a 17 January:
2001 Faced with an electricity crisis, California used rolling blackouts to cut off power to hundreds of thousands of people. Governor Gray Davis signs an emergency order authorizing the state to buy power.
2001 News services report the marriage of Hesam Khalili, 20, and Fatemeh Jamshidi Khakhi, 77, in the village of Gonabad, Khorasan province, Iran, near the border of Afghanistan. In Iran compulsory military service is 2 years for single men, 1 year for married.
2001 Thai Prime Minister
meets twin boys guerilla leaders who surrendered the previous
Photo 1: Thailand's Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai, left, talks with Luther Htoo through an unidentified interpreter, right, as his twin bother Johnny looks on, middle, during their meeting at a border police base in Ratchaburi province, 95 kilometers south of Bangkok
Thailand says that it may give temporary humanitarian asylum to Johnny and Luther Htoo, the twin boy leaders of a mystical rebel movement from Myanmar who have surrendered with some of their followers. Hunted and hungry, 14 members of the God's Army group nine of them children, including the charismatic twins turned themselves over to Thai border police the previous day, after a year on the run along the Thai-Myanmar border.
For more than three years, the boys fought to overthrow Myanmar's military government, and their followers believe Johnny and Luther have magical powers that make them invincible in battle. The boys once claimed to have several hundred followers. Last year, the Htoo twins became icons for youthful rebellion around the world after the widespread circulation of an Associated Press photograph showed the angelic-looking, long-haired Johnny posing next to his tougher-looking, cigarette-puffing brother, Luther. The boys claimed to be 12 when the picture was taken on 06 December 1999.
"We learned that the reason for their surrender is a lack of supplies and food, and also because they are under pressure from both Myanmar and Thai forces," said Komes Daengthongdee, the governor of Ratchaburi province, where the group surrendered. "If they ran away from fighting, they will be considered for temporary asylum in Thailand. But if they entered illegally, they will be charged with illegal entry and pushed back," Komes said at a news conference with the twins [photo 2: they are awaiting the news conference] and 10 other members of the group.
Two other members of the group were held separately, suspected of taking part in a raid last month in which a Thai border village was looted and six villagers were killed. None of the God's Army members spoke to reporters. Today, one more follower of the twins also surrendered to the army. Komes didn't say how long asylum would last, and there was no immediate comment from Myanmar's military regime about their surrender or the possibility of asylum. But Komes said Myanmar had not asked for the extradition of the God's Army leaders and members.
About 100'000 other refugees from Myanmar, mostly members of Myanmar's ethnic minorities, live in refugee camps along the border with Thailand after fleeing fighting between rebel groups and the Myanmar army. Most, if not all, of the God's Army followers are members of Myanmar's sizable ethnic Karen minority, which has long sought autonomy from the central government. Many Karens, like the twins, are fundamentalist Christians, and most of the rebel groups support the pro-democracy efforts of Nobel laureate Aung San Suu Kyi. But God's Army's unsophisticated political beliefs are mostly driven by hatred for Myanmar's army.
Thailand's military often has ignored rebel activities along the border, but the involvement of God's Army in terrorist attacks inside Thailand has drawn the ire of Bangkok. Today, true to form, Luther was smoking a cigarette [photo 3] when the child soldiers were presented to the media at the Border Patrol Police headquarters near where they surrendered. He grinned when a reporter shouted his name. Johnny, with tattoos visible on his arm under a yellow-and-white striped shirt, smiled when hearing his name, but he looked tense. Both boys looked unhealthy. Luther appeared to be very thin and Johnny seemed to have a bloated belly. Gov. Komes said Thai doctors had examined the boys and found they were not sick, but that some of their companions were. Seven other children, including two girls, were also at the news conference, along with two men who appeared to be in their 20s, and a middle-aged woman.
The 14 God's Army members turned themselves at the border with Myanmar in Ratchaburi province, 100 km west of Bangkok. God's Army first gained notoriety after it gave refuge to another group of Myanmar dissidents who had taken hostages at the Myanmar Embassy in Bangkok in October 1999. The Thais had allowed them to go free in exchange for releasing the captives. Several months later, members of the same group, the Vigorous Burmese Student Warriors, took control of a Ratchaburi hospital, demanding that the Thai government send medicine and doctors to treat ethnic Karen people injured in fighting with Myanmar troops. Thai commandos killed all hostage-takers. Although it was never certain that God's Army members participated in the hospital raid, the incident made them most-wanted persons on both sides of the border. After the raid, the Myanmar army, aided by Thai forces, ousted God's Army from its stronghold, and they have been on the run ever since, reported to be hiding out in villages on either side of the Thai-Myanmar border.
Mummified ancient princess died in 1999 or 2000.
Iranian archaeologists are reported to have dismissed as a fake the mummified body of a young woman earlier said to be a member of ancient Iranian aristocracy 2500 years ago. A team of specialists from the Cultural Heritage Organization inspected the mummy in Pakistan where it had been seized from smugglers last year. Forensic tests on the mummy showed that it was the body of a woman of around 21 who had died not more than 15 months ago. The brain and internal organs had been extracted and the body sealed in wax, the daily quoted a member of the team as saying. The crowned and jewelry-laden mummy, which was in a sealed and engraved wooden box, was seized by Pakistani police last October near the border with Iran. Iran immediately asked Pakistan to return the mummy as it was first thought to be a princess from the Achamenid era some 2500 years ago. Islamabad had refused the archaeologists entry visas for months.
The bizarre tale of a mummy adorned with a cuneiform-inscribed gold plaque identifying it as a 2600-year-old Persian princess, perhaps, according to one translation, a daughter of the king Xerxes, began trickling out of Pakistan in October 2000. Found during a murder investigation, the mummy, an amalgam of Egyptian and Persian elements, had been for sale on the black market for $11 million. While archaeologists in Karachi tried to make sense of the mummy, a dispute between Iran and Pakistan broke out over its ownership. Afghanistan's Taliban regime hinted that they, too, might claim it. Then, one November day, the magazine Archeology was shown documents identifying the Persian princess as a fraud.
Pakistani authorities learned of the mummy in mid-October, when they received a tip that Karachi resident Ali Akbar had a video tape showing a mummy he was selling. After interrogation, Akbar led police to the remains, which were being kept in the house of tribal leader Wali Mohammad Reeki in Quetta, capital of Pakistan's southwestern Balochistan Province, which borders Iran and Afghanistan. Reeki told police he had received the mummy from Sharif Shah Bakhi, an Iranian who allegedly found it after an earthquake in a nearby town. Reeki and Bakhi had agreed to sell the mummy and split the profits; Akbar's role is less clear. Reeki said an unidentified representative of an anonymous foreign buyer had offered 60 million rupees ($1.1 million) for the mummy, well below the 600 million rupee ($11 million) asking price. Reeki and Akbar were charged with violating Pakistan's Antiquity Act, which carries a ten-year maximum sentence; Bakhi remains at large.
The mummy was brought to the National Museum in Karachi as news of it spread quickly through the local and international press. In an 26 October 2000 press conference, archaeologist Ahmed Hasan Dani of Quaid-e-Azam University in Islamabad announced that the mummy, wrapped in Egyptian style and resting in a wooden coffin carved with cuneiform writing and images of the Zoroastrian deity Ahura Mazda, was that of a princess dated to ca. 600 B.C.
Museum officials shared results of a preliminary examination of the mummy and its inscriptions with a hungry press: her remains lay atop a mat coated with a mixture of wax and honey and were covered by a stone slab with additional cuneiform inscriptions; her name was Khor-ul-Gayan or Tundal Gayan; and she may have been the daughter of Karoosh-ul-Kabir, first ruler of Persia's Khamam-ul-Nishiyan Dynasty. Alternatively, Dani said, the mummy could be of an Egyptian princess, married to a Persian prince during the reign of Cyrus I (640-590 B.C.), whose body had been preserved following the custom of her own country. Various theories circulated about how it came to Quetta. National Museum curator Asma Ibrahim suggested it may have been looted from a tomb in the Hamadan region of western Iran or the southwestern Pakistani area of Kharan. Shortly after the press conference, the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization, claiming the mummy was of a member of the Persian royal family, said it would take legal action through UNESCO for its return. Salim-ul-Haq, director of Pakistan's Archaeological Department's Headquarters, retorted that the mummy was found in Kharan in Balochistan Province, "which is one hundred percent Pakistani territory. The mummy is property of Pakistan." At that point, Iran said it was cooperating with Interpol for the mummy's return. Pakistan's foreign minister warned against politicizing the issue, while the Taliban, the rulers of most of Afghanistan, demanded that their archaeologists play a role in deciding its ownership.
There were divisions even within Pakistan. A petition filed with the Balochistan High Court asked for the return of the princess to Quetta, claiming the police raid in which it was seized had been illegal and that the action had "spread panic among the people of Balochistan, who felt deprived of their cultural, historic, and valuable heritage." The Awan tribe of Balochistan, saying the inscriptions proved the princess belonged to the Awan royal family of Hika Munshi, asked that the mummy be moved immediately to the local Kallar Kahar Fossils Museum.
While the conflict continued, there were subtle signs the Pakistanis were not sure exactly what they were keeping under guard in their National Museum. Insurance companies were reluctant to cover the mummy until its legitimacy was proven. Dani insisted it was of Egyptian origin, pointing out that mummification was not practiced in Iran or Iraq, and conceded that the cuneiform inscriptions may have been added by smugglers after the body was taken out of Egypt.
Possibly in response to Dani's assertions, Iran fired back, claiming that an Italian archaeologist had translated the inscription, presumably through examining photographs, and confirmed that the mummy was of a member of the ancient Persian royal family.
Two weeks after the discovery first hit the press, Oscar White Muscarella of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and author of The Lie Became Great: The Forgery of Ancient Near Eastern Cultures (see "Scourge of the Forgery Culture," ), said to Archeoloy that the mummy's description sounded remarkably similar to photographs of a gold-adorned mummy sent to him last March by a New Jersey resident on behalf of an unidentified dealer in Pakistanin fact, they were the same.
Muscarella had received four photographs of a mummy in a wooden coffin, replete with golden crown, mask, and inscribed breastplate. An accompanying letter stated that the mummy was owned by a Pakistani acquaintance and was brought by Zoroastrian families many years ago from Iran to Pakistan. The author claimed that the mummy was the daughter of the Persian king Xerxes, referring to an attached one-page translation of the cuneiform inscription on the breastplate.
Muscarella, who suspected immediately that the mummy was a fraud, contacted the translator of the inscription, a cuneiform expert at a major American university, and found out that the dealer's New Jersey representative had not given him the complete analysis of it. The inscription does indeed contain the line "I am the daughter of the great king Xerxes," as well as a sizeable chunk lifted straight from a famous inscription of the king Darius (522-486 B.C.) at Behistun in western Iran. The Behistun inscription, which records the king's accomplishments, dates to 520-519 B.C., substantially later than the 600 B.C. date proposed for the mummy. The second page of analysis listed several problems with the mummy's inscription that led the scholar to believe that its author wrote in a manner inconsistent with Old Persian. The inscription, he concluded, was likely a modern falsification, probably dating "from no earlier than the 1930s."
Convinced that the scholar's twentieth-century date was incorrect, the dealer's representative apparently sent a small piece of the wooden coffin to a carbon-dating lab. The results indicated it was approximately 250 years old "which cannot be called modern," complained the representative in a follow-up letter to the cuneiform expert.
Muscarella politely broke off communications with the man. Seven months later, police raided the house in Quetta and the Persian princess surfaced againthis time under the glare of the international press.
On 26 November 2000, Taliban's Information and Culture minister Qudratullah Jamal announced that smugglers have confessed to finding the mummy in the southwestern Afghan province of Nimroz, on the Iranian border, before taking it to Pakistan. Citing the "good evidence" provided by the unidentified smugglers, Jamal insisted that "this property of Afghanistan should be returned to its people."
Italian archaeobotanist Lorenzo Costantini angrily denied telling Iran's official news agency IRNA that he believed the mummy belonged to an ancient Persian royal family.
Preliminary results from a CT scan performed on the mummy at Karachi's Aga Khan Hospital indicated that the mummy is of a 20- to 21-year-old woman. Her death may have resulted from a broken spine.
| 2000 British pharmaceutical firms Glaxo Wellcome PLC
and SmithKline Beecham PLC announce a merger to form the world's largest
1997 Israel handed over its military headquarters in Hebron to the Palestinians, ending 30 years of Israeli occupation of the West Bank city.
1997 A court in Ireland grants the first divorce in the country's history.
1996 Russian forces fire a massive rocket barrage at Chechen patriots in Pervomayskaya.
1991 On the first day of Operation Desert Storm, US-led forces hammered Iraqi targets in an effort to drive Iraq out of Kuwait. A defiant Iraqi President Saddam Hussein declared that the "mother of all battles" had begun. Iraq attacked Israel with 10 Scud missiles. The US Patriot defense missile was used in battle for the first time to shoot down a Scud fired at Saudi Arabia.
| 1987 President Reagan signs secret order permitting
covert sale of arms to Iran.
1986 Firmado, en La Haya, el protocolo por el que se establecen relaciones diplomáticas plenas entre España e Israel.
1984 Apertura en Estocolmo de la Conferencia Sobre Desarme en Europa, en la que participaron representantes de 35 países.
1983 Nigeria expels 2 million illegal aliens, mostly Ghanaians
1981 Philippino President Marcos ends state of siege
1979 Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi flees Iran
1968 US President Lyndon B. Johnson's 5th annual State of the Union address.
1955 Beginning of test voyage by submarine Nautilus, launched on 21 January 1954 as the first submarine capable of prolonged submersion. Powered by propulsion turbines driven by steam produced by a nuclear reactor, the Nautilus was capable of submerged speeds in excess of 20 knots* (37 km/h) which it could maintain almost indefinitely. Much larger than World War II submarines, the Nautilus was 97 m long and displaced 3180 tons. [* 1 knot = 1 nautical mile per hour. 1 nautical mile = 1 minute of arc on a great circle = 1852 m]
1954 Destituído de sus cargos Milovan Djilas, presidente de la Asamblea Federal y vicepresidente de la República de Yugoslavia.
1952 Detenidos en Túnez Habib ben Ali Burguiba y numerosos militantes del Neo-Destur.
1951 China refuses cease-fire in the Korean war.
| 1949 The first Volkswagen Beetle in the
US arrived from Germany. The little Volkswagen ("people’s car") was a sturdy
vehicle designed by Ferdinand Porsche at the request of Adolf Hitler. .
After the defeat of the Nazi government in Germany, the VW Beetle remained
a popular car, and its reputation for affordable reliability made it a profitable
1948 Netherlands and Indonesia agree to a cease fire
1948 Trial of 11 US Communist party members begins in New York City NY
1946 United Nations Security Council holds its first meeting
1945 Auschwitz concentration camp begins evacuation
| 1938 Supreme Soviet elects Michail Kalinin as presidium
chairman, a mere change of title for the man who was the formal head of
the Soviet state from 1919 until 1946, while Stalin was the actual dictator
1937 Guerra Civil española. Manuel Azaña traslada a Valencia la sede de la presidencia de la República.
1935 El Consejo de la Sociedad de Naciones acuerda la incorporación de la cuenca del Sarre a Alemania.
1934 Promulgada en Alemania la nueva Carta del Trabajo.
1933 El Congreso de los Estados Unidos vota a favor de la independencia de Filipinas.
1920 Paul Deschanel elected President of France
1913 Raymond Poincaré is elected President of France.
1912 Robert Scott expedition arrives at South Pole, one month after Amundsen
1911 Failed assassination attempt on premier Briand in French Assembly.
1900 Mormon, Brigham Roberts, is denied a seat in the US House of Representatives because he practices polygamy.
1899 US takes possession of Wake Island in Pacific
1895 Félix Faure installed as President of France
1895 French President Casimir-Perier resigns
| 1893 -17ºF (-27ºC), Millsboro DE (state record)
1885 British beat Mahdists at Battle of Abu Klea in the Sudan
1874 Armed Democrats seize Texas government ending Radical Reconstruction
1863 President Lincoln signs a resolution for immediate payment of Federal troops and for currency reform
1852 British recognize independence of Transvaal (Republic of South Africa) Gran Bretaña reconoce en la convención de Sand River la independencia de Transvaal, que se llama a partir de ese momento República Sudafricana.
1821 México permits Moses Austin and 300 US families to settle in Texas.
1817 El general José de San Martín, al mando de 4000 hombres, inicia el cruce de la cordillera de los Andes para la conquista de Chile.
1811 Batalla del Puente de Calderón entre el ejército realista y el ejército insurgente mejicano, en la que venció el primero.
1793 La Convención francesa decide por un solo voto de diferencia (361 a favor y 360 en contra) la pena de muerte del rey Luis XVI.
1779 Almost one year to the day when Captain Cook had first sighted the Hawaiian islands, and after giving up on finding the Northwest Passage, he returns to Hawaii with his two ships. Little did he know that, within less than a month, he would be killed on the beach at Kealakekua by the Polynesian natives.
1773 Captain James Cook becomes first to cross Antarctic Circle (66º 33' S)
1757 German Diet declares war on Prussia, thus entering the Seven Years War
1656 Brandenburg and Sweden sign Treaty of Königsberg
1601 France gains Bresse, Bugey, Valromey and Gex in treaty with Spain
1595 French king Henri IV declares war on Spain
1584 (Tuesday) Bohemia and Moravia (the future Czech Republic) start using the Gregorian calendar (yesterday there was Monday 06 January 1584 Julian)
1562 Edict of St Germain recognizes the Huguenots in France. Se emite el edicto de Tolerancia, por el que se pretendía resolver el problema de los protestantes.
1501 Cesare Borgia returns in triumph to Rome from Romagna
1377 The Papal See was moved back to Rome by Gregory XI. Located in France for 72 years, it had been moved to Avignon by French pope Clement V in 1305, originally to escape the political turmoil rampant within Italy at the time.
2007 Arthur “Art” Buchwald, US humorist born on 20 October 1925. —(070118)
2006 Clarence Ray Allen, disabled Choctaw Amerindian born on 16 January 1930, by lethal injection in California for contracting the 05 September 1980 murders of Bryon Schletewitz, 27, Josephine Rocha, 17, and Douglas Scott White, 18, potential witnesses against him in the appeal he was planning from the life-in-prison sentence he was serving for contracting the August 1974 murder of Mary Sue Kitts, 17 (who knew about a 12 August 1974 burglary committed by Allen). Allen is the oldest person executed in the US since John B. Nixon [01 Apr 1928 – 14 Dec 2005], who was the oldest executed since Joe Lee [1832 – 21 Apr 1916]. — (060117)
2005 Three Iraqi civilians and a suicide bomber attacking a US patrol, which shoots in retaliation, in Ramadi, Iraq. 9 Iraqi civilians are wounded.
2005 At least 10 persons, including suicide car bomber at police headquarters in Baiji, Iraq. At least 20 persons are wounded. Most of the casualties are policemen.
2004 Three US and two Iraqi soldiers, in a Bradley Fighting Vehicle on a joint U.S.-Iraqi patrol, which was looking for roadside bombs, one of which, made up of two 155 mm artillery rounds and other explosives, is detonated by remote control without waiting to be found, near Taji, Iraq.
2004 Ahmed Mansour, hanged in Beirut, Lebanon, for the July 2002 killing of eight of his colleagues in a shooting spree at a government building.
2004 Badieh Hamadeh, shot by firing squad, in Beirut, Lebanon, for killing three army intelligence agents in July 2002.
2004 Remy Zaatar, who killed two civil defense colleagues in June 2002, shot by firing squad, in Beirut, Lebanon. In Lebanon, convicts condemned to death by military court are executed by firing squad while those sentenced by a civilian judge are hanged. Lebanon had had a five-year moratorium on capital punishment because former Prime Minister Salim Hoss was opposed to it. Executions must be approved by the president, prime minister and justice minister. The European Union and human rights groups had called for clemency for Mansour, Hamadeh, and Zaatar.
2003 (Friday) Nathanel Ozeri, 34; Farek Abu Sneineh, and another Palestinian gunman. Ozeri [photo >], an activist of the outlawed extreme-rightist Kach movement, lived with his wife and five children in the secluded illegal enclave settlement “Lot 26” which he built for himself and a few others 2 km east Givat Harsina, north of Hebron, West Bank. At 19:30 there is a knock on the door. Ozeri's seven family members are at home, as well as two armed friends who came to dinner. As soon as Ozeri, who is armed, opened the door, Abu Sneineh and the other terrorist shoot him in the chest. They are armed with an M-16, a revolver, hand grenades, an ax and a knife. Ozeri's friends shoot back at the terrorists, killing one of them. The second one, who is wounded and flees, would be later killed by security forces. The two friends are wounded, as is Ozeri's 4-year-old daughter. — The Reuters body count of the al-Aqsa intifada is now at least 1785 Palestinians and 695 Israelis. — Lot 26 is illegal, but its scheduled evacuation was "frozen" at the end of 2001 due to a pending High Court of Justice hearing. Originally the settlers had asked the military authorities to recognize the outpost as "pastureland" for Ozeri's livestock, but the family gradually built their home there and moved in permanently. Palestinian residents also petitioned the High Court saying the outpost was on land taken from them illegally and by force. Subsequently Jewish settlers rampage in Hebron, attacking Palestinians, their cars, and homes. On 19 January 2003, during Ozeri's funeral in Hebron, Jewish settlers also hurled insults at the Israeli soldiers preventing them from attacking Palestinians, calling them Nazis and villains.Ozeri's father-in-law Shaul Nir, a former member of the Jewish underground who was sentenced in 1985 for life in prison for the murder of Palestinians in Hebron and then pardoned in 1990 by Israeli President Haim Herzog, delivers a eulogy calling for revenge.
In the last week of December 2002, Nathanel Ozeri was released after serving a four-month prison sentence for participating in riots during the funeral of Staff Sergeant Eliezer Leibovitch, who was killed in a July 2002 terrorist attack in Hebron. During Leibovitch's funeral. Ozeri, who was carrying a weapon, was arrested after several funeral participants fired at Palestinian homes in the area. Nivin Jamjum, 14, was shot dead while standing on the roof of her house and two of her brothers were injured trying to evacuate her. Police tracked 30 settlers who participated in the rioting, but none of them were suspected of firing at the Jamjum home. — Kach (Hebrew for "Only Thus") was founded by radical Israeli-American rabbi Meir Kahane [01 Aug 1932 – 05 Nov 1990]. The stated goal of Kach and its offshoot Kahane Chai, which means "Kahane Lives," (founded by Meir Kahane's son Binyamin Ze'ev Kahane [1967 – 31 Dec 2000] following his father's assassination in the United States), is to restore the biblical state of Israel. Both organizations were declared terrorist organizations by the Israeli Cabinet in March 1994. This followed the groups' statements in support of Dr. Baruch Goldstein's attack in February 1994 on the al-Ibrahimi Mosque (killing 29 persons) and their verbal attacks on the Israeli Government. Goldstein was affiliated with Kach.
2002 Some 45 persons as Nyiragongo volcano erupts, pouring lava through villages on its slopes, down through Goma, Congo, and into Lake Kivu straddling the Rwandan border. Gisenyi, Rwanda, 4 km away, is also threatened.
2002 Edward Bakshayev, 42, his uncle Anatoly Backshayev, 63, unarmed security guard Avi Yazdi, 25, three other Israelis, and their killer, Abdul Salaam Sadek Hassouneh, 24, of the Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades. At the David's Palace banquet hall in Hadera, Israel, Anatoly Backshayev's grand-daughter Nina Kardashova, 12, was celebrating her bat mitzvah with more than 150 guests. In walks Hassouneh firing a semiautomatic gun. The gun jams, guests subdue and beat the gunman, then policemen arrive and kill him.
^ 2002 Camilo José Cela, 85, Spanish novelist (1989 Nobel Prize in literature).
Cela dies from chronic heart disease. With his first novel, La Familia de Pascual Duarte,' Cela became the leader of an uncommonly straightforward style of writing called tremendismo that clashed with the lyricism of previous Spanish writers. Cela's death represents the disappearance of the last great Spanish writer, creator of fables, of language, of words, with a prodigious capacity of expression.
A bon vivant known in Spain for his flamboyant lifestyle, Cela tended to show a darker side of life in his writing. He drew from his experiences in the Spanish Civil War for many of his stories, which were often violent and gruesome. He was recruited as a private to fight on the side of the rebel forces led by the future dictator Gen. Francisco Franco, but was released after receiving serious wounds. He later published an anti-fascist magazine that became a forum for opposition to the 36-year Franco dictatorship.
His breakthrough 1942 novel, La Familia de Pascual Duarte, was first published in Argentina because it was deemed too violent and crude for Spain at the time. It tells the story in the language of a rural, uneducated man who commits a series of brutal murders without really knowing why and ends up being executed. It often is credited with creating a sort of literary vanguard in the years immediately following the 1936-39 Civil War, both in Spain and Latin America.
Another well-known work, La Colmena, published in 1951, takes place in the cold, depressing postwar years and depicts starving writers who would sit for hours during the winter in Madrid's literary cafes.
Cela was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature in 1989 for rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability. La Familia de Pascual Duarte was the most popular work of fiction in Spanish since Miguel Cervantes' masterpiece Don Quixote' was published nearly 400 years ago.
Cela said he would like this epitaph: Here lies someone who tried to screw his fellow man as little as possible.
The son of a Spanish father and English mother, Cela was born in 1916 in comfortable surroundings in the town of Iria de Flavia in the northwestern region of Galicia. Over his lifetime, Cela produced well over 70 works, including essays, poems and travel books, and 10 novels. But at home, he was better known for his love of food, travel and women. He enjoyed touring his country in a Rolls-Royce.
Cela was the fifth Spaniard to win the Nobel Prize in literature, but the first novelist. Previous winners from Spain included two poets and two playwrights. In 1977, two years after the death of Franco, Vicente Aleixandre, an obscure poet from Spain's prewar literary generation, received the Nobel Prize for literature. Fellow poet Juan Ramón Jiménez received the award in 1956. Spain's first literary Nobel laureate was playwright José Echegaray, who won in 1904. Playwright Jacinto Benavente won the award in 1922.
At his death, Cela was involved in an unresolved court battle with an obscure Spanish writer, Carmen Formoso Lapido, who accused him of plagiarism. She said a novel she wrote in the early 1990s served as the basis for Cela's book, La Cruz de San Andrés, which won Spain's prestigious Planeta Award in 1994.
2000 Mikhail Malofeyev, Russian Major General, as his unit is ambushed in Grozny. The Chechens claim they have him prisoner and some days later would say that he was killed by a Russian bombing. The Russians however say they find his body in Grozny at that time.
1997 Clyde Tombaugh, 90, in Las Cruces NM, American astronomer who discovered the planet Pluto in 1930 after a systematic search at Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Arizona. He also discovered several clusters of stars and galaxies, studied the apparent distribution of extragalactic nebulae, and made observations of the surfaces of Mars, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, and the Moon. Tombaugh also worked at Arizona State College; White Sands Missile Range; and New Mexico State University
1995: Some 6400 persons in magnitude MW 6.9 earthquake in Kobe, Japan. Un terremoto de 7,2 grados en la escala Richter sacude la región japonesa de Kansay y causa 5500 muertos, 26'000 heridos y pérdidas económicas de más de un billón de pesetas.
1995 Adolfo Correia da Rocha, "Miguel Torga", médico, poeta y escritor portugués.
1994 At least 61 people in 6.7 magnitude Northridge earthquake in Los Angeles. About $20 billion in damage is caused. Un terremoto en Los Angeles (California) causa 54 muertos, 5420 heridos y pérdidas por valor de 35'000 millones de dólares.
1991 Olav V de Noruega, coronación de Harald V de Noruega.
1988 Georgy Maximilianovich Malenkov, político soviético.
1987 Unas 50 personas en el naufragio de un barco frente a la isla de Bohol (Filipinas).
1978 Blas de Otero, poeta español.
1966 Eight crew members as a B-52 carrying four H-bombs collides with a refueling tanker and the bombs are released. Colisión de dos aviones de los EE.UU. sobre Almería. Cuatro bombas atómicas caen, tres en las cercanías de Palomares y otra en las proximidades de Almería. Casi tres meses se tardó en encontrarlas y duró el "suspense" en la opinión pública.
1961 Patrice Lumumba, 35, revolutionary, first prime minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (June-September 1960), murdered by police of the Katanga secessionist regime of Moise Tshombe, to whom the forces of embattled president Joseph Kasavubu had delivered him (they had arrested him on 02 Dec 1960). The murder is perpetrated in the presence of Belgian police and government officials. Belgium's government and king Baudouin knew of plans to kill Lumumba but did nothing to stop it. On 05 February 2002, the Belgian government would apologize. Asesinato en Katanga del dirigente congoleño Patrice Emery Lumumba, impulsor de la independencia del Congo.
1911 Carolina Coronado, poetisa española.
1908 Ferdinand IV, 72, ruler of Tuscany.
1893 Rutherford B Hayes, 70, 19th US President (1877-81), in Fremont OH.
1893 Cristino Martos, político español.
1886 Paul Baudry, French painter born on 07 November 1828. MORE ON BAUDRY AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1884 Henry Brittan Willis, British artist born in 1810.
1863 Émile Jean Horace Vernet, French painter, specialized in Orientalism, born on 30 June 1789. MORE ON VERNET AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1826 Joseph Boze, French artist born in 1744.
1706 Phillip Peter Roos Rosa de Tivoli Mercurius, German artist born on 30 Aug 1657. MORE ON ROOS AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1686 Carlo Carlino Dolci, Italian artist born on 25 May 1616. MORE ON DOLCI AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1661 Andres Malong Philippines rebel leader, executed.
1654 Paulus Potter, Dutch painter, specialized in animals, born on 20 November 1625. MORE ON POTTER AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1305 Roger de Lauria, almirante de la flota catalano-aragonesa.
0395 Theodosius I the Great, 49, Spanish emperor of Rome. This is the last day the (Christian) Roman Empire has a single ruler. Theodosius's will divides the empire into western and eastern portions.
0356 San Antonio Abad.
1974 Ladan Bijani and Laleh Bijani, in Tehran, Iran, craniopagus twins. Into their adulthood [11 Jun 2003 photo >], they have to put up with sacrifices and compromises as they have two very different personalities and are interested in leading different lifestyles. The more outspoken Ladan wanted to study law at university while Laleh wanted to do journalism. Laleh ended up studying law. Laleh wants to live in Teheran and Ladan wants to return to their home town of Shiraz. Laleh wants to work but Ladan prefers to further her education. The twins eventually reached a point where they decided they could not live this way anymore and started seeking help internationally to get themselves separated. They turned to Singapore after hearing Dr Keith Goh and his team's success in separating Nepalese twins Ganga and Jamuna . They arrived at Raffles Hospital (585 North Bridge Road) on 20 November 2002 to undergo a series of tests — including brain scans, neuro-imaging, and cerebral vascular studies — which ended up showing that they could be surgically separated, though with risk of death to both. The separation operation, the first ever on adult craniopagus twins, would start on 07 July 2003, expected to go on for four days. But early on 08 July 2003, both twins die from excessive bleeding after surgeons had progressed to the full separation of their brains, which were found to be tightly stuck together.
1964 Stylish Porsche-Carrera The first Porsche-Carrera GTS, a lasting favorite in the world of luxury sports cars, was delivered to a Los Angeles customer.
1942 Antonio Fraguas de Pablo, "Forges", humorista gráfico español.
1933 Aga Khan religious leader (Muslims).
1927 Thomas Dooley, US physician and author who died on 18 January 1961.
1925 Duane Hanson, escultor estadounidense.
1919 Antonio Mingote, primer dibujante de humor miembro de la Academia Española.
1913 Philip Johannes Hendrik van Straaten, who would become Father “Werenfried” (Warrior for Peace), “the Bacon Priest”, Dutch Norbertine (= Premonstratensian), founder on 25 December 1947 of Aid to the Church in Need (Kirche in Not / Osterpriesterhilfe). Author of Where God Weeps (1969). He would die on 31 January 2003.
1907 Alfredo Marqueríe, escritor y crítico teatral español.
1899 Al Capone Italy, gangster (Chicago bootlegging) who died on 25 January 1947.
1899 Robert Maynard Hutchins US, educator/civil libertarian who died on 17 May 1977.
1899 Nevil Shute, English Australian writer who died on 12 January 1960.
1886 Glenn Martin, US airplane inventor who died on 04 December 1955.
1871 The first cable car is patented by San Franciscan Andrew Smith Hallidie. Using metal ropes he had previously patented, Hallidie devised a mechanism by which cars were drawn by an endless cable running in a slot between the rails and passing over a steam-driven shaft in a powerhouse. (begins service in 1873)
1863 David Lloyd George (Liberal-PM-Britain, 1916-22). He died on 26 March 1945.
1861 Flush toilet patented by Mr Thomas Crapper (Honest!)
1852 Louis Béroud, French artist who died in 1930. (Inside the Louvre?) (Artist startled by painting he is copying in the Louvre coming to life?)
1850 Alexander Sergeyevich Taneyev St Petersburg Russia, composer.
1840 Lorenzo Delleani, Italian artist who died on 14 November 1908.
1829 Raphaël Ritz, Swiss artist who died on 11 April 1894. — more
1810 Antoine Léon Morel-Fatio, French artist who died on 02 March 1871.
1501 Leonhard Fuchs Germany, botanist (History of Plants)
1463 Frederick III the Wise, elector of Saxony (1486-1425), protector of Luther
1342 Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy, who died on 27 April 1404.
0463 Federico III de Sajonia, "el Sabio".