• Brits shot unarmed Irish... • Neutron star dated... • Clinton impeachment... • Cubans leave Angola...• Yanks leave Germany... • Griffith President of Ireland... • Seward Secretary of State... • Soviets trapped in Finland... • Buffalo Bill dies...• Victoir Noir tué... • Tintin... • League of Nations... • Common Sense by Paine...
a 10 January:
2003 Illinois Governor George Ryan pardons four Black men sentenced to death for murder after having been tortured by police into making false confessions: Aaron R. Patterson (born on 10 July 1964, convicted in 1986), Madison Hobley (born on 21 July 1960, sentenced on 04 Aug 1990), and Leroy Orange (born on 20 July 1950, convicted in 1984) are freed this same day. Stanley Howard (born on 06 November 1962, convicted in 1987) remains in prison for another crime.|
[photo: Aaron Patterson listens to Governor Ryan on 11 January 2003 >]
2003 North Korea gives one day's notice (instead of the 3 months required) that it is withdrawing from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty that bars it from making nuclear weapons. It says that it is willing to talk with the US to end the crisis, but warns that a “new Korean War will finally lead to the Third World War”.
2001 Mexico closes a military base in Cuxulja, the 3rd in Chiapas since President Vicente Fox took office on 1 December 2000. In his electoral campaign pledge, he had promised to renew talks with the National Zapatista Liberation Army, four years after negotiations broke down. The rebels have demanded that four additional bases be dismantled.
The Ehime Maru school boat leaves Japan to fish tuna, swordfish
and shark. It would be sunk on 9 February by a US submarine surfacing near
Hawaii and 9 of the 35 on the school boat would drown.
2000 A Florida state family court judge grants temporary guardianship, until a 06 March 2000 court hearing, over Cuban refugee cause célèbre Elian Gonzalez to his great-uncle Lázaro González, at whose Miami home the boy is staying.
2000 America Online, the largest Internet company in the US, announces that it is buying Time Warner, the largest media conglomerate in the world, for for roughly $182 billion in stock and debt. The largest merger in history is expected to result in the combined company, AOL Time Warner, dominating positions in the music, publishing, news, entertainment, cable and Internet industries. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) would approve the deal on 14 December 2000. Few if any realize that the irrationally exuberant stock market will soon see its technology bubble burst, and that the man who now takes most of the credit for the merger, Steve Case (born on 21 August 1958) [photo >], would endure the blame of stockholders until resigning in disgrace, on 12 January 2003 (effective May 2003), from his position as chairman of AOL Time Warner (while remaining on the board of directors and as co-chairman of the strategy committee). Case's resignation would come after those of former Time Warner Chairman and Chief Executive Gerald Levin and AOL President Bob Pittman.
1999 Clinton impeachment developments.
(1) Republican and Democratic members of Congress remain at odds over whether to call witnesses in the impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton. Leading Republican and Democratic senators reiterate that they will take a bipartisan approach to the case. "Obviously we are trying to avoid even the perception of partisanship," says Sen. Tom Daschle, the Senate minority leader from South Dakota, on CBS' "Face the Nation." Sen. Phil Gramm, R-Texas, agrees, saying, "When this is over, the important thing will be whether we can say that we rendered impartial justice."
(2) Meanwhile, Clinton lawyers are preparing for what they call a "vigorous, successful and complete" defense of the president over charges of perjury and obstruction of justice stemming from his relationship with former intern Monica Lewinsky. Clinton's defense team works through the day drafting its formal response to a summons issued by the Senate and a point-by-point rebuttal of the House case and arguments for acquittal or dismissal of the charges.
(3) White House spokesman Jim Kennedy says Clinton will deliver his State of the Union speech as scheduled January 19, even though the trial will be under way. "We have no intention of being diverted from addressing the issues that are important to the country," Kennedy says. But even some Democrats are uncomfortable with the decision to go ahead with the annual address. "I think when we're in the middle of this kind of fact-finding ... it's almost schizophrenic then to turn around and go that evening into a State of the Union," says Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D- California).
(4) The New York Post refutes an earlier Drudge Report with: DNA SHOWS
BILL'S NOT BOY'S DAD: SOURCES By MAGGIE HABERMAN A paternity test
taken by a 13-year-old Arkansas boy to determine whether he's President
Clinton's illegitimate son came up negative, sources told The Post. The
results from the DNA samples taken from Danny Williams and his mom, Bobbie
Ann Williams - who has claimed for years that Clinton fathered the child
during a sex-for-money tryst - turned up no match with the president,
the sources said. "There was no match. Not at all," said a source familiar
with the DNA tests who asked not to be identified. White House spokesperson
Nanda Chitre refused to comment. The Williamses turned over DNA samples
a few weeks ago, after they signed on with Star magazine to try to prove
who Danny's daddy really is. The supermarket tabloid used the FBI analysis
of Clinton's DNA that was in Sexgate prober Kenneth Starr's report - and
came up empty.
1997 Right-winger Arnoldo Aleman sworn in as President of Nicaragua.
1996 Chechen nationalist fighters free 2000 hostages they had seized in Kizlyar, Ingushetia. Russian troops allow a convoy of Chechen fighters and 160 hostages to head for Chechnya, only to surround them in the village of Pervomayskaya. After a five-day standoff, Russian troops would make a massive military assault that resulting in the deaths of most of the Chechens and some of the hostages.
1996 Israel frees hundreds of Palestinian prisoners
1994 Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan agrees to abolish trade tariffs
1994 Ukraine says it will give up world's 3rd largest nuclear arsenal
1994 WordPerfect Announces to Charge for Telephone Support Service On this day in 1994, WordPerfect announced it would begin charging for telephone support. Previously, the company had not only provided free support but also picked up the tab for the phone call through a toll-free line. The move reflected the growing battle for revenue in the software business, as lower prices hurt profit margins.
1992 Apple Computer announces that it will introduce pocket-sized electronic information devices. It would be Newton, the much-publicized electronic organizer that never caught on with the public. The Newton project marked an important shift in Apple's strategy — from providing free or inexpensive software with high-priced hardware, to selling cheap hardware in order to drive software sales.
1991 Japan ends routine fingerprinting of all adult ethnic Koreans
1991 US Congress begins debate on Persian Gulf crisis
1990 Chinese Premier Li Peng lifted Beijing's 7-month-old martial law (imposed after Tiananmen Square massacre)
| 1988 Apple's new software company, Claris Corporation
announces that it will begin shipping its first batch of software, including
an updated version of Apple's MacWrite word processor and MacPaint graphics
1987 Se promulga la Constitución de Nicaragua.
1986 Los GEO (Grupos Especiales de Operaciones) rescatan en Basauri (Vizcaya) al empresario Juan Pedro Guzmán, secuestrado por ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna = País vasco Y Libertad) doce días antes.
1985 Daniel Ortega Saavedra inaugurated as President of Nicaragua.
1984 US establishes full diplomatic relations with Vatican after 117 years.
1983 Astrónomos británicos descubren un nuevo pulsar con una capacidad energética mayor que la del Sol.
1982 -17ºF (27.2ºC) in Braemar Grampian (equals UK record)
1981 El Salvador guerrilla group FMLN opens "general offensive" La guerrilla salvadoreña anuncia el comienzo de una ofensiva final contra el Gobierno.
1976 El general portugués Antonio de Spínola es expulsado de España.
1972 El jeque Mujibur Rahman es designado jefe de gobierno de Bangladesh.
1967 US President Johnson, in his 4th annual State of the Union address to Congress, asks for enactment of a 6% surcharge on personal and corporate income taxes to help support the Vietnam War for two years, or "for as long as the unusual expenditures associated with our efforts continue." Congress would pass the surcharge almost a year later. The US expenditure in Vietnam for fiscal year 1967 would be $21 billion.
1966 Julian Bond denied seat in Georgia legislature for opposing Vietnam War
1964 Panama severs diplomatic relations with US.
1964 Battles between moslems and hindus in Calcutta
1961 Dionisio Ridruejo, José María Gil Robles, Enrique Tierno Galván y otros intelectuales escriben una carta al presidente de Estados Unidos, Kennedy, exponiendo el problema de la necesaria democratización de España.
1957 Anthony Eden resigns and Harold Macmillan becomes Prime Minister of the UK.
1951 United Nations headquarters opens in Manhattan NY
1951 Donald Howard Rogers pilots the first passenger jet flight (from Chicago to New York City).
1950 Para protestar contra la presencia de Formosa en el Consejo de Seguridad, la URSS practica la "política de la silla vacía".
1947 La ONU asume la vigilancia de la ciudad libre de Trieste.
1947 British stop ships Independence and In-Gathering from landing in Israel
1944 British troops conquer Maungdaw, Burma
1943 Russian offensive against German 6th/4th Armies near Stalingrad
1942 Japan invades North-Celebes, Dutch East Indies.
1942 En Paraguay, el general Higinio Moríñigo disuelve el Partido Liberal y queda sin oposición.
1928 Soviet Union orders exile of Leon Trotsky. León Trotski y 30 miembros de la oposición de izquierda son expulsados de Moscú.
1927 Se extiende por toda Europa una gran epidemia de gripe.
1925 France-Saarland forms
1923 Lithuania seizes and annexes country of Memel
1923 Last US troops leave Rhineland (Germany)
1920 League of Nations' first meeting. Se crea la Sociedad de Naciones.
1920 Treaty of Versailles in effect. Entra en vigor el Tratado de Versalles, para tratar de solucionar los problemas surgidos de la guerra 1914-1918.
1916 Russian offensive in Caucasus
1912 Caillaux government in France resigns.
1911 Major Jimmie Erickson took the first photograph from an airplane while flying over San Diego, CA.
1904 Se celebran varios mítines protestando por el nombramiento del padre Nozaleda.
1889 Ivory Coast declared a protectorate of France
1874 En España el Gobierno provisional del general Francisco Serrano y Dominguez ordena la disolución de la Internacional Obrera y su prensa.
1863 January uprising begins in Poland
1863 The Metropolitan (commonly called the Underground), world's first underground passenger railway, opens in London. En Londres entra en servicio el primer ferrocarril metropolitano.
1863 Engagement of Post of Arkansas (Fort Hindman), Arkansas
1862 Battle of Big Sandy River KY (Middle Creek)
1862 Battle of Romney WV
1861 US forts and property seized by Mississippi
1861 Florida becomes 3rd state to secede from US (South Carolina was first, Mississippi second) when a state convention votes 62 to 7 in favor of the measure.
1839 Tea from India first arrives in UK.
1822 Se firma la Declaración de Independencia de Grecia.
1811 Louisiana slaves rebel in 2 parishes.
1810 Acting beyond their authority, coerced by Napoléon I, the ecclesiastical council and the diocesan authorities of Paris consent to declare null the emperor's marriage with Joséphine.
1806 Dutch in Cape Town, South African surrender to the British
1663 King Charles II confirms charter of Royal African Company
1642 King Charles I and family flee London for Oxford
0236 Saint Fabian begins his reign as Pope
0069 Roman emperor Galba adopts Marcus Piso Licinianus as his successor instead of the former governor of Lusitania, Otho. Otho won the support of the Praetorians, who on 69BC January 15 killed both Galba and Piso in the Forum. Galba had refused to pay the Praetorians the reward that they claimed for having deserted Nero (who then commited suicide) in favor of Galba.
— 0049 BC- Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, invades Italy.
2007 Keith Lord Snyder, 55, is found dead in the garage of his home at 506 Melrose Avenue in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in a car with the engine running. He had failed to appear at 09:00 (14:00 UT) for the third day of his trial on charges of having photographed teenaged boys scantily clad, first made in September 2005, soon after which he was suspended as a teacher at Southern Lehigh High School. —(070115)
2006 Cornelius Yates, 44, soon after being injured by a 150-cu.m rock which broke loose from the mine roof at 15:11 (20:11 UT) about 300 meters inside Maverick Mining LLC's No. 1 mine on Powder House Road near Pikeville, Kentucky, where he was working as a roof bolter. — (060111)
2005 Michael Anthony Alvis, 53; Charles Womack, 51; John Murray Morgan, 56; Vanessa Bryson, 28; Christina Kennedy, 61; Patrick Roderick, 47; Michelle Wallet, 37 and her daughters Hanna Wallet, 10, Raven Wallet, 6, and Paloma Wallet, 2; in a 13:10 (21:10 UT) landslide which engulfs 15 houses in La Conchita (260 inhabitants), California, following 4 days of rain. [photo >]. Jimmy Wallet, Michelle's husband, was away from his house getting ice cream; he is left with only one child, Jasmine Wallet, 16, who was not home either. The landslide went across Highway 101 on the mountainside above La Conchita, which was already closed by previous small landslides.
2005 Arthur C. Walworth, 101, US author of: Woodrow Wilson, Vol. I: American Prophet _ Vol. II: World Prophet (1958) — America's moment, 1918: American diplomacy at the end of World War I (1977) — Wilson and his peacemakers: American diplomacy at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 (1986) — Black Ships Off Japan: The Story of Commodore Perry's Expedition (1946) .
2005 Four persons including a suicide police-car bomber at a police compound in Baghdad, Iraq.
2005 Two US soldiers, by a roadside bomb powerful enough to destroyed their heavily armored Bradley Fighting Vehicle, in Baghdad, Iraq. Four US soldiers are wounded.
2005 Brigadier Amer Nayef and his son, respectively the second-ranking police commander in Baghdad, Iraq, and a policeman; riddled with bullets as they leave their home in the Dora neighborhood of Baghdad.
2004 Dr. Harriet B. Braiker, 55, of pneumonia, clinical psychologist and author of self-help books. In The Type E Woman (1986), she described the stresses of balancing a career and family; "E" meant trying to be "everything to everybody"; it was a response to research into the Type A personality associated with hard-driving men. In The Disease to Please she described a destructive propensity that drives people, usually women, to serve others to the detriment of their own well-being. The September 11 Syndrome (Jan 2002) prescribes steps to control feelings of helplessness and anxiety awakened by terrorism. Her last book, Who's Pulling Your Strings? (2003), was a study of manipulation.
2004 Six Iraqis when British occupation troops and Iraqi collaborationist police fire at hundreds of demonstrators protesting unemployment, in Amarah, Iraq. Eight demonstrators are wounded. Some of the demonstrators had been throwing stones.
2004 Lay Kong, 42, shot by seven AK47 bullets, at 19:35 as he was working underneath his house in Chompou village, Chork commune, Oraing Ov district, Kampong Cham province. Cambodia, where he was the local leader of the opposition Sam Rainsy Party.
2004 Filipino Airman Ryan Cabilda, Air Force Sgt. Edgardo Micoa, T/Sgt. Carlito Paraiso, Sgt. Edgardo Mitua, and Sgt. Erwin Rigos; and three “New People's Army” guerillas among some 50 attacking at 02:00 (18:00 UT 09 Jan) the 600-MW coal-fired thermal power plant in Calaca, Philippines. Six government soldiers are wounded. The attackers are repulsed by 03:00 without having succeeded in destroying the power plant. The 8800-strong NPA is the guerilla force of the Communist Party of the Philippines and has been waging a Maoist rebellion since December 1969. Their spokesman Gregorio Rosal holds frequent press conferences, including one later on this day.
2003 Burton Feldman, 76, of cancer, US historian. Author of The Nobel Prize: A History of Genius, Controversy, and Prestige (October 2000), in which he writes that Sully Prudhomme, a French poet, critic and philosophical writer who won the Nobel prize for literature in 1901, was “as forgettable a poet as can be found in the Nobel's long list of mediocrities.” He observes that Nobel prizes are awarded for more reasons than excellence alone, and sometimes go to mediocrities or worse, such as the 1949 prize in medicine (shared with Walter Rudolf Hess [17 Mar 1881-12 Aug 1973]) to Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz [29 Nov 1874-1955], who introduced in 1936 the lobotomy, while Émile-Édouard-Charles-Antoine Zola [02 Apr 1840 – 28 Sep 1902], Edwin Powell Hubble [20 Nov 1889 – 28 Sep 1953], Mohandas Karamchand “Mahatma” Gandhi [02 Oct 1869 – 30 Jan 1948], etc never got a Nobel prize.
2001 Noah, Asian gaur, 2 days old, of dysentery. He had been produced from a cell from a dead gaur implanted into a cow's egg (cleared of cow DNA) and gestated by a cow, the first trans-species gestation.
2001 Lightbulb, over 60 years old (judging from its shape), in Martin and Newby electrical shop's toilet, Ipswich, England. (date of report by Daily Mail).
1986 Jaroslav Seifert, escritor checoslovaco.
1984 Suvanna Phuma, 82, premier of Laos
1984 Bosanquet, mathematician.
1978 Pedro Joaquín Chamorro, director de La Prensa en Nicaragua.
1971 Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel, 87, French fashion designer.
1969 The Saturday Evening Post, 147, (final issue).
1962 Some 3500 as eruption of Mount Huascaran in Peru destroys Ranrahirca and 7 other villages.
1961 Dashiell Hammett, escritor estadounidense.
1957 Gabriela Mistral, 67, Chilean poet (Nobel Prize 1945)
1954:: 35 persons as a BOAC flight BA781 from Rome to London, a De Havilland Comet 1 jet, crashes in flames from an altitude of 8200 meters, into the Tyrrhenian Sea near the Italian island of Elba. This very same plane (registration G-ALYP) made the world's first scheduled jet passenger flight on 02 May 1952, from London to South Africa.
1951 Harry Sinclair Lewis, 67, US writer (Nobel 1930)
1949 Émile Othon Achille Friesz, French Fauvist painter of landscapes, figures, and still lifes; teacher; and illustrator; born on 06 February 1879. MORE ON FRIESZ AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1947 392 of 637 aboard Greek steamer Himara which strikes a wartime mine in Saronic Gulf south of Athens.
1944 Fiske, mathematician.
1943 Agustin Pedro Justo y Rolón, born on 26 February 1876, Argentinian general and conservative president (20 Feb 1932 - 20 Feb 1938). He was elected by fraud in November 1931. During the early years of his administration, he was faced with the political and economic reconstruction of his country, weakened by revolution and the world economic depression. He inaugurated what amounted to a police state, though his presidential acts were considered more moderate than those of his predecessor, José Félix Uriburu [20 Jul 1868 – 29 Apr 1932]. During the second World War, Justo opposed the policy of neutrality of President Ramón Castillo [20 Nov 1873 – 10 Oct 1944], and urged Argentina to declare war on the Axis powers. After Brazil declared war on Germany and Italy (22 August 1942), Justo accepted a commission as a general in the Brazilian army. His death removed Castillo's most formidable foe from the Argentine political arena. — (060111)
1941 Schur, mathematician.
1941 John Lavery, Irish painter born on 20 March 1856. MORE ON LAVERY AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
| 1920 Paul Wilhelm Keller-Reutlingen, German artist
born on 02 February 1854.
1894 Federico de Madrazo y Küntz, Spanish painter born on 19 (09?) February 1815. MORE ON MADRAZO AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1894 Karl Friedrich Heinrich Werner, German artist born on 04 October 1808.
1893 Karl Morgenstern, German artist born on 25 October 1811.
1892 Charles Louis Lucien Müller, French artist born on 22 December 1815.
1890 Johann Baptist Reiter, Austrian artist born on 04 July 1813.
1883 Fire at uninsured Newhall Hotel in Milwaukee WI kills 71; General Tom Thumb of P T Barnum fame, escapes unhurt.
1851 Esteban Echeverría, escritor y político argentino.
1843 Puissant, mathematician.
1833 Adrien-Marie Legendre, 80, mathematician.
1778 Carolus Linæus "Carl von Linné", 70, Swedish botanist/explorer
1775 Jemeljan Pugatshov Russian kosak leader / "czar Peter III"
1760 Félix Anton Scheffler, German artist born on 29 August 1701.
1276 Gregorius X, 65, [Teobaldo Visconti]. When elected pope 12710901, he was not yet a priest, and he was away on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. It was only by 12720319 that he was able to get back to Rome and be ordained a priest, then consecrated pope 8 days later.
0976 John I Tzimisces, 51, co-emperor of Byzantium (969-76)
0681 Pope Saint Agatho dies before the decrees of the council of Constantinople arrive in Rome for his approval. The Sixth Ecumenical Council, held in 680, was presided by the papal legates and it practically ended the Monothelite heresy.
1956 Antonio Muñoz Molina, escritor y periodista español.
1954 Margarita Mariscal de Gante y Mirón, ministra de Justicia española.
1932 El Partido Conservador de la República es fundado en España por Miguel Maura.
1929 Tintin au pays des Soviets
est créé par Hergé
La parution d’un livre qui marque le début de la carrière internationale d’un jeune reporter qui fera parler de lui auprès des jeunes de 7 à 77 ans. :.
Bruxelles, le 10 janvier 1929... Tintin, le reporter du Petit Vingtième se rend à Moscou. Dénoncant les excès du régime communiste tel que perçu en Belgique au début de ce siècle et les tentatives d'assassinat de la Guépéou, il rentrera victorieux à Bruxelles où une foule, réelle cette fois, viendra l'accueillir sur le quai de le gare.
Certes, Hergé (Georges Remi) avait déjà occupé les pages de quelques revues pour jeunes avant de publier la première planche du Pays des Soviets dans le "Petit XX", mais c’est la première "professionnelle"! Le dessinateur belge Georges Rémi, dit Hergé (nom composé à partir des initiales), a une enfance marquée par le scoutisme. Son grade de chef de patrouille et un talent déjà affirmé pour le dessin lui valent de collaborer à Boy-Scout, organe des scouts catholiques belges. Sa première bande dessinée, publiée dans ce journal en 1926, s’appelle Totor, chef de la patrouille des Hannetons.
À son retour du service militaire, Hergé entre au XXe Siècle, "journal catholique et national" (journal de droite, proche de Maurras, en France) dont le directeur lui confie la page destinée aux enfants. Après quelques histoires dont la plus connue demeure "Les Exploits de Quick et Flupke", il réalise, en 1930, la première aventure de Tintin: Tintin au pays des Soviets. Il est alors influencé par Benjamin Rabier ("Gédéon, le canard"), Alain Saint-Ogan ("Zig et Puce") et Geo Mc Manus ("La Famille Illico") mais aussi par Pinchon ("Bécassine").
Le personnage de Tintin va très vite connaître un vif succès et deviendra l’un des héros imaginaires de l’époque contemporaine. Un retour fictif de Tintin, après ses exploits en Russie, organisé à la gare de Bruxelles, attire un nombre important d’enfants. C’est le départ d’une série de trente-deux albums qui s’achèvera, en 1976, avec Tintin et les Picaros.
Hergé cherchera, par intermittence, à créer d’autres personnages: Popol et Virginie, Les Aventures de Jo, Zette et Jocko, Le Stratonef H 22, La Vallée des cobras. Aucune de ces fictions n’a approché, même de très loin, le succès dont Tintin est encore l’objet. En avançant dans les aventures du reporter-détective et de son chien Milou, Hergé ajoute à son récit des personnages savoureux qui personnifient de manière cocasse des lieux communs: le professeur Tournesol, image du savant sourd et distrait manifestement inspiré du professeur Picard qui bénéficiait alors d’une certaine notoriété, le capitaine Haddock, très porté sur l’alcool, qui invente des jurons, le couple policier que forment les Dupond-Dupont, dont l’un des membres reprend, en écho, les déclarations de son collègue. Tintin, lui, est directement issu des expériences scoutes de son auteur. Il est courageux et épris de justice, mais se pose, tout au moins à ses débuts, comme un défenseur des idées et de la morale établies. D’ailleurs, le deuxième album, Tintin au Congo, reflète les préjugés des Blancs colonisateurs à l’égard des Africains colonisés.
Par la suite, le contenu va notablement évoluer: Hergé s’appuyera sur des données psychologiques et ethnologiques plus sûres. Le Lotus bleu (1936), à cet égard, représente le tournant. Il a d’ailleurs été influencé par un jeune chinois, Tchang (que l’on retrouve dans Tintin au Tibet), un étudiant aux Beaux-Arts de Bruxelles que son aumônier scout lui a présenté et auquel il va se lier d’une amitié indéfectible. Mais aussi le faire entrer dans une humanité plus réelle (les massacres et les exactions des Japonais en Chine, le manque de conscience et de courage des grandes nations, le cirque de la Société des Nations, la drogue comme instrument de pouvoir etc.)
Si bien que son héros devient un véritable mythe dans cette deuxième moitié du XX° siècle. Près de 300 millions d’albums vendus. Près de 100 millions depuis 22 ans, depuis 1976, depuis le dernier album (Tintin chez les Picaros). Tintin entre d’ailleurs à l’université. Il y a plusieurs chaires de Tintinophilie, dont une à La Sorbonne. Les ethnologues, les sociologues et autres spécialistes de la "psy" s’en sont emparés.
Et parallèlement, l’exploitation de son image à des fins commerciales. Plus de 75 sociétés (publicité, jouets, livres etc) exploitaient encore il y a 5 ans une licence (vendue chèrement) Tintin. Mais depuis 1996, une société ("Moulinsart") gère drastiquement les droits dérivés et protège les héritiers et ayants droit. La veuve d’Hergé (sa deuxième femme) Fanny Rodwell et son deuxième mari, Nick Rodwell gèrent "Moulinsart" de façon autoritaire et ont cassé les contrats de la plupart de des firmes pour "non-respect" de l’œuvre du créateur. La société occupe plus de 50 personnes et pourchasse toute contrefaçon, tout écart par rapport à l’œuvre initiale. Elle est plus que milliardaire et de ce fait crée un esprit qui n’est plus dans le sens du héros de Hergé ni du rêve des enfants de 7 à 77 ans.
| A la "naissance" de Tintin,
Georges Remi avait à peine vingt un ans. Il signait déjà Hergé depuis des
années. En effet, au cours de ses études au Collège, il s’était distingué
comme illustrateur et avait publié ses premiers dessins dans une revue scoute.
Employé au Service des abonnements d’un quotidien belge catholique,
Le Vingtième Siècle, et caressant le secret espoir d’y devenir un jour
grand reporter, il s’y était fait remarquer par ses qualités de dessinateur.
Le directeur du journal lui avait confié la responsabilité d’un supplément
hebdomadaire pour les jeunes: Le Petit Vingtième. Hergé, qui y
faisait tout ou presque tout, avait entrepris d’illustrer une histoire dont
le scénario sans queue ni tête lui avait été imposé. C’est de la lassitude
pour cette tâche sans intérêt qu’est né Tintin. Non content d’avoir créé
un héros bien à lui, le jeune Hergé, qui avait lu les "comics" américains,
voulait aussi innover en matière graphique, en faisant s ’exprimer les personnages
au moyen de phylactères plutôt que dans un texte au bas des cases.
| 1928 Manuel Alcántara, escritor español.
1928 Gonzalo Sobejano, profesor y poeta español.
1924 Eduardo Chillida y Juantegui, Spanish abstract sculptor, draftsman, and collagist. — more with links to images.
1913 Gustav Husak, President of Czechoslovakia (1975-1989).
1905 Moufang, mathematician.
1903 Barbara Hepworth, British abstract sculptor and draftswoman who died on 20 May 1975. LINKS
1898 Sergei M Eisenstein Russian director (Alexandr Nevski).
1894 Uri Zvi Greenberg, Hebrew and Yiddish poet who died on 08 May 1981.
1893 Vicente Huidobro, poeta chileno.
1892 Dumas Malone, US historian who died on 27 December 1986. He wrote an authoritative biography of Thomas Jefferson.
1892 Orsola Virginia Perego, Italian who would die on 23 February 2003.
1884 Roberto Cortázar Toledo, historiador colombiano.
1880 Manuel Azaña y Díaz PM/President of 2nd Spanish republic (1936-1939)
1875 Schur, mathematician.
1870 Standard Oil is incorporated by John D. Rockefeller
1864 George Washington Carver, agricultural scientist.
1834 John Emerich, Lord Acton, English historian who died on 19 June 1902.
1819 Pierre-Édouard Frère, French artist who died on 20 May 1886.
1769 Michel Ney French marshal (Waterloo)
1745 Étienne Aubry, French painter who died on 24 July 1781. — more
1708 Donatien Nonnotte, French artist who died on 04 February 1785.
1680 Philip van Dyk the little van Dyck, Dutch artist who died on 03 February 1753.
1646 Johannes Offermans, Dutch artist who died after 1696.