an 11 January:
2003 Illinois Governor George Ryan commutes all 167 Illinois death sentences not yet carried out, most to life in prison without parole, saying that he felt it his moral obligation to act because of the possibility of error. In 2000 Ryan had ordered a re-examination of the death sentence process, while halting all executions in the state, after courts found that 13 Illinois death row inmates had been wrongly convicted since capital punishment resumed in 1977 — a period when 12 other inmates were executed. Ryan leaves office on 13 January 2003. On 14 January 2003 begins the racketeering trial of his former chief of staff Scott Fawell and Ryan's campaign committee. Since Ryan took office in 1999, he has been dogged by a federal investigation into the trading of drivers licenses for bribes during the period when he oversaw drivers bureaus as secretary of state. Although Ryan has not been charged, prosecutors allege that he knew that aides were destroying key documents that showed his political offices operated as an arm of his campaign.
2001 The US Army releases its No Gun Ri Review, which, for the first time, admits that US soldiers killed South Korean civilians in July 1950, but minimizes the number of the victims, and the responsability of the US. It falls far short of the atrocities revealed by the Associated Press story of 29 September 1999 (some 400 Koreans, mostly children and women, killed 26-29 July 1950)[see also http://wire.ap.org/?SITE=APTEST&PACKAGEID=nogunri], mainly because the investigation gave little or no weight to eyewitness testimony that was not substantiated by the documents they could find in the military archives. President Clinton expresses regret at the massacre, but no apology, and a refusal to offer any compensation to the families of the victims and to the few survivors.
2001 The stupidity of US immigration laws and enforcement may have been obviated in one case. Republican Ohio Governor Robert Taft, a few days ago, pardoned a Yemeni immigrant ordered deported because he was convicted for an incident in which he accidentally knocked off his wife's glasses, the governor's spokesman says today. Ashraf Al-Jailani, 36, a factory worker in Kent, Ohio, faced automatic deportation as a result of a 1998 domestic violence charge, to which he pleaded no contest on the advice of a lawyer. The charge was brought by police when Al-Jailani's wife notified them that her husband knocked her glasses off as he whirled around in his car to quiet children crying in the back seat. His wife declined to press charges, but police went ahead with the case. Both Al-Jailani and his US-born wife Michele insisted the physical contact was an accident and he will use the governor's pardon to appeal the deportation order.
2001 Científicos estadounidenses presentan el primer primate modificado genéticamente.
2000 The British government declares Chile's General Augusto Pinochet medically unfit to stand trial in Spain for crimes against humanity. Londres decreta la libertad del general Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte.
1996 The Japanese Diet elects Ryutaro Hashimoto, head of the Liberal Democratic Party, as the new prime minister.
1996 Cryptographer off the Hook Cryptographer Philip Zimmerman announced on this day in 1996 that federal investigators told him he would not be prosecuted for distributing cryptography software on the Internet. Zimmerman developed his encryption program PGP — Pretty Good Privacy — in 1990 because he felt computer users needed protection from government monitoring in order to communicate freely.
| 1995 AT&T announces that the head of the company's wireless-services
division, Jim Barksdale, was leaving to join an Internet start-up called
Netscape. Founded in April 1994, the company had been managed by the software
wizards who developed the program.
1995 The US State Department accused Russia of breaking an international agreement by making major troop movements into the rebel republic of Chechnya without providing notification.
1994 Los jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de la OTAN acuerdan en Bruselas la creación de la Asociación para la Paz, que integrará a países del ex Pacto de Varsovia.
1994 Irish government announces end of a 20-year broadcasting ban on the Irish Republican Army.
1993 Independent presidential candidate Ross Perot publicly returns to politics
1993 Doctors in Pittsburgh performed the second ever baboon-to-human liver transplant; the 62-year-old recipient did not survive long.
1992 A a military-dominated junta forces Algeria's President Chadli Bendjedid to resign, and the next day cancels the 15 January elections which would have been won by the fundamentalist Front Islamique du Salut. Bendjedid, born in Sebaa in 1929 played a decisive role in the 1965 overthrow of President Ahmed Ben Bella by Houari Boumédienne. Bendjedid was elected president in 1979 and reelected in 1984 and 1988. El presidente argelino, Chadli Benyedid, presenta la dimisión a fin de "no constituir un obstáculo a la unidad nacional"
1991 Congress empowers Bush to order attack on Iraq and thus start the Gulf War to oust Iraq from Kuwait.
1991 Soviets storm buildings in Vilnius to block Lithuania's independence.
1991 An auction of silver and paintings that had been acquired by the late Ferdinand Marcos and his wife, Imelda, brought in a total of $20.29 million at Christie's in New York.
1990 200'000 demand return of Lithuania's independence as Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev visits the country in an effort to impede it..
1990 Martial law, imposed during the June 1989 Tiananmen Square pro-democracy movement, was lifted in Beijing.
1989 140 nations agree to ban chemical weapons (poison gas, etc) (129 nations had ratified as of 991210) [Chemical Weapons Convention Website]
1989 La policía francesa detiene a Josu Ternera, máximo dirigente de ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna).
1984 The US Supreme Court reinstates a $10 million award to the family of Oklahoma nuclear worker Karen Silkwood, who died in 1974.
1984 Salvador Dalí anuncia la creación de la fundación Gala-Salvador Dalí y la donación de 621 de sus obras.
1982 Honduras adopts constitution
1981 Palau adopts constitution.
1980 Se producen sangrientos enfrentamientos en Tabriz (Irán) entre los partidarios de Ruhola Jomeini y los de Clariat Madari.
1980 Nigel Short,14, from Bolton in Great Britain, becomes the youngest International Master in the history of chess.
1979 A pesar de la protesta oficial del príncipe Norodom Sihanuk, la ONU no condena la invasión vietnamita en Camboya, al hacer uso la Unión Soviética de su derecho a veto.
1976 Military coup in Ecuador, President Guillermo Lara leaves.
1975 Clodomiro Almeida, Jorge Tapia Valdés y otras tres personalidades del régimen del presidente chileno Salvador Allende Gossens, son liberados y expulsados a Rumanía.
1972 East-Pakistan becomes independent state of Bangladesh.
1971 Hugo Bánzer Suárez asalta el Estado Mayor en Bolivia.
1967 La empresa italiana FIAT aumenta su participación en la española SEAT, del 6% al 36%.
| 1964 Surgeon General Luther Terry issues the first
US government report saying smoking may be hazardous to one's health.
1964 Panama ends diplomatic relations with US
1962 Nelson Mandela leaves South Africa, travels to Ethiopia, Algeria and England
1960 Chad declares independence from France.
1960 Comienza a construirse en Egipto la gigantesca presa de Asuán.
1954 Amintore Fanfani recibe el encargo de formar gobierno en Italia.
1947 Giuseppe Saragat encabeza una disidencia del Partido Socialista Italiano de Unidad Popular (PSIUP), que más tarde se convertiría en el Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores Italianos (PSTI).
1946 Enver Hoxha declares People's Republic of Albania with himself dictator. Tras ganar las elecciones el Frente Democrático Nacional, Enver Hoxha proclama la República Popular de Albania, que pasa a ser gobernada por los comunistas.
1946 Es destituido en Haití el presidente Lescot.
1943 US and Britain relinquish extraterritorial rights in China
1942 Japan declared war against the Netherlands (whose homeland is occupied by Nazi Germany) and invades the Dutch East Indies.
1942 Japan conquers Kuala Lumpur, Malaya.
1940 Vidkun Quisling solicita de las tropas de ocupación alemanas y de la policía que repriman la oposición noruega.
| 1935 Amelia Earhart flies from Honolulu to Oakland,
California, first woman to fly across the Pacific Ocean.
| 1919 Romania annexes Transylvania. In 1920 the Allies
confirmed the union in the Treaty of Trianon.
1919 3 year old German communist party (Spartacus) crushed.
1916 French troops capture and Serbian army flees Corfu.
1913 Treaty of Urga: friendship and alliance between Mongolia and Tibet which both proclaim their independence on this day. — text — (060623)
1907 The Church of God, headquartered today in Cleveland, Tennessee, and with roots going back to 1886, officially adopted its current name.
1904 Herero people of South West Africa, now Namibia, begin uprising
1892 Paul Gauguin marries a 13-year-old Tahitian girl
1879 Zulu war against British colonial rule in South Africa begins.
1875 Alfonso XII desembarca en Valencia, procedente de Barcelona, y emprende el camino de Madrid para ocupar el trono de España.
1878 In New York, milk was delivered in glass bottles for the first time by Alexander Campbell.
1865 Battle of Beverly, West Virginia.
1863 Union forces capture Arkansas Post, or Fort Hindman AR
1863 Naval engagement near Galveston between CSS Alabama and USS Hatteras
1861 Benito Juárez enters Mexico City, captured by his forces on New Year's day. He is greeted by an enthusiastic populace who welcome the end of the long and devastating civil war of the Reform and the reestablishment of government under the constitution of 1857.
1861 Alabama becomes the fourth state to secede from the Union when a convention votes 61 to 39 in favor of the measure. Alabama had a much closer vote than other states, due to strong Unionist sentiment in the northern part of the state. Had already seceded: South Carolina, Mississippi (09 Jan), Florida (10 Jan).
1864 Rosser's Raid in West Virginia
1863 Post of Arkansas (Fort Hindman) surrenders.
1813 first pineapples planted in Hawaii
1805 Michigan Territory is organized
1765 Frisia bans Voltaire's "Traité sur la tolérance"
1758 Russian troops occupy Königsberg, East-Prussia
1753 Ferdinand VI of Spain, by a concordat with Pope Benedict XIV, recovers rights forfeited under the last of the Habsburgs, Charles II — notably the right to appoint bishops and tax the clergy.
1717 Se firma en La Haya la Triple Alianza.
1693 Mount Etna erupts (one of the 97 recorded times in the last 2000 years, and 14 times BC)
1672 Isaac Newton is elected a member of Royal Society.
1601 La Corte de Felipe III se traslada de Madrid a Valladolid, con arreglo a una orden oficial del día anterior.
1571 Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II grants Austrian freedom of religion
1569 first recorded lottery in England is drawn at Saint Paul's Cathedral.
1565 El conquistador español Miguel López de Legazpi toma posesión de las Carolinas Orientales, hoy islas Marshall.
1523 Martin Luther wrote in a letter: 'It is unchristian, even unnatural, to derive benefit and protection from the community and not also to share in the common burden and expense; to let other people work but to harvest the fruit of their labors.'
1284 En una compilación titulada Recognoverunt Proceres, el rey de Aragón Pedro III otorga privilegios civiles y económicos a los barceloneses.
1158 In Milan, Vladislav II of Bohemia ( which he ruled 1140-73) is crowned king by emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, in whose Italians campaigns he had participated.
0532 Nika-revolt against Justianus and Theodora in Hippodrome, Constantinople
2005 Two Iraqi National Guardsmen, by a roadside bomb against a joint US-Iraqi convoy in Samarra, Iraq.
2005 Eight persons in a minibus south of Baghdad, shot by attackers who also kidnap three of those on the minibus.
2005 Seven policemen and a suicide car bomber at police headquarters in Tikrit, Iraq. Eight policemen are wounded.
2004 Johan Wilhelm Kluver, of melanoma. Born in Monaco on 13 November 1927 and raised in Salen, Sweden, he was a physicist who, after he moved to the US, provided the engineering that helped start “multimedia art” in the 1960's, starting with Jean Tinguely's self-destroying machine, which tore itself apart in a spray of smoke and fire (1960), and including Rauschenberg's sound sculpture Oracle, Cage's electronic performances Variations V and Variations VII, and Warhol's floating Silver Clouds.
2003 Two red pandas, at the National Zoo in Washington DC, from poisonous phosphine gas formed in their stomachs when they ate aluminum phosphide pellets buried in their enclosure for the purpose of killing rats. [photo below: red pandas similar to the dead ones]
|2001 Esteban Vicente, Spanish US painter, born on 20
January 1903. — more
1983 Nikolaj V. Podgorny, 79, president USSR.
1975 Juan Ignacio Luca de Tena, dramaturgo y director de ABC.
1966: 550 die in landslides in slums on slopes behind Rio de Janeiro after rain
1966 Lal Bahadur Shastri, 61, Indian premier (1964-66)
1966 Alberto Giacometti, Swiss Surrealist painter and sculptor born on 10 October 1901. MORE ON GIACOMETTI AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1962 Some 3500 persons, as a thaw causes a portion of the sheer north summit of Volcano Huascaran in Peru to break off, resulting in an avalanche that destroys several villages. The summit of Huascaran is 6768 m above sea level in the Cordillera Blanca, east of the Peruvian town of Yungay. It is the highest mountain in Peru and attracts mountaineers and tourists. In 1970 a severe earthquake caused landslides that buried 10 villages and most of Yungay; tens of thousands of people were killed in one of the worst natural disasters of the 20th century.
1959: 36 persons as a Lufthansa Lockheed-049 airplane crashes in Rio de Janeiro, as a result of crew fatigue.
1952 Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, 61, General (North-Africa / Indo-China)
1944 Conde Galeazzo Ciano, yerno de Mussolini, fusilado cerca de Verona.
1929 Julio Antonio Mella, 28, Cuban revolutionary, murdered.
1903 Henry Watson, mathematician.
1891 Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann , 81, French senator
1843 Francis Scott Key, 63, composer (Star Spangled Banner)
1839 Some 700 people as earthquake in Martinique destroys half of Port Royal.
1837 baron François Pascal Simon Gérard, French artist born on 04 May 1770. MORE ON GÉRARD AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1832 Jean-Claude Naigeon, French artist born on 12 December 1753.
1818 Pieter Joseph Sauvage, Flemish artist born on 19 January 1744.
1775 Yemelyan Pugachov Don Cossack rebel, executed by the Russians
1757 Castel, mathematician.
1693 Some 60'000 persons in an earthquake in Sicily. It is the 6th deadliest earthquake recorded in world history since the 22 December 0856 which killed some 200'000 persons in Damghan, Iran. The worst was the 23 January 1556 earthquake which killed some 830'000 persons in Shansi, China.
1682 Francesco Cozza, Italian painter and etcher born in 1605. — more
1616 Orazio Borgiani, Italian artist born in 1578.
1519 Maximiliano I de Austria, archiduque de Austria.
1495 Pedro González de Mendoza, arzobispo de Toledo.
1494 Domenico Currado di Tommaso Bigordi Ghirlandaio, Florentine painter born in 1449. MORE ON GHIRLANDAIO AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1055 Constantine IX Monomachos emperor of Byzantium
0705 Pope John VI
0314 Pope Saint Miltiades. He has become Pope on 02 July 311, about when an edict of toleration, signed by the Emperors Galerius, Licinius, and Constantine, put an end to the great persecution of the Christians. Then, in 312, the Emperor Constantine (now converted to Christianity) entered Rome, after the victory at the Milvian Bridge ( 27 Oct 312), and later gave the Lateran Palace to the pope, who made it his residence.
1993 Newton hand-held computer. Apple presents a working model of its much-awaited Newton, a hand-held computer, on this day in 1993. Although the Newton spent years in development and was introduced with much fanfare, the product failed to catch on. Hand-held computing did not really catch on until US Robotics, ultimately bought by 3Com, introduced its PalmPilot several years later.
1988 Alexandria, Danielle, Erica, Raymond, and Veronica L'Esperance, quintuplets.
1974 Rosenkowitz sextuplets, Cape Town South Africa (first known to survive infancy)
1952 La tejedora de sueños, de Antonio Buero Vallejo, se estrena en Madrid.
1943 Eduardo Mendoza, escritor español.
1942 Blas Matamoro, escritor hispano-argentino.
1936 Eva Hesse, German US Minimalist painter and sculptor who died on 29 May 1970. MORE ON HESSE AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1934 Jean Chrétien, Canadian Prime Minister (Liberal, 1993- )
1924 Roger Guillemin, médico endocrinólogo francés.
1913 World’s first hardtop car. The world’s first closed production car is introduced: Hudson Motor Car Company’s Model 54 sedan. Earlier automobiles had open cabs, or at most convertible roofs.
1903 Alan Paton, South Africa, writer (Cry, the Beloved Country). He died on 12 April 1988.
1902 Popular Mechanics magazine's first issue.
1899 Maurice Brianchon, French artist who died in March 1979.
1895 Laurens Hammond, US inventor and businessman who died on 01 July 1973.
1891 Jacinto Miquelarena, escritor humorista español.
1891 Tsuru Misawa, Japanese woman who would die os 21 September 2002.
1887 Juan Carlos Dávalos, escritor argentino.
1885 Alice Paul, in Moorestown, New Jersey, chief strategist for the militant wing of the suffrage movement and author of the Equal Rights Amendment. She died on 09 July 1977.
1870 Alice H. Rice, US novelist who died on 10 February 1942.
1878 Theodorus Pangalos Greek General /dictator (1926)
1864 Thomas Dixon, US dramatist and legislator who died on 03 April 1946.
1849 Ignacio Pinazo y Camarlench, Spanish artist who died on 18 October 1916.
1843 Adolf Eberle, German artist who died on 24 January 1914.
1836 Alexander Helwig Wyant, US artist who died on 29 November 1892. MORE ON WYANT AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1831 Charles Olivier de Penne, French artist who died on 18 April 1897.
1826 Battaglini, mathematician.
1825 Spottiswoode, mathematician.
1815 John A. MacDonald, Canada's first prime minister, in Glasgow, Scotland.
1807 Ezra Cornell, founded Cornell University and Western Union, died on 09 December 1874..
1797 (1798?) Carl Rottmann, German artist who died on 07 July 1850. — more
1787 Joseph Rebell, Austrian artist who died on 18 December 1828. [There is no place on the Internet for a Rebell, it seems]
1774 Charles Henry Schwanfelder, British artist who died in 1837.
1727 Franz Sebastian Haindl composer.
1707 Vincenzo Riccati, mathematician
1684 Jean-Baptiste van Loo, French painter, who died on 19 September 1745. — more with links to images.
1632 (baptism) Adam Frans van der Meulen, Flemish artist who died on 15 October 1690. MORE ON VAN DER MEULEN AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1549 Francesco Giambattista da Ponte Bassano, Italian Mannerist painter who died on 03 July 1592. MORE ON BASSANO AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1545 Guidobaldo del Monte, mathematician.
1503 Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola Parmigianino Le Parmesan, Italian Mannerist artist who died on 24 August 1540. MORE ON PARMIGIANINO AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.