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Big Bro is Watching !^  On a 15 January:
2009 Miracle on the Hudson: At 15:25 (20:25 UT) the Airbus A320 of US Airways Flight 1549 takes off from New York's LaGuardia airport, headed to Charlotte, North Carolina. At 15:27, at an altitude of 1000 m, it collides with a flight of geese, which disables the engines of the aircraft. At 15:31 its captain Chesley "Sully" Sullenberger [23 Jan 1951~] manages to glide to a landing in the Hudson river, near some boats which, while the plane is slowly sinking, rescue all 150 passengers and the 5 crew members. Five of them suffer serious injuries, and another 73 have to be treated for minor injuries and hypothermia (the temperature of the air is -7ºC, that of the water 2ºC). — details at wikipedia —(100115)
Uncle Sam Watches !



2003 The American Civil Liberties Union releases a report [in PDF format] warning that the US is becoming closer to being a total surveillance society. The report concludes that if people in the US do not take steps to control and regulate surveillance to bring it into conformity with their values, they will find themselves being tracked, analyzed, profiled, and flagged in their daily lives to a degree that can scarcely be imagined. They will be forced into an impossible struggle to conform to the letter of every rule, law, and guideline, lest they create ammunition for enemies in the government or elsewhere.
CLRO price chart2003 According to a court filing by the US Securities and Exchange Commission, ClearOne Communications Corp. (CLRO) has overstated revenues, income and accounts receivable by improperly recording some transactions with its distributors and resellers as sales.
      The violations reach back to when it became apparent that ClearOne would not meet its sales and revenue projections for the quarter ended 31 March 2001.
      By the end of June 2002, about half of the $13 million in revenue claimed by ClearOne in that quarter resulted from inventory stuffed in the distribution channels or sitting in a warehouse or garage.
      The complaint seeks a temporary restraining order and preliminary injunctions against the company and two of its officers, chairman and chief executive Frances M. Flood and chief financial officer Susie Strohm. The complaint also seeks monetary penalties and the appointment of a special monitor to oversee sales, billings and collections.
      ClearOne sells conferencing and assisted listening products and conference calling, Webconferencing, and document conferencing services. It reported a net loss of $1.2 million, or 10 cents a share, on sales of $13 million for the quarter ended 30 September 2002.
      On 16 January 2003, on the NASDAQ, 4.3 million of the 11.2 million CLRO shares are traded, dropping from the 15 January close of $2.70 to an intraday low of $1.42 and close at $1.54. They had traded as high as $18.80 as recently as 24 May 2002. [< 5~year price chart]
Dred Scott case^ 2001 Dred Scott documents go on the web
      Efforts to preserve the court records of Dred Scott's unsuccessful challenge of Missouri slavery law, which helped push the nation toward civil war, move to the Internet. The Missouri State Archives worked with St. Louis Circuit Court and Washington University to put 170 pages of the original Scott documents on a Web site at http://www.library.wustl.edu/vlib/dredscott inaugurated on this Martin Luther King Day. Preservation efforts are vital because some records in the Scott case have been lost, and many court records from the same period are crumbling into dust.
      In 1857, the US Supreme Court struck down a ban on slavery in the territories and denied Scott his freedom.
     On 6 Apris 1846 slave Dred Scott had filed a declaration according to which, two days earlier, his owner had "beat, bruised, and ill-treated him" and imprisoned him for twelve hours. Scott adds that he claims to be a free man by virtue of his past residence in free territories.
     Scott's beginnings were quite humble. Born somewhere in Virginia around 1800, he was taken by his owner, Peter Blow, to Alabama and then, in 1830, to St. Louis, Missouri. Two years later Peter Blow died; Scott was subsequently bought by army surgeon Dr. John Emerson, who later took Scott to Fort Armstrong in the free state of Illinois. In the spring of 1836, after a stay of two and a half years, Emerson moved to Fort Snelling in the Wisconsin Territory (closed to slavery by the Missouri Compromise of 1820), taking Scott along. While there, Scott met and married Harriet Robinson, a slave owned by a local justice of the peace. Ownership of Harriet was transferred to Emerson.
      Scott's extended stay in Illinois, a free state, gave him the legal standing to make a claim for freedom, as did his extended stay in Wisconsin, where slavery was also prohibited. But Scott never made the claim while living in the free lands — perhaps because he was unaware of his rights at the time, or perhaps because he was content with his master.
      After two years, the army transferred Emerson to the south: first to St Louis, then to Fort Jessup in Louisiana. A little over a year later, a recently-married Emerson summoned his slave couple. Instead of staying in the free territory of Wisconsin, or going to the free state of Illinois, the two travelled over 1600 km, apparently unaccompanied, down the Mississippi River to meet their master.
      Only after Emerson's death in 1843, after Emerson's widow hired Scott out to an army captain, did Scott seek freedom for himself and his wife. First he offered to buy his freedom from Mrs. Emerson — then living in St. Louis — for $300. The offer was refused. Scott then sought freedom through the courts, starting the legal process with the declaration he made on April 6, 1846. He had strong legal backing for his claim to freedom; the Supreme Court of Missouri had freed many slaves who had traveled with their masters in free states. In the Missouri Supreme Court's 1836 Rachel v. Walker ruling, it decided that Rachel, a slave taken to Fort Snelling and to Prairie du Chien in Illinois, was free.
      Despite these precedents, Scott lost the first Scott v. Emerson trial, in June 1847, on a technicality — he couldn't prove that he and Harriet were owned by Emerson's widow. The following year the Missouri Supreme Court decided that the case should be retried. In an 1850 retrial, the St Louis circuit court ruled that Scott and his family were free.
      By the early 1850's, however, sectional conflict had arisen again and uglier than ever, and most Missourians did not encourage the freeing of slaves. Even judicially Scott was at a disadvantage; the United States Supreme Court's Strader v. Graham decision (1851) set some precedents that were unfavorable to Scott, and two of the three justices who made the final decision in Scott's appearance before the Missouri Supreme Court were proslavery. As would be expected, they ruled against Scott in 1852, with the third judge dissenting.
     Scott and his lawyers then took his case out of the state judicial system and into the federal judicial system by bringing it to the US Circuit Court for the District of Missouri. In 1854, the Circuit Court upheld the decision of the Missouri Supreme Court.
      There was now only one other place to go. Scott appealed his case to the United States Supreme Court. The nine justices of the Supreme Court of 1856 certainly had biases regarding slavery. Seven had been appointed by pro-slavery presidents from the South, and of these, five were from slave-holding families. Still, if the case had gone directly from the state supreme court to the federal supreme court, the federal court probably would have upheld the state's ruling, citing a previously established decision that gave states the authority to determine the status of its inhabitants.
      But, in his attempt to bring his case to the federal courts, Scott had claimed that he and the case's defendant (Mrs. Emerson's brother, John Sanford, who lived in New York) were citizens from different states. The main issues for the Supreme Court, therefore, were whether it had jurisdiction to try the case and whether Scott was indeed a citizen.
      The Dred Scott v. Sandford decision of the US Supreme court was read in March of 1857. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney — a staunch supporter of slavery — wrote the "majority opinion" for the court. It stated that because Scott was black, he was not a citizen and therefore had no right to sue. The decision also declared the Missouri Compromise of 1820, legislation which restricted slavery in certain territories, unconstitutional.
      This decision concerned whether African-Americans could be considered United States citizens and capable of bringing suit in federal courts. The Court relied upon historic discrimination which denied African-Americans the rights of citizens. The Court's most conclusive example (their terms) was New Hampshire's 1815 laws which denied militia participation to African-Americans: "Nothing could more strongly mark the entire repudiation of the African race." (P. 415) Among the resulting parade of horribles should African-Americans be considered citizens, the Court enumerated the rights of citizens and included the right to arms: "It would give to persons of the negro race, ... the right to enter every other State whenever they pleased, ... the full liberty of speech in public and in private upon all subjects upon which its own citizens might speak; to hold public meetings upon political affairs, and to keep and carry arms wherever they went." (P. 417) Asserting the federal government had no power to enact Territorial laws which would infringe property rights (slaves as property), the court listed rights individuals possess upon entering a Territory destined to become a state and again mentioned the right to arms: "... no one, we presume, will contend that Congress can make any law in a Territory respecting the establishment of religion, or the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press, or the right of the people of the Territory peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for the redress of grievances." "Nor can Congress deny to the people the right to keep and bear arms, nor the right to trial by jury, nor compel any one to be a witness against himself in a criminal proceeding.... The powers over person and property of which we speak are not only not granted to Congress, but are in express terms denied, and they are forbidden to exercise them." (Pp. 450-51) In this respect the Dred Scott decision is similar to its contemporary, Cooper and Warsham v. Savannah, 4 Ga. 68, 72 (1848). It is likewise similar to other Supreme Court decisions which list individual rights and include the right to arms. (Robertson v. Baldwin, 165 US 275, 281-282 (1897); United States v. Verdugo-Urquidez, 494 US 259, 265 (1990)) Other points of interest could be the Court's profession of duty to interpret the Constitution "according to its true intent and meaning when it was adopted." (p. 405); quoting "an American patriot" for the point that "European sovereigns give lands to their colonists, but reserve power to control their property and liberty" whereas the "American government sells lands belonging to the people of the several states ... to their citizens, who are already in possession of personal and political rights, which the Government did not give, and cannot take away." (P. 513)(Campbell concurring). For further information on Dred Scott, visit Sonja's Dred Scott page (includes a photo of Mr. Scott) and Lisa Cozzens' Dred Scott: Introduction.]
      While the decision was well-received by slaveholders in the South, many northerners were outraged. The decision greatly influenced the nomination of Abraham Lincoln to the Republican Party and his subsequent election, which in turn led to the South's secession from the Union.
      Peter Blow's sons, childhood friends of Scott, had helped pay Scott's legal fees through the years. After the Supreme Court's decision, the former master's sons purchased Scott and his wife and set them free. Dred Scott died nine months later.

Elian at the circus2000 Elian Gonzalez, with his cousin Marisleysis and great uncle Lázaro González, enjoys the clowns at the Barnum and Bailey Circus in the Miami Arena.

Other unaccompanied immigrant children are imprisoned like criminals and can only cry.

Greenspan: to prevent inflation, more immigration is needed. Otherwise interest rates will rise.

Human Rights Watch            Amnesty International  

Siskind's Immigration Bulletin   Siskind Immigration Law Index  

^ 1999 Clinton impeachment trial, 2nd day: prosecution continues.

(1) During the second day of their opening statements in the Senate trial of President Bill Clinton, House prosecutors focus on the specific sexual details of Clinton's affair with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky, claiming his grand jury testimony shows the president "perjured himself above all else." Kicking off the prosecutors' statements Friday, Rep. Bill McCollum (R-Florida) walks step-by-step through what he describes as "perjurious" testimony by Clinton in both the Paula Jones civil rights case and before Independent Counsel Ken Starr's grand jury. Echoing Thursday's "fact team" statements, McCollum asks senators to view the evidence in the case as "one big obstruction," saying the president worked out a scheme to cover up his affair with Lewinsky to protect himself in the Jones lawsuit. McCollum says the president encouraged the filing of a false affidavit by Lewinsky in the Jones case. "If you believe Monica Lewinsky, can there be any doubt that the president was suggesting that she file an affidavit that would contain lies and falsehoods?" McCollum says. McCollum asks the Senate to believe the testimony of Lewinsky as proof the president "knowingly, intentionally" sought to obstruct justice. Characterizing Lewinsky as a "credible" witness McCollum appeals to those senators who doubt her testimony to call her as a witness in the trial. "The record is so clear on this that if you have any significant doubt about Monica Lewinsky's credibility on this testimony, you should have us bring her in here and examine her face-to-face and judge her credibility yourself," McCollum says. "If you believe the testimony of Monica Lewinsky, you cannot believe the president or accept the argument of his lawyers," McCollum states.

Clinton lawyer Gregg Craig responds heatedly to the House prosecutors' opening remarks. "They returned again and again to the president's deposition in the Jones case, despite the fact that a bipartisan majority of the House of Representatives specifically considered and specifically rejected an article of impeachment based on that case," Craig says. As the House prosecutors continue during their opening statements to urge the senators to allow witnesses in the Senate impeachment trial, House Judiciary Committee spokesman Paul McNulty says the question of whether to ask Clinton to testify will be considered as a separate item from a possible motion to subpoena other witnesses. The Senate will take up any motions regarding witnesses after opening statements are completed by the prosecutors and White House lawyers.
      The senators postpone a decision on the controversial question of witness when they agreed to the bipartisan roadmap for the trial, allowing opening statements to begin this week. Judiciary Committee sources say such an invitation to the president is a "possibility" and "a thought" shared by many of the 13 managers, all Republican committee members. Democrats and the White House do not want witnesses called, and argue that the mountain of evidence passed on from the House should serve as the official record.

Showing the Clinton and Lewinsky testimonies to be mutually exclusive Rep. George Gekas then says Clinton violated federal laws, "obliterating the rights of Paula Jones" to a fair trial in her civil rights case against the president. The Pennsylvania Republican's statement opens the second phase of the House managers' opening presentation, focusing on the law as it applies to perjury and obstruction of justice (the first group concentrated on the facts of the case). Gekas tells senators Clinton's perjury began in December 1997 when attorneys for Jones requested a list of women (other than his wife) who had worked as government employees under Governor or President Clinton and allegedly had sexual activity with him. "None," Clinton answered. That was a lie, says Gekas, because Clinton knew the most common definition of sex was being used. Gekas points out the president's answers to questions in the Jones case preceded his January 1998 deposition when the definition of sex was more carefully outlined.
      In the most emotional presentation yet, Gekas speaks without relying on his prepared text, his voice rising, and his arms swinging wildly as he sought to make his case. "It was an attempt, a bold attempt, one that succeeded in some respects to obstruct the justice sought by a fellow American citizen. That is heavy. That is soul-searching in its quality. That goes beyond those who would say, 'He committed perjury about sex so what,'" says Gekas.

Reps. Steve Chabot (R-Ohio) and Chris Cannon (R-Utah) also make presentations on the law of perjury and obstruction of justice. OK, so maybe he's not the brightest bulb in the House The final speaker, Rep. Bob Barr (R-Georgia), agrees with McCollum saying, "The president's position is simply not credible. It defies the evidence. It defies any reasonable interpretation of the evidence. It defies common sense. And it defies the law." Barr, like those before him, goes through conversations between the president and Lewinsky, dissecting testimony, and drawing conclusions. Barr and Gekas acknowledge the repetition in their statements, but tell senators it is necessary to have a complete record.
      One of Clinton's staunchest critics Shaking up the proceedings briefly, Sen. Tom Harkin (D-Iowa) raises an objection during Barr's presentation. Addressing Chief Justice William Rehnquist, who is presiding over the case, Harkin says he objects to senators being referred to as jurors. Harkin quotes the Constitution, the Federalist Papers and the 26 rules of the Senate governing impeachments, to make his point that the Senate is designated to hear impeachment cases as something other than a jury. Rehnquist agrees with the objection and directs the House managers not to refer to senators as jurors.

(2) House managers will wrap up their presentation Jan. 16. When the trial resumes at 10 a.m. ET, Reps. Charles Canady (R-Florida), Steve Buyer (R-Indiana) and Lindsey Graham (R-South Carolina) will speak on constitutional law as it applies to the impeachment case against Clinton. Lawyers for the president will present their defense case the following week. An ultraliberal dinosaur gets his 15 seconds of fame (3) The first family's lawyers have questioned Linda Tripp under oath for the first time since the Monica Lewinsky scandal broke, taking a lengthy deposition for a lawsuit filed against the Hillary Rodham Clinton by a conservative group. Two sources familiar with the White House legal strategy say that Tripp is questioned by attorneys at Williams and Connolly, one of the private law firms handling legal matters for President Bill Clinton and the first lady. Tripp is a witness in a case filed by Judicial Watch, a conservative group that has pressed a number of ethics and other claims against the Clinton Administration. The sources decline to get into details of the Tripp deposition, but they say the Williams and Connolly attorneys did spend considerable time exploring Tripp's political motivations, and tried to build a record of sworn testimony that, in the words of one, "shows she has a problem with the truth." (4) First lady Hillary Rodham Clinton appears moved to tears by her husband's off-the-cuff tribute for her perseverance through difficult times. "I love her for it," President Clinton says. The Clintons headline the annual Democratic National Committee gala fund-raising dinner late tonight. Seemingly tired after a quick shuttle to and from New York for an economic speech, the president spoke wistfully — and at length — about his administration's accomplishments over six years. "Of course, I don't even know how to talk about what I believe Hillary has meant to the success of our endeavors," Clinton says. He ticks off a list of what she had done, where she had traveled "and just a thousand other things." "And she has done it under circumstances I think are probably more difficult than anyone who has ever done it before," the president said. Mrs. Clinton wipes her eyes. "I love her for it, but our country should love her for it as well."

TO THE TOP
1999 Dos entidades bancarias españolas, Banco Santander y Banco Central Hispano, protagonizan la primera fusión en la era del euro.
1998 Croacia recupera el último territorio en manos de Serbia.
1998 NASA announces that John Glenn, 76, may fly in space again. And he did, as a payload specialist aboard the space shuttle mission STS-95, which lasted from 981029 to 981107. The oldest person ever to travel in space, Glenn participated in experiments designed to study similarities between the process of aging and the body's adaptation to weightlessness. Since he is a senator, it is also good politics.
1998 Apple Reports First Profit in Two Years On this day in 1998, Apple executives joyfully announced the company had finally started making money again after two years of losses. Executives hoped the turnaround would help Apple once again become an important force in the computer industry. Apple, which led the computer industry in the early '80s, saw demand steadily shrink during the '90s.
1997 Warren Christopher, secretario de Estado y Wiliam Perry, secretario de Defensa, abandonan sus cargos en el Gobierno de Estados Unidos.
1997 El transbordador estadounidense Atlantis consigue acoplarse sin problemas a la estación orbital rusa MIR.
1996 Ailing Greek Premier Andreas Papandreou resigns.
1996 Risking the lives of more than 100 hostages (not to mention innocent civilians) in an effort to wipe out their Chechen captors, the Russian military hurls rockets and shells at the tiny village of Pervomayskaya.
1995 Por primera vez en 25 años, los soldados británicos estuvieron casi ausentes en las calles de Irlanda del Norte, como muestra del "reconocimiento de la paz" que vuelve a reinar en el Ulster.
1992 Bulgaria recognizes Macedonia
1992 The Yugoslav federation, founded in 1918, effectively collapses as the European Community recognizes the republics of Croatia and Slovenia. — La CE reconoce a Croacia y Eslovenia, lo que supone la desmembración de Yugoslavia como Estado unitario a efectos europeos.
1991 With hours remaining before a United Nations deadline for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait, U.N. Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar makes a final appeal to Saddam Hussein to remove his troops. — De acuerdo con la resolución 678 que el Consejo de Seguridad había tomado el 29 noviembre, se produce un despliegue militar de las fuerzas multinacionales en Arabia Saudí para combatir a Saddam Hussein, lo que llevará a la llamada guerra del Golfo.
1990 While one Pacific storm crossed the Central Rockies, another approaches the US west coast. The northern mountains of Utah are buried under 17 to 35 inches of snow while the mountains of southern Utah received another 12 to 16 inches. Eighteen cities in the central US reported record high temperatures for the date as readings warmed into the 50s and 60s. Wichita KS reported a record high of 68 degrees.
1987 A powerful storm over the Southern Plateau and the Southern Rockies produced 24 inches of snow at Colorado Springs CO, including 22 inches in 24 hours, a January record. High winds in the southwestern US gusted to 65 mph in the Yosemite Valley of California.
1980 El Senado español aprueba la Ley de Referéndum.
^ 1979 Vote d’une loi sur la jeunesse qui " déjudiciarise " les mineurs québécois coupables d’actes délictueux. Le Québec a tenté une intéressante expérience de déjudiciarisation, fondée sur une loi du 15 janvier 1979, qui a été revue en 1984 et qui a soustrait un certain nombre d’attributions à la cour du bien-être social pour les transférer à des structures administratives qui sont représentées par le directeur de la protection de la jeunesse. Tous les mineurs de moins de quatorze ans ayant commis des actes contraires à la loi et aux règlements sont déférés pour une prise en charge sociale au directeur de la protection de la jeunesse. Ce dernier est chargé de leur orientation. Si la mesure éducative est acceptée par le mineur, le directeur de la protection de la jeunesse peut clore le dossier pénal, quelle que soit la nature de l’infraction commise. Néanmoins, s’il l’estime nécessaire, il peut saisir le tribunal de la jeunesse. Toute l’ambiguïté de ce système réside essentiellement dans la difficulté que peut éprouver le directeur de la protection de la jeunesse à se prononcer sur la culpabilité du mineur, à remplir une fonction de nature sociale, à accorder au délinquant et à sa famille des garanties suffisantes.
1979 Robo de joyas y piezas de arte en una abadía de Lyon, (Francia) valoradas en 170 millones de pesetas.
1978 Aprobación mediante referéndum de la Constitución de Ecuador.
1976 Sara Jane Moore sentenced to life in prison for attempting to shoot President Ford in San Francisco.
1976 Excomulgado el obispo Clemente Domínguez, fundador de la orden de las Carmelitas de la Santa Paz y precursor de las peregrinaciones al Palmar de Troya (Sevilla).
1975 Portugal signs accord for Angola's independence.
^ 1975 US President on State of the Union: "Not Good"
      “I've got bad news and I don't expect any applause,” President Gerald Ford warns Congress before starting his first State of the Union address. During the ensuing speech, Ford painted a grim portrait of the US's economic woes. The state of the union, he confessed, was "not good. Millions of Americans are out of work. Recession and inflation are eroding the money of millions more. Prices are too high and sales are too low." Along with these problems, Ford offered an ominous budget estimate that showed the government running increasingly in the red over the next few fiscal years. However, Ford, who had recently been installed as the President after Richard Nixon's scandal-ridden resignation, attempted to balance the bad news by offering a remedy for the America's fiscal ailments. He unveiled a relief package that featured a few rounds of tax cuts for individuals and corporations, as well as an energy program that promised to raise money, albeit through raising costs and taxes on oil for consumers and businesses.
^ 1974 Expert testifies on gap in Watergate tape.
      During the Watergate affair, an expert testifies before the House Judiciary Committee that an 18½-minute gap discovered during a critical subpoenaed recording of a White House conversation between President Richard M. Nixon and White House staff member H. R. Haldeman was caused by 5 deliberate separate erasures. The Watergate affair began after a break-in to the Watergate Hotel by White House officials was uncovered by journalists and the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, and then escalated when President Nixon attempted to use executive privilege and national security as reasons to suppress the subsequent investigation. On July 16, 1973, former White House aide Alexander P. Butterfield brought the existence of official recordings of Nixon's White House conversations to the attention of the Senate committee investigating Watergate, and on July 26, the Senate subpoenaed the nine Watergate tapes. Nixon failed to comply with the subpoena, and on August 9, the Senate committee filed suit against the president. Finally, on October 23, Nixon agreed to turn over the tapes, but when the tapes finally arrive at the Capitol, two of the nine are missing, and an eighteen-and-a-half-minute gap on one of the tapes is discovered. The White House fails to satisfactorily explain the long silence during the key conversation between Nixon and Haldeman, although an expert determined that the gap had been deliberately erased. Nixon's failure to comply in a timely fashion to the subpoena for the Watergate tapes contributed to the articles of impeachment voted against him on July 30, 1974, and helped force his resignation one week later.
^ 1973 Nixon halts military attacks against North Vietnam.
      Citing "progress" in the Paris peace negotiations between National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho of North Vietnam, President Richard Nixon halts the most concentrated bombing of the war, as well as mining, shelling, and all other offensive action against North Vietnam. The cessation of direct attacks against North Vietnam did not extend to South Vietnam, where the fighting continued as both sides jockeyed for control of territory before the anticipated cease-fire. On December 13, North Vietnamese negotiators had walked out of secret talks with Kissinger. President Nixon issued an ultimatum to Hanoi to send its representatives back to the conference table within 72 hours "or else." The North Vietnamese rejected Nixon's demand and the president ordered Operation Linebacker II, a full-scale air campaign against the Hanoi area. This operation was the most concentrated air offensive of the war. During the 11 days of the attack, 700 B-52 sorties and more than 1,000 fighter-bomber sorties dropped roughly 20,000 tons of bombs, mostly over the densely populated area between Hanoi and Haiphong. On December 28, after 11 days of intensive bombing, the North Vietnamese agreed to return to the talks. When the negotiators met again in early January, they quickly worked out a settlement. The Paris Peace Accords were signed on January 23 and a cease-fire went into effect five days later. 1962 Kennedy says US troops are not fighting Asked at a news conference if US troops are fighting in Vietnam, President Kennedy answers "No." He was technically correct, but US soldiers were serving as combat advisers with the South Vietnamese army, and US pilots were flying missions with the South Vietnamese Air Force. While acting in this advisory capacity, some soldiers invariably got wounded, and press correspondents based in Saigon were beginning to see casualties from the "support" missions and ask questions.
1973 Pope Paul VI has an audience with Golda Meir at Vatican
1973 4 Watergate burglars plead guilty in federal court
^ 1970 Biafran War ends, starved and reduced to one-tenth of its initial area, Biafra surrenders to Nigeria and ceases to exist. The Republic of Biafra had formed in Eastern Nigeria on 670530.
Biafra was a secessionist western African state that unilaterally declared its independence from Nigeria, on 30 May 1967. It constituted the former Eastern Region of Nigeria and was inhabited principally by Igbo people. Biafra ceased to exist as an independent state in January 1970. In the mid-1960s economic and political instability and ethnic friction characterized Nigerian public life. In the mostly Hausa north, resentment against the more prosperous, educated Igbo minority erupted into violence. In September 1966, some 10'000 to 30'000 Igbo people were massacred in the Northern Region, and perhaps 1'000'000 fled as refugees to the Igbo-dominated east. Non-Igbos were then expelled from the Eastern Region.
      Attempts by representatives of all regions to come to an agreement were unsuccessful. On 30 May 1967, the head of the Eastern Region, Lieutenant Colonel (later General) Odumegwu Ojukwu, with the authorization of a consultative assembly, declared the region a sovereign and independent republic under the name of Biafra. General Yakubu Gowon, the leader of the federal government, refused to recognize Biafra's secession. In the hostilities that broke out the following July, Biafran troops were at first successful, but soon the numerically superior federal forces began to press Biafra's boundaries inward from the south, west, and north. Biafra shrank to one-tenth its original area in the course of the war. By 1968 it had lost its seaports and become landlocked; supplies could be brought in only by air. Starvation and disease followed; estimates of mortality range from 500'000 to several million.
      The Organization of African Unity, the papacy, and others tried to reconcile the combatants. Most countries continued to recognize Gowon's regime as the government of all Nigeria, and the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union supplied it with arms. On the other hand, international sympathy for the plight of starving Biafran children brought airlifts of food and medicine from many countries. Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Tanzania, and Zambia recognized Biafra as an independent state, and France sent Biafra weapons. Biafran forces were finally routed in a series of engagements in late December 1969 and early January 1970. Ojukwu fled to Côte d'Ivoire, and the remaining Biafran officers surrendered to the federal government on 15 January 1970.
     The Republic of Biafra, a breakaway state of eastern Nigeria, surrenders to Nigeria four days after Nigerian forces captured the Biafran capital of Owerri. In 1966, six years after Nigeria became an independent country, the Muslim Hausas in northern Nigeria began massacring the Christian Igbos in the region, prompting tens of thousands of Igbos to flee to the east, where their people were the dominant ethnic group. The Igbos doubted that Nigeria's oppressive military government would allow them to develop, or even survive, so on 30 May 1967, Lieutenant Colonel Chukwuemeka Ojukwu and other Igbo and non-Igbo representatives of the area established the Republic of Biafra, comprising the East-Central, South-Eastern, and Rivers states of Nigeria. After diplomatic efforts by Nigeria failed to reunite the country, war between Nigeria and Biafra broke out in July of 1967. Ojukwu's forces made some initial advances, but Nigeria's superior military gradually reduced the territory under Biafran control. The breakaway state lost its oil fields — its main source of revenue — and without the funds to import food, at least a million of its civilian population died as a result of severe malnutrition. On 11 January, Nigerian forces captured the provincial capital of Owerri, one of the last Biafran strongholds, and Biafran leader Ojukwu was forced to flee to the Ivory Coast. Four days later, on 15 January, Biafra surrendered to Nigeria.
1970 Israeli archaeologists reported uncovering the first evidence supporting the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. by military forces of the ancient Roman Empire.
1970 Qaddafi takes power by a military coup in Libya.
      Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi led a bloodless coup against the Libyan monarchy to become premier of the country. Qaddafi signed a cooperation agreement with Egypt as part of his stated ambition to unite the Arab world. However, Egypt gradually embraced the United States, while Libya nationalized Western-owned oil fields and staged anti-American protests. Qaddafi did much to improve the standard of living in Libya, but he also promoted world terrorism. A provoked President Ronald Reagan answered back in 1986 with an air strike that killed at least fifteen Libyans in Tripoli.
1969 Cosmonautas soviéticos realizan el primer ensamblaje de dos naves en el espacio con intercambios de tripulaciones.
1964 Teamsters negotiate first national labor contract
1962 Dutch and Indonesian navy encounter in Etna Bay New Guinea
1955 USSR ends state of war with German Federal Republic.
1955 La URSS, dispuesta a transmitir a otros países conocimientos sobre el uso pacífico de la energía atómica.
1953 Dulles calls for liberation of peoples captive of Communism.
      Testifying before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee prior to taking office as the new secretary of state, John Foster Dulles argues that US foreign policy must strive for the "liberation of captive peoples" living under Communist rule. Though Dulles called for a more vigorous anticommunist policy, he remained vague about exactly how the "liberation" would take place. When asked during the hearing whether he supported the policy of containment, which sought to restrain the further expansion of communist power, Dulles responded by declaring, "We shall never have a secure peace or a happy world so long as Soviet communism dominates one-third of all of the peoples." Despite the vague specifics of the original declaration, Dulles's call for action was soon put into practice. The Eisenhower administration conceived a wide-ranging program of political and psychological warfare, and overseas propaganda-produced and disseminated by the new United States Information Agency-became an important Cold War weapon. In Iran, Guatemala, and later, Cuba, the United States resorted to covert operations directed by the Central Intelligence Agency to destabilize foreign governments perceived to be a communist threat. In 1956, however, Dulles's oft-repeated calls for the liberation of captive peoples backfired badly when Hungarian citizens rose up in revolt against the Soviet presence in their country. As the Russians crushed the uprising, the United States did nothing while Hungarian rebels pleaded helplessly for assistance.
1953 German Democratic Republic Minister of Foreign affairs Georg Dertingen arrested for "espionage"
1952 A six day snowstorm was in progress in the western US The storm produced 44 inches of snow at Marlette Lake NV, 52 inches at Sun Valley ID, and 149 inches at Tahoe CA, establishing single storm records for each of those three states. In addition, 24 hour snowfall totals of 22 inches at the University of Nevada, and 26 inches at Arco ID, established records for those two states. The streamliner, 'City of San Francisco' was snowbound in the Sierra Nevada Range, near Donner Summit.
1951 The "Witch of Buchenwald" is sentenced to prison
      Ilse Koch, wife of the commandant of the Buchenwald concentration camp, is sentenced to life imprisonment in a court in West Germany. Ilse Koch was nicknamed the "Witch of Buchenwald" for her extraordinary sadism. Born in Dresden, Germany, Ilse, a librarian, married SS. Col. Karl Koch in 1936. Colonel Koch, a man with his own reputation for sadism, was the commandant of the Sashsenhausen concentration camp, two miles north of Berlin. He was transferred after three years to Buchenwald concentration camp, 7 km northwest of Weimar; the Buchenwald concentration camp held a total of 20'000 slave laborers during the war. Ilse, a large woman with red hair, was given free reign in the camp, whipping prisoners with her riding crop as she rode by on her horse, forcing prisoners to have sex with her, and, most horrifying, collecting lampshades, book covers, and gloves made from the skin of tattooed camp prisoners. A German inmate gave the following testimony during the Nuremberg war trials: "All prisoners with tattooing on them were to report to the dispensary.... After the prisoners had been examined, the ones with the best and most artistic specimens were killed by injections. The corpses were then turned over to the pathological department, where the desired pieces of tattooed skin were detached from the bodies and treated further." Karl Koch was arrested, ironically enough, by his SS superiors for "having gone too far." It seems he had a penchant for stealing even the belongings of wealthy, well-placed Germans. He was tried and hanged in 1944. Ilse Koch was tried for crimes against humanity at Nuremberg and sentenced to life in prison, but the American military governor of the occupied zone subsequently reduced her sentence to four years. His reason, "lack of evidence," caused a Senate investigation back home. She was released but arrested again, tried by a West German court, and sentenced to life. She committed suicide in 1967 by hanging herself with a bedsheet.
the Pentagon 1951 Frenada por fuerzas de la ONU la ofensiva comunista en Corea.
1950 Some 4000 persons attend National Emergency Civil Rights Conference in Washington DC
1949 Mao's Red army conquers Ten-tsin
1945 Red Army frees Crakow-Plaszow concentration camp
1944 General Eisenhower arrives in England
1944 European Advisory Commission decides to divide Germany
1943 first transport of Jews from Amsterdam to concentration camp Vught
1943 Japanese driven off Guadalcanal

1943: Building the Pentagon [photo >] is finished, as 1000 workers complete the air conditioning system. The structure covers 14 hectares of land and has 27 km of corridors.

1942 Jawaharlal Nehru sucede a Rajiv Gandhi al frente del Partido Popular del Congreso indio.
1941 Alfonso XIII abdica en Roma de sus derechos al trono español en su hijo el Príncipe don Juan.
1936 Se firma el pacto electoral del Frente Popular, por el que republicanos, socialistas y comunistas se unifican en un único partido que será elegido ese mismo año.
^ 1933 The utopian Amana colony embraces capitalism
      After nearly a century of cooperative living, the utopian Amana colonists of Iowa begin using US currency for the first time. The wide-open spaces of the West have always appealed to visionary reformers attempting to start new societies. Among others, the Mormons in Utah, the Hutterites in South Dakota and Montana, and the Swedenborgians in California all moved West for the same reason: cheap land and freedom from interference. Most reformers moved west after the Civil War, when travel became easier and the threat of Indian resistance was declining. As with the Mormons, the Amana colonial movement began in New York. Christian Metz, taking his cue from the writings of 18th century German mystics, established the group in 1842 on 5,000 acres near Buffalo, New York. Metz and his followers were similar to the Mormons in their rejection of the selfish individualism and dog-eat-dog competition of capitalism in favor of a more cooperative economic system. They isolated themselves from national and global markets and built a largely self-sufficient means of meeting their agricultural and material needs. Barter within the community helped them avoid using American currency. The community's agricultural and craft operations grew so quickly that the members soon found they needed more land than was cheaply available in New York. Like many of other land-hungry Americans, they looked westward. In 1855, the first members began setting up a new colony in Iowa called Amana, purchasing 30,000 acres of contiguous land as a base for their agricultural and craft operations. Amana (located near modern-day Iowa City) flourished in the decades to come. By the turn of the century, the colonists had built seven largely self-sufficient villages with farms, stores, bakeries, woolen mills, wineries, furniture shops, and the other necessities of independent living. The Amana community thrived for nearly 80 years, but its isolation from the rest of the world inevitably began to wane during the 20th century. In the early 1930s, the colony experienced severe economic problems, in part due to the Great Depression. The people voted to abandon their communal life in 1932, and they reorganized the colony on a capitalist basis with each member receiving stock in a new community corporation. The people of Amana began using American currency in January 1933. Although it violated the original precepts of their founders, the decision to bring Amana into the national marketplace actually saved the community. Today, the Amana colony is the center of a thriving business empire of woolen mills, meat shops, bakeries, and wineries. Though its original vision is no longer the same, visitors to the colony will still find a communal society dedicated to preserving many elements of Old World life and craftsmanship.
1932 Up to two inches of snow whitened the Los Angeles basin of California. The Los Angeles Civic Center reported an inch of snow, and even the beaches of Santa Monica were whitened with snow, in what proved to be a record snowstorm for Los Angeles
1925 Hans Luther forms German government, with DNVP.
1923 Lithuania annexes the territory of Memel, which Germany lost in World War I, and which the Allies were about to make an independent country. It had a large Lithuanian population.
1922 Irish Free State forms; Michael Collins becomes first premier
1919 Pianist and statesman Ignace Paderewski becomes the first premier of the newly created republic of Poland.
1915 Japan claims economic control of China.
1913 Primera transmisión telefónica sin hilos entre Nueva York y Berlín.
1907 Gold dental inlays first described by William Taggart, who invented them
1907 3-element vacuum tube patented by Dr Lee de Forest.
1895 French fleet reaches Majunga, Madagascar
1892 The rules of basketball are published for the first time, in Springfield, Massachusetts, where the game originated.
1870 The Democrat Donkey popularized
      A donkey represents the Democratic Party in a Harper's Weekly cartoon drawn by influential political illustrator Thomas Nast. The cartoon is entitled "A Live Jackass Kicking a Dead Lion." The jackass (donkey) is tagged "Copperhead Papers," referring to the Democrat-dominated newspapers of the South, and the dead lion represents the late Edwin McMasters Stanton, President Abraham Lincoln's secretary of war during the final three and a half years of the Civil War. In the background is an eagle perched on a rock, representing the postwar federal domination in the South, and in the far background is the US Capitol.
     However the donkey had been used in political cartoons before. When Andrew Jackson ran for president in 1828, his opponents tried to label him a "jackass" for his populist views and his slogan, "Let the people rule." Jackson, however, picked up on their name calling and turned it to his own advantage by using the donkey on his campaign posters. During his presidency, the donkey was used to represent Jackson's stubbornness when he vetoed re-chartering the National Bank. The first time the donkey was used in a political cartoon to represent the Democratic party, it was again in conjunction with Jackson. Although in 1837 Jackson was retired, he still thought of himself as the Party's leader and was shown trying to get the donkey to go where he wanted it to go. The cartoon was titled "A Modern Baalim and his Ass."
      On 7 November 1874, Nash originates the use of an elephant to symbolize the Republican Party in a Harper's Weekly cartoon entitled "The Third-Term Panic." The cartoon refers to the disparaging response by The New York Herald, a Democratic newspaper, to the possibility that Republican President Ulysses S. Grant might seek a third-term. The New York Herald is depicted as a donkey wearing lion's skin labeled "Caesarism." This bogus lion is frightening several timid animals identified with the names of opposing newspapers, such as The New York Times and The New York Tribune, while a berserk elephant, labeled "Republican vote," is tottering above a chasm labeled "Chaos" as it tosses to the right and the left the few remaining platform planks holding its weight. The caption of the cartoon reads: "An Ass having put on the Lion's skin, roamed about the Forest, and amused himself by frightening all the foolish Animal he met with in his wanderings."
     The Democrats think of the elephant as bungling, stupid, pompous and conservative — but the Republicans think it is dignified, strong and intelligent. On the other hand, the Republicans regard the donkey as stubborn, silly and ridiculous — but the Democrats claim it is humble, homely, smart, courageous and loveable. Adlai Stevenson provided one of the most clever descriptions of the Republican's symbol when he said, "The elephant has a thick skin, a head full of ivory, and as everyone who has seen a circus parade knows, proceeds best by grasping the tail of its predecessor."
1865 Fort Fisher, NC falls to Union troops
1862 Edwin M. Stanton confirmed as US Secretary of War.
1861 Elisha Graves Otis patented an independently controlled steam engine for elevator use. He had already invented the safety elevator in 1852. He died 18610408.
1851 General Arista replaces Mexican President Herrera
1844 The Catholic University of Notre Dame is chartered by the state of Indiana.
1834 Francisco de Paula Martínez de la Rosa es nombrado presidente del Gobierno español por la Reina regente.
1833 HMS Beagle anchors at Goeree, Tierra del Fuego.
1810 Joseph Bonaparte, al frente de un Ejército de 80'000 hombres, llega a Sierra Morena, iniciando la ocupación de Andalucía.
1798 Francisco de Goya y Lucientes empieza a pintar los frescos de la iglesia madrileña de san Antonio de la Florida.
1797 First top hat worn (John Etherington of London)
^ 1790 L'Assemblée constituante établit la carte des départements et fixe leur nombre à 83.
     La France envisage de créer 80 départements parfaitement carrés de 324 lieues carrées de superficie. Prise dans l’engrenage des réformes, l’Assemblée nationale constituante, née de la Révolution française de 1789, s’activa aussitôt de donner à la France l’unité qui lui faisait défaut. Pour lutter contre la féodalité, il lui parut en effet nécessaire d’abolir les divisions provinciales. Le 3 novembre, Jacques Thouret présentait un plan : quatre-vingts carrés égaux de 324 lieues carrées de superficie, partant de Paris, devaient constituer autant de départements. Ce projet servit de base à la division de la France en quatre-vingt-trois départements, le 15 janvier 1790. Chacun de ceux-ci était divisé en cantons et en communes. Les provinces perdaient toute existence légale ; les départements étaient placés sur un pied d’égalité et administrés par des autorités locales. Les constituants ont-il voulu détruire la centralisation de l’Ancien Régime en supprimant les intendants ? Ont-ils souhaité au contraire anéantir les vieilles provinces en les morcelant en départements ? La question n’a pas encore reçu de réponse satisfaisante. En réalité, on en arriva rapidement à une trop grande décentralisation. Conseil et directoire placés à la tête des départements se recrutaient sur place par élections ; en revanche, le roi n’était représenté par aucun agent capable d’imposer son autorité dans le département. Edmund Burke devait prédire l’effondrement de ce système de quatre-vingt-trois municipalités indépendantes rendant impossible le gouvernement de la France comme un seul corps. Et de prédire : " Toutes ces républiques ne supporteront pas longtemps la suprématie de celle de Paris "
    Ll'Assemblée constituante établit la carte des départements et fixe leur nombre à 83. L'assemblée, qui gouverne la France depuis les débuts de la Révolution, a pris un décret le 22 décembre précédent pour réformer l'organisation du royaume. Celui-ci comptait sous l'Ancien Régime 34 généralités ou provinces, 40 gouvernements militaires, 135 diocèses, 13 parlements judiciaires etc. Les députés décident de mettre fin à cette confusion administrative héritée d'un millénaire d'histoire. Ils projettent dans un premier temps de créer des circonscriptions géométriques, à l'image des nouveaux Etats américains. Le sage Mirabeau s'y oppose avec véhémence: "Je demande une division qui ne paraisse pas, en quelque sorte, une trop grande nouveauté; qui, si j'ose le dire, permette de composer avec les préjugés et même avec les erreurs, qui soit également désirée par toutes les provinces et fondée sur des rapports déjà connus." Ses voeux sont pleinement exaucés par le "Comité de division" chargé de redessiner la carte de France. Les nouvelles divisions sont baptisées "départements", d'un vieux mot français qui appartient au vocabulaire administratif depuis François 1er. Ces départements sont dirigés par un conseil de 28 membres, assisté d'un directoire de 8 membres et d'un procureur général syndic chargé de faire appliquer les lois. Tous sont élus par les citoyens et non pas nommés par le gouvernement central comme les intendants de l'Ancien Régime. Les limites des départements respectent les anciennes provinces. C'est ainsi que la Bretagne et la Normandie sont divisées en cinq départements chacune. La taille des départements est telle que chaque citoyen puisse accéder à son chef-lieu en une journée de cheval au maximum. Sans le savoir, les députés recréent de la sorte les anciens pays... de la Gaule d'avant les Romains. La preuve en est que de nombreux chefs-lieux de département rappellent les tribus d'origine de l'endroit. Vannes évoque les Vénètes comme Tarbes les Tarbelles, Poitiers les Pictones, Nantes les Namnètes, Cahors les Cadurques, ou... Paris les Parisii. De la sorte, le département est, avec la commune, la circonscription la mieux enracinée dans l'Histoire de France. C'est la raison pour laquelle les Français y restent aujourd'hui, au fond d'eux-mêmes, si attachés. Le département demeure la principale circonscription de référence (administrations de proximité, plaques minéralogiques, statistiques,...). En surface et en population, il est comparable aux 65 comtés britanniques et aux 23 cantons suisses, ce qui peut nous rassurer sur sa pertinence dans une démocratie moderne.
1782 US Superintendent of Finance Robert Morris went before Congress to deliver a report on the young nation's finances. Morris recommended establishing a national mint and outlined plans for decimal coinage.
1777 People of New Connecticut (which would later become the state of Vermont) declare independence from England.
1759 British Museum opens in Montague House, London
1752 Tobias Smollett publishes pamphlet accusing Fielding of plagiarism.
1724 Luis I es proclamado rey de España.
1697 The citizens of Massachusetts spent a day of fasting and repentance for their roles in the Salem witch trials of 1692.. Judge Samuel Sewall, who had presided over many of those 20 capital judgments, published a written confession acknowledging his own "blame and shame."
1586 Battle at Boxum Spanish troops under Tassis beat state army.
1582 Russia cedes Livonia and Estonia to Poland, loses access to the Baltic.
1562 3rd period of Council of Trent opens. That council lasted, on and off, from 1545 to 1563.
^ 1559 Elizabeth I is crowned Queen of England
      Two months after the death of her half-sister, Queen Mary I of England, Elizabeth Tudor, the twenty-five-year-old daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, is crowned Queen Elizabeth I at Westminster Abbey in London. The two half-sisters, both daughters of Henry VIII, had a stormy relationship during Mary's five-year reign. Mary, who was brought up as a Catholic, enacted pro-Catholic legislation and made efforts to restore papal supremacy in England. A Protestant rebellion ensued, and Queen Mary imprisoned Elizabeth, a Protestant, in the Tower of London on suspicion of complicity. After Mary's death, Elizabeth survived several Catholic plots against her, although her ascension to the throne was greeted with general approval by most of England's lords, who hoped for greater religious tolerance under a Protestant queen. Under the early guidance of Secretary of State Sir William Cecil, Elizabeth repealed Mary's Catholic legislation, established a permanent Protestant Church of England, and encouraged the Calvinist reformers in Scotland. In foreign affairs, Elizabeth practiced a policy of strengthening England's Protestant allies and dividing her foes. In 1588, Elizabeth's unabashed hostility toward Spain led to a failed Spanish invasion, and the Spanish Armada, the greatest naval force in the world at the time, was destroyed by storms and a persistent English navy. With increasing English domination at sea, Elizabeth encouraged voyages of discovery, such as Sir Francis Drake's circumnavigation of the world, and Sir Walter Raleigh's expeditions to the North American coast. The long reign of Elizabeth, who became known as the "Virgin Queen" for her reluctance to endanger her authority through marriage, also coincided with the flowering of the English Renaissance, associated with such renowned authors as William Shakespeare. By her death in 1603, England had become a major world power in every respect, and Queen Elizabeth I passed into history as one of England's greatest monarchs.
1552 France signs secret treaty with German Protestants
1535 Henry VIII declares himself head of English Church
^ 1208 Début de la croisade contre les Albigeois
      Le légat du pape, Pierre de Castelnau, est assassiné sur une route du Languedoc par un écuyer du comte de Toulouse Raimon VI. Le légat venait d'excommunier Raimon VI en raison de son excessive sollicitude pour les Cathares (du mot grec katharos qui signifie pur).
Une hérésie bien enracinée
      Depuis un demi-siècle, es hérétiques recueillaient un succès croissant dans le Midi toulousain en raison de leur doctrine simple et exigeante, fondée sur l'opposition entre le Bien et le Mal, selon une doctrine prêchée mille ans plus tôt par un prêtre perse du nom de Manès (d'où le nom de manichéisme donné aux doctrines issues de sa pensée).
      Les prédicateurs cathares du Languedoc sont servis par l'image déplorable que donnait du catholicisme le clergé local. Contre eux, saint Bernard de Clairvaux avait tenté sans succès de réveiller les consciences catholiques. Il est relayé à partir de 1206 par l'évêque Diego d'Osma, en Castille, et par son chanoine, Dominique de Guzman (ou de Caleruega).
      Le futur saint Dominique donne l'exemple de la pauvreté évangélique et fonde une communauté de frères prêcheurs, dont les membres sont aujourd'hui connus sous le nom de dominicains. Mais ses prédications se révèlent malgré tout impuissantes à éradiquer l'hérésie.
Croisade et ruine du Midi
      Le pape Innocent III décide en désespoir de cause de recourir à la force et veut convaincre le comte Raimon VI de prendre la tête d'une Croisade. Mais le comte refuse. Et c'est après une dispute avec lui que le légat du pape est assassiné.
      Le pape lance l'appel à la Croisade sans oublier de canoniser son légat. Le roi de France Philippe II Auguste étant déjà en guerre avec ses voisins du Nord, c'est le seigneur Simon de Montfort qui est élu par ses compagnons d'armes à la tête de la Croisade dite des Albigeois. Contraint et forcé, Raimon VI joint ses troupes à celles des Français du nord.
      Cette première expédition durera plus de dix ans et sera sans merci, marquée par le sac de Béziers et le massacre de sa population, le 22 juillet 1209. Le sac de la ville se traduira par 22.000 morts et restera dans les annales en raison du mot prêté au légat Pierre Amaury avant l'assaut: "Tuez-les tous et Dieu reconnaîtra les siens!"
      Le jeune vicomte de Béziers, Raimon-Roger Trencavel capitule à Carcassonne et ses terres sont livrées pour deux ans à Simon de Montfort. Les Croisés se tournent désormais vers Raimon VI, qui a abandonné et trahi son jeune allié et se retrouve isolé.
      Le 17 avril 1211, le pape Innocent III "expose en proie" les terres du comte de Toulouse et les promet à qui les prendra. Simon de Montfort réunit à Pamiers, en novembre 1212, des Assises afin de fixer le sort des terres qui seront enlevées aux seigneurs méridionaux.
      Les Assises de Pamiers attribuent ces terres aux seigneurs du nord, sous la suzeraineté du roi de France, Philippe Auguste. Le roi Pierre II d'Aragon, suzerain traditionnel du comte de Toulouse, se sent lésé et s'en plaint au pape. Il fait valoir sa propre contribution à une autre Croisade, contre les musulmans d'Espagne celle-là. Le 16 juillet 1212, il a en effet remporté à Las Navas de Tolosa une victoire qui a abattu à jamais la puissance musulmane d'Espagne.
      Le pape ayant refusé de restituer Pierre II dans ses droits légitimes, celui-ci rejoint son vassal Raimon VI dans la guerre contre Simon de Montfort. Les adversaires se rencontrent à Muret, au sud de Toulouse. Pierre II périt au cours de l'affrontement et la victoire échoit à Simon de Montfort.
      Mais le 25 juin 1218, tandis qu'il fera le siège de Toulouse, Simon de Montfort sera mortellement blessé à son tour d'une pierre lancée du haut des murailles par une habitante de la ville. Suite à la mort de leur chef, les Croisés lèveront le siège de la ville. Raimon VI et son fils Raimon VII arriveront à reconquérir peu à peu l'essentiel de ses terres.
      Une deuxième expédition, conduite cette fois par le roi de France Louis VIII, sera nécessaire pour mettre fin à l'hérésie cathare. Fort du prestige acquis par son père à Bouvines, Louis VIII Le Lion n'hésitera pas à se salir les mains dans cette guerre de conquête.
      Cette croisade aboutira en 1229, sous la régence de Blanche de Castille, à la soumission définitive du comte de Toulouse. Les seigneurs du Midi languedocien entreront à jamais dans le giron de la monarchie capétienne.
      L'hérésie ne sera pas éradiquée pour autant. En 1233, le pape Grégoire IX créera l'Inquisition, un tribunal ecclésiastique relevant du seul Saint Siège. Confiée aux Frères prêcheurs de saint Dominique, l'Inquisition en terminera avec le catharisme en usant de la délation, du fer et du bûcher, comme à Montségur. Son succès lui vaudra une deuxième vie de l'autre côté des Pyrénées, dans l'Espagne des Rois catholiques.
0946 Caliph al-Mustaqfi blinded/ousted
0708 Sisinnius consecrated Pope. He would die on 04 February 708.
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< 14 Jan 16 Jan >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 15 January:

2008 Jesus Reynaldo A. Roda , Catholic missionary priest of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate (O.M.I.), pastor of Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary church, and director of the Notre Dame school in Barangay Tabawan, South Ubian town, on Tabawan island, which is in the Vicariate of Jolo, Tawi-Tawi province, Mindanao, the Philippines, is praying at 21:00 (13:00 UT) in the chapel of the school. Some ten masked men (possibly Muslim terrorists of the Abu Sayyaf) enter and attempt to abduct him; he resists, telling the attackers that he would rather die than being taken hostage (to avoid others been harmed in a rescue attempt), and is beaten up and shot in the head. The terrorists abduct instead Omar Taup (or Taub?), a teacher who was with Father Roda. and escape on a speedboat. Roda, of mixed Tagalog and Zamboangueño ancestry, was born in Cotabato City in 1954. He made his first vows in the O.M.I. in 1975 and was ordained a priest in May 1980. He was sent as a missionary in Thailand. He had been working in the Jolo Vicariate for the last 10 years. —(080117)
2007 Barzan Ibrahim El-Hasan al-Tikriti [17 Feb 1951–], hanged (and beheaded by the noose) in Baghdad, Iraq, for his crimes against humanity because, as head of the Iraqi secret service Mukhabarat, he had a leading part in the killing of 148 persons and other atrocious revenge for the 08 July 1982 attempted assassination of dictator Saddam Hussein [28 Apr 1937 – 30 Dec 2006], of whom he was one of the three half-brothers. —(070115)
2007 Awad Hamed al-Bandar [1951–], hanged in Baghdad, Iraq, for his crimes against humanity because, as Chief Justice of Iraq's Revolutionary Court, he had a leading part in the killing of 148 persons and other atrocious revenge for the 08 July 1982 attempted assassination of dictator Saddam Hussein [28 Apr 1937 – 30 Dec 2006] in Dujail. —(070115)
2006 Sheikh Jaber III Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, born on 29 June 1926, emir of Kuwait since 31 December 1977, and ailing since, so that presumably the real power was held by his brother Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jabir Al-Sabah [1929~], appointed Prime Minister in July 2003, while Jaber served as a figurehead, which is probably the role of his successor and cousin Saad Al-Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah [1930~], who is in poor health (since a 2001 stroke) and who was Prime Minister from February 1978 until replaced by Sabah Al-Ahmad). — (060115)
2005 Sgt. Jayton D. Patterson, 26, of Sedley VA, in attack by insurgents in Babil Province, Iraq. He was assigned to 1st Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Division, II Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Lejeune NC. — (060113)
2004 Abbas Malik (aka Abbas Rahi), shot by Indian troops, on the outskirts of Srinagar, Indian-occupied Kashmir. Malik was the second-in-command of the Hizbul Mujahideen fighters against Indian occupation, whose top operation commander Ghulam Rasool Dar (aka Ghazi Naseebuddin), 47, and financial controller Fayaz Ahmad Dar, are with him, but espace until the next day when they are found and shot by Indian troops.
2004 Chhin La, 39, and Keo Chan, 46, who are listening to the Voice of America in Khmer, in Keo Chan's house in Seila Khmer village, O Bei Choan commune, O Chrov district, Banteay Meancheay province, Cambodia, near the border with Thailand, are shot at 21:00 by four men armed with pistols. As the intruders withdraw they throw three hand grenades, wounding at least three other persons. The two murdered men were local leaders of the opposition Sam Rainsy Party.
Avi Boaz2002 Avi Boaz, 71, shot by Palestinians of the Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigade. Boaz [photo >], Jewish, was a permanent resident of Israel, a US citizen, architect who designed houses in the Palestinian West Bank town Eit Jala. The Palestinian gunmen kidnapped him at a Palestinian checkpoint there, hijacking his car and forcing him to a lonely road above a soccer field in nearby Beit Sahur, where they shot him at least 10 times. Boaz, whose wife died of cancer on 05 January 2002, was driving to Palestinian-controlled territory (forbidden to Israelis but not to foreign residents) to buy materials for a home he was building, as he often did. His home most recently was in the Israeli settlement of Maale Adummim, but he lived intermittently in the Everest Hotel in Beit Jala for 20 years and still went there regularly for lunch. He always said he was half Palestinian, and he was proud to be a Jew living among Palestinians. Beit Jala is a predominantly Christian town. Boaz was accompanied in his car by another Palestinian associate when he stopped at the checkpoint. Four Palestinian civilians who were with four Palestinian police officers ordered Mr. Boaz's companion out of the car and then, when he refused, dragged him out and beat him. Boaz's Palestinian companion alerted officials to the kidnapping. Lt. Col. Sharon Levy, an Israeli officer who coordinates security with Palestinian officials in Eit Jala, learned of the kidnapping when there might still have been time to save Boaz. But when he sent his officers to the checkpoint, the Palestinian policemen said nothing happened,.After finishing with Mr. Boaz's Palestinian companion, the Palestinian civilians crowded into Mr. Boaz's silver two-door Rover convertible and forced him to drive downhill through Bethlehem to Beit Sahur. 10 and 20 gunshots were heard at about 14:30. The Rover was found abandoned on Garbage Dump Road, a stretch of asphalt at the edge of Beit Sahur. Boaz's face was covered in blood. The attack left about 10 bullet holes in the windshield of Boaz's car and a crimson puddle in the passenger seat. Blood spattered the dashboard and the inside the windshield, which was cobwebbed with cracks. Boaz was killed just because he had a Jewish name, Avi. Beit Sahur, Bethlehem and Beit Jala, all hilly towns with large Christian populations, are strongholds of Mr. Arafat's faction, Fatah. Relations with his Palestinian counterpart have been good, Colonel Levy said. He described the Palestinian officer as shocked by the killing of Boaz.
2002 Yoela Chen, 45, Israeli woman, shot by two Palestinian gunmen who blocked her car as it turned into a gas station outside Givat Zeev, an area of northern Jerusalem that Palestinians consider an encroaching settlement. Yoela was with her aunt, who was wounded. The two women were on their way to a wedding. This was a few hours after the murder of Boaz [see above].
2001 Roni Tsalah, 30, Israeli, presumably killed by Palestinians, His body is found in an orange grove near the Kfar Yam settlement. Then a group of settlers go on a rampage in a nearby Palestinian village. Settlers burned a greenhouse, smashed car windows and shot toward homes. In the West Bank village of Kfar Salem, a Palestinian man was shot and killed in a clash with Israeli troops. Earlier in the day, shots were fired from Kfar Salem at an Israeli convoy, injuring a motorist. In another West Bank village, Burkin, the body of a suspected informer with Israel was discovered, Palestinian police said. In all, 369 people have been killed in 15 weeks of the al-Aqsa intifada, including 317 Palestinians, 13 Israeli Arabs, 38 other Israelis and a German doctor.
2001 Mouse, poisened in Zurich, stowaway from the Dominican Republic sighted the previous day on an incoming Balair Swiss charter jet, whose departure for Cancun was delayed 24 hours until the corpse of the mouse was found. A mouse is considered a safety hazard as it might gnaw on cables.
2000 Zeljko Raznatovic “Arkan”, shot in a Belgrade hotel lobby by masked gunmen. Arkan had been indicted by the U.N. war crimes tribunal for atrocities in Bosnia and Croatia. — dirigente militar serbio aliado de Slobodan Milosevic, muere en un tiroteo en el Hotel Intercontinental de Belgrado.
1998 Gulzarilal Nanda temporary Prime Minister of India (1964, 66)
1996 Moshoeshoe II, 51, King of Lesotho (1966-90), in an auto accident.
1996 Alexander Todd, bioquímico británico.
1988 Sean Mc Bride, político irlandés.
1983 Meyer Lansky, 81, reputed mobster, in Miami Beach Florida.
1978 Lisa Levy and Margaret Bowman, murdered in their sorority house at Florida State University in Tallahassee. Serial killer Ted Bundy would be convicted of the crime and executed.
1966:: 56 persons as an Avianca Constellation airplane crashes near Cartagena, Columbia.
1965 Pierre Ngendandumwe, prime minister of Burundi, murdered during a failed coup attempt.
1955 Yves Tanguy, French US Surrealist painter born on 05 January 1900. MORE ON TANGUY AT ART “4” JANUARY 05 with links to images.
1944: Ten women of the 74 jammed into one small cell at the Vught Concentration Camp.
^ 1940 Day 47 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

bombed housesFinns advance in Salla
      Undeterred by his jammed machine gun, Staff Sergeant Siltavuori, a squadron test pilot, downs an enemy DB bomber by cutting its rudder with the propeller on his Fokker.
      Northern Finland: Finnish troops begin to pursue the retreating enemy in Salla by advancing from Joutsijärvi in the direction of Märkäjärvi.
      Ladoga Karelia: Viitavaara on the River Aittojoki is finally lost to the Russians.
      Eastern Isthmus: in Taipale, Finnish troops repulse an assault by a fairly small enemy detachment.
      Finnish patrols on the eastern border are still vigorous and effective.
      Viipuri: the city is subjected to surprise attacks from the air. The sirens start up at 23 minutes past noon as the first bombs explode. The late warning means there are still many people on the streets and in shops and offices. Three people are killed and several injured. The attack devastates the area around Punaisenlähteentori square. [picture]
      Abroad: the Swedish Government responds to the Soviet note accusing Sweden of abandoning its neutrality and the Swedish press of publishing anti-Soviet material. The Swedes reject the accusation and affirm their commitment to freedom of the press.
      The German Foreign Ministry denies rumours of German attempts to play a mediating role in the Finno-Soviet conflict and claims that the visits of the German Ambassador in Moscow to Foreign Minister Molotov have merely concerned economic relations between the two countries.
      The Swedish novelist Selma Lagerlöf donates her gold medal from the Swedish Academy and her Nobel Gold Medal to the collection in aid of Finland.

Suomalaiset etenevät Sallassa Talvisodan 47. päivä, 15.tammikuuta.1940
     Lentolaivueeseen kuuluva koelentäjä ylikersantti Siltavuori pudottaa viholliskoneen Fokkerinsa konekiväärien jäädyttyä silpomalla vihollisen DB-pommikoneen peräsimen potkurillaan.
      Suomalaiset aloittavat vihollisen takaa-ajon etenemällä Sallassa Joutsijärveltä Märkäjärven suuntaan.
      Viitavaara Aittojoella jää lopullisesti venäläisille.
      Taipaleessa torjutaan pienehkön vihollisosaston hyökkäys.
      Itärajalla joukkojemme partiotoiminta on edelleen vilkasta ja tehokasta.
      Viipuria pommitetaan yllättävin ilma-iskuin. Hälytyssireenit alkavat ulvoa klo 12.23 yhtaikaa ensimmäisten pommiräjähdysten kanssa. Hälytyksen myöhästymisen takia kaduilla, kauppaliikkeissä ja toimistoissa on paljon väkeä. Kolme ihmistä saa surmansa ja useita loukkaantuu. Vihollinen saa suurta tuhoa Punaisenlähteentorin ympäristössä.
      Ulkomailta: Ruotsin hallitus vastaa Neuvostoliiton esittämään nootiin, jossa Ruotsia syytetään puolueettomuuspolitiikasta luopumisesta ja ruotsalaisia lehtiä neuvostovastaisesta kirjoittelusta. Ruotsin hallitus kiistää syytökset ja vetoaa lehdistön vapauteen.
      Saksan ulkoministeriö kumoaa huhut, joiden mukaan Saksa yrittäisi toimia välittäjänä Suomen ja Neuvostoliiton sodassa. Saksan Moskovan lähettilään käynnit ulkoministeri Molotovin luona ovat liittyneet maiden välisiin taloudellisiin suhteisiin.
      Kirjailija Selma Lagerlöf lahjoittaa Suomi-keräykseen Ruotsin Akatemialta saamansa kultamitalin sekä Nobel-kultamitalinsa.
1934: 10'700 people in 8.4 earthquake in India / Nepal.
1934 Patrick O'Malley US policeman, killed by John Dillinger.
1926 Eugeniusz (or Eugen) Zak, Polish artist born on 15 December 1884. — links to two images.
1919 2 million gallons of molasses "Tidal wave" Boston MA, drowning 21
^ 1919 Rosa Luxemburg, 37, Marxist revolutionary, co-founder of the Spartacus League, arrested and murdered in Berlin by members of a right-wing Freikorps (militia), who had seized control of the city's police presidium during the abortive Spartacus revolt. Here are two quotes from her (she was critical of the dictatorial bent of the bolsheviks in Russia):
“Freedom for supporters of the government only, for members of one party only — no matter how big its membership may be — is no freedom at all. Freedom is always freedom for the man who thinks differently.”
“We will be victorious if we have not forgotten how to learn.”

1919 Rosa Luxemburg et Karl Liebknecht sont assassinés dans leur prison. Ex-animateurs du groupe révolutionnaire Spartakus, les deux chefs du parti communiste allemand avaient tenté d'importer la révolution russe et de soulever les masses ouvrières. Mais le chancelier social-démocrate Friedrich Ebert étouffe leur tentative.
1909 Robert Zünd, Swiss artist born on 03 May 1827.
1896 Matthew B Brady, 72, US photographer (Civil War)
1887 Friedrich von Amerling, Austrian painter born on 14 April 1803. MORE ON AMERLING AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1879 Edward Matthey Ward, British painter born on 14 July 1816. MORE ON WARD AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
1868 Lucie-Marie Mandix Ingemann, Danish artist born on 13 February 1792.
1845 John Knox, Scottish artist born in 1778.
1835 Juana María Teresa Cabarrús de Tallien, revolucionaria española.
^ 1815 Lady Emma Hamilton, born Amy Lyon in 1761, notorious as the mistress of the British naval hero Admiral Horatio Nelson [29 Sep 1758 – 21 Oct 1805].
      The daughter of a blacksmith, she was calling herself Emily Hart when, in 1781, she began to mate with Charles Francis Greville, nephew of her future husband, Sir William Hamilton [13 Dec 1730 – 06 Apr 1803], British envoy to the Kingdom of Naples. Greville educated her in music and literature. Then, in 1786, he sent her to Naples to be his uncle's mistress in return for Hamilton's payment of Greville's debts. On 06 September 1791, she and Hamilton were married.
      Lady Emma Hamilton was already a great favorite in Neapolitan society. She entertained company with her “attitudes”, a kind of Romantic aesthetic posturing achieved with the aid of shawls and classical draperies. Emma Hamilton was a beautiful woman of whom George Romney [26 Dec 1734 – 15 Nov 1802] painted more than twenty portraits, many in the guise of characters from history, mythology, and literature, calling her his “divine lady”.
      She was the diplomatic intermediary between her husband and her close friend Queen Maria Carolina of Naples. It was said that Lady Hamilton facilitated Nelson's victory over the French in the Battle of the Nile (01 Aug 1798) by securing Neapolitan permission for his fleet to obtain stores and water in Sicily.
      Lady Hamilton and Nelson, who had met in 1793, became lovers after his Nile triumph. In 1800, when the British government recalled Hamilton, Nelson returned with him and his wife to England, where Emma flaunted her control over the admiral. They had two daughters, one of whom survived infancy. After her husband's death she lived with Nelson at Merton, Surrey. Although she inherited money from both men, she squandered most of it, was imprisoned for debt (1813–1814), and died in impecunious exile.

— Portraits:

by George Romney:
Lady Hamilton as 'Nature' (1782, 76x63cm) _ Greville commissioned this portrait.
Emma Hamilton (43x36cm; 667x533pix, 40kb _ ZOOM to 1000x800pix, 63kb)
Study of Emma Hamilton As Miranda (32x27cm; 667x530pix, 32kb _ ZOOM to 1000x794pix, 68kb)
Lady Hamilton in a Straw Hat (1785)

by Adam Buck [1759-1833]:
A Woman, Said to Be Emma, Lady Hamilton (1804)

by Elizabeth Louise Vigée-Lebrun [16 Apr 1755 – 30 Mar 1842]:
Lady Hamilton as a Bacchante (350x275pix, 47kb)
1811 Vincent Jans van der Vinne, Dutch artist born on 31 January 1736.
1743 Caspar Hirschel, German artist born in 1698.
1687 Jacob Esselens, Dutch painter born in 1626. — more with links to images.
1684 Caspar Netscher, Dutch painter specialized in portraits born in 1639. MORE ON NETSCHER AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1648 Francisco Capillas, beato español.
^ 1318 Erwin de Steinbach, bâtisseur de Cathédrale (Légende ou réalité?)
      La vieille ville de Strasbourg, bien que très endommagée par la guerre (40 – 45) conserve encore de très beaux monuments, vestiges des époques révolues. Le plus beau est sans conteste la Cathédrale Notre-Dame des Vosges, construite en grès rose, du XIème au XVème siècle. Toutes les Cathédrales de France ou d’ailleurs n’ont pu être édifiée que sur des siècles, non seulement pour des raisons économiques, mais aussi parce que les moyens mis en œuvre, sans motorisation, ni mécanisation, finement ouvrés, prenaient des vies entières. Elles sont donc bien des œuvres collectives. Mais pourtant, celle de Strasbourg est attribuée à Erwin de Steinbach ! En 1770, Goethe, en séjour à Strasbourg, est rempli d’admiration pour la cathédrale et croit qu’Erwin de Steinbach est l’auteur de son architecture. Il est ainsi à l’origine de la gloire légendaire de maître Erwin. En fait, Erwin n’est responsable que d’une partie de l’église.
      Il est connu par deux inscriptions. La première, en partie conservée au musée de l’Œuvre, figurait sur la corniche d’une chapelle dédiée à la Vierge, bâtie dans la nef de la cathédrale devant le jubé. Elle mentionne que maître Erwin fit cette chapelle en 1316. La seconde est l’épitaphe de la famille de Steinbach, placée sur un contrefort extérieur de la chapelle Saint-Jean-Baptiste, toujours à la cathédrale. Le nom de la femme d’Erwin, Husa, morte en 1316, vient en premier, suivi de celui d’Erwin, qualifié d’administrateur de la fabrique (Gubernator Fabrice ), mort le 15 janvier 1318, et du nom de leur fils, Jean, maître de l’œuvre de la cathédrale, décédé le 18 mars 1339. Erwin a un autre fils, architecte de l’église de Niederhaslach, Gerlach. Il est donc architecte, membre d’une famille de constructeurs et administrateur. On lui attribue, à la cathédrale de Strasbourg, le décor intérieur du narthex et l’étage de la rose de la façade occidentale, ainsi que, parfois, le tombeau sous enfeu (niche à fond plat) de l’évêque Conrad de Lichtenberg, exécuté vers 1300 dans la chapelle Saint-Jean-Baptiste, dans lequel un petit personnage barbu, sculpté en relief, le représenterait. Erwin doit modifier le premier projet de la façade pour raccorder l’étage de la rose aux parties hautes de la nef. Le réseau rayonnant de la rose, le décor du narthex rappellent la façade méridionale du transept de Notre-Dame de Paris et font penser que maître Erwin a voyagé en France avant de travailler à la cathédrale de Strasbourg.
1208 Pierre de Castelnau, legado pontificio francés.
0429 Honoratus of Arles bishop/saint.
0069 Servius Sulpicius Galba, 70, 6th emperor of Rome (for 7 months 68-69), killed in the Forum Rome by the Praetorian guards, which he had refused to reward for having abandoned Nero in favor of himself.
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< 14 Jan 16 Jan >
^  Births which occurred on a 15 January:

1992 First Web Browser. Tim Berners Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web [what! not Al Gore?], releases a simple line-mode Web browser on the Internet. Berners Lee had first proposed the Web in 1990 and had presented early versions of Web clients, servers, and browsers to his colleagues throughout 1991.
1971 Aswan High Dam is officially inaugurated in Egypt.
1940 Luis Racionero, escritor español.
1936 The Ford Foundation.
      Henry Ford establishes the Ford Foundation, a philanthropic organization. The foundation was set up partly to allow the Ford family to retain control of the Ford Motor Company after Henry Ford’s death, avoiding new inheritance laws. But its charitable works were very real. At its height, the Ford Foundation had assets of $4 billion. The foundation works to promote population control and to prevent famine; to promote the arts and educational media; and to work for peace and the protection of the environment.
1930 Hedi Bakuch Mohamed, político tunecino.
1929 Reverend Dr Martin Luther King Jr Atlanta GA, civil rights leader promotor of non-violence (Nobel Peace Prize 1964). (US National Holiday: Monday) He would be murdered on 04 April 1968.
1923 Lee Teng Hui, presidente de la República de China en Taiwan.
1921 El Partido Comunista de Italia nace en el Congreso de Livorno, al escindirse del Partido Socialista italiano.
1920 John J "Cardinal" O'Connor Philadelphia PA, Roman Catholic Archbishop of New York.
1919 George Cadle Price, ex primer ministro de Belice.
1918 Gamal Abdel Nasser President of Egypt (1954-1970) who died on 28 September 1970 — Naissance de Nasser, chef d’état qui rendit sa grandeur à l’Egypte.
1914 Alberto Ullastres Calvo, político español.
1912 Michel J-P Debré premier of France (1959-62)
1908 Edward Teller, Hungarian US nuclear physicist who died on 09 September 2003. — físico estadounidense de origen húngaro, impulsor del programa "guerra de las galaxias"
1907 The Audion radio tube
      Dr. Lee De Forest, widely regarded as the "father of radio and the grandfather of television," patented the Audion radio tube, which turned radio into a practical transmission device for voice and music. Previously, wireless technology was primarily used for telegraph signals. Unfortunately, De Forest's business partners were prone to fraud: The De Forest Radio Telephone Company began to collapse in 1909, leading to De Forest's indictment for promoting a "worthless device" — the Audion tube. De Forest was later acquitted. Several years later, De Forest devised a way to connect a series of Audion tubes in order to amplify radio signals far beyond what a single tube could do. This process was essential in the development of radio and long-distance telephone. De Forest, despairing of business success, sold his patents at bargain-basement prices to several companies, including American Telephone and Telegraph, which used the repeating Audion tube as a key component in long-distance telephone technology.
1906 Aristotle Onassis Greece, rich shipping magnate.
1902 Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Faisal al-Saud king (Saudi Arabia)
15 January 1899 The Man with a Hoe, poem by an American schoolteacher, Charles Edward Anson Markham (1852-1940), who used the penname Edwin Markham, is published. It was inspired by an 1863 painting: L'homme à la houe by the French artist, Jean-François Millet (1814-1875). The poem quickly became as famous as the painting. Both continue to be moving testimonies to what the too prevalent inhumanity of humanity can cause. POEM AND  PAINTING AT ART “4” JANUARY
1896 Víctor de la Serna Espina, escritor chileno afincado en España.
1895 Artturi Ilmari Virtanen, finlandés, Premio Nobel de Química 1945.
1891 (15 Jan Julian: go to 27 Jan 1826 Gregorian) Ilya Grigoryevich Ehrenburg.
1870 Pierre Samuel du Pont, US businessman who died on 05 April 1954.
1869 Stanislas Wyspianskiy, Polish artist who died on 28 November 1907.
1865 Joaquín González Camargo, poeta colombiano.
1863 Wilhelm Marx, premier (Prussia)
1858 Giovanni Segantini, Italian painter who died on 28 September 1899. MORE ON SEGANTINI AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
^ 1831 Notre Dame de Paris by Hugo is completed
      Victor Hugo finishes writing Notre Dame de Paris, (in English: The Hunchback of Notre Dame). Distracted by other projects, Hugo had continually postponed his deadlines for delivering the book to his publishers, but once he sat down to write it, he completed the novel in only four months.
      Hugo, born on 26 February 1802 the son of one of Napoléon's officers, decided while still a teenager to become a writer. Although he studied law, he also founded a literary review to which he and other emerging writers published their work. In 1822, Hugo married his childhood sweetheart, Adèle Foucher, and published his first volume of poetry, which won him a pension from Louis XVIII.
      In 1823, Hugo published his first novel, Han d'Islande. About this time, he began meeting regularly with a group of Romantics. His 1827 play, Cromwell, embraced the tenets of Romanticism, which he laid out in the play's preface. The following year, despite a contract to begin work on a novel called Notre Dame de Paris, he set to work on two plays. The first, Marion de Lorme (1829), was censored for its candid portrayal of a courtesan purified by love. The second, Hernani ou L'honneur castillan, became the touchstone for a bitter and protracted debate between French Classicists and Romantics. On 15 January 1831, he finally finished Notre-Dame de Paris, which pleaded for an aesthetic that would tolerate the imperfect, the grotesque. The book also had a simpler agenda: to increase appreciation of old Gothic structures, which had become the object of vandalism and neglect
      In the 1830s, Hugo wrote numerous plays, many of which were written as vehicles for the actress Juliette Drouet, with whom Hugo was romantically connected starting in 1833. In 1841, Hugo was elected to the prestigious Académie Française, but two years later he lost his beloved daughter and her husband when they were drowned in an accident. His expressed his profound grief in a poetry collection called Les Contemplations (1856). Hugo was forced to flee France when Napoleon III came to power; he did not return for 20 years. While still in exile, he completed Les Misérables (1862), which became a hit in France and abroad. He returned to Paris during the Franco-Prussian War and was hailed a national hero. Hugo's writing spanned more than six decades, and he was given a national funeral and buried in the Pantheon after his death in 1885.

HUGO ONLINE:
  • Hernani ou L'honneur castillan : drame, [Paris, Français, 25 février 1830]
  • Le télégraphe : satire
  • Odes et poésies diverses
  • Lucrèce Borgia : drame, [Paris, Porte-Saint-Martin, 2 février 1833]
  • Marie Tudor
  • Napoléon le Petit
  • Les travailleurs de la mer. Tome premier
  • Les travailleurs de la mer. Tome deuxième
  • Les travailleurs de la mer. Tome troisième
  • Han d'Islande
  • Notre-Dame de Paris
  • Notre-Dame de Paris
  • Les Misérables. [Tome V à IX]
  • Les Misérables. [Tome V à IX]
  • Les Misérables. [Tome V à IX]
  • Les Misérables. [Tome V à IX]
  • Les Misérables. [Tome V à IX]
  • Les travailleurs de la mer. [Tome X-XI]
  • Les travailleurs de la mer. [Tome X-XI]
  • L'homme qui rit. [Tome XII-XIII]
  • L'homme qui rit. [Tome XII-XIII]
  • Quatre-vingt-treize. [Tome XIV]
  • Ruy Blas
  • Les Contemplations
  • IN ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS:
  • Les Miserables volume I
  • volume II
  • volume III
  • volume IV
  • volume V
  • Les Miserables (complete: 3.2 MB)
  • The Memoirs of Victor Hugo
  • Notre-Dame de Paris
  • Notre Dame de Paris
  • 1826 (15 Jan Julian: go to 27 Jan 1826 Gregorian) graf Mikhail Yevgrafovich Saltykov “N. Shchedrin”.
    1822 Hubert Salentin, German artist who died on 07 July 1910.
    1817 Charles-François Daubigny, French Barbizon School painter specialized in landscapes, who died on 19 February 1878. MORE ON DAUBIGNY AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1810 Abigail Kelley Foster, US feminist and abolitionist who died on 14 January 1887.
    ^ 1809 Pierre Joseph Proudhon, à Besançon, théoricien de l’anarchisme, réformateur social.
          Les origines de Pierre Joseph Proudhon, né d’un père garçon brasseur et d’une mère cuisinière, sont, au contraire de celles de Marx et de la plupart des réformateurs sociaux (de Saint-Simon à Lénine), authentiquement plébéiennes. Placé tout jeune comme bouvier dans la campagne franc-comtoise, Proudhon est admis à dix ans comme boursier au collège royal de Besançon. Il y remporte, malgré des conditions de travail très précaires, tous les prix d’excellence. Obligé, par la nécessité, d’interrompre ses cours en rhétorique, il devient successivement typographe, prote, boursier de l’académie de Besançon (il complète sa formation intellectuelle à Paris, aux Arts et Métiers et au Collège de France), artisan imprimeur ; fondé de pouvoir pendant cinq ans dans une entreprise de navigation fluviale lyonnaise, il acquiert une expérience réelle des mécanismes de l’entreprise et aussi de la bureaucratie. Il pratique ensuite son métier de journaliste-écrivain, qu’il poursuit inlassablement, en compagnie de sa femme, une ouvrière, et de ses enfants, à travers d’incessantes difficultés matérielles, des procès politiques, les révolutions, la députation, la prison (trois ans) et l’exil. Il meurt à cinquante-six ans, le 19 janvier 1865, épuisé par un immense labeur, et laissant une œuvre fleuve qu’il n’aura jamais eu le loisir de résumer (plus de quarante ouvrages représentant près de cinquante volumes, sans compter les articles des trois journaux qu’il a successivement créés).
          Considéré comme le père de la pensée anarchique, l'écrivain français du XIXe siècle, Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865), estimait que les règles unissant l'individu à la société devaient se situer à l'opposé du contrat social défini par Rousseau. Selon Proudhon, la conception rousseauiste du pouvoir ne pouvait qu'être arbitraire, dans la mesure où elle ne concernait que la sphère politique et se désintéressait des aspects économiques et sociaux. Sans renier la nécessité de se plier à un contrat collectif, la pensée anarchiste souhaitait que celui-ci fut aussi proche que possible des besoins de chacun, et à ce titre il devait donc se modifier en fonction des évolutions individuelles. Aussi la prise en considération des aspirations de chacun se traduisait par un fédéralisme, tant professionnel que régional, afin que l'organisation collective fut librement consentie par tous. Ainsi, toute forme de gouvernement devait-elle être rejetée, tant qu'elle ne représenterait les intérêts que d'un groupe, même majoritaire. De même, l'anarchisme s'opposait au système parlementaire, dans lequel l'individu était dépossédé de son droit de contestation, et lui préférait le syndicalisme. Concernant la propriété, deux tendances s'opposaient, l'une prônant le maintien de la propriété individuelle et l'autre développant une conception collectiviste de la répartition des biens.
    1793 Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller, Austrian painter who died on 23 August 1865. MORE ON WALDMÜLLER AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1759 El British Museum, en Londres, se inaugura.
    1737 Johann Josef Karl Henrici, German artist who died on 27 October 1823.
    1714 Jan Josef Horemans, Flemish artist who died in 1790.
    ^ 1622 Jean-Baptiste Poquelin “Molière” , in Paris, French actor and playwright, the greatest of all writers of French comedy. (His stage name, Molière, is first found in a document dated 28 June 1644).
          Although the sacred and secular authorities of 17th-century France often combined against him, the genius of Molière finally emerged to win him acclaim. Comedy had a long history before Molière, who employed most of its traditional forms, but he succeeded in inventing a new style that was based on a double vision of normal and abnormal seen in relation to each other, the comedy of the true opposed to the specious, the intelligent seen alongside the pedantic. An actor himself, Molière seems to have been incapable of visualizing any situation without animating and dramatizing it, often beyond the limits of probability; though living in an age of reason, his own good sense led him not to proselytize but rather to animate the absurd, as in such masterpieces as Tartuffe, L'école des femmes, Le Misanthrope, and many others. It is testimony to the freshness of his vision that the greatest comic artists working. Molière died on 17 February 1673.
    MOLIERE ONLINE:
  • Amphitryon
  • Amphitryon : comédie
  • Dépit amoureux : comédie représentée sur le théâtre du Palais Royal
  • Dom Garcie de Navarre
  • Dom Juan, ou Le festin de pierre
  • Georges Dandin
  • L'école des femmes
  • L'école des maris
  • L'étourdi, ou Les contre-temps
  • L'amour médecin
  • L'amour médecin : comédie
  • L'avare
  • L'avare : comédie
  • L'estourdy ou Les contre-temps : comédie représentée sur le théâtre du Palais Royal
  • L'impromptu de Versailles
  • La comtesse d'Escarbagnas
  • La critique de l'École des femmes
  • La gloire du dôme du Val-de-Grâce
  • La gloire du Val-de-grâce
  • La jalousie du barbouillé
  • La princesse d'Élide
  • La princesse d'Elide : comédie du Sieur Mollière [sic] : les plaisirs de l'isle enchantée, course de bague, collation ornée de machines, mêlée de dances & de musique, ballet du palais d'Alcine, feu d'artifice, et autres fêtes galantes de Versailles
  • Le bourgeois gentilhomme
  • Le bourgeois gentilhomme : comédie-balet [sic] faite à Chambort, pour le divertissement du Roy
  • Le dépit amoureux
  • Le divertissement de Chambord / [intermèdes de M. de Pourceaugnac]
  • Le médecin malgré lui
  • Le médecin volant
  • Le malade imaginaire
  • Le malade imaginaire : comédie mêlée de musique, de chansons, & de dances
  • Le mariage forcé
  • Le misanthrope
  • Le misantrope : comédie
  • Le sicilien
  • Le Tartuffe, ou L'imposteur
  • Le Tartuffe ou L'imposteur : comédie
  • Les amants magnifiques
  • Les amans magnifiques : comédie meslée de musique & d'entrées de balet
  • Les fâcheux
  • Les fâcheux : comédie / [avec le Prologue de P. Pellisson]
  • Les femmes savantes
  • Les femmes savantes : comédie
  • Remercîment au Roi
  • Remercîment au Roy
  • Les fourberies de Scapin
  • Les œuvres de Monsieur Molière... [Volume 1]
  • Les œuvres de Monsieur Molière... [Volume 2]
  • Les précieuses ridicules
  • Les précieuses ridicules : comédie représentée au Petit Bourbon
  • Monsieur de Pourceaugnac
  • Monsieur de Pourceaugnac : comédie faite à Chambord pour le divertissement du Roy
  • Pastorale comique
  • Psyché
  • Sganarelle, ou Le cocu imaginaire
  • Sganarelle, ou le Cocu imaginaire : comédie / avec les arguments de chaque scène [les épîtres A Monsieur de Molier et A un amy, par le sieur de Neuf–Villenaine]
  • Œuvres. Tome premier
  • Œuvres. Tome second
  • Œuvres. Tome troisième
  • Œuvres. Tome quatrième
  • Œuvres. Tome cinquième
  • Œuvres. Tome sixième
  • Œuvres. Tome septième
  • Œuvres. Tome huitième
  • Œuvres. Tome neuvième
  • Œuvres. Tome dixième
  • Œuvres complètes . 1
  • Œuvres complètes . 2
  • MOLIERE ONLINE (in English translations):
  • Amphitryon
  • The Middle Class Gentleman
  • The Physician in Spite of Himself
  • The Misanthrope
  • The Miser
  • The School for Wives
  • Tartuffe, or, The Impostor
  • Tartuffe, or The Hypocrite
  • Tartuffe, or The Hypocrite
  • 1432 Alfonso V "the African" king of Portugal (1438-1481)
    1200 est fondée l'Université de Paris. Son enseignement, tourné vers la théologie et l'analyse des textes anciens, sera à l'origine de la réputation intellectuelle de Paris.
     
    Holidays:   Guatemala : Cristo de Esquipulas  /   Japan : Adults Day / Seijin-No-Hi / Jordan : Arbor Day    /   Venezuala : Teachers' Day / Día Del Maestro

    Santos Pablo, Mauro, Macario y Miqueas. / Saint Rémi, évêque de Reims, est célèbre pour avoir baptisé Clovis, le roi des Francs, après la bataille légendaire de Tolbiac. Clovis est le premier roi barbare à se convertir au catholicisme (les autres avaient choisi l'hérésie arienne). Cela lui vaudra la bienveillance du clergé gallo-romain et lui permettra d'imposer son autorité sur la Gaule et les pays rhénans. Rémi mourra à 90 ans avec une grande réputation de charité.
    click click

    There was a poet from Spokane
    Whose verses never would span.
    When told this was so
    He said “Yes, I know.
    "But, unlike perhaps other, less imaginative poets, or people who call themselves poets, I have always thought that poetic license confers upon me the inalienable right and the great fun of getting as many words into the last line as I possibly can”.
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4jan/h4jan15.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4jan/h4jan15.html
    http://greatquotes.gq.nu/history/h4jan/h4jan15.html
    updated Saturday 16-Jan-2010 0:08 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.9.00 Saturday 10-Jan-2009 20:29 UT
    v.8.30 Tuesday 15-Apr-2008 3:15 UT
    v.7.01 Monday 15-Jan-2007 14:59 UT
    v.6.02 Sunday 15-Jan-2006 17:04 UT
    Thursday 27-Jan-2005 22:52 UT
    Friday 30-Jan-2004 2:03 UT

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