<< Jan 11      HISTORY “4” “2”DAY         |Jan 13 >>
Events, deaths, births, of JAN 12
 While connected to Internet click here for Universal Time clock (accept Script and Active~Xs) 
[For Jan 12 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jan 221700s: Jan 231800s: Jan 241900~2099: Jan 25]
^  On a 12 January:
3 Maruges walk to school 2004 Ng'ang'a enters first grade.
      On opening day of the school year in Kenya, Kimani Ng'ang'a Maruge walks 500 meters from his home to Kapkenduiyo Primary School in Langas Estate, Eldoret, Kenya, for his first day of school, in Standard One (first grade), which starts at 08:00. He had to work at a neighbor's farm to get the money to buy the required school uniform which he now wears: blue shorts, light blue shirt, blue striped stockings, and a dark blue jacket. As the other first graders, Ng'ang'a receives a pencil and four notebooks, one each for math, English, Kiswahili, and general subjects. At the 12:45 end of the school day, Ng'ang'a goes home to herd his cow and five sheep, all that is left of a big herd decimated by disease. That gave him the desire to become a veterinary doctor.
     Reporters and photographers cover Ng'ang'a's first day in school, and it will be appear in news media the world around the next day. They note that, while other first graders sometimes have to sit on the ground, Ng'ang'a is given a chair; and that he does not participate actively in the physical education period nor in play at recess. Interviewed, Ng'ang'a explains, in fluent Kiswahili, one reason why he is happy to be starting school: he is a Catholic who attends Mass every Sunday, but he says of what he hears preached: “They lie. The Bible does not say what those people claim it says. That is why I want to know how to read so that I can read the Bible myself and not be deceived.” Ng'ang'a hopes eventually to complete primary school all the way through Standard Eight. When he gets classes in Kenyan history, he should find it his easiest subjects, especially when it comes to the Mau Mau struggle for Kenyan independence from the British colonialists, who tortured him after they captured him while he was fighting for the insurgency (which was crushed 4 years before Kenya become independent on 12 December 1963). They also shot two of his 15 children while he was trying to escape arrest. 8 other of his children died of various diseases, at a time when there was little or no medical assistance to ordinary Kenyans. His wife died in 1999.
     Mzee Maruge is 84. Two of his 30 grandchildren attend the same school, Leah Njoki, 12, in Standard Six; and John Ndirima, 10, in Standard Four. [the three walking to school together >]
     Mzee Maruge is a member of the Mau Mau Veteran’s Association, which has been promised pensions by the NARC government, which is why Maruge wants to learn arithmetic. "When they start paying us, I do not want any young man trying to rob me of my money due to illiteracy," Ng’ang’a says. At one of the association’s meetings he learned that the Government was offering free education. "When this new Government came to power and promised to pay Mau Mau veterans compensation, I decided to try and get educated since it was free," he says.
     President Mwai Kibaki's National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), which, in 27 December 2002 elections, defeated the Kenya African National Union (KANU) of dictatorial leader Daniel Toroitich arap Moi [02 Sep 1924~] (in power since the death of Jomo Kenyatta [1893 – 22 Aug 1978]), introduced a free primary education scheme in January 2003. The government registered the Mau Mau movement in November 2003, which could help surviving fighters obtain compensation.

[ below: Ng'ang'a's first effort at writing]
Ng'ang'a tries to write

2002 Eight-months pregnant Astrid Oates, 20, in riding in a car in Devon, England, when suddenly the male driver, 38, swerves to avoid a fox, . The car smashes through a wooden fence and one of the posts shatters and spears Astrid through her right breast. She is trapped in the wrecked car for over an hour before firefighters cut away a large chunk of the stake to free her. It then takes surgeons four hours to remove a remaining 15x2cm spear of wood lodged close to major organs. The unborn boy, is fine and will probably be born naturally at full-term. The driver suffers a slight shoulder injury.
2001 A report on the fate of Raoul Wallenberg, which fails to resolve the mystery of when he died in the Soviet gulag, is released in two parts: Swedish, and Russian (both PDF in English). Wallenberg was a young Swedish diplomat to Nazi Germany who saved thousands of Jews from Hitler's gas chambers. The Soviets kidnapped him as soon as their victorious troops entered Germany.
2000 The US Supreme Court ruled that a person's running at the sight of a police officer could justify police conducting a stop-and-frisk search.
1999 Former US Senator Bill Bradley, D-NJ, files notice of his presidential candidacy with the Federal Election Commission.
1998 Nineteen European nations signed a treaty in Paris opposing human cloning
1997 Two of the four female cadets, who enrolled in The Citadel the previous fall after the South Carolina military school lost its fight to keep women out, resign. The cadets say that they have been assaulted and sexually harassed.
1996 Russian troops arrive in Bosnia (prematurely, for joint operation with US, sort of)
1996 Chechen fighters holding more than 100 hostages in the village of Pervomayskaya free about a dozen of their captives and pledge to release the rest if four top Russian officials take their place.
^ 1995 Conspiration to murder Black leader supposed murderer of another Black leader.
     Qubilah Bahiyah Shabazz, 32, the daughter of Malcolm X, is arrested for conspiring to kill Louis Farrakhan. Shabazz believed that Farrakhan was responsible for the assassination of her father in 1964, and sought to exact revenge through a hired killer. Subsequently, Shabazz admitted her "responsibility," but not her guilt of the charges, and the government accepted a plea bargain that required her to undergo psychiatric and drug treatment.
      Michael Fitzpatrick, a high-school classmate of Shabazz, claimed that she called him and asked him to kill Farrakhan. Fitzpatrick said she told him that she wanted to avenge her father's death, and feared for the life of her mother Betty Shabazz who was outspoken in her belief that Farrakhan was behind the 1964 shooting. Although Farrakhan was allied with the Nation of Islam leaders who planned Malcolm X's murder, he most likely was not directly involved in the plot. Unfortunately for Qubilah, Fitzpatrick was already an FBI informant and promptly passed on the information. He also began recording his conversations with Shabazz. She escaped the most serious charges because the tapes showed some wavering and ambivalence on her part in actually going through with the murder.
     Some claim that the whole affair was an unbelievable FBI plot. A much-publicized reconciliation between Farrakhan and the Shabazz family occurred after the charges were made against Qubilah.
     There had been a 30-year rift between Betty Shabazz and Farrakhan, whom Betty Shabazz believed played a role in her husband's death. Malcolm X was assassinated on 21 February 1965, at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem. Just a week before his death, the couple's New York City home was destroyed by a firebomb. Malcolm X, also known as El Hagg Malik El-Shabazz, was killed a year after breaking away from the Nation of Islam and forming his own Muslim faction. Three gunmen, two of them members of the Nation of Islam, were sentenced to life in prison for the Malcolm X shooting. Two of the gunmen were released after serving 20 years in prison.
      Legal and personal troubles continued to plague the Shabazz family in the 1990s. Qubilah's 12-year-old son Malcolm, who had been sent to live with his grandmother Betty in Westchester County, New York, set the house on fire with gasoline on 01 June 1997 in hopes of being reunited with his mother, Qubilah Shabazz, who had had problems with alcohol in addition to the Farrakhan affair. Betty Shabazz, 61, was burned on 90% of her body, and died from her injuries on 23 June 1997. The boy was convicted of arson and sentenced on 8 August 1997 to at least 18 months at a juvenile center, sentence to be reviewed yearly thereafter until he turns 18. By 03 August 1999, he had escaped three times and a judge extended his detention to 03 August 2000.
Pope John Paul II1995 Pope John Paul II begins visit to Southeast Asia
1995 President Clinton and congressional leaders agreed on a bailout package that'd give Mexico as much as $40 billion in loan guarantees. Two and a half weeks later, when Congress fails to act quickly to approve the deal, Clinton invokes his emergency authority to loan Mexico $20 billion.
1995 Murder trial against Orenthal James Simpson, begins in Los Angeles
1994 US President Clinton asks Attorney General Reno to appoint an independent counsel to investigate the Whitewater affair.
1992 Algeria's general elections: second balloting scheduled for 920115 canceled after strong gains by in the first round by Muslim fundamentalist Front Islamique du Salut; FIS, in the first round of balloting for the National Assembly, held in December 1991, when the FIS won 188 seats, just 28 short of a simple majority and 99 short of the two-thirds majority needed to amend the constitution. There seemed little doubt that the FIS would achieve a majority in the second round. Instead, the Algerian government and army intervened to cancel the elections, President Chadli Bendjedid having been forced to resigne the previous day.
1991 A deeply divided US Congress gives President George Bush the authority to wage war in the Persian Gulf. The Senate votes 52-47 to empower Bush to use armed forces to expel Iraq from Kuwait; the House of Representatives 250-183.
1990 Romania bans Communist party (first Warsaw Pact member to do so)
1990 Civil Rights activist Reverand Al Sharpton is stabbed in Bensonhurst Brooklyn
1990 Salvadoran President Alfredo Cristiani names eight soldiers, including chief of the military academy, as suspects in the November 1989 murder of six Jesuit priests.
1989 Idi Amin is expelled from Zaire.
1981 -35ºF (-37ºC), Chester, Massachusetts (state record)
1977 Anti-French demonstrations takes place in Israel after Paris released Abu Daoud, responsible 1972 Munich massacre of Israeli athletes
1977 US President Gerald R. Ford's State of the Union address.
1976 UN Security Council votes 11-1 to seat Palestine Liberation Organization, for the debate on the Middle East. The US casts the only dissenting vote.
1971 Anti-Vietnam-War activists charged with ludicrous conspiracy
      Catholic priest Father Philip F. Berrigan, serving a six-year prison term on charges of destroying draft records, and five others, including a nun and two priests, are indicted by a US federal grand jury on charges of conspiring to kidnap presidential adviser Henry Kissinger and of plotting to blow up the heating tunnels of federal buildings in Washington. The "Harrisburg Six," as they came to be known, denied the charges and denounced them as a government effort to destroy the peace movement.
1971 Congressional Black Caucus organizes
1970 Boeing 747 makes its maiden voyage.
1966 US President Lyndon B. Johnson's 3rd annual State of the Union address.
1964 Sayyid Jamshid ibn Abdullah (who had succeeded his father at his death in July 1963), Sultan of Zanzibar and his government overthrown by a revolution carried out by 600 armed men led by communist-trained "field marshal" John Okello. On 10 December 1963 Zanzibar had become independent as a member of the British Commonwealth. The insurgents proclaimed the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba, a one-party state, and won much support from the African population. Thousands of the Arab minority were massacred in riots, and thousands more fled the island. Sheikh Abeid Amani Karume, leader of the Afro-Shirazi Party, was installed as president, Sheikh Abdulla Kassim Hanga as prime minister, and Abdul Rahman Mohammed ("Babu"), leader of the new left-wing Umma (The Masses) Party (formed by defectors from the ZNP), became minister for defense and external affairs. Pending the establishment of a new constitution, the cabinet and all government departments were placed under the control of a Revolutionary Council of 30 members, which was also vested with temporary legislative powers. The new government nationalized of all land.
1962 In Vietnam, US devastates environment and its own soldiers' health, with Agent Orange.
      The United States Air Force launches Operation Ranch Hand, a "modern technological area-denial technique" designed to expose the roads and trails used by the Viet Cong. Flying C-123 Providers, US. personnel dumped an estimated 19 million gallons of defoliating herbicides over 10-20 percent of Vietnam and parts of Laos between 1962-1971. Agent Orange — named for the color of its metal containers — was the most frequently used defoliating herbicide. The operation succeeded in killing vegetation, but not in stopping the Viet Cong. The use of these agents was controversial, both during and after the war, because of the questions about long-term ecological impacts and the effect on humans who either handled or were sprayed by the chemicals. Beginning in the late 1970s, Vietnam veterans began to cite the herbicides, especially Agent Orange, as the cause of health problems ranging from skin rashes to cancer to birth defects in their children. Similar problems, including an abnormally high incidence of miscarriages and congenital malformations, have been reported among the Vietnamese people who lived in the areas where the defoliating agents were used.
1961 UN genocide pact goes into effect
^ 1954 US defense will rely on "massive retaliation," a MAD policy.
      In a speech at a Council on Foreign Relations dinner in his honor, US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles announces that the US will protect its allies through the "deterrent of massive retaliatory power." The policy announcement was further evidence of the Eisenhower administration's decision to rely heavily on the nation's nuclear arsenal as the primary means of defense against communist aggression. Dulles began his speech by examining communist strategy that, he concluded, had as its goal the "bankruptcy" of the United States through overextension of its military power. Both strategically and economically, the secretary explained, it was unwise to "permanently commit US. land forces to Asia," to "support permanently other countries," or to "become permanently committed to military expenditures so vast that they lead to 'practical bankruptcy.'" Instead, he believed a new policy of "getting maximum protection at a bearable cost" should be developed. Although Dulles did not directly refer to nuclear weapons, it was clear that the new policy he was describing would depend upon the "massive retaliatory power" of such weapons to respond to future communist acts of war.
      The speech was a reflection of two of the main tenets of foreign policy under Eisenhower and Dulles. First was the belief, particularly on the part of Dulles, that America's foreign policy toward the communist threat had been timidly reactive during the preceding Democratic administration of President Harry S. Truman. Dulles consistently reiterated the need for a more proactive and vigorous approach to rolling back the communist sphere of influence. Second was President Eisenhower's belief that military and foreign assistance spending had to be controlled. Eisenhower was a fiscal conservative and believed that the US. economy and society could not long take the strain of overwhelming defense budgets. A stronger reliance on nuclear weapons as the backbone of America's defense answered both concerns — atomic weapons were far more effective in terms of threatening potential adversaries, and they were also, in the long run, much less expensive than the costs associated with a large standing army.
     Since the USSR would adopt a similar deterrent, this would lead to the Mutually Assured Destruction policy.
1953 9 "Jewish" physicians arrested for "terrorist activities" in Moscow
1950 USSR re-introduces death penalty for treason, espionage and sabotage.
1949 Dutch court affirms death sentence against SS chief Hanns Rauter
1948 first Supermarket in UK opens.
1948 US Supreme Court decision (Sipuel vs. Oklahoma State Board of Regents) that states may not discriminate against law-school applicants because of race.
1948 Mohandas Mahatma Gandhi begins his final fast
1945 German forces in Belgium retreat in Battle of the Bulge (441216-19450116), the last German offensive on the Western Front during World War II; an unsuccessful attempt to push the Allies back from German home territory.
1945 During World War II, Soviet forces begin a huge offensive against the Germans in Eastern Europe.
1944 Churchill and de Gaulle begin a 2-day wartime conference in Marrakesh.
^ 1943 Soviets make a temporary crack in the siege of Leningrad
      Soviet troops create a breach in the German siege of Leningrad, which had lasted for a year and a half. The Soviet forces punched a hole in the siege, which ruptured the German encirclement and allowed for more supplies to come in along Lake Ladoga. Upon invading the Soviet Union in June 1941, German troops made a beeline for Leningrad, the second-largest city in the USSR. In August, German forces, approaching from the west and south, surrounded the city and rendered the Leningrad-Moscow railway useless. A German offensive attempted to occupy the city but failed; in light of this, Hitler decided to impose a siege, allowing nothing to enter or leave the former capital of Old Russia. Hitler intended to wait the Soviets out, then raze the city to the ground and hand the territory over to Germany's Finnish allies, who were advancing on the city from the north. (Finland would stop short of Leningrad, though, as it only wanted to regain territory lost to Soviet aggression in the Winter War of 1939-1930). The siege began officially on 08 September 1941. The people of Leningrad began building antitank fortifications and succeeded in creating a stable defense of the city, but they were also cut off from all access to vital resources in the Soviet interior. In 1942, 650'000 Leningrad citizens died from starvation, disease, exposure, and injuries suffered from the siege and the continual German bombardment with artillery. Barges offered occasional relief in the summer and ice-borne sleds were able to do the same in the winter. A million sick, elderly, or especially young residents of Leningrad were slowly and stealthily evacuated, leaving about 2 million people to ration available food and use all open ground to plant vegetables. A Soviet counteroffensive pushed the Germans westward on 27 January 1944 bringing the siege to an end. It had lasted for 872 days.
1943 Frankfurters replaced by Victory Sausages (mix of meat and soy meal), in the US.
1942 British troops reconquer Sollum
1942 US President Franklin D. Roosevelt creates the National War Labor Board.
1933 US Congress recognize independence Philippines
1932 France's Laval government falls
1929 Seatrain (RR cars on ships) service begins, New Orleans-Havana
1916 Britain proclaims Gilbert and Ellice Island colony in the Pacific
1915 The US House of Representatives rejects a proposal to give women the right to vote
1912 -47ºF (-44ºC), Washta IA (state record)
1907 Britain grants responsible government to former colony of Transvaal
1906 first time Dow Jones closes above 100 (100.26)
1904 Southwest-Africa uprising under Samuel Maherero against German garrison.
1879 British Zulu War begins
      Lt-General Chelmsford invades Zululand. Although the January rains impeded travel and the tall grasses of Zululand blocked their view, the invaders advanced without taking normal precautions (such as scouts and sentries). The Zulu king Cetshwayo had a well-disciplined army of some 50,000 men. They attacked and annihilated the central British column at Isandhlwana, killing 800 British soldiers and taking nearly 1000 rifles with ammunition. Later, British reinforcements arrived and Cetshwayo fled. The British met a setback in April with the unsolicited arrival of a French prince, Napoleon III's son, in search of adventure. He joined a British expedition, underestimated the enemy, and was killed in a surprise attack in May. His death was an embarrassment for the British. Their victories continued, nevertheless. In July Cetshwayo was decisively defeated at Ulundi. Zululand then came under informal British control. It was annexed to Natal in 1887.
^ 1870 Funérailles d'Yvan Salmon, début de la fin pour Napoléon III.
      Les funérailles d'Yvan Salmon, dit Victor Noir, sont suivies par 100'000 personnes. Les autorités ont pris la précaution d'organiser l'enterrement dans le cimetière de Neuilly, au coeur des quartiers bourgeois de la capitale. En dépit de cela, l'émotion de la foule débouche sur de violentes manifestations hostiles à l'Empire et à Napoléon III. C'est le début d'une agitation politique qui ne cessera pas jusqu'à la chute de Napoléon III, quelques mois plus tard, malgré la démocratisation du régime et l'arrivée au gouvernement du libéral Émile Ollivier. Victor Noir, journaliste à La Marseillaise, à peine âgé de 22 ans, s'était rendu deux jours plus tôt au domicile du prince Pierre Bonaparte avec un ami pour lui demander raison d'une offense à un confrère et le provoquer en duel. Le prince, fils de Lucien Bonaparte, neveu de Napoléon 1er et cousin de Napoléon III, prit très mal la chose. Il s'empara d'un revolver et tua net le malheureux jeune homme. Pierre Bonaparte (55 ans) avait combattu dans le monde entier aux côtés des libéraux. Il avait été élu député d'extrême gauche sous la Seconde République et depuis le début du Second Empire, il se tenait en retrait de la Cour. Il était connu pour son tempérament très violent (il avait tué un homme en Italie). Il sera néanmoins acquitté par la Haute Cour de justice le 21 mars 1870. Peu après l'instauration de la IIIe République, la dépouille de sa victime sera transférée au cimetière du Père Lachaise, à l'est de la capitale.
1865 Union fleet bombs Fort Fisher NC.
1863 President Jefferson Davis delivers his "State of the Confederacy" address
1861 FL state troops demand surrender of Fort Pickens.
^ 1838 Mormon founder flees to Missouri from arrest in Ohio
      After his Mormon bank fails in the Panic of 1837, Joseph Smith flees Kirtland, Ohio, to avoid arrest and heads for Missouri to rebuild his religious community. A sensitive and religious-minded man since his youth, Joseph Smith claimed the angel Moroni visited him in 1823, when he was 18 years old, and told him he was destined to become a modern prophet of God. For four years, Smith said he made annual visits to a hill in upstate New York where he received instructions preparing him for his new prophetic role. In 1827, he unearthed gold tablets inscribed in a mysterious language. Two years later, Smith created a local sensation when he revealed his discovery and made known his plans to publish a new volume of scripture based on his translation of the golden plates. In March 1830, Smith published 5,000 copies of a volume he called The Book of Mormon. More often met with outrage than belief, Smith's revelations nonetheless took root in the spiritually fertile era of the 1830s.
      Upstate New York was already a hotbed of religious revivalism, and Smith's new Mormon religion appealed to Americans searching for spiritual values amidst the bustling economic growth of a rapidly expanding nation. In contrast to the radical individualism of the lone pioneer, Mormonism stressed the power of mutual cooperation and sacrifice for the good of the whole. Nearly two decades later, when the Mormons established their new theocratic state in Utah, this emphasis on cooperation would transform a desert into one of the richest and most productive farming regions in the West. The path to Utah, though, was long and difficult, and Smith would not live to see the promised kingdom. Gathering his growing band of followers in western New York, Smith made the first of a long series of moves in search of a place where his unique vision of a community of Latter-Day Saints could be realized.
      In the 1830s, the Mormons settled in the town of Kirtland, Ohio, where Smith founded the first Mormon-controlled bank, putting his economic and spiritual practices to work. Unfortunately, Smith's Kirtland bank failed during the national financial Panic of 1837, and he fled to avoid potential criminal prosecution by angry and disillusioned former believers, some of whom claimed he had mismanaged their investments. The remaining faithful followed Smith to Missouri, where persecution and rumors (true but exaggerated) that the Saints were practicing polygamy forced them to flee again.
      In 1839, Smith established the new town of Nauvoo on the sparsely populated Illinois frontier, where he hoped the Saints would finally be left alone. Unfortunately, continued reports of polygamy and Smith's decision to declare himself a candidate for US. president in the spring of 1844 inspired fierce dislike of the Mormons in Illinois as well. In June, 1500-armed men surrounded Nauvoo, and to prevent bloodshed, Smith and his brother Hiram agreed to be jailed in the nearby town of Carthage. Several days later an angry mob stormed the jail and murdered both men. Many predicted the religious community would collapse with Smith's death, but under the leadership of his successor, Brigham Young, the Saints regrouped and once again moved west. This time they did not stop until they reached the shores of the Great Salt Lake of Utah. There they laid the roots for a religious community that continues to thrive to this day.
1836 HMS Beagle with Charles Darwin on board reaches Sydney, Australia,
1828 Boundary disputes were settled between the United States and Mexico.
1816 France decrees Bonaparte family excluded from the country forever
1809 British take Cayenne (French Guiana) from the French (until 1814)
1806 French evacuate Vienna.
1777 The Mission Santa Clara de Asis was established. It was one of nine missions founded by Spanish Franciscan missionary, Father Junípero Serra, between 1769-1784.
1701 (Wednesday) The Protestant cantons of Switzerland and, in the Netherlands, Groningen (for the 2nd time: the first was from 21 Feb 1583 to the summer of 1594) and Friesland begin use of Gregorian calendar (yesterday there was Tuesday 31 December 1700).
1598 Pope Clement VIII seizes duchy of Ferrara after Alfonso II, Duke of Ferrara, had died childless 15971027. Though Spain and the empire encouraged Alfonso's illegitimate cousin, Cesare d'Este, to withstand the pope, they were deterred from giving him aid by threats from Heny IV of France, and the papal army entered Ferrara almost unopposed.
1583 (Wednesday) Holland begins use of Gregorian calendar (yesterday there was Tuesday 01 January 1583 Julian)
1493 Last day for all Jews to leave Sicily.
< 11 Jan 13 Jan >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 12 January:

2006:: 363 hajjis, in a stampede in the rush by some 600'000 persons to complete the stoning of the devil ritual before nightfall on this, the last day of the Hajj, at the eastern entrance of the Jamarat Bridge in Mena, Saudi Arabia, after luggage dropped from moving buses, causing a dozen persons to stumble. Some 400 are injured. Hajj stampedes have occured several times, including one that killed 1426 persons inside a pedestrian tunnel on 02 July 1990 and another that killed 244at the stoning of the devil on 01 February 2004. — (060114)
2005 Mullah sheik Mahmoud Finjan al-Madaen, and his son, and four bodyguards, murdered in Salman Pak, Iraq, where Finjan was the representative of Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, the most influential Shi'ite leader.
2005 Mullah Halim al-Mohaqeq, murdered. He worked in the Najaf, Iraq, office of Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, the most influential Shi'ite leader.
2005 Two Palestinians killed by Israeli troops in the West Bank, in the evening.
2005 Two Palestinian members of Hamas, shot by return fire from Israeli troops on whom they shoot when the troops enter their house to arrest them, in the West Bank village Qarwat Beni Zeit north-west of Ramallah, in the morning.
2005 Israeli Gideon Rivlin, 50, and two Islamic Jihad terrorists who are shot after the explosion of the roadside bomb that killed Rivlin, from the enclave settlement Ganei Tal in the Gaza Strip, and wounded 4 Israeli soldiers in whose vehicle was riding Rivlin, who worked for a company that installs security fences in the area.
2003 Eli Biton, 48, Israeli, and two gunmen of the Jerusalem Brigades of Islamic Jihad who penetrate in Moshav Gadish, near Afula at 19:00, and shoot at cars on its main road, then one is run over by the vehicle of a Border Police commander and the other killed in a gunfight with security forces. One civilian man and 4 members of the Israeli security forces are wounded.
2003 An Israeli, and two gunmen of the three who shoot at him at 19:00, after crossing the border from Egypt into the Negev, near Nitzana, and are later killed by Israeli soldiers.
2003 Mohammed Kawara, 14, and Abdullah a-Najar, 19, peaceful Palestinian boys, by missiles fired from an Israeli helicopter at an orchard near a hospital in southeast Khan Younis, which were intended for Hamas militants Raed al-Atar (or al-Bashar) and Mohammed Abu Shamallah (or Shali), who were at the scene in a car but, shielded from the first missile by a tree, managed to escape. A harmless 15-year-old Palestinian is wounded. The Reuters body count of the al-Aqsa intifada reaches “at least” 1779 Palestinians and 695 Israelis.
Cyrus Vance 19 Dec 19902003 Hazem Fanoun, 35, Palestinian who was delivering bread from his family's bakeries, as he was turning into Beit Kahal from the Tarqumiya-Hebron road, shot from 200 meters by Israeli civilian guards of an oil truck, which had been fired upon by Palestinians.
2003 Ziad Halil Dafi, 17, Palestinian of Islamic Jihad, by the explosion of a bomb he was preparing in his home in the Gaza Strip.
2002 Cyrus R. Vance Sr., 84, Alzheirmer's patient, US secretary of state in the Carter administration, who resigned in opposition to an ill-conceived attempt to rescue hostages from Iran. [photo >] Heading the State Department was the highlight of Vance's career, but his duties on behalf of presidents, the Congress and the United Nations spanned more than three decades. He used his peacemaking skills to ease conflicts in foreign lands, racially torn US cities and even corporate boardrooms. He played a key role in normalizing relations with China, winning approval for new Panama Canal treaties and helping negotiate the Camp David treaty between Egypt and Israel. But Vance's tenure also saw an expansion of Soviet influence in a number of areas, as well as the collapse of the pro-US monarchy in Iran and the seizure of US hostages in Tehran. When Carter approved a military operation for the rescue of the hostages in April 1980, Vance resigned. He was right: the operation ended in disaster. Eight US servicemen died when a Marine Corps helicopter crashed into a plane parked at a clandestine refueling site in Iran. The 52 hostages became an issue in the 1980 presidential campaign and were held for 444 days before their release on Ronald Reagan's inauguration day, 20 January 1985.
      One of Vance's most difficult diplomatic undertakings took place long after he left the State Department, when U.N. Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar asked him in 1991 to try to end the war in the former Yugoslavia. He helped achieve a cease fire in Croatia but peace eluded him in Bosnia. His strategy in Bosnia was the subject of considerable controversy. Vance felt strongly that negotiations were the only way to halt Serbian advances, rejecting critics who argued that his tactics amounted to appeasement of an aggressor. He quit in despair after struggling with the Bosnian conflict for almost a year.
      Soon he plunged into peacemaking: between rival creditors of a debt-ridden commercial real estate firm with extensive holdings in New York City. Vance helped the parties reach a settlement in July 1993. Vance retired several years later, when Alzheimer's disease began to curtail his activities
      Cyrus Roberts Vance was born in Clarksburg WV, on 27 March 1917. After graduating with honors from Yale Law School in 1942, he entered the US Navy, serving as a gunnery officer in the Pacific during World War II. A year after his discharge from the Navy in 1946, he married Grace Elsie Sloane, of a prominent family specializing in home furnishings. He joined the New York law firm of Simpson, Thatcher and Bartlett, with which he maintained a relationship for decades. Vance entered civilian government service for the first time in 1957 when he served as special counsel for Senate Armed Service subcommittee on preparedness. Vance became general counsel for the Defense Department in 1961 during the Kennedy administration, working closely with then-Defense Secretary Robert McNamara. He was appointed secretary of the Army in 1962, and in January 1964 President Johnson named him deputy secretary of defense. He became known in that role for his hawkish views on Vietnam. During his three years of service as the No. 2 figure at the Pentagon, Vance was dispatched by the White House on trouble shooting missions to Panama and the Dominican Republic.
     Vance left the Defense Department for health reasons in June 1967 but agreed at Johnson's request to go to Detroit to help assess the cause of race riots in the city. By November 1967, he was leading a negotiating effort that helped head off a war between Greece and Turkey over Cyprus. Over the next few months, he went on a peacekeeping mission to Korea and helped develop a peace-keeping plan for Washington D.C. following the death of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. During the last nine months of the Johnson presidency, Vance served as deputy chief of the US delegation to the Paris peace talks.
      In 1975, Vance and social scientist Daniel Yankelovich founded Public Agenda, a nonpartisan, nonprofit public opinion research and citizen education organization based in New York City.
2002 Five Russian aggressors in Chechnya. Russia sent bombers and helicopters in aerial assaults against rebels in Chechnya, pressing a campaign that has drawn renewed US allegations of rights violations - and a sharp Kremlin retort to the US claims. An official in Chechnya's Moscow-backed administration said today that Russian aircraft bombed two areas in the breakaway republic over the previous 24 hours, while helicopters struck another region and artillery was used elsewhere. Five Russian soldiers and police officers were killed and five wounded in fighting or land-mine explosions, the official said, speaking on condition of anonymity. He said more than 100 suspected rebels were detained in security sweeps. On 10 January 2002 Russian troops lifted a blockade of Chechnya's third-largest city, Argun, following a roundup of suspected rebels that prompted clashes and protests by residents who claimed they were abused by Russian troops. In Washington on 10 Jan 2002, State Department spokesman Richard Boucher said, "The latest information on Russian operations in Chechnya indicates a continuation of human rights violations and the use of overwhelming force against civilian targets." He also said Moscow had failed to pursue contacts with Chechen separatists to reach a peaceful settlement to the conflict. In a Kremlin information office statement carried by the ITAR-Tass news agency late on 11 Jan 2002, Russian President Vladimir Putin's administration rejected Boucher's remarks and said it regretted the tone of his statement. The ITAR-Tass report also quoted the chief prosecutor and the prime minister in the Moscow-backed government of Chechnya as saying no human rights abuses occurred during the Russian operations in Argun.
2002 Mohammed Shafique, 17, in Abbaspur near Rawalakot, about 150 km south of Muzaffarabad, Pakistan, as Pakistani and Indian troops massed along the disputed border in Kashmir exchange artillery and mortar fire. A 10-year-old boy is wounded.
2001 William Hewlett, 87, in Palo Alto, co-founder (with David Packard) of Hewlett-Packard Company in a garage on 01 January 1939. At his death, with $9 billion, he was the 26th wealthiest person in the US.

1998 Ramón Sanpedro, Galician Spaniard, suicide (before TV cameras) by drinking cyanide provided to him by sympathizers of his 29-year vain effort for the law to allow him assistance in suicide, ever since he was left a quadraplegic at age 25 when he broke his neck diving. He was a sailor then. After the accident he became a “right to die” celebrity and author of Cartas desde el infierno (1996). The movie Mar Adentro (2004) takes its name from one of his poems and is a partly fictionalized story of his life.

Mar adentro, mar adentro,
y en la ingravidez del fondo
donde se cumplen los sueños,
se juntan dos voluntades
para cumplir un deseo.

Un beso enciende la vida
con un relámpago y un trueno,
y en una metamorfosis
mi cuerpo no es ya mi cuerpo;
es como penetrar al centro del universo:

El abrazo más pueril,
y el más puro de los besos,
hasta vernos reducidos
en un único deseo:

Tu mirada y mi mirada
como un eco repitiendo, sin palabras:
más adentro, más adentro,
hasta el más allá del todo
por la sangre y por los huesos.

Pero me despierto siempre
y siempre quiero estar muerto
para seguir con mi boca
enredada en tus cabellos.

1996 van der Waerden, mathematician.
1993 A US Marine taking part in the humanitarian relief mission in Somalia is killed; the same day, members of Congress called for a withdrawal of some US forces.
1976 Agatha Christie, 85, English mystery writer (10 Little Indians)
1965 Porcupine, 27, in Washington DC zoo; oldest known rodent
1954 Austria's worst avalanche — kills 200; 9 hours later 2nd one — kills 115 .
1945 41 Japanese ships, destroyed by US Task Force 38 in Battle of South China Sea
1943 Jan R T Campert, 40, Dutch resistance fighter/poet (18 Dead)
1940 Day 44 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

Soviet troops trapped at Kitelä
— Day 42 of the Winter War, January 10, 1939
      Northern Finland: the Russian 122nd division at Salla begins to retreat towards Märkäjärvi.
      Ladoga Karelia: the vanguard of the Finnish IV Army Corps cuts the road connections of the Russian 56th Army in the area of Pitkäranta.
      The bulk of the Soviet's 56th Army are trapped inside the Kitelä-Syskyjärvi-Koirinoja triangle, giving rise to the great Kitelä 'motti'.
      The author Hella Wuolijoki travels to Stockholm for unofficial negotiations with Alexandra Kollontai, the Soviet Ambassador in Stockholm.
      The German war correspondent Otto von Zwehl enlists as a volunteer in the Finnish Army. Hitler hears of this and strips him of his German citizenship and military rank.
      Mabel Bonney, correspondent and photographer for Life magazine, arrives in Finland.

Neuvostojoukot jäävät mottiin Kitelässä Talvisodan 42. päivä, 10.tammikuuta.1940
      Sallassa venäläinen 122. Divisioona aloittaa vetäytymisensä Märkäjärvelle.
      IV Armeijakunnan hyökkäyskärki katkaisee venäläisen 56. Armeijakunnan tieyhteydet Pitkärannan alueelle.
      Neuvostojoukot jäävät mottiin Kitelässä: vihollisen armeijakunnan pääosat saarretaan Kitelän-Syskyjärven-Koirinojan kolmioon. Kitelän suurmotti syntyy.
      Kirjailija Hella Wuolijoki matkustaa Tukholmaan neuvotellakseen epävirallisesti Neuvostoliiton Tukholman suurlähettilään Aleksandra Kollontain kanssa.
      Saksalainen sotakirjeenvaihtaja Otto von Zwehl siirtyy vapaaehtoisena Suomen armeijan palvelukseen. Hitler kuulee kirjeenvaihtajan tempauksesta ja riistää mieheltä Saksan kansalaisuuden ja sotilasarvon.
      Amerikkalaisen Life-lehden kirjeenvaihtaja ja kuvaaja Mabel Bonney saapuu Suomeen.
1938 Oscar Florianus Bluemner, suicide, German US painter born on 21 June 1867. . MORE ON BLUEMNER AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1933: 25 people, in uprising of Guardia Civil in Spain.
1931 Giovanni Boldini, Italian painter born on 31 December 1842. MORE ON BOLDINI AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
1912 Johannes Hermanus Barend Koekkoek, Dutch painter born on 06 July 1840, dies on the 61st anniversary of the death of his grandfather (see below). — more with links to images. MORE ON JHB KOEKKOEK AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1909 Hermann Minkowski, of a ruptured appendix, Lithuania-born (22 June 1864) German mathematician. He developed a new view of space and time and laid the mathematical foundation of the theory of relativity.
1897 Sir Isaac Pitman, English educator and inventor of shorthand, born on 04 anuary 1813.
1891 Gioacchino Toma, Italian artist born on 24 January 1836. — more with links to the story and images of a woman who was decapitated in 1800 by monarchists for having leaked their plot against the Republic of Naples.
1888 Charles Edouard de Beaumont, French artist born in 1812.
1852 Gioacchino Giuseppe Serangeli, French (?!) artist born in 1768.
1851 Johannes Hermanus Koekkoek, Dutch marine painter born on 17 August 1778, founder of a dynasty of at least 16 painters. MORE ON JH KOEKKOEK AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1839 Joseph Anton Koch, Austrian painter born on 27 July 1768. — links to images. MORE ON KOCH AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
1819 Pieter Gaal, Dutch artist born in 1785.
1717 Kaspar Jasper van Opstal, Flemish artist born on 02 July 1654, 1655, or 1656.
^ 1665 Pierre de Fermat, 63, French lawyer / mathematician who is often called the founder of the modern theory of numbers. Together with René Descartes, Fermat was one of the two leading mathematicians of the first half of the 17th century. Independently of Descartes, Fermat discovered the fundamental principle of analytic geometry. His methods for finding tangents to curves and their maximum and minimum points led him to be regarded as the inventor of the differential calculus. Through his correspondence with Blaise Pascal he was a co-founder of the theory of probability.
1519 Maximilian I of Hapsburg, Holy Roman Emperor
1517 Admiral Vasco Núñez de Balboa, 41, Spanish conquistador, beheaded.
570 Saint Nazario, Benedictine abbot of the Cuxá monastery in Spain. Not to be confused with other Saints Nazarius. —(100111)
< 11 Jan 13 Jan >
^  Births which occurred on a 12 January:

1954 Howard Allan Stern, controversial US radio and TV personality, media mogul, humorist, actor, and author. —(070220)
1951 Rush Limbaugh, US influential dinosaurial conservative political radio talk show host. —(070112)
1916 A. Pieter W Botha Orange Free State, President of South Africa
1906 Hirsch, mathematician.
1902 Ibn Abdul-Aziz Saud Kuwait, king (Saudi Arabia)
1895 King Arthur, by J. Comyns Carr, has its first performance (produced by Henry Irving, at the Lyceum Theatre). At the time that Irving had commissioned Carr to write the play, Carr was specializing in Pre-Raphaelite art as the director of the Grosvenor Gallery, so he had many visual images of the Arthurian legends to draw from. For the production, Edward Burne-Jones (28 Aug 1833 – 17 Jun 1898) did the artistic design and Arthur Sullivan composed the music. Carr drew mainly from Sir Thomas Malory's and Alfred Lord Tennyson's works.(Burne-Jones was a great admirer of Malory's Morte D'Arthur). [Le Morte D'Arthur: in modern English _ in middle English] [Tennyson's Enoch Arden, &c. illustrated _ Idylls of the King _ The Lady of Shalott (with Pre-Raphaelite paintings) _ The Princess: A Medley]
1893 Hermann Goering Reichsmarshall/propaganda minister (Nazi Germany).
1892 Kinno Tanoue, Japanese woman, who would die on 30 November 2002.
Jack London ^ 1876 John Griffith Chaney, who would be Jack London, one of the best novelists to chronicle the last wild western frontier of Alaska.
      Born in San Francisco, he was the child of an unmarried mother who had come from a once wealthy family that had fallen on hard times. It is believed that his father was William Chaney, an itinerant journalist and lawyer whose main claim to fame was his role in popularizing the American study of astrology. However, Jack took the name of John London, a partially disabled Civil War veteran his mother married in 1876, the year Jack was born. Growing up in poverty, London nonetheless had a colorful adolescence filled with adventure and excitement.
      From an early age, London struggled to make a living, working in a cannery and as a sailor, oyster pirate, and fish patroller. He also spent time as a hobo, riding trains. During the national economic crisis of 1893, he joined a march of unemployed workers and later spent a month in jail for vagrancy. After his prison term, the 17-year-old London resolved to further his education. He completed an entire high school equivalency course in one year and enrolled at the University of California at Berkeley, where he read voraciously for a year. He dropped out to join the 1897 gold rush in the Alaskan Klondike. While in Alaska, London began writing stories about the region. In 1900, his first collection of stories, The Son of the Wolf, was published. Three years later, his story The Call of the Wild made him famous around the country. London continued to write stories of adventure amid the harsh natural elements. During his 17-year career, he wrote 50 fiction and nonfiction books. He settled in Northern California about 1911, having already written most of his best work.
      Before he reached the age of 19, London sailed the Pacific on a whaling boat, hoboed around the countryside, and joined Kelly's Army of unemployed protestors against American economic inequality. When he was 19, he crammed a four-year high school course into one year of intensive studies and enrolled at the University of California at Berkeley. He quit college after only one year to join the Klondike gold rush, but remained a voracious reader and student throughout his life.
      Although his lasting claim to fame came from his stories of the Alaskan gold frontier, London only spent a brief time in the Klondike in the winter of 1897 searching for his fortune. Like most gold seekers, London's prospecting efforts failed. However, he returned to California with a trove of stories and tall tales that eventually proved even more valuable. London published his first stories of the Alaskan frontier in 1899, and he eventually produced over 50 volumes of short stories, novels, and political essays. His 1903 novel about a domestic dog who joins an Alaskan wolf pack, The Call of the Wild, brought him lasting fame and reflected his beliefs in Social Darwinism. Interestingly, despite his identification with rugged individualism and fierce competition, London was a committed socialist and supporter of the American labor movement. Although his writing was lucrative, London spent piles of money on an enormous house and ranching operation in California; to pay for these, he wrote throughout his life. Plagued by illnesses from an early age, London developed a kidney disease of unknown origin and died on 22 November 1916 at only 40 years old. Recent scholarship has discredited claims made by earlier biographers that London was an alcoholic womanizer who took his own life.
      Jack London's father, an astrologer surnamed Chaney, abandoned the family, and his unwed mother, a spiritualist and music teacher, married a Mr. London, whose last name. Jack assumed. From the age of 14, London dropped out of school and struggled to make a living, working in a cannery and as a sailor, oyster pirate, and fish patroller.
      During the national economic crisis of 1893, he joined a march of unemployed workers. He was jailed for vagrancy for a month, during which time he decided to go to college. The 17-year-old London completed a high school equivalency course and enrolled at the University of California at Berkeley, where he read voraciously for a year. However, he dropped out to join the 1897 gold rush.
      While in the Klondike, London began submitting stories to magazines. In 1900, his first collection of stories, The Son of the Wolf, was published. Three years later, his story The Call of the Wild made him famous around the country. London continued to write stories of adventure amid the harsh natural elements. He sailed a ketch to the South Pacific, telling of his adventures in The Cruise of the Snark (1911). During his 17-year career, he wrote 50 fiction and nonfiction books. He settled in northern California about 1911, having already written most of his best work.
     The optimism and energy with which he attacked his task are best conveyed in his autobiographical novel Martin Eden (1909), perhaps his most enduring work. He wrote two other autobiographical novels of considerable interest: The Road (1907) and John Barleycorn (1913).
     Although Jack London became the highest-paid writer in the United States, his earnings never matched his expenditures, so that his hastily written output is of uneven quality. His Alaskan stories The Call of the Wild (1903), White Fang (1906), and Burning Daylight (1910), in which he dramatized in turn atavism, adaptability, and the appeal of the wilderness, are outstanding. Other important works are The Sea-Wolf (1904), which features a Nietzschean superman hero, and The Iron Heel (1907), a fantasy of the future that is a terrifying anticipation of fascism.
White FangSummary
     Two men are out in the wild of the north. Their dogs disappear as they are lured by a she-wolf and eaten by the pack. They only have three bullets left and Bill, one of the men, uses them to try to save one of their dogs; he misses and is eaten with the dog. Only Henry and two dogs are left; he makes a fire, trying to drive away the wolves. They draw in close and he is almost eaten, saved only by a company of men who were traveling nearby.
      The wolves are in the midst of a famine. They continue on, lead by several wolves alongside the she-wolf, and when they finally find food the pack starts to split up. The she-wolf mates with one of the wolves and has a litter of pups. Only one survives after several more famines, and he grows strong and is a feisty pup.
      They come to an Indian village where the she-wolf's (who is actually half-wolf, half-dog) master is. He catches her again and White Fang, her pup, stays nearby. Soon, she is sold to another Indian, while White Fang stays with Gray Beaver, her master. The other dogs of the village terrorize White Fang, especially one named Lip-lip.
      White Fang becomes more and more vicious, encouraged by his master. He kills other dogs. Gray Beaver goes to Fort Yukon to trade and discovers whiskey. White Fang is passed into the hands of Beauty Smith, a monster of a man. He fights other dogs until he meets his match in a bulldog and is saved only by a man named Scott.
      Scott tames White Fang and takes him back to California with him. There White Fang learns to love his master and his master's family and even saves Scott's father from a criminal that escaped from the nearby prison. White Fang has puppies with Collie, one of the master's dogs, and lives a happy life.
  • The Acorn-Planter (1916) A play about the Nishinam tribe and their encounter with explorers.
  • Adventure
  • Before Adam (1907) Modern narrator dreams visit to a prehistoric community.
  • Burning Daylight (1910) Klondike Goldrush, corruption from sudden wealth.
  • The Call of the Wild (1903) Sled dog's journey of transformation. [summary]
  • Children of the Frost (1902) Klondike stories, including The Law of Life and Nam-Bok, the Liar.
  • The Cruise of the Snark
  • Dutch Courage and Other Stories (1922) Early stories published posthumously.
  • The Faith of Men and Other Stories (1904) from the north, including The story of Jees Uck and The One Thousand Dozen.
  • The Game (1905) About boxing
  • The God of His Fathers: Tales of the Klondyke (1901), including The Scorn of Women and A Daughter of the Aurora.
  • The House of Pride and Other Tales of Hawaii 1912), including Koloau the Leper and The Sheriff of Kona.
  • The Human Drift (1917) Stories like Small-Boat Sailing, essays such as The Human Drift, etc.
  • The Iron Heel Futuristic: fascist tyranny and socialist revolution.
  • Island Tales
  • Jerry of the Islands (1917)
  • John Barleycorn autobiographical nonfiction dealing with the debilitating effects of alcohol.
  • his journalism Non-fiction newspaper and magazine articles.
  • Lost Face (1910) Stories, including To Build a Fire.
  • Love of Life, and Other Stories (1907) Stories, including Brown Wolf and The Story of Keesh.
  • Martin Eden (1913) Seaman pursues dreams of education and literary fame.
  • Michael, Brother of Jerry (1917) A dog story.
  • Moon-Face, and Other Stories (1906) including All Gold Canyon and Planchette
  • The Mutiny of the Elsinore
  • The Night-Born (1913) Stories including War, The Mexican, and To Kill a Man.
  • On the Makaloa Mat (1919) Best Hawaii stories, including Shin Bones and The Water Baby.
  • The People of the Abyss His nonfiction observations of the slums of London.
  • The Red One (1918) Title novella, and stories.
  • Revolution, and Other Essays (1909) and stories, socialist.
  • The Road Nonfiction, his days as a hobo
  • The Sea-Wolf (1904) Voyages of a ship with a ruthless skipper.
  • Selected Works
  • Smoke Bellew (1912)
  • A Son of the Sun (1912) South Pacific stories.
  • The Son of the Wolf (1900) Klondike stories, including The White Silence.
  • South Sea Tales (1911), including Mauki and The Terrible Solomans.
  • The Star Rover (1915) Great reincarnation novel.
  • The Strength of the Strong (1914) Stories including The Dream of Debs, South of the Slot, and The Unparalleled Invasion.
  • Tales of the Fish Patrol (1905) based on his youthful experiences, including A Raid on the Oyster Pirates.
  • The Turtles of Tasman (1916) Stories, including Told in the Drooling Ward.
  • The Valley of the Moon (1913)
  • War of the Classes Nonfiction, mainly his socialist speeches
  • When God Laughs, and Other Stories (1911), including The Apostate, Just Meat, A Piece of Steak, and Chinago.
  • White Fang (1906) Taming of a wild dog.
  • Uncollected Stories, including A Thousand Deaths.

  • Adventure
  • Before Adam
  • Burning Daylight
  • The Call of the Wild
  • The Game
  • The God of His Fathers: Tales of the Klondyke
  • The House of Pride and Other Tales of Hawaii
  • The Human Drift
  • The Iron Heel
  • Jerry of the Islands
  • John Barleycorn
  • Lost Face
  • Love of Life, and Other Stories
  • Martin Eden
  • Michael, Brother of Jerry
  • Moon-Face, and Other Stories
  • The Night-Born
  • On the Makaloa Mat
  • The People of the Abyss
  • The Red One
  • The Sea-Wolf
  • A Son of the Sun
  • The Son of the Wolf
  • South Sea Tales
  • Tales of the Fish Patrol
  • The Valley of the Moon
  • War of the Classes
  • When God Laughs, and Other Stories
  • White Fang


  • The Call of the Wild
  • The Sea-Wolf
  • 1876 Edouard Eugène François Vallet, Swiss painter, draftsman, and printmaker, who died on 01 May 1929, known for his paintings of the Valais and of Vallet. — more
    1856 John Singer Sargent, expatriate US painter specialized in portraits, who died on 15 April 1925. MORE ON SARGENT AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1854 Hugo Petterson Birger, Swedish artist who died on 17 June 1887.
    1853 Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro, mathematician.
    1841 Edward Lamson Henry, US painter who died in 1919. — more with links to images.
    1810 Ferdinand II king of Sicily.
    1800 Eugène Louis Lami, French painter who died on 19 December 1890. MORE ON LAMI AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1763 Georges Michel, French painter who died on 07 June 1843. MORE ON MICHEL AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1751 Ferdinand I king of Sicily and Naples
    1746 Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi Switzerland, educator
    1737 John Hancock patriot (first and largest signature on Declaration of Independence)
    1729 (01 January Julian) Edmund Burke British statesman and political thinker prominent from 1765 to about 1795..He died on 09 July 1797. — BURKE ONLINE: A Philosophical Enquiry Into the Origin of Our ideas of the Sublime and BeautifulReflections on the Revolution in France (1790, here Burke champions conservatism in opposition to Jacobism)Thoughts on the Present Discontents, and SpeechesSpeech on Concilation with AmericaA Letter to a Noble LordSelected WorksSelections from the Speeches and Writings
    1702 Jacques-André-Joseph “le Camelot” Aved “le Batave”, French painter specialized in portraits who died on 04 March 1766. MORE ON AVED AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1628 Charles Perrault, in Paris.lawyer/writer (Mother Goose) died 15 or 16 May 1703 in Paris.French poet, prose writer, and storyteller, a leading member of the Académie Française, who played a prominent part in a literary controversy "quarrel of the ancients and the moderns." He is best remembered for his collection of fairy stories for children, Contes de ma mère l'Oye (1697). — PERRAULT ONLINE: Contes de ma mère l'Oye — See The Real Mother Goose (adaptation?)
    1612 Gillis Peeters I, Flemish artist who died on 12 March 1653.
    1599 Adriaen van Utrecht, Flemish artist who died on 05 October 1652 or 1653. — more
    1562 Charles Emanuel I the great, Duke of Savoy.
    Sainte Tatiana est une martyre romaine du IIIe siècle, devenue très populaire dans les pays slaves.
         A Tinibrainer motorist calls the police by cell phone: “Someone has stolen my car's dashboard, the steering wheel, the brake pedal, and even the accelerator!" After arriving on the scene, the Tinibrainer police officer writes up a full report, omitting only one detail. The officer hadn't noticed that the motorist was sitting in the back seat.
    click click

    Thoughts for the day:
    “Wovon Mann nicht sprechen kann, darüber muss Mann schweigen.” — Wittgenstein, Tractatus logico-philosophicus.
    “Wovon Mann nicht sprechen kann, darüber muss Mann schreiben.” — “Nine-Sting-Wit”, “Trascactus illogico-sophisticus”.
    updated Tuesday 12-Jan-2010 2:29 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.9.00 Friday 02-Jan-2009 17:11 UT
    v.7.10 Tuesday 20-Feb-2007 13:31 UT
    v.6.00 Sunday 15-Jan-2006 17:19 UT
    Thursday 13-Jan-2005 15:57 UT
    Tuesday 13-Jan-2004 22:05 UT

    safe site site safe for children safe site