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^  On an 11 January:
2003 Illinois Governor George Ryan commutes all 167 Illinois death sentences not yet carried out, most to life in prison without parole, saying that he felt it his moral obligation to act because of the possibility of error. In 2000 Ryan had ordered a re-examination of the death sentence process, while halting all executions in the state, after courts found that 13 Illinois death row inmates had been wrongly convicted since capital punishment resumed in 1977 — a period when 12 other inmates were executed. Ryan leaves office on 13 January 2003. On 14 January 2003 begins the racketeering trial of his former chief of staff Scott Fawell and Ryan's campaign committee. Since Ryan took office in 1999, he has been dogged by a federal investigation into the trading of drivers licenses for bribes during the period when he oversaw drivers bureaus as secretary of state. Although Ryan has not been charged, prosecutors allege that he knew that aides were destroying key documents that showed his political offices operated as an arm of his campaign.
2001 The US Army releases its No Gun Ri Review, which, for the first time, admits that US soldiers killed South Korean civilians in July 1950, but minimizes the number of the victims, and the responsability of the US. It falls far short of the atrocities revealed by the Associated Press story of 29 September 1999 (some 400 Koreans, mostly children and women, killed 26-29 July 1950)[see also http://wire.ap.org/?SITE=APTEST&PACKAGEID=nogunri], mainly because the investigation gave little or no weight to eyewitness testimony that was not substantiated by the documents they could find in the military archives. President Clinton expresses regret at the massacre, but no apology, and a refusal to offer any compensation to the families of the victims and to the few survivors.
2001 The stupidity of US immigration laws and enforcement may have been obviated in one case. Republican Ohio Governor Robert Taft, a few days ago, pardoned a Yemeni immigrant ordered deported because he was convicted for an incident in which he accidentally knocked off his wife's glasses, the governor's spokesman says today. Ashraf Al-Jailani, 36, a factory worker in Kent, Ohio, faced automatic deportation as a result of a 1998 domestic violence charge, to which he pleaded no contest on the advice of a lawyer. The charge was brought by police when Al-Jailani's wife notified them that her husband knocked her glasses off as he whirled around in his car to quiet children crying in the back seat. His wife declined to press charges, but police went ahead with the case. Both Al-Jailani and his US-born wife Michele insisted the physical contact was an accident and he will use the governor's pardon to appeal the deportation order.
2001 Científicos estadounidenses presentan el primer primate modificado genéticamente.
2000 The British government declares Chile's General Augusto Pinochet medically unfit to stand trial in Spain for crimes against humanity. — Londres decreta la libertad del general Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte.
^ 1999 Clinton impeachment developments.

(1) In a day of dueling, pre-trial legal memoranda, the White House and House prosecutors offer sharply contrasting views of President Bill Clinton's actions in the Monica Lewinsky sex-and-perjury scandal. Clinton's legal team rejects the perjury and obstruction of justice charges against the president in an answer to a Senate summons, saying they are not true and do not warrant his removal from office. But House prosecutors say the evidence against Clinton "when viewed as a unified whole, overwhelmingly supports both charges" against the president. Both the White House and the House prosecutors have until 5 p.m. ET today to submit pre-trial motions. The White House submits none, but it is not immediately known whether the House team submits any. The House team does offer the trial memorandum.

(2) Senate rules require secrecy during some parts of the impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton, but two senators are proposing to suspend those rules in what they call a "sunshine motion." Sens. Paul Wellstone (D-Minnesota) and Tom Harkin (D-Iowa) call a news conference and say the Senate's closed-door policy undercuts efforts to convince the American people the trial will be fair. Secrecy rules would apply to Senate deliberations on the two articles of impeachment before any vote to remove Clinton from office. And the public could be barred from seeing any witness testimony taking place in a closed session of the Senate, unless opened by simple majority vote. Deliberations on motions to allow witnesses could also be behind closed doors. "Democracy cannot grow in dark houses," says Harkin, who calls the sunshine proposal a "political disinfectant." Harkin says it is wrong to have a secret debate which could lead to the removal of a president. Wellstone press aide Jim Farrell says, "It's not fair that we might hear from Monica Lewinsky, but then not hear Senators Wellstone and (Joseph) Biden debating the value of Lewinsky's testimony." It would require a two-thirds vote in the Senate to suspend the secrecy rules.
      Harkin acknowledges there is some concern from both Democrats and Republicans about going against tradition. But he says that of the handful of lawmakers raising those concerns, none have adamantly opposed. Harkin and Wellstone decline to say when the motion might be put to a Senate vote. Wellstone suggests the critical time might be after the trial's initial phase when debate is most likely on motions and witnesses. Harkin adds that there could be motions from White House lawyers at any time, which could take place out of public view under the existing rules. Wellstone: More procedural whining Sen. Olympia Snowe (R-Maine) says impeachment framers 130 years ago intended for the Senate to "act in a more judicious way" than what might be envisioned under the proposal. Jury deliberations are held in secret. Snowe says a motion to open the proceedings "would set a precedent for the future," and it might have to be worded to avoid a permanent, fundamental change in traditional Senate closed-door rules. Snowe adds that if those concerns are answered, she "has no personal opposition at all, and

(3) Two unidentified members of the House manager team have a meeting with former White House volunteer Willey and her attorney Dan Gecker today, according to sources who were present at the meeting. At the Washington meeting, they "talked about the possibility of her being a witness" in the Senate trial against the president, according to one source. The managers are interested in discussing alleged efforts by the president's supporters to suppress Willey's claim that Clinton fondled her in a room off the Oval Office, said another source who was present at the meeting. "Certainly no decision was reached at this time" about whether Willey would be a witness, said a source. That is due to the fact that the use of witnesses in the Senate trial has not yet been approved.

1998 Se celebran elecciones generales en Cuba.
1996 The Japanese Diet elects Ryutaro Hashimoto, head of the Liberal Democratic Party, as the new prime minister.
1996 Cryptographer off the Hook Cryptographer Philip Zimmerman announced on this day in 1996 that federal investigators told him he would not be prosecuted for distributing cryptography software on the Internet. Zimmerman developed his encryption program PGP — Pretty Good Privacy — in 1990 because he felt computer users needed protection from government monitoring in order to communicate freely.
1995 AT&T announces that the head of the company's wireless-services division, Jim Barksdale, was leaving to join an Internet start-up called Netscape. Founded in April 1994, the company had been managed by the software wizards who developed the program.
1995 The US State Department accused Russia of breaking an international agreement by making major troop movements into the rebel republic of Chechnya without providing notification.
1994 Los jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de la OTAN acuerdan en Bruselas la creación de la Asociación para la Paz, que integrará a países del ex Pacto de Varsovia.
1994 Irish government announces end of a 20-year broadcasting ban on the Irish Republican Army.
1993 Independent presidential candidate Ross Perot publicly returns to politics
1993 Doctors in Pittsburgh performed the second ever baboon-to-human liver transplant; the 62-year-old recipient did not survive long.
1992 A a military-dominated junta forces Algeria's President Chadli Bendjedid to resign, and the next day cancels the 15 January elections which would have been won by the fundamentalist Front Islamique du Salut. Bendjedid, born in Sebaa in 1929 played a decisive role in the 1965 overthrow of President Ahmed Ben Bella by Houari Boumédienne. Bendjedid was elected president in 1979 and reelected in 1984 and 1988.— El presidente argelino, Chadli Benyedid, presenta la dimisión a fin de "no constituir un obstáculo a la unidad nacional"
1991 Congress empowers Bush to order attack on Iraq and thus start the Gulf War to oust Iraq from Kuwait.
1991 Soviets storm buildings in Vilnius to block Lithuania's independence.
1991 An auction of silver and paintings that had been acquired by the late Ferdinand Marcos and his wife, Imelda, brought in a total of $20.29 million at Christie's in New York.
1990 200'000 demand return of Lithuania's independence as Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev visits the country in an effort to impede it..
1990 Martial law, imposed during the June 1989 Tiananmen Square pro-democracy movement, was lifted in Beijing.
1989 140 nations agree to ban chemical weapons (poison gas, etc) (129 nations had ratified as of 991210) [Chemical Weapons Convention Website]
^ 1989 Reagan's farewell address as US President.
       After eight years as president of the United States, Ronald Reagan gives his farewell address to the American people. In his speech, President Reagan spoke with particular enthusiasm about the foreign policy achievements of his administration. In his speech, Reagan declared that America "rediscovered" its commitment to world freedom in the 1980s. The United States was "respected again in the world and looked to for leadership." The key, according to the president, was a return to "common sense" that "told us that to preserve the peace, we'd have to become strong again after years of weakness." Reagan proudly enumerated the successes of his vigorous foreign policy: achieving peace in the Persian Gulf, forcing the Soviets to begin departing from Afghanistan, and negotiating for the withdrawal of Vietnamese troops from Cambodia and Cuban forces from Angola. These efforts were all waged against communism, the ideology that Reagan believed was the main threat to freedom. "Nothing," he stated, "is less free than pure communism."
      Reagan's Cold War record was a bit more complicated than he described. One of the costs of America's renewed "strength" was vastly increased defense expenditure, which helped create a national debt of over one trillion dollars. Peace in the Persian Gulf was temporary, as the Gulf War — which erupted during the presidency of Reagan successor George Bush — later demonstrated. Finally, the Iran-Contra scandal revealed that the Reagan administration employed some questionable means to reach its anticommunist ends-specifically, a complicated scheme involving covertly selling weapons to Iran and illegally supplying the Contra forces in Nicaragua. Nonetheless, the achievements of his administration gained him much favor with the American public, and Ronald Reagan left office as one of the most popular modern US presidents.
1989 Kindergartner caught with loaded handgun at Bronx school.
1989 La policía francesa detiene a Josu Ternera, máximo dirigente de ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna).
1984 The US Supreme Court reinstates a $10 million award to the family of Oklahoma nuclear worker Karen Silkwood, who died in 1974.
1984 Salvador Dalí anuncia la creación de la fundación Gala-Salvador Dalí y la donación de 621 de sus obras.
1982 Honduras adopts constitution
1981 Palau adopts constitution.
1980 Se producen sangrientos enfrentamientos en Tabriz (Irán) entre los partidarios de Ruhola Jomeini y los de Clariat Madari.
1980 Nigel Short,14, from Bolton in Great Britain, becomes the youngest International Master in the history of chess.
1979 A pesar de la protesta oficial del príncipe Norodom Sihanuk, la ONU no condena la invasión vietnamita en Camboya, al hacer uso la Unión Soviética de su derecho a veto.
^ 1978 Morrison's Song of Solomon wins award
      Toni Morrison wins the National Book Critics Circle Award for Song of Solomon. The award brought the writer national attention for the first time, although she had already published two moderately successful books, The Bluest Eye (1969) and Sula (1973). Morrison went on to win the Pulitzer in 1988 and the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1993. Morrison was born Chloe Anthony Wofford in the steel town of Lorain, Ohio, to a welder father and homemaker mother. She graduated from Howard University in 1953, then took a master's in literature at Cornell. She married architect Howard Morrison and had two sons. After she and her husband divorced, Morrison taught English and worked as one of the very few black editors at Random House. She published her first novel in 1969. After the publication of her breakthrough novel in 1978, she published Tar Baby (1981) and Jazz (1992). Her 1987 novel, Beloved, the story of a 19th-century slave who escapes bondage but is forced to kill her own baby, won the Pulitzer. When Morrison won the Nobel Prize in 1993, she became the first African-American to win the award, as well as the first American woman to win in more than 50 years. The same year, a fire destroyed her Nyack, New York, home-fortunately, she'd left the manuscript of her next novel, Paradise, in her office at Princeton University, where she was teaching creative writing. The book, published in 1998, explored the dynamics of an all-black town in the late 1960s.
1977 France releases Abu Daoud, a Palestinian suspected of involvement in the massacre of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics
1976 Military coup in Ecuador, President Guillermo Lara leaves.
1975 Clodomiro Almeida, Jorge Tapia Valdés y otras tres personalidades del régimen del presidente chileno Salvador Allende Gossens, son liberados y expulsados a Rumanía.
1973 US wage and price controls end.
      Richard Nixon ends the wage and price control program that he initiated during the summer of 1971. When Nixon first announced the program, which included temporary freezes on wages and rents, as well as the end of the government’s twenty-five-year-old policy of converting foreign money into gold, he hailed it as the dawning of a "new prosperity." However, despite triggering a brief surge on the stock markets, Nixon’s initiatives did little to cure the economy’s various ailments; by the time the president ended the program, the national debt, as well as the inflation and unemployment rates were all steadily on the rise.
1973 Trial of the Watergate burglars begins in Washington DC
1972 East-Pakistan becomes independent state of Bangladesh.
1971 Hugo Bánzer Suárez asalta el Estado Mayor en Bolivia.
^ 1970 Secessionist leader leaves defeated, starving Biafra.
      Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, leader of the Biafra secessionist state, flees to the Ivory Coast after Nigerian troops capture Owerri, the provincial capital of Biafra. In 1966, six years after Nigeria became an independent country, the Muslim Hausas in northern Nigeria began massacring the Christian Igbos in the region, prompting tens of thousands of Igbos to flee to the east, where their people were the dominant ethnic group. The Igbos doubted that Nigeria's oppressive military government would allow them to develop, or even survive, so on May 30, 1967, Lieutenant Colonel Ojukwu and other Igbo and non-Igbo representatives of the area established the Republic of Biafra, comprising the East-Central, South-Eastern, and Rivers states of Nigeria. After diplomatic efforts by Nigeria failed to reunite the country, war between Nigeria and Biafra broke out on July of 1967. Ojukwu's forces made some initial advances, but Nigeria's superior military gradually reduced the territory under Biafran control. The breakaway state lost its oil fields, its main source of revenue, and without the funds to import food, at least a million of its civilian population died as a result of severe malnutrition. On January 11, Nigerian forces captured Owerri, one of the last Biafran strongholds, and Ojukwu fled the country. Four days later, Biafra surrendered to Nigeria.
1967 Roman Curia installs Council for Pontifical Study commission.
1967 La empresa italiana FIAT aumenta su participación en la española SEAT, del 6% al 36%.
^ 1965 South Vietnam demonstrations against US puppet.
      Major cities — especially Saigon and Hue — and much of central Vietnam are disrupted by demonstrations and strikes led by Buddhists. Refusing to accept any government headed by Tran Van Huong, who they saw as a puppet of the United States, the Buddhists turned against US institutions and their demonstrations took on an increasingly anti-American tone. Thich Tri Quang, the Buddhist leader, and other monks went on a hunger strike. A Buddhist girl in Nha Trang burned herself to death (the first such self-immolation since 1963). Although Huong tried to appease the Buddhists by rearranging his government, they were not satisfied. In the end, Huong was unable to put together a viable government and, on 27 January the Armed Forces Council overthrew him in a bloodless coup and installed Gen. Nguyen Khanh in power. Khanh was ousted by yet another coup on February 18, led by Air Commodore Nguyen Cao Ky and Maj. Gen. Nguyen Van Thieu. A short-lived civilian government under Dr. Phan Huy Quat was installed, but it lasted only until June 12, 1965. At that time, Thieu and Ky formed a new government with Thieu as the chief of state and Ky as the prime minister. Thieu and Ky would be elected as president and vice-president in general elections held in 1967.
1964 Surgeon General Luther Terry issues the first US government report saying smoking may be hazardous to one's health.
1964 Panama ends diplomatic relations with US
1962 Nelson Mandela leaves South Africa, travels to Ethiopia, Algeria and England
1960 Chad declares independence from France.
1960 Comienza a construirse en Egipto la gigantesca presa de Asuán.
^ 1956 South Vietnamese order to imprison opponents.
      South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem issues Ordinance No. 6, allowing the internment of former Viet Minh members and others "considered as dangerous to national defense and common security." The Viet Minh was a largely communist organization that overthrew French colonial rule in Vietnam and assumed control of the government in North Vietnam in October 1954. Diem's internment of former Viet Minh members was an attempt to consolidate his control of South Vietnam. He had already subdued opposition from various religious sects and had launched a drive against Viet Minh who remained in the South. Although by the end of 1956, Diem had smashed 90 percent of the former Viet Minh insurgent agents in the Mekong Delta, his ruthless drive against all dissidents did little to enhance his popularity, and he lost many potential allies. He managed to stay in power until November 1963, when he was assassinated during a coup by South Vietnamese army generals.
1954 Se firma el Manifiesto de Independencia de Marruecos.
1954 Amintore Fanfani recibe el encargo de formar gobierno en Italia.
1949 Cornerstone laid at Washington's Islamic Center
      On Connecticut Avenue in Washington, D.C., the cornerstone is laid at the first mosque of note in the United States. Intended to serve as a national mosque for all American Muslims, the Islamic Center is built in a traditional Arabic architectural style, complete with a one-hundred-and-sixty-foot minaret in which prayers are to be announced. A colonnade cloister joins the mosque to two wings containing a library, classrooms, a museum, and administrative offices. In the basement of the mosque is an auditorium built to accommodate several hundred people. The Islamic Center's first director is Dr. Mahmoud Hoballah.
1949 Snowfall first recorded in Los Angeles.
1947 Giuseppe Saragat encabeza una disidencia del Partido Socialista Italiano de Unidad Popular (PSIUP), que más tarde se convertiría en el Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores Italianos (PSTI).
1946 Enver Hoxha declares People's Republic of Albania with himself dictator. — Tras ganar las elecciones el Frente Democrático Nacional, Enver Hoxha proclama la República Popular de Albania, que pasa a ser gobernada por los comunistas.
1946 Es destituido en Haití el presidente Lescot.
^ 1945 Truce in Greek Civil War
      Fighting in the civil war stops when a political truce is signed between the British-backed Democratic National Army and the communist rebel National Liberation Front. Upon the occupation of Greece by Germany (which invaded to bail out Italy after its failed invasion threatened to leave Greece open to Allied occupation), various resistance forces gave battle. Two stood out as particularly important: a communist-backed resistance movement called the National Liberation Front and a liberal, democratic movement called the Democratic National Army. While the factions operated within different ideological frameworks, they nevertheless occasionally cooperated in fighting the common German enemy. By early 1944, however, the National Liberation Front took to the hills to create a provisional government, rejecting the legitimacy of both the Greek king and his government-in-exile. It also disregarded its one remaining rival for ultimate political supremacy in Greece-the Democratic National Army. When Germany withdrew from Greece in October 1944, victorious British forces brought together the communist and democratic factions in order to establish a coalition government. This government collapsed after the communist National Liberation Front refused to disband its guerrilla forces. On December 3, war broke out between the communists and the democrats. The National Liberation Front took control of most of Greece, with the exception of the capital and Salonika. The British fought against the communists alongside the Democratic National Army, which began to move more and more to the right politically as it struggled for survival and support. On January 11, the National Liberation Front accepted the British terms for a truce; a month later, the rebels surrendered and disbanded their guerilla army altogether. The peace was short-lived, however, as civil war broke out again in the postwar environment and the tumultuous struggle for control over Greece continued.
1944 Crakow-Plaszow Concentration Camp established.
1943 US and Britain relinquish extraterritorial rights in China
1942 Japan declared war against the Netherlands (whose homeland is occupied by Nazi Germany) and invades the Dutch East Indies.
1942 Japan conquers Kuala Lumpur, Malaya.
1940 Vidkun Quisling solicita de las tropas de ocupación alemanas y de la policía que repriman la oposición noruega.
^ 1937 GM and police attack strikers.
       Twelve days into a general sit-down strike at the General Motors factory in Flint, Michigan, General Motors security forces and the Flint Police Department moved in to evict the strikers. A pitched battle broke out at Fisher body plant #2, as strikers held off police and GM security with fire hoses and jury-rigged slingshots, and the police responded with bullets and tear gas. The many picketers outside the plant assisted the strikers however they could, breaking windows to ventilate the factory when police filled it with tear gas, and creating barricades with their own vehicles to prevent police from driving past the plant’s open doors. Finally, Governor Frank Murphy ordered the National Guard in to stem the violence. The sit-down strike lasted forty-four days, and ended in GM’s surrender to the demands of the United Auto Workers Union. GM was the first of the "Big Three" auto makers to make a deal with the UAW. The era of repressive labor practices in the auto industry was ending.
1935 Amelia Earhart flies from Honolulu to Oakland, California, first woman to fly across the Pacific Ocean.
^ 1935 Earhart flies from Hawaii to California
       In the first flight of its kind by a female aviator, American Amelia Earhart departs Wheeler Field in Honolulu, Hawaii, on a solo flight to North America. The next day, after traveling 3900 km over eighteen hours, she safely lands at Oakland Airport in Oakland, California. On May 21, 1932, exactly five years after American aviator Charles Lindbergh became the first person to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean, Earhart became the first woman to repeat the feat when she landed her plane in Londonderry, Ireland. Three months later, she became the first woman to successfully fly nonstop from the East to the West Coast. Two years after her Hawaii to California flight, she attempted with copilot Frederick J. Noonan to fly around the world, but her plane was lost somewhere between New Guinea and Howland Island in the South Pacific. The details of the plane's disappearance remain a mystery.
1933 In Hamburg, Germany, the Altona Confession was issued by area pastors, offering Scriptural guidelines for the Christian life, in light of the confusing political situation and the developing Nazi influence on the State Church.
^ 1928 Stalin banishes Trotsky:
      Leon Trotsky, a leader of the Bolshevik revolution and early architect of the Soviet state, is deported by Soviet leader Joseph Stalin to Alma-Ata in remote Soviet Central Asia. He lived there in internal exile for a year before being banished from the USSR forever by Stalin.
      Born in the Ukraine of Russian-Jewish parents in 1879, Trotsky embraced Marxism as a teenager and later dropped out of the University of Odessa to help organize the underground South Russian Workers' Union. In 1898, he was arrested for his revolutionary activities and sent to prison. In 1900, he was exiled to Siberia. In 1902, he escaped to England using a forged passport under the name of Leon Trotsky (his original name was Lev Davidovich Bronshtein). In London, he collaborated with Bolshevik revolutionary Vladimir Ilyich Lenin but later sided with the Menshevik factions that advocated a democratic approach to socialism. With the outbreak of the Russian Revolution of 1905, Trotsky returned to Russia and was again exiled to Siberia when the revolution collapsed. In 1907, he again escaped. During the next decade, he was expelled from a series of countries because of his radicalism, living in Switzerland, Paris, Spain, and New York City before returning to Russia at the outbreak of the revolution in 1917. Trotsky played a leading role in the Bolsheviks' seizure of power, conquering most of Petrograd before Lenin's triumphant return in November. Appointed Lenin's secretary of foreign affairs, he negotiated with the Germans for an end to Russian involvement in World War I. In 1918, he became war commissioner and set about building up the Red Army, which succeeded in defeating anti-Communist opposition in the Russian Civil War. In the early 1920s, Trotsky seemed the heir apparent of Lenin, but he lost out in the struggle of succession after Lenin fell ill in 1922. In 1924, Lenin died, and Joseph Stalin emerged as leader of the USSR. Against Stalin's stated policies, Trotsky called for a continuing world revolution that would inevitably result in the dismantling of the Soviet state. He also criticized the new regime for suppressing democracy in the Communist Party and for failing to develop adequate economic planning. In response, Stalin and his supporters launched a propaganda counterattack against Trotsky. In 1925, he was removed from his post in the war commissariat. One year later, he was expelled from the Politburo and in 1927 from the Communist Party. In January 1928, Trotsky began his internal exile in Alma-Ata and the next January was expelled from the Soviet Union outright. He was received by the government of Turkey and settled on the island of Prinkipo, where he worked on finishing his autobiography and history of the Russian Revolution. After four years in Turkey, Trotsky lived in France and then Norway and in 1936 was granted asylum in Mexico. Settling with his family in a suburb of Mexico City, he was found guilty of treason in absentia during Stalin's purges of his political foes. He survived a machine-gun attack on his home but on August 20, 1940, fell prey to a Spanish Communist, Ramón Mercader, who fatally wounded him with an ice-ax. He died from his wounds the next day.
1923 French and Belgian troops occupy Ruhr to collect reparations.
^ 1922 First insulin injection for diabetes.
      At Toronto General Hospital, Canadian Leonard Thompson, 14, becomes the first person to receive an insulin injection as a successful treatment for diabetes. Diabetes had been recognized as a distinct medical condition for over three thousand years, but its exact cause was a mystery until the twentieth century. By the early 1920s, many researchers strongly suspected that diabetes was caused by a malfunction in the digestive system related to the pancreas gland, a small organ that sits on top of the liver. At that time, the only way to treat the fatal disease was through a diet low in carbohydrates and sugar and high in fat and protein. Instead of dying shortly after diagnosis, this diet allowed diabetics to live — but only for about a year. The biggest breakthrough came in January of 1922 at the University of Toronto, when Canadians Frederick Banting, J. R. Macleod, and Charles Best successfully isolated insulin from canine test subjects, producing diabetic symptoms in the animals, and then began a program of insulin injection that returned the dogs to normalcy. Days later, with the help of biochemist J. B. Collip, they were able to extract a reasonably pure formula of insulin from the pancreas of cattle from slaughterhouses, and on January 11, began the first insulin treatment on a human subject — Leonard Thompson. The diabetic teenager improved dramatically and the University of Toronto immediately gave pharmaceutical companies license to produce insulin free of royalties. By 1923, insulin had become widely available, saving countless lives around the world, and Banting and Macleod were awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine.
1920 Llega a Berlín una comisión de cuáqueros de los Estados Unidos para ayudar a los niños y madres jóvenes.
1919 Romania annexes Transylvania. In 1920 the Allies confirmed the union in the Treaty of Trianon.
1919 3 year old German communist party (Spartacus) crushed.
1916 French troops capture and Serbian army flees Corfu.
1913 Treaty of Urga: friendship and alliance between Mongolia and Tibet which both proclaim their independence on this day. — text — (060623)
1907 The Church of God, headquartered today in Cleveland, Tennessee, and with roots going back to 1886, officially adopted its current name.
1904 Herero people of South West Africa, now Namibia, begin uprising
1892 Paul Gauguin marries a 13-year-old Tahitian girl
1879 Zulu war against British colonial rule in South Africa begins.
1875 Alfonso XII desembarca en Valencia, procedente de Barcelona, y emprende el camino de Madrid para ocupar el trono de España.
1878 In New York, milk was delivered in glass bottles for the first time by Alexander Campbell.
1865 Battle of Beverly, West Virginia.
1863 Union forces capture Arkansas Post, or Fort Hindman AR
1863 Naval engagement near Galveston between CSS Alabama and USS Hatteras
1861 Benito Juárez enters Mexico City, captured by his forces on New Year's day. He is greeted by an enthusiastic populace who welcome the end of the long and devastating civil war of the Reform and the reestablishment of government under the constitution of 1857.
1861 Alabama becomes the fourth state to secede from the Union when a convention votes 61 to 39 in favor of the measure. Alabama had a much closer vote than other states, due to strong Unionist sentiment in the northern part of the state. Had already seceded: South Carolina, Mississippi (09 Jan), Florida (10 Jan).
1864 Rosser's Raid in West Virginia
1863 Post of Arkansas (Fort Hindman) surrenders.
1813 first pineapples planted in Hawaii
1805 Michigan Territory is organized
1803 On the way to the Louisiana Purchase
     
James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston* sail for Paris to buy New Orleans. They end up (02 May 1803) purchasing French Louisiana for the United States. Much vaster than the present state of Louisiana, it was the western half of the Mississippi River basin. They paid less than three cents per acre for 2'144'520 square km. It was the greatest land bargain in US history. The purchase doubled the size of the United States, greatly strengthened the country materially and strategically, provided a powerful impetus to westward expansion, and confirmed the doctrine of implied powers of the federal Constitution. [Text of the Louisiana Purchase Treaty]
     * Robert R. Livingston (1746-1813) [statue] Nephew of Philip Livingston (signer of the Declaration of Independence) and William Livingston (Governor of New Jersey, 1776-90); older (by 18 years) brother of Edward Livingston (Secretary of State , 1831-33; US Minister to France, 1833-35). Born in New York City, N.Y., November 27, 1746, Livingston spent his early years there. He entered King's College (Columbia University) at the age of 15. There he befriended John Jay, with whom he later had a brief partnership.
      Livingston served from 1775 to 1777 in the Continental Congress, where he was one of the five drafters of the Declaration of Independence. At the time the Declaration was signed, however, he had returned to duties in the delegate to New York state constitutional convention. When the government of New York State was established, Livingston became chancellor, the highest judicial position in the state, and served for 24 years. In that capacity he administered the oath of office to President Washington in 1789.
      From 1781 to 1783, as secretary of foreign affairs, Livingston transmitted news of European affairs to the Congress. In 1798 he was a candidate for Governor of New York. From 1801 to 1804 he served as President Jefferson's minister to France, which was when and negotiated the Louisiana Purchase. While living in Paris Livingston met Robert Fulton; he later supported the inventor's construction of the steamboat Clermont, named for Livingston's estate. Livingston's last years were spent experimenting with new agricultural techniques and raising sheep. Before his death on February 27, 1813, he also founded and became the first president of the American Academy of Fine Arts and became a trustee of the New York Society Library.
1785 Continental Congress convenes in New York City NY
1765 Frisia bans Voltaire's "Traité sur la tolérance"
1758 Russian troops occupy Königsberg, East-Prussia
1753 Ferdinand VI of Spain, by a concordat with Pope Benedict XIV, recovers rights forfeited under the last of the Habsburgs, Charles II — notably the right to appoint bishops and tax the clergy.
1717 Se firma en La Haya la Triple Alianza.
1693 Mount Etna erupts (one of the 97 recorded times in the last 2000 years, and 14 times BC)
1672 Isaac Newton is elected a member of Royal Society.
1601 La Corte de Felipe III se traslada de Madrid a Valladolid, con arreglo a una orden oficial del día anterior.
1571 Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II grants Austrian freedom of religion
1569 first recorded lottery in England is drawn at Saint Paul's Cathedral.
1565 El conquistador español Miguel López de Legazpi toma posesión de las Carolinas Orientales, hoy islas Marshall.
1523 Martin Luther wrote in a letter: 'It is unchristian, even unnatural, to derive benefit and protection from the community and not also to share in the common burden and expense; to let other people work but to harvest the fruit of their labors.'
1284 En una compilación titulada Recognoverunt Proceres, el rey de Aragón Pedro III otorga privilegios civiles y económicos a los barceloneses.
1158 In Milan, Vladislav II of Bohemia ( which he ruled 1140-73) is crowned king by emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, in whose Italians campaigns he had participated.
0532 Nika-revolt against Justianus and Theodora in Hippodrome, Constantinople
— 49 BC Jules César traverse le Rubicon
      En franchissant ce petit fleuve d'Italie centrale avec son armée, le général viole la loi romaine. Il entre en guerre contre le Sénat de Rome. «Alea jacta est», dit-il . La République romaine agonise depuis plusieurs décennies. Les sénateurs se montrent incapables de gouverner un Etat qui s'étend désormais tout autour de la Méditerranée. En l'an 100 avant JC, un patricien nommé Marius avait commencé de réformer les institutions en créant une armée de métier pour épargner le service militaire aux plébéiens de Rome et aux paysans italiens. En 82 avant JC, Sylla devient dictateur et jusqu'à sa mort, trois ans plus tard, il pourchasse les partisans de Marius.
      Le jeune Caius Julius César, né en 100 et neveu par alliance de Marius, figure parmi les proscrits et doit s'enfuir de Rome. Pompée le Grand, un lieutenant de Sylla, s'acquiert une immense popularité en massacrant Spartacus et sa bande d'esclaves, en débarrassant la Méditerranée des pirates et en conquérant l'Orient grec. Mais le héros n'ose pas réformer l'Etat. Il forme en l'an 59 un gouvernement à trois avec le patricien Crassus et... César. Celui-ci est surtout connu pour sa vie dissipée et ses frasques de dandy. L'entente entre les trois hommes n'est que de façade. Chacun aspire à prendre le pas sur les autres et le meilleur moyen d'y parvenir est la gloire militaire. Tandis que Crassus trouve la mort en allant combattre les Parthes du Moyen-Orient, Pompée reçoit le gouvernement de l'Espagne et César celui de la Gaule Cisalpine.
      Au bout de huit longues années passées à éteindre les révoltes des tribus gauloises, César, couvert de gloire et de richesses, prend la route de Rome où Pompée l'a devancé. Malgré le soutien du Sénat, Pompée n'ose pas intervenir avec ses troupes à l'intérieur de Rome pour mettre fin aux luttes de factions. César, en franchissant le Rubicon avec la XIIIe Légion, n'a pas ces scrupules. Il entre dans la Ville éternelle, en chasse Pompée et soumet en neuf semaines l'Italie entière. Sans rien changer à la forme des institutions, César se fait nommer dictateur à vie, grand pontife etc... Il va ainsi mettre en place une monarchie inavouée pendant les cinq années qui lui restent à vivre jusqu'à son assassinat. Son oeuvre lui vaudra de survivre éternellement dans les mémoires et jusque dans le vocabulaire commun.
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< 10 Jan 12 Jan >
^  Deaths which occurred on an 11 January:

^ 2005 Hossam Armanious, 47; his wife, Amal Garas, 37; and their daughters, Sylvia Armanious [15 Jan 1989–], and Monica Armanious, 8, are stabbed in their heads and necks, in their Jersey City home on Oakland Avenue.
      Their bodies would be discovered early in the morning of 14 January 2005. They were Coptic Egyptian immigrants. At their funeral on 17 January 2005, a near riot would erupt outside the community center of St. George and St. Shenouda Coptic Orthodox Church, on Bergen Avenue, when Muslim Egyptians would arrive to attend “to show respect”. Copts yelled that Muslim Christian-haters were the murderers. Mr. Armanious, under the user name "I Love Jesus", had made anti-Muslim postings on a Web forum, where a Muslim had responded: “You'd better stop this bull---- or we are going to track you down like a chicken and kill you.”
     However the police eventually discovers that the murders were motivated by robbery, not religious fanaticism. In the days following the murders, about $3000 is withdrawn from Armanious' bank account using his ATM card, and investigators later view surveillance video from cameras over those cash machines. On 03 March 2005, two men on parole for drug offenses would be arrested for these murders: Edward McDonald, 25, who rented a second-floor apartment above the family, and Hamilton Sanchez, 30.
      It seems that the two had tied up the four Armanious and were robbing their home when Monica loosened her bonds and recognized McDonald. He killed her to avoid identification, and Sanchez killed the three others.
2005 A policeman, by a terrorist bomb in Samarra, Iraq.
2005 Two Iraqi National Guardsmen, by a roadside bomb against a joint US-Iraqi convoy in Samarra, Iraq.
2005 Eight persons in a minibus south of Baghdad, shot by attackers who also kidnap three of those on the minibus.
2005 Seven policemen and a suicide car bomber at police headquarters in Tikrit, Iraq. Eight policemen are wounded.
2004 Johan Wilhelm Kluver, of melanoma. Born in Monaco on 13 November 1927 and raised in Salen, Sweden, he was a physicist who, after he moved to the US, provided the engineering that helped start “multimedia art” in the 1960's, starting with Jean Tinguely's self-destroying machine, which tore itself apart in a spray of smoke and fire (1960), and including Rauschenberg's sound sculpture Oracle, Cage's electronic performances Variations V and Variations VII, and Warhol's floating Silver Clouds.
2003 Two red pandas, at the National Zoo in Washington DC, from poisonous phosphine gas formed in their stomachs when they ate aluminum phosphide pellets buried in their enclosure for the purpose of killing rats. [photo below: red pandas similar to the dead ones]

2001 Esteban Vicente, Spanish US painter, born on 20 January 1903. — more
1983 Nikolaj V. Podgorny, 79, president USSR.
1975 Juan Ignacio Luca de Tena, dramaturgo y director de ABC.
1966: 550 die in landslides in slums on slopes behind Rio de Janeiro after rain
1966 Lal Bahadur Shastri, 61, Indian premier (1964-66)
1966 Alberto Giacometti, Swiss Surrealist painter and sculptor born on 10 October 1901.MORE ON GIACOMETTI AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1962 Some 3500 persons, as a thaw causes a portion of the sheer north summit of Volcano Huascaran in Peru to break off, resulting in an avalanche that destroys several villages. The summit of Huascaran is 6768 m above sea level in the Cordillera Blanca, east of the Peruvian town of Yungay. It is the highest mountain in Peru and attracts mountaineers and tourists. In 1970 a severe earthquake caused landslides that buried 10 villages and most of Yungay; tens of thousands of people were killed in one of the worst natural disasters of the 20th century.
1959: 36 persons as a Lufthansa Lockheed-049 airplane crashes in Rio de Janeiro, as a result of crew fatigue.
1952 Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, 61, General (North-Africa / Indo-China)
1944 Conde Galeazzo Ciano, yerno de Mussolini, fusilado cerca de Verona.
^ 1944 Franz Kettner, German POW in US, wrists slashed by Nazi capos tolerated by US.
      Franz Kettner, a private in the German army and a prisoner of war at Camp Hearne in Texas, is killed by a Nazi kangaroo court. Internment camps for German prisoners of war were dominated by Nazi enforcers, who killed as many as 150 of their fellow prisoners during World War II. Only seven were officially considered murder. Kettner's wrists were slashed so that his death would be recorded as a suicide. Even the smallest infraction could put German prisoners at risk. Those who talked to guards, spoke English, or refused to parrot the Nazi line were often beaten or killed. American camp officials generally looked the other way because they appreciated the discipline and order that the Nazis provided in the camps. Prisoners who were not ethnically German and had been conscripted into service were particularly in danger from their fellow prisoners. In the later part of 1943, a rash of murders were committed at camps all across America. When Corporal Johann Kunze was beaten to death in an Oklahoma camp for allegedly providing Americans with information, five Nazi sergeants were charged with his murder. They were hanged in 1945 and became the first foreign prisoners of war to meet that fate in the United States. Hans Geller, a prisoner in Arkansas, was killed by his fellow soldiers despite a stellar war record as a paratrooper for the German army. His only mistake was his fluency in English. Eventually, American officials began separating the Nazis from the anti-Nazi Germans, and three camps were set aside for those who opposed Hitler. Despite Nazi threats that those who opposed them would be in bad shape when the war was over, anti-Nazi prisoners were often put in positions of power by Americans when they were repatriated. The Nazis, on the other hand, were widely scorned after Hitler's defeat.
1941 Emanuel Lasker, 72, mathematician, chess master
^ 1940 Day 43 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

Germany halts war materiel en route from Italy to Finland
      Ladoga Karelia: the Finnish IV Army Corps launches the second phase of its counteroffensive.
      Northern Finland: Group Susi launches its offensive towards Juntusranta.
      Abroad: Germany forbids the passage of volunteers to Finland through German territory.
      At the Brenner Pass, Germany has also halted a shipment of war materiel en route from Italy to Finland. The Italian Ambassador has lodged a protest with the German Foreign Ministry. It would seem that Germany must now choose its friend: either Stalin or Mussolini.
      Home news: the public are urged to donate all articles which could possibly be useful to the military to a collection being organized by the Civil Guard on behalf of the Defence Forces.
      Helsinki: the first refugee train organized by the Finnish Centre for Nordic Aid leaves Helsinki for the Swedish border town of Haparanda carrying almost 400 refugees, 300 of them children.
      Foreign Minister Tanner's congratulatory telegram on the 20th anniversary of the League of Nations attracts positive attention around the world. Tanner also expresses his gratitude for the aid sent to Finland.
      William Tuck, a representative of the Finnish Relief Fund established by former United States President Herbert Hoover, arrives in Finland.
      Prince Ferdinand of Liechtenstein arrives in Finland and declares his wish to serve as a volunteer on the front.

Saksa on pysäyttänyt Italiasta Suomeen matkalla olleen sotatarvikelähetyksen — Talvisodan 43. päivä, 11.tammikuuta.1940
     IV Armeijakunnan vastahyökkäyksen toinen vaihe alkaa Laatokan Karjalassa.
      Ryhmä Suden hyökkäys Juntusrannan suuntaan käynnistyy.
      Saksa kieltää vapaaehtoisten kauttakulun Suomeen.
      Saksa on myös pysäyttänyt Italiasta Suomeen matkalla olleen sotatarvikelähetyksen Brennersolaan. Italian suurlähettiläs esittää vastalauseen Saksan ulkoministeriölle. Arvellaan Saksan joutuvan valitsemaan joko Stalinin tai Mussolinin ystävyyden.
      Kansalaisia kehotetaan luovuttamaan puolustusvoimille suojeluskuntien toimittamaan keräykseen kaikki liikenevät sotilastarkoituksiin sopivat esineet.
      Pohjoismaisen Avun keskuksen ensimmäinen pakolaisjuna lähtee Helsingistä Haaparantaan mukanaan lähes 400 pakolaista, joista 300 lapsia.
      Ulkoministeri Tannerin lähettämä onnittelusähke Kansainliiton 20-vuotispäivän johdosta herättää myönteistä huomiota. Samalla Tanner kiittää Suomelleosoitetusta avusta.
      Yhdysvaltain entisen presidentin Herbert Hooverin johtaman avustuskomitean edustaja herra William Tuck saapuu Suomeen.
      Lichtensteinin prinssi Ferdinand on saapunut Suomeen ja ilmoittaahaluavansa päästä vapaaehtoisena rintamalle.
1938 Seven persons in crash of a PanAM Sikorsky S-42 aircraft.
1929 Julio Antonio Mella, 28, Cuban revolutionary, murdered.
^ 11 Jan 1923 Constantine I, abdicated king of Greece, in Palermo, Italy.
     Born on 02 August 1868, the eldest son of King George I [24 Dec 1845 – 18 Mar 1913] of the Hellenes, Constantine received his higher education in Germany. Although the troops under his command were defeated in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897, and he, as commander in chief of the army (after 1900), failed to unite Crete with Greece in 1909. Constantine restored his reputation during the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913 and succeeded his father to the throne on 06 March 1913.
      The brother-in-law of the German emperor William II, Constantine was determined to keep Greece neutral after the outbreak of World War I, whereas Prime Minister Eleuthérios Venizélos [23 Aug 1864 – 18 Mar 1936] backed the Allied cause. The Allied occupation of Salonika (October 1915), Venizélos' formation of a separate pro-Allied government (October 1916), and an Allied demand for his abdication finally forced Constantine to turn power over to his second son, Alexander [20 Jul 1893 – 25 Oct 1920], on 12 June 1917, without, however, renouncing his titular right. On Alexander's death and Venizélos' fall from power (1920), Constantine was recalled from exile by a plebiscite. He had to pursue Venizélos' anti-Turkish policies, which led to catastrophic war in Anatolia in 1922. A military revolt cost him his throne for the second time,and he abdicated on 27 September 1922, in favor of his eldest son, who became King George II [20 Jul 1890 – 01 Apr 1947].
1910 Lorenzo Valles, Italian artist born in 1830.
1903 Henry Watson, mathematician.
1891 Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann , 81, French senator
1843 Francis Scott Key, 63, composer (Star Spangled Banner)
1839 Some 700 people as earthquake in Martinique destroys half of Port Royal.
1837 baron François Pascal Simon Gérard, French artist born on 04 May 1770. MORE ON GÉRARD AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1832 Jean-Claude Naigeon, French artist born on 12 December 1753.
1818 Pieter Joseph Sauvage, Flemish artist born on 19 January 1744.
^ 1788 François-Joseph-Paul comte de Grasse, French admiral born on 13 September 1722.
     De Grasse took service in 1734 on the galleys of the Knights of Malta, and in 1740 he entered the French service. Shortly after France and the American Patriots joined forces in the US War of Independence, he was sent to America as commander of a squadron. In 1779–1780 he fought the English off the West Indies. In 1781 he was promoted to the rank of admiral and was successful in defeating Admiral Samuel Hood [12 Dec 1724 – 27 Jan 1816] and in taking Tobago.
      When general George Washington [22 Feb 1732 – 14 Dec 1799] and the French general the comte de Rochambeau [01 Jul 1725 – 10 May 1807] determined to march to Virginia to join forces with the army of the marquis de Lafayette [06 Sep 1757 – 20 May 1834] against the British commander Lord Cornwallis [31 Dec 1738 – 05 October 1805], Washington requested the cooperation of de Grasse's fleet. De Grasse therefore sailed from the West Indies to the Chesapeake River, where he was joined by a fleet under the comte de Barras. A British force under Admiral Thomas Graves attempted to prevent this juncture by engaging de Grasse's fleet when it arrived at the Chesapeake Bay but was unsuccessful. French naval supremacy in the waters off Yorktown was instrumental in the success of the siege of that city.
      After Cornwallis's surrender, de Grasse returned to the West Indies, where he captured the island of St. Kitts in January 1782. In April, however, he was defeated by Admiral George Rodney [bap. 13 Feb 1718 – 24 May 1792] and taken prisoner. On his return to France, de Grasse published Mémoire du comte de Grasse (1782) and was acquitted by a court-martial in 1784.
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1781 Catherine Lusurier (or Luzuriez), French artist born in 1753.
1775 Yemelyan Pugachov Don Cossack rebel, executed by the Russians
1757 Castel, mathematician.
1693 Some 60'000 persons in an earthquake in Sicily. It is the 6th deadliest earthquake recorded in world history since the 22 December 0856 which killed some 200'000 persons in Damghan, Iran. The worst was the 23 January 1556 earthquake which killed some 830'000 persons in Shansi, China.
1682 Francesco Cozza, Italian painter and etcher born in 1605. — more
1616 Orazio Borgiani, Italian artist born in 1578.
1519 Maximiliano I de Austria, archiduque de Austria.
1495 Pedro González de Mendoza, arzobispo de Toledo.
1494 Domenico Currado di Tommaso Bigordi Ghirlandaio, Florentine painter born in 1449. MORE ON GHIRLANDAIO AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1055 Constantine IX Monomachos emperor of Byzantium
0705 Pope John VI
0314 Pope Saint Miltiades. He has become Pope on 02 July 311, about when an edict of toleration, signed by the Emperors Galerius, Licinius, and Constantine, put an end to the great persecution of the Christians. Then, in 312, the Emperor Constantine (now converted to Christianity) entered Rome, after the victory at the Milvian Bridge ( 27 Oct 312), and later gave the Lateran Palace to the pope, who made it his residence.
 
< 10 Jan 12 Jan >
^  Births which occurred on a 11 January:

1993 Newton hand-held computer. Apple presents a working model of its much-awaited Newton, a hand-held computer, on this day in 1993. Although the Newton spent years in development and was introduced with much fanfare, the product failed to catch on. Hand-held computing did not really catch on until US Robotics, ultimately bought by 3Com, introduced its PalmPilot several years later.
1988 Alexandria, Danielle, Erica, Raymond, and Veronica L'Esperance, quintuplets.
1974 Rosenkowitz sextuplets, Cape Town South Africa (first known to survive infancy)
1952 La tejedora de sueños, de Antonio Buero Vallejo, se estrena en Madrid.
1943 Eduardo Mendoza, escritor español.
1942 Blas Matamoro, escritor hispano-argentino.
1936 Eva Hesse, German US Minimalist painter and sculptor who died on 29 May 1970. — MORE ON HESSE AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
1934 Jean Chrétien, Canadian Prime Minister (Liberal, 1993- )
1924 Roger Guillemin, médico endocrinólogo francés.
1913 World’s first hardtop car. The world’s first closed production car is introduced: Hudson Motor Car Company’s Model 54 sedan. Earlier automobiles had open cabs, or at most convertible roofs.
^ 1908 Grand Canyon National Monument is created
      Declaring that "The ages had been at work on it, and man can only mar it," President Theodore Roosevelt designates the mighty Grand Canyon a national monument. Home to Native Americans for centuries, the first European to see the vast brightly colored spectacle of the Grand Canyon was Don Garcia Lopez de Cardenas, who traveled through northern Arizona in 1540 with the Spanish explorer Coronado. Subsequent explorers also marveled at the amazing view from the rim, but few dared to attempt the treacherous descent into the 1500-meter-deep canyon and explore the miles of maze-like twists and turns. Even as late as the 1860s, the Grand Canyon remained terra incognita to most non-natives. In 1869, though, the geologist John Wesley Powell made his first daring journey through the canyon via the Colorado River. Powell and nine men floated down Wyoming's Green River in small wooden boats to its confluence with the Colorado River (now in Canyonlands National Park), and then into the "Great Unknown" of the Grand Canyon. Astonishingly, Powell and his men managed to guide their fragile wooden boats through a punishing series of rapids, whirlpools, and rocks. They emerged humbled but alive at the end of the canyon in late August. No one died on the river, though Indians killed three men who had abandoned the expedition and attempted to walk back to civilization, convinced their chances were better in the desert than on the treacherous Colorado.
      By the late 19th century, the growing American fascination with nature and wilderness made the canyon an increasingly popular tourist destination. Entrepreneurs threw up several shoddily constructed hotels on the south rim in order to profit from the stunning view. The arrival of a spur line of the Santa Fe railroad in 1901 provided a far quicker and more comfortable means of reaching the canyon than the previous stagecoach route. By 1915, more than 100,000 visitors were arriving every year. Convinced it should be forever preserved for the benefit of the people, the conservation-minded President Theodore Roosevelt designated a large part of the canyon a national monument in 1908. Congress increased the protection of the canyon in 1932 by making it a national park, ensuring that private development would never despoil the Grand Canyon. Visitors today see a vista little changed from the one Lopez de Cardenas saw.
1907 Pierre Mendès-France, à Paris, homme politique, président du conseil. Il est mort le 18 octobre 1982.
1903 Alan Paton, South Africa, writer (Cry, the Beloved Country). He died on 12 April 1988.
1902 Popular Mechanics magazine's first issue.
1899 Maurice Brianchon, French artist who died in March 1979.
1895 Laurens Hammond, US inventor and businessman who died on 01 July 1973.
1891 Jacinto Miquelarena, escritor humorista español.
1891 Tsuru Misawa, Japanese woman who would die os 21 September 2002.
1887 Juan Carlos Dávalos, escritor argentino.
1885 Alice Paul, in Moorestown, New Jersey, chief strategist for the militant wing of the suffrage movement and author of the Equal Rights Amendment. She died on 09 July 1977.
1870 Alice H. Rice, US novelist who died on 10 February 1942.
1878 Theodorus Pangalos Greek General /dictator (1926)
1864 Thomas Dixon, US dramatist and legislator who died on 03 April 1946.
1849 Ignacio Pinazo y Camarlench, Spanish artist who died on 18 October 1916.
1843 Adolf Eberle, German artist who died on 24 January 1914.
1842 William James, 68, American philosopher and psychologist, a leader of the philosophical movement of Pragmatism and of the psychological movement of functionalism, died 26 August 1910, older brother of novelist Henry James (15 Apr 1843 – 28 Feb 1916)
WILLIAM JAMES ONLINE:
  • Essays in Radical Empiricism
  • The Will to Believe
  • The Principles of Psychology
  • Pragmatism: A New Name For Some Old Ways of Thinking
  • Talks to Teachers on Psychology and to Students on Some of Life's Ideals
  • The Varieties of Religious Experience
  • ^ 1839 Eugenio María de Hostos y Bonilla, near Mayagüez,
         He would become an educator and writer, an early advocate of self-government for the island of Puerto Rico. Hostos was educated in Spain and became active in republican politics as a university student there. He left Spain when that country's new constitution (1869) refused to grant independence to Puerto Rico. He went to the United States, where he became editor of the Cuban independence journal La Revolución in 1870. He subsequently traveled widely throughout South America and taught in Chile. He returned to the United States in 1898 and participated actively in the Cuban independence movement, but his hopes for Puerto Rican independence after the Spanish-American War (1898) were disappointed when the US government rejected his proposal for autonomy and instead established its rule over the island as a territory. Hostos returned to the Dominican Republic, where he remained until his death 19030811. Hostos played a major role in reorganizing the educational system of the Dominican Republic. He wrote many essays and treatises on social-science topics and was one of the first systematic sociologists in Latin America.
    1838 Leopold Horowitz, Hungarian artist who died on 16 November 1917.
    1836 Alexander Helwig Wyant, US artist who died on 29 November 1892. MORE ON WYANT AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1831 Charles Olivier de Penne, French artist who died on 18 April 1897.
    1826 Battaglini, mathematician.
    1825 Spottiswoode, mathematician.
    1815 John A. MacDonald, Canada's first prime minister, in Glasgow, Scotland.
    1807 Ezra Cornell, founded Cornell University and Western Union, died on 09 December 1874..
    1797 (1798?) Carl Rottmann, German artist who died on 07 July 1850. — more
    1787 Joseph Rebell, Austrian artist who died on 18 December 1828. [There is no place on the Internet for a Rebell, it seems]
    1774 Charles Henry Schwanfelder, British artist who died in 1837.
    ^ 1757 Alexander Hamilton, statesman, First US Secretary of the Treasury
         Along with fighting in the American Revolution and scribing a number of the Federalist Papers,Alexander Hamilton, was instrumental in shaping America’s early fiscal course. In 1789, President George Washington installed Hamilton as the first Secretary of the Treasury. Once in office, Hamilton set about developing a plan for repaying America’s considerable war debts, as well as establishing the young nation’s foreign and domestic credit. Hamilton outlined his plans in a series of reports delivered to Congress between 1790 and 1791. An ardent proponent of centralized government, Hamilton used the reports to push fiscal policy that expanded the Federal government’s reach and responsibilities. Indeed, he called for the Federal government to assume responsibility for debts accrued by the states, a notion that raised the ire of states’-rights proponents and some powerful members of the business community. However, Hamilton brokered a deal with Thomas Jefferson to secure enough votes to ensure the passage of his legislation.
          In a later report, Hamilton successfully made the case for the establishment of the Bank of the United States, a strong national institution patterned after the Bank of England. Despite these victories, Hamilton was a lightning rod for controversy and criticism. Indeed, his Report on Manufacturers, which drew heavily on works of Adam Smith in its call for protective tariffs to nurture America’s burgeoning industrial sector, was shot down by Congress, though it later proved to be a key influence on the nation’s economic development. By 1795, Hamilton had grown weary of waging battle with the legislators and retired to attend to his private fortune. However, a long string of presidents kept Hamilton on as a key, though unofficial, advisor long after he surrendered his Treasury post. Hamilton died on 12 July 1804. His portrait is on the US $10 bill.
    1734 Dionis, mathematician.
    1727 Franz Sebastian Haindl composer.
    1707 Vincenzo Riccati, mathematician
    1684 Jean-Baptiste van Loo, French painter, who died on 19 September 1745. — more with links to images.
    1632 (baptism) Adam Frans van der Meulen, Flemish artist who died on 15 October 1690. MORE ON VAN DER MEULEN AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1549 Francesco Giambattista da Ponte Bassano, Italian Mannerist painter who died on 03 July 1592. MORE ON BASSANO AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1545 Guidobaldo del Monte, mathematician.
    1503 Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola “Parmigianino” “Le Parmesan”, Italian Mannerist artist who died on 24 August 1540. MORE ON PARMIGIANINO AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
     
    Saint Paulin: Conseiller de l'empereur Charlemagne, il fut nommé patriarche d'Aquilée, en Italie du Nord. / Santos Higinio Salvio, Martín de León, Anastasio.
    TINIBRAINER DICTIONARY: to cultivate: vhat a Scandinavian immigrant might say at a New York bus stop on a frigid 11 January, as in: “To cultivate! I vill go on the subvay instead.”
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