Palestinian Declaration of Principles along with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. One year later, Arafat and Rabin signed a major peace agreement granting Palestine limited self-government in territories occupied by Israel. In 1995, Arafat shared the Nobel Peace Prize with Rabin and Israeli foreign minister Shimon Peres for his peace efforts. In the Palestinian people's first democratic election in 1996, he won an overwhelming electoral majority, consolidating his rule over the West Bank and Gaza Strip areas granted autonomy in the 1995 agreement.
1995 Russian ruble drops to 3947 per dollar (record)
1993 William Jefferson Clinton inaugurated as 42nd US President [inaugural address]
1993 IBM loses money for the first time in its history, showing that Big Blue's iron grip on the industry had slipped. IBM suffered declines in its mainframe computer line and in its personal computer business and would continue to lose ground for the next several years, until new CEO Lou Gerstner instituted a major restructuring. Gerstner's focus on up-and-coming technologies, including the Internet, successfully re-established IBM as a major technology player.
1991 US Patriot missiles begins shooting down Iraqi missiles
1991 Iraq parades captured Allied airmen on TV
1989 George Bush (Sr.) first US Vice President since Van Buren to become President by election and not by death of the previous President. [Inaugural address] Quayle becomes 44th Vice President, to the delight of humorists.
1989 Reagan becomes first President elected in a "0" year, since 1840, to leave office alive
1987 Anglican Church envoy Terry Waite taken hostage in Beirut, Lebanon
1987 Digital introduces biggest computers to date, two high-power supercomputers, priced between $2.5 and $5 million on January 20, 1987. The computers, which cost four to eight times as much as Digital's previous top-of-the-line machines, were designed to break IBM's hold over industries such as financial companies and insurance firms that relied heavily on supercomputers.
1986 Military coup in Lesotho under General-Major Lekhanya and premier Leabua Jonathan
1986 France and the UK announce plans to build the “Chunnel” — a railroad tunnel under the English Channel.
1986 First US federal holiday honoring Martin Luther King Jr.
1985 Ronald Reagan is sworn in as US President, for his 2nd term. It is a Sunday, so he gives his inaugural address the next day.
1982 Honduras constitution goes into effect
1981 Ronald Reagan is sworn in as the 40th president of the United States. — MORE with Reagan's 1st Inaugural Address
1981 Minutes after Ronald Reagan's inauguration as US President, the 53 US captives held since 04 November 1979 at the US embassy in Teheran, Iran, are released. — MORE
1981 Admiral Stansfield Turner, USN (Retired), ends term as 12th director of CIA
1977 George Bush, ends term as 11th director of CIA
1977 Jimmy Carter is sworn in as US President. [inaugural address]
1973 Richard M Nixon is sworn in as US President, for his 2nd term. [inaugural address]
^ 1972 New Communist offensive anticipated in Vietnam
      In continued efforts to disrupt an anticipated communist offensive, a contingent of more than 10'000 South Vietnamese troops begin a sweep 45 miles northwest of Saigon to find and destroy enemy forces. There was much speculation that the North Vietnamese would launch such an offensive around the Tet (Chinese New Year) holiday. Although the communists did not attack during the Tet holiday in early February, in March they launched a massive invasion involving more than 150,000 main force troops and large amounts of tanks and artillery pieces. The battles raged throughout South Vietnam into the fall and resulted in some of the fiercest fighting of the war.
^ 1969 Richard Nixon takes office as US president
      Richard Milhaus Nixon is inaugurated as president of the United States and says in his inaugural address, "After a period of confrontation [in Vietnam], we are entering an era of negotiation." Eight years after losing to John F. Kennedy in the 1960 election, Nixon had defeated Hubert H. Humphrey for the presidency. Shortly after taking office, Nixon put his new team in place. William Rogers replaced Dean Rusk as Secretary of State, Melvin Laird replaced Clark Clifford as Secretary of Defense, and Henry Kissinger replaced Walt Rostow as National Security Adviser. In 1962, Nixon ran for governor of California and lost in a bitter campaign to Edmund G. ("Pat") Brown. Most observers believed that Nixon's political career was over at that point, but by February 1968, he had sufficiently recovered his political standing in the Republican Party to announce his candidacy for president. Taking a stance between the more conservative elements of his party led by Ronald Reagan, and the liberal northeastern wing led by Governor Nelson Rockefeller, Nixon won the nomination on the first ballot at the Republican National Convention in Miami Beach. For his running mate, he chose Spiro T. Agnew, the governor of Maryland. His Democratic opponent, Vice President Hubert Humphrey, was weakened by internal divisions within his own party and the growing dissatisfaction with the Johnson administration's handling of the war in Vietnam. Although Nixon and Humphrey each gained about 43 percent of the popular vote, the distribution of Nixon's nearly 32 million votes gave him a clear majority in the electoral college.
1965 Generalissimo Francisco Franco meets with Jewish representatives to discuss legitimizing Jewish communities in Spain
1965 L. B. Johnson is sworn in as US President. [inaugural address]
1961 John F. Kennedy is inaugurated as the thirty-fifth president of the United States. In his famous inauguration address, Kennedy appeals to US citizens to "ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country." His term of office will be cut short by his assassination on 22 November 1963. — MORE
1961 Robert Frost, 87, recites his poem “The Gift Outright” at the inauguration of President John F. Kennedy.
1961 Yugoslav ex-Vice-President Milovan Djilas flees
1961 Arthur M. Ramsay becomes archbishop of Canterbury
1960 Patrice Lumumba sentenced to 6 months in Belgian Congo
1957 Gomulka wins Poland's parliamentary election
1957 Eisenhower is sworn in as US President, for his 2nd term, privately in the East Room at the White House because it is a Sunday. The next day he repeats the oath of office on the East Portico of the Capitol and gives his inaugural address.
1954 -70ºF (-57ºC), Rogers Pass, Montana (state 48 record)
1953 Eisenhower is sworn in as US President. [inaugural address]
1952 British army occupies Ismailiya, Suez Canal Zone
1950 Suriname becomes independent part in Realm of Netherlands
^ 1949 Truman is sworn in as US president and announces his “Point 4” program
      In his inaugural address, President Harry S. Truman calls for a "bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped nations." The resulting Point Four program (so-called because it was the fourth point in Truman's speech) resulted in millions of dollars in scientific and technical assistance — as well as hundreds of US experts — sent to Latin American, Asian, Middle Eastern, and African nations. Though Truman did not mention communism or the Soviet Union during his discussion of Point Four, it was clear that the program was part of a foreign policy designed to contain the Soviet threat. As the president noted, over "half of the people of the world are living in conditions approaching misery." While the "material resources" that the United States might offer to these nations was limited, its technical superiority was "constantly growing" and was "inexhaustible." Truman believed that this technical expertise could be used to foster economic development and opportunities for capital investment in the Third World. Such action would also benefit the United States, since past experience demonstrated that "our commerce with other countries expands as they progress industrially and economically." "Democracy alone," Truman announced, "can supply the vitalizing force to stir the peoples of the world into triumphant action." The program drew some criticism in the United States and abroad. In America, some US businessmen and agricultural producers were wary that programs aimed to help other countries with the production of goods and crops might be at odds with their own interests. The Senate, reflecting many of these concerns, passed the program by the margin of only one vote in May 1950. Abroad, suspicions arose that Point Four was merely another form of economic imperialism designed to force Third World nations to increase their natural resource production for the benefit of Western industries. Despite these concerns, America's technical assistance initiatives to other countries continued throughout the duration of the Cold War, though they came to operate under a variety of different program and agency names.
Gouin follows De Gaulle as temporary leader of French government
^ 1946 De Gaulle démissionne.
     Charles De Gaulle démissionne de la présidence du gouvernement provisoire. A l'encontre des partis politiques, il réclame un exécutif fort. Contrairement à ses espérances, ses voeux ne seront pas comblés et personne ne viendra le rappeler aupouvoir pour conduire la IVe République.
      Le général de Gaulle, après 18 mois de pouvoir battu en brèche par les communistes et par les syndicats, se retire. Tous pensaient que ce n'était qu'une retraite tactique. Mais c'était sans compter sur la politique politicienne. Sa retraite durera 12 ans. Il avait fallu 4 ans à Charles de Gaulle pour devenir le leader incontesté de la France libre. Cinq jours après le débarquement des forces anglaises, américaines et canadiennes en Normandie (juin 1944), de Gaulle débarqua à Courseulles. L'accueil qu'il reçut sur le sol français établit définitivement sa légitimité aux yeux des Américains, qui durent renoncer à l'établissement d'une administration alliée pour gouverner la France jusqu'à sa libération totale. Le 26 août 1944, de Gaulle descendit les Champs-Élysées en compagnie des chefs de la Résistance intérieure, acclamé par un million de Parisiens. Trois priorités s'imposaient à lui et à ceux qui l'entouraient : achever la libération du territoire, affirmer la présence de la France dans les négociations de paix, restaurer l'unité nationale et la volonté de reconstruire dans un pays profondément affecté par quatre ans d'occupation, en rétablissant l'autorité du pouvoir central et en permettant l'application du programme élaboré par le Conseil national de la Résistance. Le 3 septembre 1944, de Gaulle prit la tête d'un gouvernement provisoire dans lequel entrèrent six ministres communistes, aux côtés de membres du Mouvement républicain populaire (MRP) et de socialistes, formule dite du "tripartisme", qui perdura jusqu'en 1947. Durant cette période, le gouvernement présida à une série de nationalisations (Renault, p.ex.) et de grandes réformes sociales. Craignant un retour aux institutions et aux pratiques de la IIIe République (division des partis, instabilité ministérielle, parlementarisme), de Gaulle proposa un projet de Constitution renforçant le pouvoir exécutif et dut faire face à l'opposition d'une majorité de l'Assemblée heurtée par ses conceptions "présidentialistes". Après avoir été confronté à plusieurs crises avec les partis, le président du gouvernement choisi par la première Assemblée constituante finit par se convaincre que ses options étaient inconciliables avec celles de la classe politique, et il démissionna brusquement de toutes ses fonctions le 20 janvier 1946. Ses proches lui assuraient que la France aurait accepté un coup de force et la dictature, mais il était trop respectueux des institutions pour écouter les sirènes … Sa retraite durera jusqu'en 1958, à l'occasion de la déchirure algérienne.
1945 Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the only president to be elected to three terms in office, is inaugurated for his fourth consecutive term, 10 days short of his 63rd birthday. He will die on 12 April 1945. In 1947, the twenty-second Amendment to the US Constitution will limit future presidents to only two terms of office. — MORE with FDR's 4th Inaugural Address
1944 RAF drops 2300 ton bombs on Berlin.
1943 Operation-Weiss Assault of German, Italian, Bulgarian and Croatian
1943 Lead SD, temp is 52ºF, while 1.5 miles away Deadwood SD records -16ºF.
1942 Japanese invade Burma.
1942 Japanese air raid on Rabaul New Britain.
^ 1942 Nazis confer on extermination of Jews.
      Nazi officials meet to discuss the details of the "Final Solution" of the "Jewish question." In July 1941, Herman Goering, writing under instructions from Hitler, had ordered Reinhard Heydrich, SS general and Heinrich Himmler's number-two man, to submit "as soon as possible a general plan of the administrative, material, and financial measures necessary for carrying out the desired final solution of the Jewish question." Heydrich met with Adolf Eichmann, chief of the Central Office of Jewish Emigration, and 15 other officials from various Nazi ministries and organizations at Wannsee, a suburb of Berlin. The agenda was simple and focused: to devise a plan that would render a "final solution to the Jewish question" in Europe. Various gruesome proposals were discussed, including mass sterilization and deportation to the island of Madagascar. Heydrich proposed simply transporting Jews from every corner Europe to concentration camps in Poland and working them to death. Objections to this plan included the belief that this was simply too time-consuming. What about the strong ones who took longer to die? What about the millions of Jews who were already in Poland? Although the word "extermination" was never uttered during the meeting, the implication was clear: anyone who survived the egregious conditions of a work camp would be "treated accordingly." Months later, the "gas vans" in Chelmno, Poland, which were killing 1000 people a day, proved to be the "solution" they were looking for — the most efficient means of killing large groups of people at one time. The minutes of this conference were kept with meticulous care, which later provided key evidence during the Nuremberg war crimes trials.
^ Mise au point de la “solution finale”
      Un groupe de dignitaires nazis se réunit au siège d'Interpol à Wannsee, dans un faubourg huppé de la capitale allemande. Au cours de cette "conférence de Wannsee", le chef des services de sécurité allemands, Reinhard Heydrich, expose pour la première fois les modalités de la "solution finale de la question juive" (en allemand: "Endlosung der Judenfrage"). Cette expression énigmatique recouvre rien moins que le projet d'exterminer tous les Européens israélites ou considérés comme tels par les nazis. C'est l'aboutissement d'un extraordinaire retournement de situation si l'on veut bien songer qu'en 1914, l'Allemagne et l'Autriche étaient considérées comme les pays européens les plus tolérants envers les juifs. Au début de la première guerre mondiale, les juifs américains prirent même leur parti contre la Russie tsariste.
Les origines du génocide
      Adolf Hitler est le premier responsable de l'extermination des juifs. Dans "Mein Kampf" (Mon combat), le gros livre qu'il écrit en prison, en 1924, pour décrire son itinéraire et exposer son projet politique, le futur Führer explique qu'il est devenu un "antisémite fanatique" à Vienne, avant la guerre. Mais c'est en 1918, suite à la défaite des puissances centrales, que son antisémitisme devient véritablement haineux. Hitler rejette la responsabilité de la défaite sur la "juiverie internationale". En Allemagne même, les juifs aux commandes de l'économie auraient poussé les responsables politiques à demander l'armistice et encouragé les ouvriers à faire la révolution, comme en Russie, afin d'anéantier le peuple allemand. En France et dans les pays anglo-saxons, les juifs auraient aussi usé de leur influence pour entraîner les gouvernements contre l'Allemagne et l'Autriche.
      En 1920, le parti nazi projette d'attribuer aux juifs le même statut qu'aux étrangers et de favoriser leur émigration. Dans "Mein Kampf", Hitler s'épanche sur ses sentiments antisémites mais ne dit rien du sort qu'il réserve aux juifs, une fois qu'il serait au pouvoir. En 1928, il renouvelle le souhait de ne tolérer les juifs en Allemagne "que comme des étrangers". Le génocide et la guerre Jusqu'à leur entrée en guerre contre leurs anciens alliés soviétiques, le 22 juin 1941, les nazis ont pratiqué un antisémitisme de plus en plus brutal sans toutefois organiser de meurtres systématiques: exclusion des Juifs de toutes les fonctions un tant soit peu importantes, interdictions professionnelles, pogroms etc. Ils pensent en finir avec les Juifs d'Europe en les regroupant dans des "réserves", à Lublin, en Pologne, voire à Madagascar.
      Dès lors que la guerre n'est plus limitée à un affrontement avec l'Angleterre de Churchill mais devient générale, Hitler éprouve le besoin d'engager totalement le peuple allemand à ses côtés. C'est ainsi qu'à la réunion de Wannsee, les nazis entreprennent une extermination des Juifs selon un mode d'organisation industriel. Les camps d'Auschwitz et de Treblinka en restent les plus tragiques symboles. Des simples citoyens aux SS en passant par les soldats de la Wehrmacht, beaucoup d'Allemands vont se compromettre peu ou prou dans l'indicible crime. Parmi les peuples assujettis aux nazis, il se trouvera aussi beaucoup de gens pour se laisser entraîner peu à peu à des actes impardonnables comme l'a rappelé le procès de Maurice Papon.
      De l'entrée en guerre contre l'URSS à la réunion de Wannsee, 300'000 à 400'000 Juifs sont déjà morts à l'occasion de leur déportation vers des camps de travail ou d'extermination. Après la réunion de Wannsee, l'extermination va devenir systématique, faisant en moins de quatre ans un total de 6 millions de morts. Dans le seul camp d'Auschwitz, où sévissent 3000 SS, on arrivera en 1944 à exterminer et brûler les malheureux déportés au rythme de 600 par jour.
1941 Franklin Delano Roosevelt is sworn in as US president, for the 3rd time. — FDR's 3rd Inaugural Address
1940 Winston Churchill broadcasts his “House of many mansions” speech on the war situation, ending with: “The day will come when the joybells will ring again throughout Europe, and when victorious nations, masters not only of their foes but of themselves, will plan and build in justice, in tradition, and in freedom a house of many mansions where there will be room for all.”
1939 Hitler proclaims to German parliament his intention to exterminate all European Jews.
^ 1937 First presidential inauguration of a US president on this date, Franklin D. Roosevelt's second of four inaugurations; the first had been held four years earlier on 04 March, the original date for the swearing in of the President and Vice President, which was changed to 20 January by the 20th Amendment of the US Constitution. — MORE with FDR's 2nd Inaugural Address
1937 -45ºF (-43ºC), Boca CA (state record)
Edward VIII succeeds British king George V
^ 1936 Édouard VIII d'Angleterre succède à son père Georges V.
      Né en 1894, fils de George V, le prince de Galles Edouard participa à la Première Guerre mondiale en tant qu'officier, puis remplit son rôle de prince héritier, entreprenant des tournées officielles dans les colonies britanniques et soutenant divers projets d'ordre social. Il devint très populaire grâce à son attitude "sociale". Il succéda à son père le 20 janvier 1936 sous le nom d'Édouard VIII. Il devenait ainsi roi de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, et empereur des Indes. Mais Édouard VIII ne régna que du 20 janvier au 11 decembre 1936. Son projet de mariage avec Mrs Wallis Warfield Simpson, une Américaine divorcée, lui valut l'hostilité déterminée de l'Église d'Angleterre, mais aussi des gouvernements des dominions et du Premier ministre Stanley Baldwin. Malgré l'existence d'un groupe des "amis du roi", où figure Winston Churchill, il n'aurait pu s'obstiner dans son dessein et continuer son règne qu'au prix d'une dramatique crise constitutionnelle. Sacrifiant son devoir de roi à son amour, mais faisant passer l'intérêt de la monarchie avant toute ambition dynastique personnelle, il préfère abdiquer et devenir le duc de Windsor. Son frère George, duc d'York, lui succédera. Il épousa Mme Simpson en juin 1937. Compromis par ses relations avec l'Allemagne nazie qui envisageait de le remettre sur le trône après l'invasion de l'Angleterre, le duc de Windsor fut nommé gouverneur des Bahamas (1940-1945), à l'initiative de Winston Churchill. Il fut ainsi habilement éloigné des manœuvres nazies pendant toute la durée de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Après la guerre, il s'installa en France où il mourut en 1972. Note et précision de Lodace : le même jour, que la mort de son père, Édouard VIII est alité à la suite d'un refroidissement et ... préférer l'Amour au trône, bravo !!!!!
1934 Japan sends Henry Pu Yi as regent to emperor of Manchuria
1926 2nd German government of Luther begins
1925 USSR and Japan sign treaty of Peking, Seychelles back to USSR
1921 Turkey declared in remnants of the Ottoman Empire
^ 1921 Création de la République socialiste soviétique autonome du Daghestan.       ^top^
      Il occupe, sur le piémont septentrional du Grand Caucase, un territoire de 50300 kilomètres carrés où étaient dénombrés, en janvier 1991, 1'854'200 habitants environ. Les autochtones descendent de peuples antérieurs aux Indo-Européens et composent près des trois quarts de la population de la république à laquelle ils ont donné leur nom. À titre indicatif, au moment du recensement de 1970, alors que la population totale s'élevait à 1 million et demi de personnes, les autochtones étaient au nombre de 1million, les Russes 210'000, les Azerbaïdjanais 54'000 et les Tchétchènes 40'000. La majeure partie de la population vit de l'élevage, principalement des ovins, car 15 % seulement de la surface de la République est cultivable : delta de la Terek et plaines côtières, qui fournissent légumes, fruits, maïs et riz. L'industrie du Daghestan reste avant tout spécialisée dans l'extraction des ressources du sous-sol (pétrole et gaz naturel) ou la transformation de matières premières d'origine agricole (travail des textiles, industrie du cuir, conserves alimentaires). Aussi le Daghestan ne possède-t-il que peu de villes ; sa capitale, en même temps que son port principal, Makhatchkala, a vu sa population passer de 87'000 habitants en 1939 à 248'000 en 1978. Elle était estimée à 350'000 en 1997. La deuxième ville est Derbent (près de cent mille habitants en 1997).
1918 In Russia, following the Bolshevik Revolution, all church property is confiscated and all religious instruction in the schools is abolished.
1887 The US Senate approves an agreement to lease Pearl Harbor in Hawaii as a naval base.
1879 British troops under Lord Chelmsford set camp at Isandlwana
^ 1878 Les Russes s'emparent de la ville d'Andrinople, dans la région des Balkans encore soumise aux Turcs ottomans. Entrés en guerre le 27 avril 1877 pour soutenir les peuples slaves des Balkans dans leur révolte contre la tutelle du sultan, les Russes profitent de leur victoire pour marcher sur la capitale turque, Istanbul. Le sultan demande sans tarder l'arrêt des hostilités. Le dépeçage de "l'homme malade de l'Europe" (la Turquie) est en bonne voie.
1866 Prim's Insurrection in Spain ends.
^ 1863 Yanks' Civil War Mud March begins
      Union General Ambrose Burnside's Army of the Potomac begins an offensive against General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia that quickly bogs down as several days of heavy rain turn the roads of Virginia into a muddy quagmire. The campaign was abandoned three days later.
      The Union army was still reeling from the disastrous Battle of Fredericksburg of 13 December 1862. Burnside's force suffered more than 13'000 casualties as it assaulted Lee's troops along hills above Fredericksburg. Lee suffered only 5000 casualties, making Fredericksburg one of the most one-sided engagements in the eastern theater of operations. Morale was very low among the Yankees that winter.
      Now, Burnside sought to raise morale and seize the initiative from Lee. His plan was to swing around Lee's left flank and draw the Confederates away from their defenses and into the open. Speed was essential to the operation. January had been a dry month to that point, but as soon as the Federals began to move, a drizzle turned into a downpour that last for four days. Logistical problems delayed the laying of a pontoon bridge across the Rappahannock River, and a huge traffic jam snarled the army's progress. In one day, the 5th New York moved only a mile and a half. The roads became unnavigable, and conflicting orders caused two corps to march across each others' paths. Horses, wagons, and cannon were stuck in mud, and the element of surprise was lost. Jeering Confederates taunted the Yankees with shouts and signs that read "Burnside's Army Stuck in the Mud."
      Burnside tried to lift spirits by issuing liquor to the soldiers on 22 January, but this only compounded the problems. Drunken troops began brawling, and entire regiments fought one another. The operation was a complete fiasco, and on 23 January Burnside gave up his attempt to, in his words, "strike a great and mortal blow to the rebellion." The campaign was considered so disastrous that Burnside was removed as commander of the army on 25 January 1863.
1861 Mississippi state troops take over Ship Island in the Gulf off Mississippi
1860 Dutch troops conquer Watampone in Celebes
1850 Investigator, first ship to effect northwest passage, leaves England
1841 Hong Kong ceded to the British       ^top^
      During the First Opium War, China cedes the island of Hong Kong to the British with the signing of the Chuenpi Convention, an agreement seeking an end to the Anglo-Chinese conflict. In 1839, Britain initiated the First Opium War to suppress opposition to the European interference in China's economic and political affairs. One of Britain's first acts of the war was to invade and occupy Hong Kong, a sparsely inhabited island off the coast of southeast China. In 1841, China agreed to cede the island to the British, and in the next year, the Treaty of Nanking was signed, formally ending the First Opium War. Britain's new colony flourished as an East-West trading center and as the commercial gateway and distribution center for southern China. In 1898, Britain was granted an additional ninety-nine years of rule over Hong Kong under the Second Convention of Peking. During the 1980s, Britain and China approved the 1997 turnover, and on 01 July 1997, Hong Kong reverted back to Chinese rule during ceremonies attended by Chinese and British officials, including Prince Charles of Wales, heir to the British throne. The chief executive under the new Hong Kong government, Tung Chee Hwa, formulated a policy based upon the concept of "one country, two systems," thus preserving Hong Kong's role as a principal capitalist center in Asia.
A place where to put it.
1840 Dutch King Willem II is crowned.
1839 Chile defeats a confederation of Peru and Bolivia in the Battle of Yungay.
1807 Napoleon convenes the great Sanhedrin, Paris
1801 John Marshall is appointed US chief justice.
1783 Hostilities cease in Revolutionary War
^ 1771 Louis XV exile le Parlement
      La Révolution Dans la nuit du 20 janvier 1771, Louis XV fait arrêter et exiler cent trente magistrats du Parlement de Paris. Le garde des sceaux René Nicolas de Maupéou avait convaincu le roi de France de briser l'opposition systématique des Parlements. Sous couvert de défendre les libertés publiques, les magistrats s'opposaient systématiquement aux réformes qui menaçaient les privilèges. Le Parlement de Paris ayant refusé de siéger le 18 janvier 1771 pour entériner les décisions royales, Louis XV envoya donc ses mousquetaires au domicile des récalcitrants. Méprisant les protestations de l'opinion éclairée et les pamphlets de Beaumarchais, le chancelier supprima les Parlements coupables de vénalité... Mais ces mesures tardives ne firent qu'aggraver l'impopularité du roi vieillissant, entouré de ses maîtresses et impuissant tant à l'intérieur qu'à l'extérieur. Son successeur Louis XVI eut la faiblesse, à son avènement, en 1774, de restaurer les magistrats, croyant de bonne foi retrouver la faveur du public éclairé.
1667 The Treaty of Andrussovo ends a 13 year war between Poland and Russia.
1613 Peace of Knärod ends War of Kalmar between Denmark and Sweden
1513 Christian II succeeds Johan I as Danish/Norwegian king
1356 Scottish king Edward Baliol resigns
1320 Duke Wladyslaw Lokietek becomes king of Poland
1265 first English Parliament called into session by Earl of Leicester
1045 Giovanni di Sabina elected Pope Sylvester III
< 19 Jan 21 Jan >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 20 January:

2003 Naomi Heffler, 25, of Calgary; Dave Finnerty, 30, of New Westminster; Jean Luc Schwendener, 40, of Canmore, Alberta; world-champion snowboarder Craig Kelly, 36, of Nelson; Kathleen Kessler, 39, of Truckee, California; Dennis Yates, 50, of Los Angeles; Ralph Lunsford, 49, of Littleton, Colorado; who were in a group of 21 backcountry skiers, organized by Selkirk Mountain Experience, killed by avalanche, on Durrand Glacier, near Revelstoke, British Colombia, Canada.
2003 Al(bert) Hirschfeld, US show biz caricaturist born on 21 June 1903. Author of The World of Hirschfeld (1970) — Show Business Is No Business — The American Theater as Seen by Hirschfeld — Hirschfeld on Line (1999) — Hirschfeld's New York — Hirschfeld's Hollywood — The Speakeasies of 1932 — Hirschfeld's Harlem.MORE ON HIRSCHFELD AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
2001 UN AUTRE MASSACRE DE CIVILS ET D'ENFANTS EN ALGÉRIE.
      Le GIA sème la mort à Médéa. Onze membres d’une même famille ont été assassinés durant la nuit du vendredi 19 au samedi 20 janvier 2001 au quartier de Ktiten, à Médéa, Algérie, tandis que trois autres sont grièvement blessés. Sur les lieux, la population a plié bagages. «Il n’est plus question de rester ici après ce qui s’est passé cette nuit. Les terroristes reviennent sur les lieux du crime et rien ne les empêchera de commettre d’autres massacres», lance un vieil homme, désormais le miraculé de la tuerie. Il n’arrive pas à croire qu’il s’en est sorti vivant et parle difficilement des circonstances de l’attaque. «Il était 20 h 45. Ils ont d’abord fait exploser la porte blindée du domicile des Belkous à l’aide de deux bombes artisanales.» Le vieil homme essuie ses larmes et reprend son souffle. «Ils les ont piégés. En entendant les explosions, les membres de la famille ont tous accouru vers la cour dans l’espoir de s’enfuir par le toit. Cependant, les tueurs les attendaient. Ils avaient pris position à cet endroit, d’où ils ont mitraillé tout le monde.»
      Le témoin nous montre les escaliers par où les terroristes sont passés avant d’escalader le toit de la maison de leurs victimes. «Nous aurions pu être tous tués cette nuit-là n’était l’arrivée des Patriotes de l’autre côté du quartier», nous révèle un habitant. Lui, sa femme et ses enfants ont déjà préparé leurs affaires pour aller vivre ailleurs en attendant que les semeurs de la mort soient neutralisés. «Ils ont frappé à ma porte, je n’ai pas voulu ouvrir. Ils étaient pressés de repartir surtout quand ils ont entendu les coups de feu des Patriotes», précise notre interlocuteur. Tous les habitants de ce quartier périphérique de Médéa gardent encore en mémoire le massacre des seize lycéens dans leur dortoir au technicum situé à moins de 200 m de ces mêmes lieux. «Nous avons réclamé des armes à plusieurs reprises, en vain. Nous ne pouvons plus attendre que les bourreaux viennent nous tuer un à un comme cela a été le cas des Belkous», lance une vieille femme.
      En effet, de la famille Belkous il ne reste que trois membres, une femme et deux hommes, encore dans le coma. Les onze autres membres, soit quatre femmes, quatre enfants âgés de 3, 7, 11 et 14 ans, ainsi que trois hommes ont été exécutés froidement par balles. La petite Fouzia, âgée de trois ans, aurait pu être sauvée, affirment les voisins, si les ambulances étaient arrivées à temps. «Elle était vivante et perdait beaucoup de sang. Nous avons, avec nos propres voitures, évacué les blessés, mais c’était trop tard. Quatre sont morts au cours du trajet et à l’hôpital.» Hier vers 12 h, les onze dépouilles attendaient à l’hôpital Mohamed Boudiaf. Le froid glacial de la journée n’a pas empêché la foule très nombreuse d’accompagner les victimes vers leur dernière demeure. Le sentiment de révolte et d’insécurité se lisait sur tous les visages. Il fallait attendre 16 h 45 pour mettre les cercueils dans les camions afin d’être transportés vers le cimetière où les tombes étaient déjà creusées depuis la matinée. Les autorités, il n’y en avait aucune. Dans la précipitation la plus totale, les onze victimes ont été enfin enterrées. En attendant la main de fer de Bouteflika, Médéa continue à compter ses morts et à vivre dans la psychose. — // http://www.elwatan.com/journal/html/2001/01/21/actualite.htm
2000 Wolfgang Huellen, 49, head of Germany's Christian Democrat party's financial and budget section in parliament. He was not a lawmaker. He committed suicide today in the midst of the campaign funding scandal surrounding the party and former Chancellor Helmut Kohl.
1992 Roberto d'Aubuisson leader of El Salvador.
1992:: 82 of the 90 passengers and 5 of the 6 crew members aboard Air Inter Flight 148, an Airbus A 320-111, proceding from Lyon which crashes at 18:20 UT (19:20 local) into an 826-meters-high ridge at the 800-meters level, near Mont Sainte-Odile on its approach to Strasbourg, after the crew had programmed the FCU (flight control unit) for a rate of descent 4 times too great, due to the FCU being in the wrong mode. [rapport de la commission d'enquête, 26 nov 1993]

^ William Feuling1985 William Feuling, 18, murdered
      Andrew Johnson, a Black born on 06 March 1964, and two companions, Terry Sanders and Mike Hill, arrive at the home of William Feuling [photo >]. Feuling invites the three men into his apartment because Sanders was employed at Feuling's family-owned convenience store. At the time, Feuling is being visited by two friends, Art Kozak and Brian Walkowiak. Some time after settling into the apartment and accepting a beer, Johnson draws his gun and directs that Feuling and his friends be tied up and gagged.
      After the three men are bound, Johnson pistol-whips Feuling in the face and demanded money. The intruders then remove money from the pockets of the three men. Johnson then moves to Kozak, smashes an egg in his face and laughs. Johnson demands more money from Kozak, and when he learns thah Kozak has none Johnson says that Kozak will “have to die.”
      Nevertheless, Johnson temporarily spares Kozak after taking Kozak's gold watch. Johnson returns to Feuling and drags him throughout the apartment demanding the daily receipts from the convenience store. When Feuling cannot produce the money, Johnson holds Feuling up by the arm and stabs and slashes him repeatedly with a butcher knife about the neck and torso, laughing as he does so. Feuling dies as a result of the knife wounds.
      Johnson then orders his two companions to each kill one of Feuling's friends. Johnson gives the butcher knife to Sanders, who first stabs Kozak in the stomach and then attempts to slit Kozak's throat. Sanders then smashes Kozak in the head with a hammer.
      After the assault on Kozak, Walkowiak lunges for the door in an attempt to escape. Johnson shoots at Walkowiak, hitting him in the shoulder. Despite the gunshot wound, Walkowiak continues to run. Believing that both Feuling and Kozak are dead, the three intruders pursue Walkowiak out the door. But Walkowiak is able to escape with the assistance of a passing motorist.
      Subsequently, Johnson and Hill approached another individual, Oscar Smith, and attempted to take Smith's car at gunpoint. Johnson and Smith struggle as Johnson tries to force Smith into his car. After losing his gun in the struggle with Smith, Johnson flees.
      A blue nylon parka would discovered in the stairwell of Feuling's apartment building, with Johnson's identification card from Joliet Correctional Center in the coat pocket. In addition, police would recover Johnson's fingerprints from a beer can located on a coffee table in Feuling's living room.
      On 21 January 1985, Kozak and Walkowiak independently identify Johnson's picture from a photo array. Before trial, Kozak, Walkowiak, and Oscar Smith would all selected Johnson from a lineup. In addition, all three men would identified Johnson at trial.
     Following a jury trial in the circuit court of Cook County, Andrew Johnson, would be found guilty of three counts each of murder and armed
robbery, and two counts of attempted murder. He would be sentenced to death for the murder and to two consecutive 30-year terms of imprisonment for the attempted murders. [See Supreme Court of Illinois, 18 June 1998]
     In 2000 Illinois governor George Ryan would declare a moratorium on executions and, on 11 January 2003, he would commute all 167 Illinois death sentences not yet carried out, including that of Andrew Johnson (to life imprisonment in his case, as in most).

1971 Schouten, mathematician.
1948 Mahatma Gandhi India's pacifist, assassinated
1940 Day 52 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.       ^top^
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.
Fierce fighting in Taipale
      Eastern Isthmus: fierce battles are being fought in Taipale.
      Enemy troops attack the Finnish strongholds at Terenttilä and Kirvesmäki.
      Central Isthmus: heavy enemy shelling pounds the Finnish defences in Summa village.
      Southwest Finland: the armoured coastal vessels Väinämöinen and Ilmarinen are redeployed to Turku to reinforce the city's air defenses.
      The war in the air: Flight Luukkanen (?) shoots down four enemy aircraft to the north of Lake Ladoga.
      37 enemy aircraft bomb Lahti and put the radio transmitter off the air. Five die and 19 are injured in the raid. The enemy is now broadcasting its own propaganda on the Lahti transmitter's frequency.
      Turku, Tampere and Kouvola are also bombed.
      A Finnish Centre for Nordic Aid (?Suomen Avun Keskus?) aircraft begins transport flights from Vaasa to Sundsvall.
      Turku: a group of foreign correspondents visit the city to inspect the damage caused by the bombing.
      Oulu: 58 American Finnish volunteers arrive in the city.
      Abroad: Winston Churchill, Great Britain's First Lord of the Admiralty, addresses the British nation in a broadcast speech: “All Scandinavia dwells brooding under Nazi and Bolshevik threats. Only Finland superb, nay, sublime in the jaws of peril shows what free men can do. ... They have exposed, for all the world to see, the military incapacity of the Red Army and of the Red Air Force.”
      The Red Army paper Krasnaya Zvezda acknowledges the slow progress of the Soviet troops and demands that the Red Army be taught how to ski.

^ Taipaleessa käydään kiivaita taisteluja Talvisodan 52. päivä, 20.tammikuuta.1940
       Taipaleessa käydään kiivaita taisteluja.
      Vihollinen hyökkää Terenttilän ja Kirvesmäen tukikohtia vastaan.
      Vihollinen pommittaa raskaalla tykistöllä Summan kylän linnoituslaitteita.
      Panssarilaivat Väinämöinen ja Ilmarinen siirtyvät Turkuun ja liitetään kaupungin ilmatorjuntaan.
      Osasto Luukkanen ampuu alas 4 viholliskonetta Laatokan pohjoispuolella.
      Lahtea pommittaa 37 vihollis-konetta. 5 ihmistä kuolee ja 19 haavoittuu.Lahden radioasema saa osuman ja vaikenee. Vihollinen lähettää omaa propagandaansa Lahden radio-aseman taajuudella.
      Lahden lisäksi vihollinen pommittaa Turkua, Tamperetta ja Kouvolaa.
      Suomen Avun Keskuksen lentokone aloittaa kuljetuslennot Vaasasta Sundsvalliin.
      Ulkomaalaisten kirjeenvaihtajien ryhmä vierailee Turussa tutustumassa pommitusten aiheuttamiin tuhoihin.
      58 amerikansuomalaista vapaaehtoista saapuu Ouluun.
      Ulkomailta: Ison-Britannian meriministeri Winston Churchill puhuu parlamentissa: "Koko Skandinavia elää natsismin ja bolshevismin uhan alaisena. Vain Suomi osoittaa vaaran hetkellä, mitä vapaat miehet voivat tehdä. Suomalaiset ovat osoittaneet koko maailmalle punaisen armeijan ja punaisen lentovoiman kehnouden."
      Puna-armeijan lehti Krasnaja Zvezda tunnustaa neuvostojoukkojen hitaan etenemisen ja vaatii, että puna-armeijan sotilaille on ryhdyttävä opettamaan hiihtoa.

^ Häftiga strider pågår i Taipale Vinterkrigets 52 dag, den 20 januari 1940
      I Taipale pågår häftiga strider.
      Fienden anfaller baserna i Terenttilä och Kirvesmäki.
      Fienden bombar fästningsanläggningarna i Summa by med tungt artilleri.
      Pansarfartygen Väinämöinen och Ilmarinen flyttar till Åbo och ansluts till stadens luftvärn.
      Avdelning Luukkanen skjuter ner 4 ryska plan norr om Ladoga.
      Lahtis utsätts för bombardemang av 37 fientliga plan. 5 personer dödas och 19 skadas. Radiostationen i Lahtis blir träffad och tystnar. Fienden sänder egen propaganda på Lahtisstationens våglängd.
      Förutom Lahtis bombas också Åbo, Tammerfors och Kouvola.
      Finlandshjälpens centrals flygplan inleder transportflyg från Vasa till Sundsvall.
      En grupp utländska korrespondenter besöker Åbo för att bekanta sig med förödelsen som orsakats av bombardemangen.
      58 frivilliga amerikafinnar anländer till Uleåborg.
      Utrikes: Storbritanniens sjöfartsminister Winston Churchill talar i parlamentet: "Hela Skandinavien lever under hot av nazism och bolsjevism. Endast Finland visar vid farans stund vad fria män är i stånd till. Finnarna har visat hela världen hur skrala den Röda armén och det röda flygvärnet är."
      Röda arméns tidning Krasnaja Zvezda konstaterar att de ryska trupperna avancerar långsamt och kräver att man lär Röda arméns soldater åka skidor.
1936 King George V of Britain, 70, succeeded by Edward VIII.
1900 John Ruskin, English Romantic writer and painter born on 08 February 1819.— WRITINGS OF RUSKIN ONLINE: The King of the Golden River The King of the Golden RiverThe King of the Golden River Sesame and LiliesUnto This LastUnto This Last (zipped) — "Work" (Lecture I, The Crown of Wild Olive) MORE ON RUSKIN AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
1891 Charles Chaplin, French artist born on 08 June 1825.
1875 Jean-François Millet, French Realist painter born on 04 October 1814. MORE ON MILLET AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1864 Plana, mathematician.
1862 Felix Zollicoffer, Confederate general killed after mistakenly riding into Union lines
1819 Carlos IV, 70, King of Spain (1788-1808)
1815 Caroline-Friederike Friedrich, German artist born on 04 March 1749.
1814 Jean François Pierre Peyron, French artist born on 20 December 1744. — more with links to images.
1745 Charles VII Albert, 47, German emperor (1742-45)
1666 Anne d'Autriche. Malgré l'opération, la gangrène a progressé. Mais c'est des suites d'un cancer du sein apparu deux ans plus tôt que la reine, à soixante-cinq ans, meurt au Louvre. Elle est inhumée à Saint-Denis. Son coeur est au Val-de-Grâce. 1666, au Louvre, la reine Anne d'Autriche meurt à 65 ans d'un cancer du sein apparu deux ans plus tôt. La mère de Louis XIV a régenté le royaume pendant la minorité de son fils, jusqu'en 1661. Elle est inhumée à Saint-Denis. Son coeur est confié au Val-de-Grâce.
1639 Mustapha I sultan of Turkey (1622-23)
1612 Rudolf II von Habsburg, 59, emperor of Germany (1576-1612)
1590 Benedetti, mathematician.
1479 John II, 81, king of Aragon/Navarra
0882 Louis II/III the Younger German king (876-82)
0842 Theophilus Byzantine emperor (829-42)
0250 Saint Fabian, Pope (236-50)
^ — 52 avant J.C.: Publius Appius Clodius       ^top^
      Clodius est un de ces hommes de main, nombreux dans la Rome Républicaine, en une période de guerre civile permanente, issus d'une aristocratie romaine décadente, qui se mettent au service des candidats au pouvoir absolu, comme Pompée, César et Crassus. De même que Catilina, Clodius a été l'exécuteur des basses œuvres de César qui a su l'utiliser sans jamais se compromettre personnellement. Né en 93 av. J.C., dans la famille patricienne des Claudia, le jeune Clodius (Publius Appius) se signale très jeune par ses malversations : il sert en effet en Asie sous les ordres de son beau-frère, Lucullus, et tente en 68 av. J.C. de soulever les légions afin de s'emparer des trésors et du butin qui appartiennent à son riche parent. Lucullus chasse alors Clodius qui revient à Rome, non sans avoir été fait prisonnier par les pirates de la Méditerranée qui ont exigé une forte rançon avant de le libérer. Clodius poursuit à Rome sa carrière d'aventurier et son existence agitée, débauchée et oisive ; il se fait connaître surtout dans la classe politique par ses tendances démagogiques. Il semble qu'il entre alors en relation avec César qui en fera "le chef de ses agents provocateurs" (" César ", de Jérôme Carcopino). Clodius accuse Catilina de concussion en - 65 afin de l'empêcher de devenir consul l'année suivante. En - 64, il part pour la Narbonnaise en même temps que le propréteur Murena et se signale dans cette province par ses exactions et ses rapines. Dans le courant de décembre - 62, il devient soudain célèbre à la suite du scandale de la fête des Damia. Cette fête, consacrée à la " Bona Dea " et réservée exclusivement aux femmes, a lieu chez Pompeia, l'épouse de César, et Clodius, pour approcher celle-ci, se déguise en une harpiste, mais il est vite découvert, confondu et expulsé. L'affaire fait grand bruit à Rome. Traduit en justice en - 61, alors qu'il exerce la fonction de questeur, Clodius parvient à soudoyer ses juges ; il est acquitté malgré Cicéron qui exerce alors la charge de procureur. César, pour sa part, divorce de Pompeia, parce que "la femme de César ne peut être soupçonnée". C'était bien là le but recherché !
< 19 Jan 21 Jan >
^  Births which occurred on a 20 January:

1971 The Jaguar XJ13 car prototype is displayed in Lindley, England, by British Leyland, the automotive conglomerate that included Jaguar at that time. The XJ13 was destined to become the next luxury Jaguar, but bad luck changed its destiny: the prototype car was wrecked on its first test run by test driver Norman Dewis, ending the XJ13 development program. The ruined car was kept and later restored by the company.
1955 USS Nautilus, first atomic submarine, launched at Groton CT
1946 The first Kaiser-Frazer automobiles are introduced at New York’s Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. The Kaiser-Frazer Corporation was formed after World War II by industrialist Henry J. Kaiser and Joseph W. Frazer, president of the Graham-Paige Motor Company. They produced several successful cars, most notably the 1951 Kaiser two-door. In 1953, however, the company was renamed the Kaiser Motors Corporation, and soon abandoned the passenger car business in favor of manufacturing commercial and military vehicles.
1920 Federico Fellini Rimini Italy, director (8½, Satyricon, La Dolce Vita)
1910 Joy Adamson, Australian conservationist and writer who died on 03 January 1980.
1906 Aristotle Onassis (Greek shipping magnate: 2nd husband of Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy)
1904 Renato Caccioppoli, mathematician.
1896 George Burns [Nathan Birnbaum], New York City NY, actor/comedian (Oh God)
1895 Szego, mathematician.
1894 Harold Gray, US "Orphan Annie" cartoonist who died on 09 May 1968.
1892 Agnes Rich, in Nebraska. She would live in US Georgia past her 112th birthday.
1889 Mae Harrington, in New York state, where she would die on 29 December 2002.
1885 The roller coaster is patented by L.A. Thompson of Coney Island, NY
1873 Johannes Jenson, Danish novelist and essayist who died on 25 November 1950.
1871 Nicolas Alexandrovitch Tarkhoff (or Tarchoff), Russian artist who died on 05 June 1920.
1838 Willem Geets, Belgian artist who died in 1919.
1831 Routh, mathematician.
1829 John Roddam Spencer Stanhope, English Pre-Raphaelite painter who died on 02 August 1908. MORE ON STANHOPE AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
1820 Anne J. Clough, English educator and feminist who died on 27 February 1892.
1811 Vincent Vidal, French artist who died on 14 June 1887.
1801 (Jo)Hanne Hellesen, German artist who died on 09 May 1844.
1795 Frans Vervloet, Belgian artist who died in 1872. — more with links to two images.
^ 1775 André-Marie Ampère, mathematicien
      De très bonne heure, il montre un esprit avide de savoir. Il se forme sans maître. D'une intense curiosité intellectuelle, à quatorze ans il a le courage de lire entièrement les vingt volumes de l'Encyclopédie . À dix-huit ans il connaît les principales œuvres mathématiques de son temps. Survient alors un événement qui a failli miner pour toujours de si brillantes qualités. Le père du jeune savant, juge de paix à Lyon, est arrêté et décapité en tant qu'aristocrate. Ampère ressent un tel chagrin que sa raison est en danger. Peu à peu, il surmonte sa douleur et se remet à ses études scientifiques et philosophiques. Successivement professeur à Bourg, puis à Lyon, ensuite à Paris, répétiteur, professeur à l'École polytechnique, nommé inspecteur général de l'Université, membre de l'Institut, enfin professeur au Collège de France, il meurt à Marseille le 10 juin 1836.
1755 Jean-Pierre-Henri Elouis, French artist who died on 23 December 1840.
1732 Richard Henry Lee, US statesman and orator who died on 19 June 1794.
Carlos III1716 Carlos III, in Madrid         ^top^  
     
He would be king of Spain (1759–88) and king of Naples (as Carlo VII, 1734–59), one of the “enlightened despots” of the 18th century, who would help lead Spain to a brief cultural and economic revival. Carlos III would die on 14 December 1788 in Madrid.
     In Spain, Carlos III was concerned to make himself more absolute and therefore better able to undertake reform. His ecclesiastical policy was conditioned by his determination to complete the subordination of the church to the crown. He allowed no papal bulls or briefs in Spain without royal permission. He particularly resented the Jesuits, whose international organization and attachment to the papacy he regarded as an affront to his absolutism. He also suspected their loyalty and obedience to the crown in the American colonies
     Carlos III had brought to Spain from Italy a finance minister, whose nationality made the government unpopular, while his exactions led in 1766 to rioting and the publications of various squibs, lampoons, and attacks upon the administration. An extraordinary council was appointed to investigate the matter, as it was declared that people so simple as rioters could never have produced the political pamphlets. In September 1766 the council resolved to incriminate the Society of Jesus, that by 29 January 1767, its expulsion was settled. Secret orders, which were to be opened at midnight between the first and second of April, 1767, were sent to the magistrates of every town where a Jesuit resided. In the morning, 6000 Jesuits were marched like convicts to the coast, where they were deported, first to the Papal States, and ultimately to Corsica.
     Cooperating with the court of France, Carlos succeeded in pressuring pope Clement XIV (who had been elected in May 1769 under the influence of the anti-Jesuits) into issuing on 16 August 1773 a Brief of Suppression of the Society.
      But Carlos's opposition to papal jurisdiction in Spain also led him to curb the arbitrary powers of the Inquisition, while his desire for reform within the church caused him to appoint inquisitors general who preferred persuasion to force in ensuring religious conformity.
     Carlos III joined France in a war against Britain, as a result of which he lost Florida to the British.
1628 Henry Cromwell, 4th son of Oliver Cromwell (25 Apr 1599 – 03 Sep 1658) the 1653-1658 Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. Henry Cromwell ruled Ireland from September 1955 to May 1659 (when his brother Richard was deposed as Lord Protector). Henry Cromwell died on 23 March 1674.
Holidays     Bulgaria: Grandmother's Day/Babin Den  /   Mali: National Army Day / Guinea-Bissau: National Day

Religious Observances Anglican, Roman Catholic : St Fabian, 20th pope (236-50) (opt) / St Sebastian, martyr/patron of Andorra (opt) / Saint Sébastien Né à Narbonne, à un endroit où s'élève aujourd'hui une église à son nom, Sébastien devient archer dans l'armée de Dioclétien. S'étant converti, il est condamné à être percé de flèches mais il survit par miracle et s'en va sermonner l'empereur! Dioclétien le fait alors mourir à coups de bâton. L'"Apollon chrétien" sera enseveli à Rome, près de la Via Appia, où une basilique porte son nom. Il est le patron des archers. Son supplice manqué a inspiré quantité de peintres de la Renaissance.
YESTERDAY'S QUESTION OF THE DAY: What should you give to the person who has everything? READ THE ANSWER.
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Thought for the day:
“Do not ask what your country can do for you — think what it can do to you.”
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PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4jan/h4jan20.html
http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4jan/h4jan20.html
http://greatquotes.gq.nu/history/h4jan/h4jan20.html
updated Friday 16-Jan-2009 22:13 UT
Principal updates:
v.7.00 Saturday 20-Jan-2007 2:41 UT
v.6.01 Sunday 22-Jan-2006 16:32 UT
Thursday 23-Dec-2004 2:10 UT
Tuesday 20-Jan-2004 13:26 UT

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