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^  On a 19 January:
2000 Michael Skakel, a nephew of Robert F. Kennedy, is charged with bludgeoning to death 15-year-old Martha Moxley in Greenwich, Conn., in 1975, when he was also 15. The charges are later dismissed for lack of evidence, but he remains the most likely murderer.
^ 2001 Clinton admits wrongdoing, will not be indicted.
      The Whitewater special prosecutor closes down his investigations in a deal in which Clinton admitted make false testimony under oath about Monica Lewinsky, is barred from law practice for 5 years, and pays a $25'000 fine in return for being freed from the threat of being indicted.
From the statement of the Independent Counsel Robert W. Ray:
      President Clinton announced today his agreement to accept a five-year suspension of his license to practice law in the State of Arkansas. In that agreement, President Clinton acknowledged that he knowingly gave evasive and misleading answers in violation of Chief Judge Susan Webber Wright's discovery orders concerning his relationship with Monica Lewinsky and that that conduct was prejudicial to the administration of justice. In President Clinton's public statement, he acknowledged that he knowingly violated Judge Wright's discovery orders and that certain of his answers concerning his relationship with Monica Lewinsky were false. He also agreed not to seek legal fees in connection with this matter.
      The country has reached the end of the tortuous path it has traveled for the last three years. By agreement with President Clinton, ... I have decided to exercise my discretion ... to decline prosecution of all matters within the January 16, 1998 jurisdictional mandate ... [which] ... authorized this Office to investigate whether "Monica Lewinsky or others suborned perjury, intimidated witnesses, obstructed justice . . . or otherwise violated federal law . . . in dealing with witnesses, potential witnesses, attorneys, or others concerning the civil case Jones v. Clinton." That matter will be closed.
      Fifteen months ago ... I ... pledged to heed the words of Justice Sutherland who wrote 60 years ago that the prosecutor's foremost obligation is not to win a case, but to ensure that "justice shall be done." This resolution, by agreement with President Clinton, means that justice has, in fact, been done. It is in the best interests of law enforcement and the country.
      I also believe that this resolution is faithful to this country's principles of liberty and law. During World War II, Judge Learned Hand wondered "whether we do not rest our hopes too much upon constitutions, upon laws, and upon courts." He went on to say, "Liberty lies in the hearts of men and women; when it dies there, no constitution, no law, no court can save it; no constitution, no law, no court can even do much to help it." He believed that "[t]he spirit of liberty is the spirit which is not too sure that it is right; the spirit of liberty is the spirit which seeks to understand the minds of other men and women; the spirit of liberty is the spirit which weighs their interests alongside its own without bias." ...
      It is my hope that the result announced today will help restore faith and trust in federal law enforcement efforts in investigations of high ranking government officials. When he was Attorney General, Justice Robert H. Jackson observed that "the citizen's safety lies in the prosecutor who tempers zeal with human kindness, who seeks truth and not victims, who serves the law and not factional purposes, and who approaches his task with humility."
      ... President Clinton will be discharged from all criminal liability for matters within the remaining jurisdiction of this Office. These matters are now concluded.
Clinton's statement:
     Today, I signed a consent order in the lawsuit brought by the Arkansas Committee on Professional Conduct which brings to an end that proceeding.
      I have accepted a five-year suspension of my law license, agreed to pay a $25'000 fine to cover counsel fees, and acknowledged a violation of one of the Arkansas model rules of professional conduct because of testimony in my Paula Jones case deposition. The disbarment suit will now be dismissed.
      I have taken every step I can to end this matter. I've already settled the Paula Jones case, even after it was dismissed as being completely without legal and factual merit. I have also paid court and counsel fees and restitution and been held in civil contempt for my deposition testimony regarding Ms. Lewinsky, which Judge Wright agreed had no bearing on Ms. Jones case, even though I disagreed with the findings in the judge's order.
      I will not seek any legal fees incurred as a result of the Lewinsky investigation to which I might otherwise become entitled under the Independent Counsel Act.
      I have had occasion frequently to reflect on the Jones case. In this consent order, I acknowledge having knowingly violated Judge Wright's discovery orders in my deposition in that case. I tried to walk a fine line between acting lawfully and testifying falsely, but I now recognize that I did not fully accomplish this goal and that certain of my responses to questions about Ms. Lewinsky were false.
      I have apologized for my conduct and I have done my best to atone for it with my family, my administration and the American people. I have paid a high price for it, which I accept because it caused so much pain to so many people. I hope my actions today will help bring closure and finality to the matters.

^ 1999 Clinton impeachment trial: first day for the defense.

Tu. Jan. 19, 1999
(1) In methodical, sometimes blunt fashion, White House Counsel Charles Ruff opens the defense case in President Bill Clinton's impeachment trial, saying there is no factual or constitutional basis to remove Clinton from office for his alleged misdeeds in the Monica Lewinsky affair. In a 2 1/2-hour presentation, shortened because of Clinton's State of the Union speech set for tonight, Ruff says the president's attorneys would defend the president "on the facts, on the law and on the Constitution." Ruff, often dismissive of the House prosecutors during his opening statement, begins by outlining the legal case that touched off the yearlong Lewinsky-impeachment travail: the Paula Jones sexual harassment and employment discrimination lawsuit against Clinton. Ruff painted it as an attempt to pry into the president's personal life. A flinty Ruff — not to be confused with a rough Flynt From there, Ruff seeks to rebut the allegations that Clinton lied before a federal grand jury or attempted to obstruct justice by trying to conceal gifts he gave Lewinsky or influence presidential secretary Betty Currie's grand jury testimony. From lawyerly recitations of grand jury testimony, Ruff frequently switches gears to sharp, cutting language, accusing House prosecutors at one point of "prosecutorial fudge-making."

House prosecutors, who carefully monitor Ruff's remarks and talk to reporters afterward, praise Ruff's skill as a lawyer but say they still believe Clinton deserves removal from office. Rep. Charles Canady (R-Florida) says Ruff did a good job in "making the best of what is an inherently weak case which he has to present in defense of the president." "I do not believe that he (Ruff) has expressed any convincing rationale for the Senate establishing a lower standard of integrity for the president of the United States than the standard the Senate has already established for federal judges," Canady says, referring to previous Senate impeachment of federal judges for perjury. Says Rep. Lindsey Graham (R-South Carolina), "If you can use your common sense and you can put the whole record together, I think it was a good presentation that didn't make the point that logic and common sense would allow to be made." Ruff wrapps up his opening-day presentation by mid-afternoon, leaving a break between the trial and the State of the Union speech, set for 9 p.m. ET. Clinton is not expected to mention the Senate trial in his speech. The trial resumes at 1 p.m. ET Jan. 20.

(2) The White House drops its plans to use House Judiciary Democrats as part of its defense team in the Senate impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton, because of objections by Democratic Sen. Robert Byrd of West Virginia. The White House had hoped to bring several House Democrats before the Senate to make the case that the House impeachment process was unfair. But as the plans were reported Jan. 18 and today, Byrd — a man known for his fierce defense of Senate rules and protocol — objects, saying there is no Senate precedent for allowing House members opposed to the chamber's impeachment decisions to participate in the Senate defense. A senior administration official says, "We wish it were different, and think they could have made a valuable contribution. But we are not going to let a procedural issue get in the way of our defense."

(3) Paula Jones' two sets of attorneys continue to squabble over division of Bill Clinton's $850,000 settlement check. Her current lawyers say her first legal team, which won a key round in her sexual harassment case at the US Supreme Court, isn't entitled to any share of her $850,000 settlement with President Clinton. The Dallas law firm of Rader, Campbell, Fisher & Pyke says in court papers filed today that Joseph Cammarata and Gilbert Davis' work was "riddled with malpractice" and that they abandoned her case because they lacked "professional ability" and "personal resolve." Cammarata and Davis say they were offended by the claim and that they left the case after Mrs. Jones refused their advice to accept a settlement offer that included $700,000 and a vague apology. They say they are owed $875,000. "Everything we touched, we won," Davis says. "Everything they touched, they lost." Cammarata adds: "It's a cheap attack on us to enrich themselves." A procedural objection to Clinton's procedures

(4) Vowing first to protect Social Security with trillions in expected budget surpluses, President Bill Clinton unveils a variety of pork-barrel initiatives in his seventh State of the Union address to Congress. The president does not mention his impeachment trial during his 77-minute speech. Most members of Congress routinely applaud, but some Republicans shake their heads, frown or refrain from clapping during Clinton's delivery. Several GOP House members boycott the speech to show their displeasure with Clinton, who faces removal from office for charges of perjury and obstruction of justice stemming from an affair with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky.

A congressional aide who never missed a State of the Union speech in 33 years working for the House dies from a heart attack immediately after President Clinton's address. Charles "Billy" Malry, 63, is pronounced dead at George Washington University Hospital, where he is rushed by a Navy ambulance after collapsing in the Democratic cloakroom next to the House floor following Clinton's speech. Cloakroom manager Barry Sullivan said Malry had been released from the hospital four days earlier after being treated for heart disease. "He said, 'I feel better and this is the State of the Union, and I haven't missed one. This is where I want to be,"' Sullivan recalled Malry telling people a few hours before Clinton's speech.

(5) Rep. Jennifer Dunn (R-Washington) and Rep. Steve Largent (R-Oklahoma) deliver the GOP response to Clinton's state of the union address. Smiling broadly, the two appear together on a balcony with the white-domed Capitol looming in the darkened background.

(6) A friend whose testimony cast doubt on Kathleen Willey's allegation of an unwanted sexual advance by President Clinton pleads innocent today and her lawyer vows to seek dismissal of the case brought by prosecutor Kenneth Starr. Accused of three counts of obstruction of justice and one of making a false statement, Julie Hiatt Steele says "I plead absolutely not guilty" during an appearance before US District Judge Claude Hilton. A trial date of March 30 (later reset to May 3) is set. Steele's lawyer, Nancy Luque, says she will file numerous pre-trial motions challenging the indictment, which accuses Ms. Steele of filing a false affidavit in the Paula Jones sexual harassment lawsuit against President Clinton. Luque says the indictment is incorrectly filed in Virginia because Starr wanted to avoid dealing with the federal courts in the District of Columbia. Starr suffered a setback there in a case he filed against another defendant in his investigation, Webster Hubbell. A federal judge threw out a tax case against Hubbell. Starr is appealing the action. Luque also says Starr has a conflict of interest stemming from the Jones case and promised to challenge the indictment on that ground. Luque offers to waive the speedy trial requirement and delay the case, but the judge says there is no reason not to proceed promptly.

TO THE TOP
1997 A l'appel de l'opposition, plusieurs milliers de personnes manifestent dans le centre de Tirana, en Albanie, pour protester contre la faillite fauduleuse de sociétés nationales d'épargne et réclamer un remboursement.
1997 Yasser Arafat returned to Hebron for the first time in more than 30 years, joining 60'000 Palestinians in celebrating the handover of the last West Bank city in Israeli control.
1996 A four-day hijack of the Black Sea ferry, Avrasya, by pro-Chechen gunmen ends near Istanbul without a shot fired. The attackers had threatened to blow up their 200 hostages.
1995 In Chechnya, Russian forces hoist their flag over Grozny's battered presidential palace after seizing it from Chechen patriots. — Le drapeau russe est hissé sur le palais présidentiel de Grozny, abandonné par les conbattants tchétchénes.
1993 Robert M Gates, ends term as 15th director of CIA
1993 Israel recognizes PLO as no longer criminal — Le Parlement israélien aboli la loi interdisant à tout Israélien de rencontrer des membres de l'Organisation de libération de la Palestine (OLP).
1992 IBM announces a nearly $5B loss for 1992
1991 During the Gulf War, Israel's anti-missile force was boosted by additional Patriot missile batteries and US crews. A second Iraqi missile attack caused 29 injuries in Tel Aviv. Allied forces began bombarding Iraq's elite Republican Guard.
1989 En Pologne le général Jaruzelski propose la législation du syndicat Solidarité.
1989 President Reagan pardons George Steinbrenner for illegal funds for Nixon
1986 Spain recognizes Israel
1984 California Supreme Court refuses to allow quadriplegic Elizabeth Bouvia to starve herself to death in a public hospital, she appeals and is later granted the right to die.
^ 1983 “Butcher of Lyons” arrested in Bolivia
      Klaus Barbie, the Nazi Gestapo chief of Lyons, France, during the German occupation, is arrested in Bolivia on charges of crimes committed against humanity four decades earlier. As chief of Nazi Germany's secret police in occupied France, Barbie had sent thousands of French Jews and French Resistance members to their deaths in concentration camps, while torturing, abusing, or executing many others. After the Allied liberation of France, he fled to Germany where under an assumed identity he joined other ex-Nazi officials in the formation of an underground anti-Communist organization. In 1947, the US Counter-Intelligence Corps (CIC) broke up the organization and arrested its senior members, although Barbie remained at large until the CIC offered him money and protection in exchange for his cooperation in countering Soviet espionage efforts. Barbie worked as a US agent in Germany for two years, and in 1949 was smuggled to Bolivia, where he assumed the name of "Klaus Altmann" and continued his work as a US agent. In addition to his work for the Americans, he increasingly performed services for Bolivia's various military regimes, especially that of Hugo "El Petiso" Banzer, who came to power in 1971 and became one of the country's most oppressive leaders. Barbie performed a similar type of work for Banzer as he had for the Nazis, torturing and interrogating political opponents, and dispatching many of these political prisoners to special internment camps where many were executed or died from mistreatment.
      It was at this time that Nazi hunters Serge Klarsfeld and Beatte Kunzel discovered Barbie's whereabouts, but Banzer refused to extradite him to France. In the early 1980s, a liberal regime came to power in Bolivia and agreed to extradite Barbie in exchange for French aid to the destitute nation. In January of 1983, Barbie was arrested, and on February 7, he arrived in France. Legal wrangling, especially between the groups representing his Jewish and French Resistance victims, delayed his trial for four years. Finally, on May 11, 1987, the "Butcher of Lyons," as he was known in France, went on trial for charges of 177 crimes against humanity. In a courtroom twist unimaginable four decades earlier, Barbie was defended by three minority lawyers — an Asian, an African, and an Arab — who made the dramatic case that the French and the Jews were as guilty of crime against humanity as Barbie or any other Nazi. However, Barbie's lawyers were more interested in putting France and Israel on trial than in actually proving their client's innocence, and on July 4, 1987, he was found guilty. For his crimes against humanity, Klaus Barbie was sentenced to spend the remainder of his life in prison, France's highest punishment.
^ 1983 The Apple Lisa computer is announced
      Apple chairman Steve Jobs and president John Sculley announced the Apple Lisa, slated for release in the spring of 1983. The Apple Lisa was a major milestone in user-friendly computing. In 1979, a team of Apple developers including Jobs visited Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center, where computer scientists showed them the Alto computer, a fully networked, user-friendly system boasting a graphic interface and a mouse. Stunned by the ease of use and intuitive nature of the Alto computer, Apple immediately launched its own efforts to create a graphical user interface. Two years and $50 million later, the Apple Lisa was introduced. Unfortunately, Lisa's $12,000 price tag placed it out of the consumer market. Lisa's most successful graphical features were handed down to a new Apple computer in 1984, nicknamed "Lisa's Little Brother" — the Macintosh. The Mac, though not immediately successful, eventually changed user expectations about computing, prompting Microsoft to develop its own graphic user interface, Windows.
1981 US and Iran sign agreement to release 52 US hostages held for more than 14 months in Iran.
1979 Former US Attorney General John N. Mitchell was released on parole after serving 19 months at a federal prison in Alabama.
1978 Judge William H Webster appointed head of FBI
1978 Sortie des usines Wokswagen de la 16'200'000ème et dernière “coccinelle”.
^ 1977 “Tokyo Rose” pardoned
      Iva Toguri D'Aquino, an American citizen of Japanese descent who made Japanese propaganda broadcasts to US troops during World War II, is pardoned from her treason charge by US President Gerald R. Ford. D'Aquino was the most widely known of the English-speaking announcers at Tokyo Radio, a state-owned radio network that engaged in psychological warfare against US troops stationed in the southwestern Pacific. In an attempt to demoralize its American listeners by making them homesick, Radio Tokyo broadcast dance music and nostalgic reminiscences about everyday American life, along with claims by Tokyo Rose that the servicemen's women were consorting with other men at home. The radio programs were extremely popular with US servicemen located in remote areas of the Pacific, although there is little evidence that the broadcasts had any negative effect. Among several English-speaking female announcers at Tokyo Radio, D'Aquino was the favorite of US troops, who fondly referred to her as "Tokyo Rose." After the Japanese surrender, US officials arrested D'Aquino in Japan and charged her with treason. During her subsequent trial, she maintained that she was visiting a sick aunt in Japan at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and thus had not been able to return to the United States. Looking for a way to support herself in wartime Japan, she went to work for the state radio network as a secretary, and was later coerced into her position as an announcer. The US military tribunal found her guilty of treason, fined her $10'000, and sentenced her to ten years in prison. After six years in prison, she was released and over the next two decades she waged a tireless campaign to clear her name, finally receiving a pardon from President Ford on the last day of his administration.
1977 World's largest ever crowd — 12.7 million — in Allahabad, India, for the Hindu feast of Kumbha Mela.
1976 US President Gerald R. Ford's State of the Union address.
1975 La Grande-Bretagne et l'Armée Républicaine Irlandaise (IRA) conviennent d'engager des négociations directes, pour la première fois depuis le début des troubles en Irlande du Nord, cinq ans plus tôt.
1974 Belgium government of Leburton falls
1970 US President Richard Nixon nominates G. Harrold Carswell to the Supreme Court; however, the nomination would be defeated because of Carswell's past racist views.
1966 Indira Gandhi elected India's 3rd prime minister — Mme Indira Gandhi, devient Premier Ministre indien. Elle annonce son intention d'adopter une politique de non-alignement dans les affaires mondiales. (elle sera assasinée le 31 octobre 1984)
^ 1961 Eisenhower cautions successor about Laos
      Outgoing President Dwight D. Eisenhower cautions incoming President John F. Kennedy that Laos is "the key to the entire area of Southeast Asia," and might even require the direct intervention of US combat troops. Fearing that the fall of Laos to the communist Pathet Lao forces might have a domino effect in Southeast Asia, President Kennedy sent a carrier task force to the Gulf of Siam in April 1961. However, he decided not to intervene in Laos with US troops and in June 1961, he sent representatives to Geneva to work out a solution to the crisis. In 1962, an agreement was signed that called for the neutrality of Laos and set up a coalition government to run the country. By this time, Kennedy had turned his attention to South Vietnam, where a growing insurgency threatened to topple the pro-western government of Ngo Dinh Diem. Kennedy had already sent combat advisers to the South Vietnamese army and this commitment expanded over time. By the time Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963, he had overseen the assignment of over 17'000 US advisers to South Vietnam. 1968 Operation McLain is launched "Sky Soldiers" from the 173rd Airborne Brigade begin Operation McLain with a reconnaissance-in-force operation in the Central Highlands. The purpose of this operation was to find and destroy the communist base camps in the area in order to promote better security for the province. The operation ended on 31 January 1970, with 1042 enemy casualties.
1960 Eisenhower and Premier Kishi Nobusuke sign US-Japanese Security pact
1956 Le Soudan devient le 9ème membre de la Ligue arabe.
^ 1950 Communist China recognizes North Vietnam
      The People's Republic of China bestows diplomatic recognition upon the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Communist China's official recognition of Ho Chi Minh's communist regime resulted in much needed financial and military assistance in Ho's battle against the French in Vietnam, and also pushed the United States to take a more intensive and active role in the conflict in Southeast Asia. French colonialists and Ho's revolutionary forces had been fighting for control over Vietnam since the end of World War II. Although maintaining a neutral public stance, the administration of President Harry S. Truman was actually aiding the French with monetary and material assistance. As the battle dragged on, Ho's government issued feelers to the newly established communist regime in China concerning diplomatic recognition and military and economic assistance. Despite their shared commitment to the communist ideology, the Chinese and Vietnamese also shared a long and acrimonious history of aggression and resistance, so it was not a guarantee that the request would be granted. China's desire to play a larger role in Asian affairs, combined with its deepening suspicions of French and American designs in neighboring Vietnam, pushed it toward closer relations with Ho's government. Shortly after the formal declaration of recognition, China began sending large quantities of military aid and many advisors into Vietnam. The United States responded by taking a more active role in supporting the French in Vietnam. Two months after China's decision to recognize North Vietnam, the Truman administration officially declared its support for the French and asked Congress for increased military assistance, which was provided. Both the United States and China dramatically increased their roles in Vietnam in the years to come-while China continued to offer support and aid to the communists in North Vietnam, the United States became increasingly involved in fighting the Communist threat in the Vietnam War.
1949 The annual salary of the President of the United States was increased from $75'000 to $100'000 with an additional $50'000 expense allowance.
1945 En France l'écrivain Robert Brazillach est condamné à mort pour intelligence avec l'ennemi (il sera exécuté le 06 Feb 1946).
1945 Les forces soviétiques entrent à Cracovie (Pologne).
1944 US rail workers settle a wage dispute, thus ending the federal government's seizure of the nation's railroads ordered by President Franklin Roosevelt on 27 December 1943, to prevent a strike.
1943 Joint Chiefs of Staff decide on invasion in Sicily
1942 Japanese forces invade Burma
1941 British troops occupy Kassalaf Sudan
^ 1941 British attack Italians in Eritrea
      British forces in East Africa, acting on information obtained by breaking the Italians' coded messages, invade Italian-occupied Eritrea—a solid step towards victory in Africa. British Intelligence had been privy to secret Italian communiqués from Africa for the past five months; every instruction sent from one Italian military unit to another was analyzed by the Brits. The Italian viceroy in Ethiopia was unwittingly receiving and transmitting every Italian military secret-and weakness. Consequently, British forces were able to organize a strategy to advance on Italian-occupied territory, with Italian troop movements in mind.
      On January 19, news of an Italian withdrawal from the town of Kassala, in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, which the Italians had occupied since July 1940, reached British ears. The British garrison there had been slow to react initially to the Italian invasion of Sudan, preferring to wait to get a clearer picture of the Italian invasion strategy for East Africa. The British bided their time by beefing up their forces, especially tank forces, to something closer to parity with the Italians'. The Italian withdrawal from Kassala, a proactive defensive movement, provided the perfect opportunity for Gen. William Platt and the Indian divisions to launch an assault on Eritrea, which bordered Sudan and Ethiopia. It was not long before Italian-occupied Ethiopia and Somaliland fell.
1938 General Motors Corporation begins mass production of diesel engines
1937 Millionaire Howard Hughes sets transcontinental air record by flying his monoplane from Los Angeles to Newark, N.J., in 7h28m25s.
1927 British government decides to send troops to China
1925 -48ºF (-44ºC), Van Buren ME (state record)
1922 Geological survey says US oil supply will be depleted in 20 years
1921 Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador sign Pact of Union
1920 US Senate votes against membership in League of Nations
1920 Alexandre Millerand forms French government
1919 A Paris, la Conférence de la Paix, dès son ouverture, met en évidence les désaccords entre les alliés sur la question des réparations.
1918 Soviets disallows a Constitution Assembly — Les bolcheviques dissolvent l'Assemblée constituante russe de Petrograd
1913 Raymond Poincaré installed as President of France
1910 Germany and Bolivia ends commerce/friendship treaty
1903 New bicycle race "Tour de France" announced (will start July 1)
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan forms
^ 1899 Condominium anglo-égyptien sur le Soudan
      Les Britanniques établissent un "condominium anglo-égyptien" sur le Soudan. C'est le moment où l'Empire de la reine Victoria arrive à son apogée. Après l'ouverture du canal de Suez (1869), les Anglais avaient peu à peu supplanté les Français en Egypte. Ils avaient établi un protectorat de fait sur le royaume. Plus au sud, au Soudan, le général Kitchener vainc les mahdistes, précurseurs des intégristes musulmans qui oppriment aujourd'hui le pays. Après avoir annihilé les prétentions françaises sur la région, lord Kitchener devient enfin gouverneur général du Soudan. Cette conquête du bassin supérieur du Nil ouvre la voie à une Afrique anglaise du Cap au Caire. Ce rêve se concrétisera après la Première Guerre mondiale, grâce à l’annexion de la colonie allemande du Tanganiyka. Mais il ne durera guère car, dès 1922, la Grande-Bretagne devra rendre à l'Egypte son indépendance.
1896 H.J. Kallenberg, an instructor of physical education at the University of Iowa, welcomed Amos Alonzo Stagg, athletic director at the recently founded University of Chicago, to Iowa City for an experimental game in a new sport. The contest, refereed by Kallenberg, was the first college basketball game played with five players on each side. The University of Chicago won by a score of 15 to 12.
1889 The Salvation Army split, as one faction within the denomination renounced allegiance to founder William Booth. Booth's son Ballington and his wife Maud led the American splinter group, which in 1896 incorporated itself as a separate denomination known as the Volunteers of America.
1883 Thomas Edison's first village electric lighting system using overhead wires began operation in Roselle, NJ.
^ 1881 Western Union buys rival telegraph company, in vain.
      In 1881 Jay Gould, the ravenous financier and archetypal robber baron, used his wiles and ways to seize control of Western Union, William Vanderbilt's mighty telegraph company. Gould mounted an elaborate campaign to drive down the company's stock, using his newspaper, as well as his influence on Wall Street, to raise doubts about Western Union's leadership and hefty stock price. He also started a rival telegraph concern, the Atlantic and Pacific Company, in hopes of raising doubts about Western Union’s dominance over the industry. The gambits worked and Western Union's stock swooned.
      In a desperate attempt to staunch the bleeding, Western Union snapped up the Atlantic and Pacific Company on this day in 1881. Far from staving off the competition, the deal further fattened Gould's pocketbook and, more importantly, primed him for the final phase of his takeover scheme. Gould convinced his Wall Street associates to start another raid on Western Union. However, as the traders were busy driving down Western Union’s asking price, Gould, in the guise of an "anonymous" investor, started gobbling up the company’s suddenly cheap stock. When the dust settled, Gould’s cronies were left counting their losses; meanwhile, the devious financier had successfully wrested control of Western Union.
^ 1871 Sortie désastreuse tentée pour briser le siège de Paris.
      Le général Trochu, organise une sortie pour sauver Paris, c’est la catastrophe. Après plusieurs défaites françaises, Paris est encerclé par les Prussiens. Ou plutôt par l’Allemagne, car celle-ci s’est constituée en Empire il y a un jour, dans la grande galerie des glaces du palais de Versailles. L’Empereur Napoléon III a été destitué et la Troisième République proclamée (4 septembre 1870). Le gouvernement de Défense Nationale est instauré et le général Trochu nommé gouverneur militaire de Paris. Né en 1815, officier en 1835, Louis Jules Trochu sert en Algérie, en Crimée, en Italie et obtient le grade de général en 1866. Son livre " L’Armée française " en 1867, où il dénonce la désorganisation de l’armée impériale, entraîne sa disgrâce. Mais la popularité qu’il en acquiert le fait nommer gouverneur de Paris le 17 août 1870. Le 4 septembre, il devient président du gouvernement de la Défense nationale. Le 31 octobre 1870, le peuple de Paris, se rendant compte de son inconsistance, manifeste contre Trochu et son gouvernement. Il réussit à se maintenir et proclame : "Le gouverneur de Paris ne capitulera pas."
      Le 19 janvier 1871 a lieu la désastreuse sortie de Montretout-Buzenval où l’incapacité (ou la duplicité) de Trochu apparaît. Sa destitution est demandée. Il démissionne de lui-même le 22 janvier après une fracassante déclaration dans laquelle il préconise en réalité la capitulation. Remplacé par Vinoy, il est élu député en février. Mais, dès 1872, il quitte la scène politique. Victor Hugo l’a marqué d’une définition cinglante : "Trochu, participe passé du verbe trop Choir." Sous les apparences d’un chef courageux et dévoué, c’était un caractère ambitieux, dissimulé et irrésolu. Répétant sans cesse "j’ai mon plan", il était convaincu que toute résistance et toute défense de Paris étaient vaines. Il cherche à gagner du temps, joue et se joue son propre jeu. Il se révèle, aux yeux de l’histoire, comme la fausse idole d’un moment.
1865 Union occupies Fort Anderson NC
1863 General Mieroslawski appointed dictator of Poland
1862 Battle of Mill Springs, Kentucky (Fishing Creek, Logan's Crossroads)
1861 MS troops take Fort Massachusetts an Ship Island
1861 Georgia becomes 5th state to secede. After an animated debate in which Alexander H. Stephens and Herschel V. Johnson, who had been the candidate on the Douglas ticket for Vice-President, opposed the measure, the Georgia convention passed an Ordinance of Secession 208 to 89. The opponents of the ordinance accepted the decision of the convention, and Mr. Stephens was chosen later as Vice-President of the Southern Confederacy. Had already seceded: South Carolina, Mississippi (09 Jan), Florida (10 Jan), Alabama (11 Jan).
1859 La France et la Sardaigne signent un traîté d'alliance.
^ South of Australia, Dumont d'Urville sighted what he named the Adélie coast, after his wife.
1840 Dumont d'Urville découvre la Terre Adélie.
     Deux navires battant pavillon français se fraient un chemin parmi les icebergs de l'océan Antarctique. Le 19 janvier 1840, ils arrivent en vue d'une montagne. Le commandant de l'expédition, César Dumont d'Urville, prend possession de cette terre glacée au nom du roi Louis-Philippe. Il la baptise du prénom de sa propre femme, Adélie. Il pousse la délicatesse jusqu'à donner aussi son prénom aux manchots du cru, les manchots Adélie. Cette fraction du «continent blanc», au sud de l'Australie, figure aujourd'hui parmi les possessions françaises de l'Antarctique, aux côtés des îles Kergelen. Elle abrite une base scientifique.
Un aventurier au service du progrès
      Le découvreur de la terre Adélie est un personnage représentatif du début du XIXe siècle. Comme ses concitoyens, las des guerres révolutionnaires, il a foi dans le progrès et aspire à mieux connaître le monde. En 1819, à la veille de ses 30 ans, Dumont d'Urville participe à une expédition scientifique en mer Egée. Il est informé de la découverte d'une statue de Vénus sur l'île de Milo et en fait l'acquisition pour le compte de la France. La Vénus de Milo trône aujourd'hui en bonne place au musée du Louvre. Le marin effectue aussi deux voyages scientifiques autour du monde avant de prendre en 1826 le commandement d'une corvette, l'Astrolabe. Il a mission de retrouver ce qui reste des navires de La Pérouse, un explorateur disparu en Polynésie à la veille de la Révolution française, 40 ans plus tôt. Dumont d'Urville retrouve les traces de La Pérouse sur l'île de Vanikoro. Au terme d'un périple de trois ans dans le Pacifique et autour de l'Australie, il ramène en France une grande masse d'informations scientifiques et publie le compte-rendu de son voyage.
      A cette époque, les Anglo-Saxons commencent à explorer les régions antarctiques. Le roi de France Louis-Philippe 1er, qui est passionné de géographie, veut les prendre de vitesse. Il est séduit par un projet que lui présente Dumont d'Urville et contribue lui-même au financement de sa mission. C'est ainsi que Dumont d'Urville arme l'Astrolabe et une autre corvette, la Zélée. Il appareille de Toulon à l'automne 1837. Deux ans plus tard, ayant découvert les îles aujourd'hui connues sous le nom de Joinville et Louis-Philippe, il fait relâche sur l'île de Tasmanie, au sud de l'Australie, ses marins souffrant du scorbut. Profitant de l'été austral, il repart le 1er janvier 1840. En touchant quelques jours plus tard la terre Adélie, il arrive plus près du pôle Sud qu'aucun autre homme avant lui.
      De retour en France, le capitaine de vaisseau est fait contre-amiral. Mais il n'a pas le temps de publier ses observations ni de jouir de sa gloire. Le 8 mai 1842, il périt avec sa famille dans le premier accident de l'histoire du chemin de fer. Le drame survient à Meudon, sur la ligne Paris-Versailles et fait 55 morts. Les contemporains s'en émeuvent mais considèrent que c'est le prix à payer pour le progrès. César Dumont d'Urville ne les eût pas contredits. Mais qu'en eût pensé Adélie?
^ 1840 Charles Wilkes's expedition sights Antarctica, in a region now called Wilkes Land, which borders the Indian Ocean between Queen Mary and George V coasts (100º-142º20' E). The region is almost entirely covered by a featureless ice cap averaging from 1800 to 2900 m above sea level. .
     During an exploring expedition, Captain Charles Wilkes sights the coast of eastern Antarctica and claims it for the United States. Wilkes's group had set out in 1838, sailing around South America to the South Pacific and then to Antarctica, where they explored a 2400-km stretch of the eastern Antarctic coast that later became known as Wilkes Land. In 1842, the expedition returned to New York, having circumnavigated the globe. Antarctica was discovered by European and American explorers in the early part of the nineteenth century, and on 07 February 1821, the first landing on the Antarctic continent was made by American John Davis at Hughes Bay on the Antarctic Peninsula.
      Over the next century, many nations, including the United States, made territorial claims to portions of the almost inhabitable continent. However, during the 1930s, conflicting claims led to international rivalry, and the United States, which led the world in Antarctic exploration and the establishment of scientific bases, enacted an official policy of making no territorial claims while recognizing no other nation's claims. In 1959, the Antarctic Treaty made Antarctica an international zone, set guidelines for scientific cooperation, and prohibited military operations, nuclear explosions, and the disposal of radioactive waste on the continent.
1839 Aden conquered by British East India Company
1833 Charles Darwin reaches Straits Ponsonby, Fireland
1812 L'armée anglaise du duc de Wellington s'empare de Ciudad Rodrigo en Espagne.
1806 Britain occupies the Cape of Good Hope
1795 Democratic revolution in Amsterdam ends oligarchy — 1795 L'armée française occupe la Hollande
1793 French King Louis XVI sentenced to death
1770 Battle of Golden Hill (Lower Manhattan).
1764 John Wilkes is expelled from the British House of Commons for seditious libel.
1746 Bonnie Prince Charlie's troops occupy Stirling
1668 King Louis XIV and Emperor Leopold I sign treaty dividing Spain
1493 Charles VIII of France cedes Roussillon and Cerdagne to Aragon by treaty of Barcelona — Traité de Barcelone. Par ce traité Charles VIII le roi de France rend à l'Aragon, le Roussillon et la Cerdagne au roi d'Espagne. — Carles VIII de França retorna els comtats de Cerdanya i Rosselló.
1419 French city of Rouen surrenders to Henry V in Hundred Years War
^ 0973 Benedict VI is consecrated Pope.
      Mostly known because, in 974, he was seized and thrown into the Castle of Sant' Angelo by a faction of the nobility headed by Crescentius and the Deacon Boniface VII. There, after a confinement of less than two months, in August 974 he was strangled by their orders, to prevent his release by Sicco, sent to Rome by emperor Otho II.
0379 Theodosius installed as co-emperor of East Roman Empire
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< 18 Jan 20 Jan >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 19 January:

2006 Don I. Bragg, 33, and Ellery “Elvis” Hatfield, 47, miners, in fire inside Aracoma Coal's Alma No. 1 mine in Melville, West Virginia, caused by a conveyer belt catching fire, some 3 km into the mine and 275m below ground. The other ten miners in their crew and nine other miners working in a different section of the mine rushed out and were unharmed, but when Bragg and Hatfield's team stopped to put on their emergency oxygen masks, the two became separated and were trapped.— (060121)
2005 Two Iraqis, when US troops shoot after a car bomb exploded next to their convoy in Mosul, Iraq.
2005 An Iraqi police officer by a car bomb in Hillah, Iraq.
2005 One bystander, in Irbil, Iraq, by gunfire at the convoy of Maj. Gen. Wirya Maarouf, dean of a police academy in Iraqi Kurdistan (who is not hurt). Another bystander is injured.
2005 One PUK member shot from a car at a Baghdad office of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, of which another member is wounded.
2005 One person by a car bomb in northern Baghdad around noon near a bank and a Shiite mosque.
2005 Two Iraqi security guards by a car bomb southwest of Baghdad International Airport.
2005 Three Iraqi soldiers by a car bomb at the main gate of a garrison located at a disused airport in central Baghdad, Iraq.
2005 Six persons by a car bomb at a police station next to a hospital in eastern Baghdad, a half hour after the explosion near the Australian embassy
2005 Two persons and a suicide dump truck driver of  “al-Qaida in Iraq” ( led by Jordanian-born Abu Musab al-Zarqawi), outside the concrete barriers protecting the Australian embassy in Baghdad, Iraq.
2002 Suliman Fanatfeh, 17, Islamic student, while in police custody after being arrested in Maan, Jordan. Blaming police brutality, rioters attack the police station on 21 and 22 January. The police say that Fanatfeh was about to carry out a robbery, threw himself off a rooftop as he was about to be arrested, and that they took him first to a hospital in Maan and then to one in Amman (215 km away), where he died.
2001 José Luis Ortega Mata, por dos disparos de arma de fuego en la cabeza, Ojinaga, Chihuahua. El dirigía un semanario en el que regularmente efectuaba denuncias ligadas a la operación del crimen organizado y del narcotráfico
2000 Bettino Craxi, 64, first Socialist Prime Minister of Italy (1983-87), in Hammamet, Tunisia, to where he had fled in 1994 to avoid 5½ years of prison for his involvement in an illegal financing of Italian political parties.
1997: 310 morts alors que l'armée gouvernementale rwandaise lance une offensive contre les miliciens hutus à Ruhengeri au Rwanda.
1997: 42 morts quand une voiture piégée explose dans le centre d'Alger, 100 blessés.
1990 Jean Mantelet, fondateur de Moulinex et inventeur du premier moulin à légumes.
1975 Thomas Hart Benton, US Regionalist painter born on 15 April 1889. MORE ON BENTON AT ART “4” JANUARY
1960:: 42 persons as a SAS Caravelle airplane crashes into a hill near Ankara.
1945 Kaluza, mathematician
^ 1940 Day 51 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.
Naval blockade lifted in the Gulf of Bothnia
  • Northern Finland: Finnish troops take up defensive positions at Märkäjärvi. The Finnish 9th Division fighting in the Suomussalmi-Raate sector is ordered to move south to Kuhmo.
  • Russian submarines withdraw from the Gulf of Bothnia. The naval blockade of the Gulf comes to an end.
  • Karelian Isthmus: two Finnish fighters engage three enemy bombers over the Isthmus. One of the bombers is shot down. Three more enemy aircraft are shot down over other parts of the Isthmus.
  • Helsinki: the use of blowlamps to thaw out frozen water pipes causes several fires in the city. A special newspaper called Den Frivillege (The Volunteer) is introduced for Swedish volunteers in Finland. The author Olof Lagercrantz is appointed editor-in-chief.
  • Abroad: Sweden gifts Finland two FK 52 reconnaissance aircraft. The well-known author and explorer Sven Hedin suggests the funds intended for paying the 1939 and 1940 Nobel Peace Prizes be given instead to the Finnish Red Cross. Swedish business has so far collected 62 million krona in aid for Finland.
    ^ Pohjanlahden merisaarto päättyy Talvisodan 51. päivä, 19.tammikuuta.1940
          Suomalaiset ryhmittyvät puolustukseen Märkäjärvellä.
          Suomussalmen-Raatteen alueella taistellut 9. Divisioona saa käskyn siirtyä Kuhmoon.
          Venäläiset sukellusveneet poistuvat Pohjanlahdelta. Pohjanlahden merisaarto päättyy.
          Karjalan kannaksella käydään ilmataistelu vihollisen kolmen pommikoneen ja kahden suomalaishävittäjän välillä. Yksi viholliskone ammutaan alas.
          Muualla Kannaksen alueella ammutaan alas kolme viholliskonetta.
          Jäätyneitten vesiputkien sulattaminen puhalluslampuilla aiheuttaa lukuisia tulipaloja Helsingissä.
          Ruotsalaisille vapaaehtoisille perustetaan oma lehti. Lehden nimi on Den Frivillege. Lehden päätoimittajaksi tulee kirjailija Olof Lagercrantz.
          Suomi saa Ruotsista lahjana kaksi F. K. 52-tiedustelukonetta.
          Ulkomailta: Tunnettu kirjailija ja tutkimus-matkailija Sven Hedin ehdottaa vuosien 1939 ja -40 Nobelin rauhanpalkintoihin tarkoitettujen varojen luovuttamista Suomen Punaiselle Ristille.
          Ruotsin elinkeinoelämä on kerännyt tähän mennessä 62 miljoonaa kruunuaSuomen avustamiseksi.

    ^ Sjöblockaden i Bottenviken upphör Vinterkrigets 51 dag, den 19 januari 1940
          Finnarna grupperar sig för försvar vid Märkäjärvi.
          Den 9. Divisionen, som stridit vid området kring Suomussalmi-Raate, får order om att förflytta sig till Kuhmo.
          De ryska ubåtarna avlägsnar sig från Bottenviken. Sjöblockaden i Bottenviken upphör.
          På Karelska näset pågår en luftstrid mellan tre ryska bombplan och två finska jagare. Ett ryskt plan skjuts ner.
          På andra håll på Näset skjuter finnarna ner tre av fiendens plan.
          Invånarna i Helsingfors försöker tina upp frusna vattenledningar med hjälp av blåslampor, vilket orsakar flera eldsvådor.
          En egen tidning grundas för de svenska frivilliga soldaterna. Tidningen heter Den Frivillige. Författaren Olof Lagercrantz blir chefredaktör.
          Finland får två F. K. 52-spaningsplan i gåva av Sverige.
          Utrikes: Den kända författaren och forskningsresanden Sven Hedin föreslår att de medel som är avsedda för Nobels fredspris åren 1939 och -40 ska överlåtas till Finlands Röda Kors.
          Det svenska näringslivet har hittills samlat 62 miljoner kronor för att hjälpa Finland.
  • 1938 Quelques 700 morts à Barcelone et Valence, bombardés par l'aviation franquiste.
    ^ 1930 Frank Plumpton Ramsey, 26, English mathematician and philosopher, after jaundice and surgery.
          Born on 22 February 1903, Ramsey published his first major work The Foundations of Mathematics in 1925. Ramsey published Mathematical Logic in the Mathematical Gazette in 1926. He puplished Truth and probability also in 1926
         His second paper on mathematics On a problem of formal logic was read to the London Mathematical Society on 13 December 1928. This examines methods for determining the consistency of a logical formula and it includes some theorems on combinatorics which have led to the study of a whole new area of mathematics called Ramsey theory.
         Ramsey made a systematic attempt to base the mathematical theory of probability on the notion of partial belief. This work on probability, and also important work on economics, came about mainly because Ramsey was a close friend of Keynes.
         In economics, Ramsey wrote two papers A contribution to the theory of taxation and A mathematical theory of saving.
         It was philosophy, however, that was Ramsey's real love. He wrote a number of works such as Universals (1925), Facts and propositions (1927), Universals of law and of fact (1928), Knowledge (1929), Theories (1929), and General propositions and causality (1929).
    1927 Charlotte (Carlota), 86, princess of Belgium / Empress of Mexico (1864-67).
    1919 Dozens killed by "tidal wave" of molasses 15 meters high x 25 meters wide, Boston
    ^ 1915 Two people in first German zeppelin attack over Great Britain
          During World War I, Britain suffers its first casualties from an air attack when two German Zeppelins drop bombs on Great Yarmouth and King's Lynn on the eastern coast of England. The Zeppelin, a motor-driven rigid airship, was developed by German inventor Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin in 1900. Although a French inventor had built a power-driven airship several decades before, the Zeppelin's rigid dirigible, with its steel framework, was by far the largest airship ever constructed. However, in the case of the Zeppelin, size was exchanged for safety as the heavy steel-framed airships were vulnerable to explosion because they had to be lifted by highly flammable hydrogen gas, instead of non-flammable helium gas. In the beginning of 1915, Germany employed three Zeppelins, the L.3, the L.4, and the L.6, in a two-day bombing mission against Britain. The L.6 turned back after encountering mechanical problems, but the other two Zeppelins succeeded in dropping their bombs on the English coastal towns of Great Yarmouth and King's Lynn, killing two Britons and injuring three.
    1881 Eugen Joseph Verboeckhoven, Belgian painter born in 1798 or 1799. MORE ON VERBOECKHOVEN AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1871 Henri Alexandre Georges Regnault, French painter specialized in Orientalism, born on 30 October 1843. MORE ON REGNAULT AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    ^ 1865 Pierre Joseph Proudhon, 56 ans, théoricien de l’anarchisme, réformateur social, épuisé par un immense labeur, et laissant une œuvre fleuve qu’il n’aura jamais eu le loisir de résumer (plus de quarante ouvrages représentant près de cinquante volumes, sans compter les articles des trois journaux qu’il a successivement créés).
          Les origines de Pierre Joseph Proudhon, né à Besançon le 15 janvier 1809 d’un père garçon brasseur et d’une mère cuisinière, sont, au contraire de celles de Marx et de la plupart des réformateurs sociaux (de Saint-Simon à Lénine), authentiquement plébéiennes. Placé tout jeune comme bouvier dans la campagne franc-comtoise, Proudhon est admis à dix ans comme boursier au collège royal de Besançon. Il y remporte, malgré des conditions de travail très précaires, tous les prix d’excellence. Obligé, par la nécessité, d’interrompre ses cours en rhétorique, il devient successivement typographe, prote, boursier de l’académie de Besançon (il complète sa formation intellectuelle à Paris, aux Arts et Métiers et au Collège de France), artisan imprimeur ; fondé de pouvoir pendant cinq ans dans une entreprise de navigation fluviale lyonnaise, il acquiert une expérience réelle des mécanismes de l’entreprise et aussi de la bureaucratie. Il pratique ensuite son métier de journaliste-écrivain, qu’il poursuit inlassablement, en compagnie de sa femme, une ouvrière, et de ses enfants, à travers d’incessantes difficultés matérielles, des procès politiques, les révolutions, la députation, la prison (trois ans) et l’exil.
          Considéré comme le père de la pensée anarchique, l'écrivain français du XIXe siècle, Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865), estimait que les règles unissant l'individu à la société devaient se situer à l'opposé du contrat social défini par Rousseau. Selon Proudhon, la conception rousseauiste du pouvoir ne pouvait qu'être arbitraire, dans la mesure où elle ne concernait que la sphère politique et se désintéressait des aspects économiques et sociaux. Sans renier la nécessité de se plier à un contrat collectif, la pensée anarchiste souhaitait que celui-ci fut aussi proche que possible des besoins de chacun, et à ce titre il devait donc se modifier en fonction des évolutions individuelles. Aussi la prise en considération des aspirations de chacun se traduisait par un fédéralisme, tant professionnel que régional, afin que l'organisation collective fut librement consentie par tous. Ainsi, toute forme de gouvernement devait-elle être rejetée, tant qu'elle ne représenterait les intérêts que d'un groupe, même majoritaire. De même, l'anarchisme s'opposait au système parlementaire, dans lequel l'individu était dépossédé de son droit de contestation, et lui préférait le syndicalisme. Concernant la propriété, deux tendances s'opposaient, l'une prônant le maintien de la propriété individuelle et l'autre développant une conception collectiviste de la répartition des biens.
    PROUDHON EN-LIGNE
  • Qu'est-ce que la propriété
  • Correspondance de P.J. Proudhon
  • Etre Gouverné (extrait de Idée Générale de la Révolution au XIXe Siècle)
    PROUDHON ONLINE (in English translations):
  • System of Economical Contradictions: or, the Philosophy of Misery
  • What is Property? An Inquiry into the Principle of Right and of Government
    4 letters addressed to Frederic Bastiat in The Voice of the People, 1849:
  • Interest and Principal: A Loan is a Service
  • Interest and Principal: The Circulation of Capital, Not Capital Itself, Gives Birth to Progress
  • Interest and Principal: The Origin of Ground Rent
  • Interest and Principal: Arguments Drawn from the Operations of the Bank of France
  • ^ 1847: 15 US persons and Charles Bent, 47, US-appointed governor of conquered New Mexico, assassinated by a mob of the conquered.
          Angered by the abusive behavior of American soldiers occupying the city, Mexicans in Taos strike back by murdering the American-born New Mexican governor Charles Bent. The eldest of four brothers who all became prominent frontiersmen, Charles Bent began his involvement with the Wild West in 1822, when he left Virginia at the age of 23 to become a trader for the Missouri Fur Company. When that company was destroyed by cutthroat competition from John Jacob Astor's powerful American Fur Company, Bent became a trader on the Santa Fe Trail. Building outlets in the Mexican cities of Santa Fe and New Mexico, and an Indian trading post on the Arkansas River called Bent's Fort (in modern-day Colorado), Bent and his business partners eventually created the largest mercantile firm in the Southwest. Bent's financial, political, and personal interests increasingly began to center on Taos, New Mexico. In the 1830s, he moved there and married Maria Ignacia Jaramillo, a wealthy widow from a prominent Mexican family. Bent's new wife and his considerable wealth helped him win acceptance among the Mexican political elites, and he became a close associate of the New Mexican governor, Manuel Armijo.
          However, when war between Mexico and the US broke out in 1846, Bent revealed his true colors by welcoming General Stephen Kearney's largely bloodless conquest of New Mexico with open arms. Kearney awarded Bent by appointing him to the governorship. Kearney and most of his soldiers then moved on to take California, leaving the new governor to fend for himself, and Bent soon discovered that his behavior had earned him many enemies in Taos. Many of the Mexican families naturally resented the American conquest of their home, and the Taos Indians had long disliked Bent because of his trade relations with their northern enemies. The small force of American soldiers left behind to maintain order exacerbated the bad feelings by treating the Mexicans with undisguised contempt. On January 19, 1847, the people of Taos struck back. A violent mob attacked a Taos home that Bent was visiting, murdered his guards, and then killed and scalped Bent. Dragging Bent's mangled body through the streets of Taos, the mob called for a full-scale rebellion against the American occupation, and by the end of the evening, 15 other Americans had been killed. Those who survived fled to Santa Fe to sound the alarm. Within two weeks, the American Colonel Sterling Price had quelled the rebellion and executed the supposed ringleaders. With the end of the Mexican War in 1848, New Mexico and all the rest of Mexico's old northern frontier became the US Southwest.
    1772 Friedrich Wilhelm Hirt, German artist born on 11 February 1721.
    1729 William Congreve, in London, English dramatist born on 24 January 1670. — CONGREVE ONLINE:. The Double-DealerIncognita: or, Love and Duty Reconcil'dLove for LoveThe Old BachelorThe Way of the WorldThe Way of the World
    1716 Jaspar Broers, Flemish artist born on 21 April 1682.
    1635 Marcus Gerards (or Geerards, Garrand), Flemish artist born in 1561.
    1629 Abbas I, 57, Shah of Persia (1588-1629)
    1547 Henry Howard, 29, Earl of Surrey, army commander / poet
    1479 Juan II , 81, king of Aragón / Navarra
    ^ 1405 Tamerlan, conquérant extraordinaire, mais aussi tyran sanguinaire.
          Tamerlan est un conquérant turco-mongol qui se tailla un empire de l'Inde à la Méditerranée, fondant la dynastie des Timurides. Il régna sur la Transoxiane et l'Iran jusqu'au début du XVIe siècle. Le nom de Tamerlan est la forme francisée de Timur, (" l’Homme de fer). Plus tard on y ajouta " Lang " (le Boiteux), car il avait perdu dans une bataille l'usage de sa jambe gauche. Il naquit le 10 avril 1336, dans un clan mongol établi à Kech, en Ouzbékistan. Entre 1364 et 1370, Tamerlan prit le contrôle de la Transoxiane. Il s'en proclama roi, écrasant ses anciens supérieurs et alliés, et déclara la renaissance de l'empire de Gengis Khan, dont il se disait à tort le descendant. Il étendit sa domination sur les khanats voisins et, en 1394, il avait conquis l'Iran, la Mésopotamie, l'Arménie et la Géorgie, et avait envahi la Russie et la Lituanie à plusieurs reprises. En 1389-1395, il combattit et affaiblit le khanat de la Horde d'Or. En 1398, Tamerlan occupa l'Inde, et s'empara de Delhi, qu'il pilla. En 1401, il prit la Syrie aux mamelouks, mettant Damas à sac, et massacra la population de Bagdad. L'année suivante, il vainquit les ottomans. Alors qu'il se préparait à attaquer la Chine, il mourut le 18 février 1405, près de Chymkent (aujourd'hui au Kazakhstan), et fut enterré à Samarkand, sa capitale. Son mausolée, le Gur-e Amir, compte parmi les grands monuments architecturaux de cette ville. À sa mort, ses descendants se partagèrent son empire, fondant des dynasties distinctes, dont Babur, premier souverain Moghol de l'Inde. Bien qu'il fût célèbre pour sa cruauté dans la guerre et pour les nombreuses atrocités commises par ses armées, Tamerlan était aussi un passionné de l'érudition et des arts. Sa dynastie fut renommée pour son aide au développement des littératures turque et perse. Il gouverna par la Terreur, mais il ne réussit jamais à créer une unité ni des hommes, ni des pays autour de sa personne.
         Le corps du fondateur du II ème empire mongol, décédé fut déposé dans un somptueux tombeau, le 17 février 1405, à Samarcande. Ce conquérant cruel s'était attaché à restaurer l'immense empire de Gengis Khan, l'un de ses ancêtres. Ayant lancé une armée vers la Caspienne, il soumit la Perse ; en 1398, il envahissait l'Inde et pillait la ville de Delhi. Il s'attaqua ensuite aux égyptiens, il détruisit au passage, en 1402, Damas et Alep, la même année, remporta la victoire à Ancyre (Ankara) sur le sultan turc ajazet. Il se préparait à conquérir la Chine lorsque la mort vint mettre fin à ses conquêtes.
    0639 Dagobert I, 36, king of Austrasia/Soissons/Burgundy/Neustrië — A l'âge de trente-six ans, Dagobert Ier décède d'une colique après avoir lancé à ses chiens (qu'il préférait aux hommes) : "Il n'est si bonne compagnie qui ne se quitte." Il est inhumé à Saint-Denis. Son fils, Clovis II, devient roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne. L'Austrasie reste à Sigebert III, son frère.
    < 18 Jan 20 Jan >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 19 January:

    ^ 1955 “Scrabble” debuts.
          It is a board-and-tile game in which two to four players compete in forming words with lettered tiles on a 225-square board; words spelled out by letters on the tiles interlock like words in a crossword puzzle.
          Of course there is an official Scrabble web site, and who knows how many unofficial ones. It has an online anagram builder and I found out that anagrams for abcdefgh include: ab, ad, ae, ag, ah, ba, be, de, ed, ef, eh, fa, ha, he, ace, age, bad, bag, bah, bed, beg, cab, cad, dab, dag, dah, deb, edh, fad, fag, fed, feh, gab, gad, gae, ged, had, hae, hag, abed, aced, ache, aged, bach, bade, bead, cade, cafe, cage, chad, chef, dace, deaf, each, egad, face, fade, gaed, hade, haed, head, ached, badge, beach, cadge, caged, chafe, decaf, faced, fadge, bached, chafed. and that an anagram for “anagram” is “a ragman". Or for “El Paso”: “a slope”.
    ^ 1938 “Foi et Beauté” organisation pour nazifier les jeunes filles.
          Hitler crée au sein de la Bund der Deutschen Mädel, une filiale "Foi et Beauté" pour les jeunes filles de 18 ans. C'est au sein de la " Hitlerjugend " un nouvel outil d'endoctrinement nazi. Sous le IIIe Reich, l'éducation sociale tient une place de premier rang dans les préoccupations du régime nazi. Cette éducation se fait essentiellement au sein de la Hitlerjugend (Jeunesse hitlérienne), puis au Service du travail. La Hitlerjugend a été organisée pour la première fois en 1926. Kurt Grüber en devient le chef national et c'est Julius Streicher qui lui donne ce nom. En 1930, l'organisation de la Hitlerjugend est centralisée dans les sections d'assaut (SA), et, le 30 octobre 1931, Baldur von Schirach est nommé chef de la Hitlerjugend du Reich auprès de l'état-major de la direction suprême des S.A. ; il dépend directement d'Ernst Röhm. En 1932, la Hitlerjugend compte plus de 135000 membres. Le 1er octobre 1932, à Potsdam, se tient le congrès national de la Hitlerjugend auquel participent quelque 110000 jeunes dont le défilé devant Hitler dure sept heures trente.
          Lorsque Hitler devient chancelier du Reich, la Hitlerjugend compte environ un million de membres. Le 17 juin 1933, elle est dégagée de la tutelle de la SA et devient une formation autonome du parti nazi. Le 8 juillet, Baldur von Schirach rassemble toutes les organisations de jeunes au sein de la Hitlerjugend ; seule, l'Église catholique refuse cette fusion. Mais, le 1er décembre 1936, une loi fait de la Hitlerjugend, communauté volontaire, une communauté obligatoire pour toute la jeunesse allemande. Baldur von Schirach est alors directement subordonné à Adolf Hitler. Avant d'entrer dans la Hitlerjugend, à quatorze ans, le jeune Allemand est passé, cette fois facultativement, dans les Pimpfen (les "gars"), de dix à quatorze ans, et, auparavant, dans le Jungvolk ("jeune peuple"), de huit à dix ans. Ces associations qui sont sous le contrôle de la Hitlerjugend ont, comme celle-ci, absorbé les groupements confessionnels ou neutres qui existaient encore en 1935. Du côté féminin, le Bund der deutschen Mädel (Union des jeunes filles allemandes) correspond, de 14 à 21 ans, à la Hitlerjugend, avec une section spéciale pour les fillettes de dix à quatorze ans ; une filiale, "Foi et beauté", créée le 19 janvier 1938, groupe les jeunes filles de dix-sept à vingt et un ans qui se préparent plus spécialement à leurs futures tâches ménagères et de mère.
          La Hitlerjugend est un véritable État de la jeunesse ; la très grande majorité de ses chefs sont pris dans ses rangs. Elle a ses organisations propres et ses journaux. La direction de la Hitlerjugend accorde une attention particulière à l'hygiène. Le personnel sanitaire masculin et féminin, qui groupe 40'000 membres, est formé par environ 400 médecins de la Hitlerjugend, destinés principalement à cette tâche. On s'efforce par la persuasion d'obtenir que la jeunesse évite le tabac et l'alcool. En revanche, il semble qu'au sein de la Hitlerjugend et du Bund der deutschen Mädel il ait régné une assez grande liberté sexuelle. À sa sortie de la Hitlerjugend, à 18 ans, le jeune homme prête serment de fidélité à Hitler. Il doit encore au pays le service du travail et le service militaire. Le premier est obligatoire depuis juin 1935. Sa durée est de six mois, qui doivent être accomplis à la date choisie par le jeune Allemand entre sa sortie de la Hitlerjugend et son incorporation dans l'armée.
          Pour les plus doués, des "écoles Adolf Hitler" ont été créées, le 15 janvier 1937. Ce sont des écoles mixtes dans lesquelles des études normales se poursuivent pendant huit ans (environ de douze à vingt ans). Ces études mènent à l'Abitur (baccalauréat allemand) ; mais elles sont doublées d'une formation politique et sociale intense. La sélection est très dure à l'entrée et se répète en cours d'études. Sortent des écoles Adolf Hitler des candidats aux carrières administratives et de direction de l'État ou du parti nazi. Les meilleurs de ces candidats passent alors dans les Ordensburgen "châteaux, ou "citadelles", de l'Ordre" (nazi). Ceux-ci sont la véritable école des chefs du national-socialisme. Ce sont à la fois des casernes, des universités et des monastères. La discipline de fer et les travaux d'un haut niveau concourent à faire de ces Ordensburgen l'école du caractère et de l'aptitude au commandement. À la sortie de l'Ordensburg, le jeune hitlérien peut prétendre à toutes les fonctions dans le parti et dans l'État nazis.
     
    1924 Jean-François Ricard, who would change his name to Jean-François Revel, conservative French politician, journalist, author, prolific philosopher and member of the Academie Française since June 1998. He died on 30 April 2006. — (060523)
    ^ 1921 Patricia Highsmith , crime novelist, in Forth Worth, Texas.
          Highsmith, who wrote some 20 novels and seven short story collections, examined the darkest sides of human nature and frequently portrayed a world chillingly free of morality or consequences. Highsmith had an unhappy childhood. Her parents separated several months before her birth, and she spent her earliest years with her maternal grandmother, who taught her to read before Highsmith was two years old. Highsmith's mother remarried and brought Highsmith to New York when the girl was about six. Her mother and stepfather frequently fought bitterly, and Highsmith developed a strong dislike for both. Highsmith began writing chilling stories in high school: One story, about a murderous nanny, was rejected by her high school's literary magazine. She studied English at Barnard College, then took a job writing comic book scripts. Her first novel, Strangers on a Train, was rejected by six publishers before appearing in print in 1950. Alfred Hitchcock directed a 1951 film version of the movie, scripted by Raymond Chandler. Although Highsmith was paid only $7,000 for the film rights, it was enough to support her writing full time. As a writer, Highsmith was far more interested in the psychology of her characters than she was in writing typical detective stories. In fact, her favorite character, charming murderer Tom Ripley, is never caught and indeed finds fortune and prosperity from his string of murders. Ripley first appeared in The Talented Mr. Ripley (1957) and starred in four more novels, the last of which, Ripley Under Water, was published in 1991. Highsmith spent most of her adult life living abroad, eventually settling in Switzerland after stints in the United Kingdom, Italy, and France. She never married and lived alone, except for her many cats. An animal lover, she wrote an entire short story collection, The Animal Lover's Book of Beastly Murders (1975), in which animals avenge themselves on their human owners. Highsmith died in Switzerland at age 74.
     
    1920 Javier Pérez de Cuéllar Lima Perú, 5th Secretary-General of UN (1982-91)
    1915 Neon tube sign patented by George Claude
    1912 Kantorovich, mathematician.
    1911 Garrett Birkhoff, mathematician.
    1908 Aleksandr Gennadievich Kurosh, mathematician.
    ^ 1902 L'Académie Goncourt.
          Issue du testament d'Edmond de Goncourt, l'Académie se donne pour tâche de promouvoir de jeunes talents littéraires. À la différence de sa rivale du quai de Conti (l'Académie française), elle ne craint pas d'étaler les conflits de personnes ni d'être suspectée de compromissions commerciales avec les grands éditeurs. Ses choix n'en sont pas moins heureux. C'est par l'Académie Goncourt que Proust et Malraux ont été révélés au grand public.
    1892 Olafur Thors Icelandic PM (6 times, 1942-63) who died on 31 December 1964.
    1889 Sophie Henriette Taeuber-Arp (Täuber), Swiss painter, sculptor, and designer, who died on 13 January 1943. — more with links to images.
    1887 Alexander Woollcott, US author and critic who died on 23 January 1943.
    1879 Fubini, mathematician.
    1867 Jean Delville, Belgian Symbolist painter, decorative artist and writer who died in 1953. MORE ON DELVILLE AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1865 Macdonald, mathematician.
    1859
    Henry Herbert La Thangue, British painter who died on 21 December 1929. MORE ON LA THANGUE AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    1842 George Trumbull Ladd, US philosopher and psychologist who died on 08 August 1921.
    1839 Paul Cézanne, French Post-Impressionist painter who died on 22 October 1906. MORE ON CÉZANNE AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1833 Clebsch, mathematician.
    1825 Canned food patented by Ezra Daggett and nephew Thomas Kensett.
    1819 William Powell Frith, Britist artist who died on 02 November 1909. MORE ON FRITH AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1813 Sir Henry Bessemer engineer/inventor (Bessemer engine)
    ^ 1809 Edgar Allen Poe, poet and story writer.
         Born in Boston, Poe was orphaned at age three and went to live with the family of a Richmond, Virginia, businessman. Poe enrolled in a military academy but was expelled for gambling. He later studied briefly at the University of Virginia.
          In 1827, Poe self-published a collection of poems. Six years later, his short story MS Found in a Bottle won $50 in a story contest. He edited a series of literary journals, including the Southern Literary Messenger in Richmond starting in 1835, and Burton's Gentleman's Magazine in Philadelphia, starting in 1839. Poe's excessive drinking got him fired from several positions. His macabre work, often portraying motiveless crimes and intolerable guilt that induces growing mania in his characters, was a significant influence on such European writers as Charles Baudelaire [09 Apr 1821 – 31 Aug 1867], Stéphane Mallarmé [18 Mar 1842 – 09 Sep 1898] , and even Dostoyevsky [11 Nov 1821 – 09 Feb 1881].
          Never able to overcome his drinking habits, Poe would die a tragic death in Baltimore on 07 October 1849, after being found in a delirious condition on 03 October 1849 outside a saloon that was used as a voting place. He may have been murdered.

    POE ONLINE:
  • The Works of Edgar Allan Poe
  • Tales of the Folio Club
  • The Black Cat
  • The Cask of Amontillado
  • The Complete Poems of Edgar Allan Poe
  • The Fall of the House of Usher
  • The Gold-Bug
  • The Masque of the Red Death
  • The Murders in the Rue Morgue
  • The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket
  • The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket
  • The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket
  • The Pit and the Pendulum
  • The Purloined Letter
  • Selected writings
  • Tales
  • Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque volume 1    volume 2
  • The Tell-Tale Heart
  • The Works of Edgar Allan Poe in 5 Volumes volume 1
  • volume 2
  • volume 3
  • volume 4
  • volume 5
  • 1807 Robert Edward Lee Stratford VA, General-in-Chief (Confederacy), surrendered to the North's General Ulysses S. Grant. He died on 12 October 1870.
    1806 Pierre Justin Ouvrié, French artist who died on 23 October 1879, and who may or may not have been born on 19 May 1806 rather than 19 January.
    ^ 1798 Auguste Comte philosopher/founder (sociology and positivism). Author of (in English translation, PDF) The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte, volume 1volume 2volume 3
         Naissance à Montpellier du père du positivisme, Auguste Comte. Dès son jeune âge, il rejeta le catholicisme et les vues royalistes de sa famille. De 1814 à 1816, il fréquenta l'École polytechnique à Paris dont il fut expulsé pour avoir participé à une révolte d'étudiants. Il fut le secrétaire de l'illustre socialiste Claude-Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon jusqu'à leur rupture en 1824. Il élabora ses Cours de philosophie positive de 1830 à 1842. En 1832, il occupa un poste de répétiteur d'analyse et de mécanique à l'École Polytechnique. Il publia en 1851 le Système de politique positive. Il mourut à Paris le 05 septembre 1857. Sensible aux révolutions scientifique, politique et industrielle de son temps, Comte s'intéressait essentiellement à la réorganisation intellectuelle, morale et politique de l'ordre social. Adopter une attitude scientifique, telle était, à ses yeux, la clé d'une telle rénovation. La méthode générale de Comte consiste à examiner l'histoire des sciences, à rapporter les connaissances scientifiques d'une époque à l'ensemble des manifestations culturelles de celle-ci pour en tirer des conclusions sur les capacités de l'esprit humain. En examinant sa propre époque, Comte parvint à la conclusion que l'élaboration d'une science de l'homme et de la société est possible. La suite du projet, qu'il développa dans ses Cours de philosophie positive consiste à élaborer une philosophie appropriée aux sociétés industrielles, et à réfléchir au type d'organisation politique qui correspond le mieux aux possibilités de celle-ci.
    COMTE ONLINE: http://www.multimania.com/clotilde/etexts/index.htm#Comte
  • Plan des travaux scientifiques nécessaires pour réorganiser la société (1822, Le texte fondateur de la sociologie)
  • Appel aux conservateurs
  • Appendice général du système de politique positive: contenant tous les opuscules primitifs de l'auteur sur la philosophie sociale
  • Calendrier positiviste
  • Correspondance inédite d'Auguste Comte. Série 1     Série 2     Série 3     Série 4
  • Cours de philosophie positive. Tome I     Tome II     Tome III    Tome IV     Tome V     Tome VI
  • Discours d'ouverture du cours de philosophie positive
  • Discours sur l'Ensemble du positivisme (1848) (Préambule, Partie 1)
  • Discours sur l'esprit positif
  • Synthèse subjective ou Système universel des conceptions propres à l'état normal de l'humanité (1856)
  • Système de politique positive ou Traité de sociologie instituant la religion de l'humanité, Tome 1     Tome 2     Tome 3     Tome 4
  • Système de politique positive ou Traité de sociologie. Volume 1     Volume 2     Volume 3     Volume 4
     
  • 1737 Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre French writer. DE SAINT-PIERRE ONLINE: Paul et Virginie.
    1736 James Watt, Scotland, (inventor: condensing steam engine; the watt, a unit of power, was named after him). He died on 25 August 1819.
    1724 Tai Chen, Chinese philosopher who died on 01 July 1777.
    1544 Francis II de Valois-Angoulême king of France (1559-1560)
    0570 Mohammed Islamic prophet (Koran)
     
    Saint Marius, persan en pélerinage à Rome avec son épouse, Sainte Marthe, il fut arrêté et martyrisé sur ordre de l'empereur Claude le Gothique (270). / Eastern Orthodox: Epiphany (06 January Julian)
    QUESTION OF THE DAY: What should you give to the person who has everything? (Answer tomorrow)
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    Thought for the day:
    Never read a statement which starts with:
    Never read a statement which starts with:
    Never read a statement which starts with:
    Never read a statement which starts with:
    Never read a statement which starts with:
    Never read a statement which starts with:
    Never read a statement which starts with:
    Never read a statement which starts with:
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    Never read a statement which starts with: ...
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    updated Friday 16-Jan-2009 22:13 UT
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