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Buddy the Dog^  On a 09 January:
2005 Palestinian presidential elections, greatly hampered by the checkpoints of the Israeli occupiers, intended to stop would-be suicide bombers, but which also make it difficult, and in some cases impossible, for some voters to reach their polling places. Prime Minister Mahmoud Abbas “Abu Mazen” [26 Mar 1935~], as predicted, wins the election (with 62% of the votes) ahead of human rights activist Mustafa Barghouti [1954~] (20% of votes), and of the other 5 candidates: Tayseer Khaled, 63; Bassam Salhi; Abdulkareem Shubeir, 52; sheikh Sayed Baraka, 48; Abdel Halim al Ashqar, 46.
2001 Kenny Gluck, 38, head of the Médecins Sans Frontières mission in the North Caucasus, is kidnapped in an ambush near Starye Atagi, 19 km south of Grozny, Chechnya. He would be released unharmed on 03 February 2001.
2001 Linda Chavez withdraws from her nomination to be US Secretary of Labor, because of controversy over an illegal immigrant who once lived with her.
Socks the Cat2001 As if the Middle East conflict wasn't enough. The news come out that the Clintons' diplomacy has been unable to resolve a hostile confrontation right inside the White House, ever since December 1997 when puppy chocolate Labrador retriever Buddy [photo grown-up>] was given to Clinton because “it's the president's desire to have one loyal friend in Washington.” (said spokesman Mike McCurry at the time). This was greatly to the disgust of First Democat Socks [< photo], then 6 years old, who had moved into the White House at the same time as the Clintons. President Clinton named Buddy after his great-uncle, Henry Oren ``Buddy'' Grisham, who had died earlier in 1997.
      It is already decided that when the Clintons leave the White House to George W. Bush on 20 January 2001, the two feuding animals will NOT go to the same place. Then Socks was adopted by the ex-president's secretary, Betty Currie. Buddy went with the Clintons to their new home in Chappaqua NY and died there struck by a car on 02 January 2002.
2001 ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) intenta asesinar a la cúpula del PP vasco en Zarautz.
2001 Man bites python
      The Star
of Johannesburg reports that Lucas Sibanda, 57, was being constricted by a python when he freed himself by biting the snake just below the head, kicking and punching it. Then he killed it with a stick, took it home, and skinned it:
     A fierce rock python meets its match in the form of a man from Pretoria man who bites his way to freedom. Lucas Sibanda, 57, a council worker, is alive today because of quick thinking, common sense — and strong teeth. Sibanda was walking home on the remote, narrow pathway that he uses each day to get to work when the snake appeared suddenly from behind some shrubs. "I couldn't believe my eyes when just in front of me it appeared from nowhere and started coming at me. I froze for almost 10 seconds, enough to let the snake tangle itself around me," he said. He sunk his teeth into the python's neck The python started constricting him in an attempt to suffocate its victim. Sibanda said he kept his cool and thought to himself that it was either fighting back, or watching, as the snake made lunch out of him. "I decided that the only way to save myself from this monster was to bite it just below the head," he said. He sunk his teeth into the python's neck, while he kicked and punched until the snake finally untangled itself from his body. Sibanda said he looked around and saw a stick lying in the pathway, which he used to hit the snake before it could attack him again. Sibanda has already skinned the python The father of four said his family couldn't believe it when he arrived home dragging the snake. He added that in his lifetime he had seen plenty of snakes while growing up on a farm in Swaziland, but it was the first time he had ever seen or fought with such an enormous one. "This is like one horrible nightmare. I don't know where I found the strength to fight that snake, but I thank God I'm still alive to tell the tale." Sibanda has already skinned the python and says he will leave it outside his house as proof for people who would otherwise not believe his story
^ 2001 Total Lunar Eclipse visible from Europe, Africa, Asia. The totality lasts 62 minutes, centered on 20:20 UT when the Moon is overhead in Oman..
Muslims riot in Nigeria because “sinners caused eclipse”
      Rampaging Muslims burn down scores of hotels and bars in a northern Nigerian city in reaction to the lunar eclipse which they blame on sinners. Paramilitary police battle gangs of Muslim youths in the streets of the largely Islamic city of Maiduguri for hours. At least 40 hotels or saloons are set ablaze. Similar violence occurs in Barma town 80 km away where youths chanting “Allahu Akbar” take to the streets. "The immoral acts committed in these places are responsible for this eclipse," a youth leader says. Religious violence has been a major problem in the largely Islamic north over the past year. Hundreds of people were killed in two bouts of Muslim-Christian bloodletting in the northern city of Kaduna over plans to introduce Islamic sharia law in the area.
Turks shoot at the Moon
      Turkish police arrest eight people for shooting at the moon during the eclipse for what they said were traditional reasons. Police in the southeastern town of Kahramanmaras briefly detain the moon shooters, who said they were following an ancient tradition, and confiscated their rifles. They did not explain the origin of the alleged tradition. An imam of the town says that shooting at the moon is a custom without religious foundation. He urges the faithful only to pray to God during lunar eclipses.
^ 2001 “Evil cult” members sentenced to prison in China
      Chinese television announces that Li Jinpeng, He Yuansheng, and Shi Xiufen, have been sentenced by Beijing couts respectively to 6, 4, and 3 years in prison for to three, for "using an evil cult to destroy the implementation of laws," for printing and distributing leaflets protesting the government crackdown on the Falun Gong (the "evil cult").
     Falun Gong claims 100 million adherents (the Chinese government says 30 million)

Falun Gong Overview
  • Leader: Chinese martial arts master Li Hongzhi, who founded Falun Gong in 1992.
  • Also known as Falun Dafa. Billed as an exercise practice, but in essence it is a quasi-religious movement.
  • Falun Gong (pronounced fah-luhn gung) borrows heavily from Buddhist and Taoist philosophies and styles itself as a school of qigong (pronounced chee-gong), a traditional Chinese practice that uses meditation and martial arts exercises to channel unseen forces and improve health.
  • Followers believe Li implants a falun — a "wheel of law" or miniature of the universe — into their lower abdomens, where it spins constantly, absorbing and releasing power. Skeptics like Sima Nan have debunked "the supernatural powers claimed by leaders of the outlawed Falun Gong movement and other meditation sects." Chinese cult draws many followers,
  • North American members have also repeatedly denied the group is a cult, has a doomsday message or believes their meditation leads to magical powers, like levitation and invisibility.
          But Mr. Li has also told Western reporters that humanity will soon be wiped out, that space aliens are on Earth trying to replace human beings with clones and that he is invested with supernatural powers allowing him to move through dimensions. He also criticizes rock 'n'roll, science, and homosexuality. [Outlawed sect leader fears bloodshed in China]
  • The added benefit of Falun Gong is that practicing it requires little effort, Wu says. "It has a very wide appeal because for other forms of qigong, the question is, what happens if you don't do the exercises? Li says, 'If I plant the wheel in you, you don't have to worry.'"
  • Wu has some reservations about such an approach, which he says moves the focus from the practitioner to the master. Also of concern to Wu is Li's claim that he talks of the truth of the entire galaxy and places himself above all other ancient Buddhist and Taoist sages.
  • Falun Gong seems to have cult tendencies in that when the master says I am going to plant something in you, and it's me protecting you, it's actually encouraging a worship of him, a dependence on him. He has an organization with its constitution, and he's the only leader who can teach the principles of Falun Gong [Tracing Falun Gong's roots in the US]
  • It is unclear how many followers Falun Gong has. The movement claims it has some 100 million adherents, while the Chinese government maintains the real number is closer to 30 million. Cult-critic Sima Nan, a Chinese version of James Randi, says that Falun Gong is not the most popular of qi gong sects. According to him, several other — Zhong Gong, Yuan Ji Gong and Wang Gong — are bigger. Zhong Gong, however, claims 20 million followers. January 2001 — More Militant and More Apocalyptic?
    Civil disobedience by the Chinese spiritual movement Falun Gong shows no sign of slowing in the New Year and may be ratcheting up to a new level.
          In a New Year's Day message to followers, posted on the group's official Web site (www.clearwisdom.net), the movement's exiled founder, Li Hongzhi, warned that Falun Gong followers facing persecution could rightfully ''go beyond the limits of forbearance.'' Forbearance is one of the principal virtues promoted by his discipline. ''If the evil has already reached the point where it is unsavable and unkeepable, various measures at different levels can be used to stop it and eradicate it,'' he said, writing from the United States, where he now lives.
         That suggests that 2001 will be a year of increased activity among the core of true believers in China who are not in detention or under strict police supervision. The number of those followers is impossible to estimate.
          Whether Mr. Li's New Year message advocates more militant action than the group's remarkably passive behavior to date is not clear. While his calls to ''defend the Fa,'' or Great Law of Falun Gong, have kept adherents streaming into Tiananmen Square, his doctrine of forbearance has prevented most from resisting the beatings and detention that they invariably receive there. But his followers' activism has risen over the past six months as Mr. Li's appeals have grown increasingly urgent, even politicized. In September, Falun Gong's official Web site began attacking President Jiang Zemin as the man personally responsible for Falun Gong's persecution, calling him ''the highest representative of the evil force in the human world.''
          Mr. Li, meanwhile, has begun speaking in increasingly apocalyptic terms. He has said the current struggles in China are leading to an apparently transcendent event that he calls the Consummation, in which his disciples will ''leave'' and ''all bad people will be destroyed by gods.'' Those who are left will pay for their past sins with ''horrible suffering,'' he has said.
          The Chinese government has responded to Mr. Li's shift in tone by declaring late last year that Falun Gong had become a reactionary political force bent on subverting China's socialist system. Known dissidents in Shanghai have been warned to steer clear of any contact with Falun Gong followers or face immediate detention. The implication is that Beijing is worried that as Falun Gong metamorphoses into a more political movement it could knit together an alliance of dissident networks around the country. [ Banned Chinese Sect Is Spurred On by Exiled Leader]
  • Key dates in emergence of China's banned Falungong movement
    Following is a list of key events, which have seen the banned Falungong spiritual movement branded the biggest threat to China's communist regime since the 1989 democracy protests.
    1999
  • April 25: More than 10'000 followers of the Buddhist-inspired sect sit down around the Chinese Communist Party headquarters in Beijing for an entire day, demanding the right to practise their meditation and breathing exercises. It was the largest demonstration in the capital since 1989, when democracy protestors were massacred on Tiananmen Square.
  • April 27: The authorities say they are prepared to listen to Falungong grievances but warn of strict measures against any attempt to destabilise society.
  • May 3: Li Hongzhi, the sect's US-based guru, calls on Beijing to start dialogue with the movement which claims it has 80 million followers in China (2 million according to the authorities).
  • June 6: First questioning of over 100 followers protesting in Beijing.
  • July 20-22: Thousands of followers rounded up throughout the country. By the end of the year at least 35,000 followers had been arrested, according to official statistics.
  • July 22: Falungong is formally declared an ''illegal organisation.'' The move coincides with the launch of a media campaign accusing the movement of causing 1,500 deaths.
  • July 27: US State Department calls on Beijing to exercise restraint.
  • July 28: China issues an international arrest warrant against Li Hongzhi, accusing him of seeking to overturn the regime. Interpol refused to help with the warrant.
  • Oct 7: First case of Falungong follower dying in police custody, announced from abroad.
  • Oct 21: 11 senior figures in the movement arrested.
  • Oct 25-Nov 1: A week of protests in Tiananmen square in Beijing as parliament adopts law officially branding Falungong as an ''evil cult.''
  • Nov 12: First Falungong ''show trials'' end with four followers sentenced to between 2 and 12 years prison. Hundreds of others sent to ''reeducation through labour'' camps for three years.
  • Dec 26: Four senior figures in the group sentenced to prison terms of 7 to 18 years.
    2000
  • Feb 5: Dozens of followers protest in Tiananmen Square during the Chinese New Year.
  • Feb/March: Deaths in custody of 15 members disclosed. Several detained members stage hunger strike.
  • April 19: The official Xinhua news agency reports that a total of 84 Falungong supporters have been given prison terms.
  • April 25: At least 100 members defy a security net to protest in Tiananmen Square on the first anniversary of their landmark mass demonstration against the Chinese government.
  • May 11: About 200 members protest in Tiananmen Square to mark their founder's birthday are detained by police.
  • July 22: Falungong members are kicked and beaten bloody by police in Tiananmen Square in the most violent crackdown yet seen on the group since it was banned exactly one year ago.
  • July 30 — Splits Emerging: A number of overseas followers are now supporting Hongkong-based Peng Shan Shan (Belinda Pang) , 37, as the sect's master' new "incarnation", replacing Li Hongzhi, 50, who lives in New York. [Falungong splits between 2 masters]. See also' the web site of Ms. Belinda Pang's sect, and Split Develops on Leadership of Sect in China., and the ''competing Web sites" are: Falun Dafa in Hong Kong (Ms. Pang), and Falun Dafa in North America (Mr. Hongzhi).
          Perhaps the most worrying new belief (for the Chinese government) is the feeling that persecution and imprisonment in Beijing are part of the initiation into the deepest part of the faith for true believers.
          Predictably, Li Hongzhi has denounced Ms. Pang.
  • October 1: Chinese police round up close to 1000 protesting members of the Falungong group during clashes in Tiananmen Square on China's National Day.
  • ^ 2001 Another “Evil cult”'s members prison sentence upheld
          The Higher People's Court of eastern Jiangsu province, China, rejects an appeal by four members of the Zhong Gong "evil cult" (i.e., like Falun Gong, a banned meditation and exercise movement) who were sentenced to between two and four years imprisonment on subversion charges, for disseminating letters purportedly written by senior police officials that criticized Chinese President Jiang Zemin for the crackdowns on Zhong Gong and on Falun Gong.
         Zhong Gong is one of many movements based on variations of qi gong. The full name translates to "China Health Care and Wisdom Enhancement Practice" or "Chinese way to keep healthy and clever". Zhong Gong, which claims to have about 20 million followers, was founded in the early 1990s by qigong master Zhang Hongbao (born in 1959). The movement combines classical qigong, a traditional deep breathing exercise with elements of traditional Chinese culture. It has eight levels of development, stressing the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Those who reach the fourth level are said to acquire powers such as greatly enhanced vision and hearing.
         Qigong, from the Chinese qi = energy, the air, and gong = time, practice, is a system of physical exercises, breathing and mental training, with as purpose the strengthening of the body's internal energy as well as controlling the circulation of qi. There are various forms of qigong, both traditional and modern; some are associated with martial arts, some with religion, some with scholarly pursuits such as calligraphy; others are concerned solely with health promotion. Movements based on qi gong include Falun Gong, Zhong Gong, Yuan Ji Gong and Wang Gong
    2000 Park Tae-joon, the leader of the United Liberal Democrats, is appointed South Korea's prime minister.
    1998 Decapitated head of Danish Little Mermaid is returned
    1997 3M Sues Microsoft Newspapers reported that 3M sued Microsoft for patent infringement, claiming that a note feature included in Office 97 misappropriated the appearance and function of 3M's Post-it notes and might confuse consumers.
    1997 La compañía automovilística General Motors acuerda retirar la demanda contra la empresa alemana Volkswagen.
    1996 Chechen nationalists seize a hospital in the southern Russian city of Kizlyar and take up to 3000 hostages. The would release all but about 160 hostages the next day, using the remaining captives as a shield against Russian troops massing for aggression against Chechnya's independence.
    1995 Ecuador & Peru involve in boundary fight
    1991 Secretary of State James A. Baker III and Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz meet for six hours in Geneva, but fail to resolve the Persian Gulf crisis. President Bush, in Washington, accuses Iraq of "a total stiff-arm, a total rebuff."
    ^ 1990 $2 billion the 1989 losses of US airlines.
          The Air Transport Association reports that the US's air carriers had piled up $2 billion in losses during the previous twelve months, marking the industry's worst annual performance since deregulation in 1978. The Air Transportation Association, an industry trade group, pointed to skyrocketing jet fuel costs, a downturn in the US economy and Iraq's offensive against Kuwait as the primary culprits for the airlines’ fiscal woes. However, while explanations were seemingly evident, solutions were not quite as forthcoming. Worse yet, 1991 promised to be an equally grim year for the industry. According to the association, the airlines were likely to dive $800 million into the red during the first quarter of 1991 and stood a good chance of posting another $2 billion in losses by the time the year ended. Surveying the wreckage, Air Transport Vice President Edward A. Merhs could only conclude, "the airlines are hemorrhaging."
    1987 New Nicaraguan constitution takes effect. — Entra en vigor la nueva constitución nicaragüense.
    1987 Hissène Habré y Goukouni Oueddei llegan a un acuerdo para poner fin a la guerra civil en Chad.
    ^ 1986 Kodak barred from selling instant cameras
          The Federal District Court in Boston ordered an injunction barring the Eastman Kodak Company from selling its instant cameras. The injunction brought a close to a vicious court tussle between the venerable photo giant and Polaroid, which had charged Kodak with swiping the patent for its trademark instant camera. Kodak initiated a voluntary program to compensate owners of its instant cameras who were unable to purchase film as a result of the ruling. However, a series of class-action suits against Kodak forced the company to scrap this voluntary compensation program. This didn’t let Kodak off the hook: in 1988 a Chicago court settled a class-action suit against Kodak by forcing the company to establish an elaborate program for notifying and issuing rebates to consumers.
    ^ 1984 A Hillside Strangler sentenced to life in prison.
          Angelo Buono, one of the Hillside Stranglers, is sentenced to life in prison for his role in the rape, torture, and murder of 10 young women in Los Angeles. Buono's cousin and partner in crime, Kenneth Bianchi, testified against Buono to escape the death penalty. Buono, a successful auto upholsterer, and Bianchi began their serial crime spree in 1977 when Bianchi moved from New York to live with his cousin. They started talking about how the prostitutes that Buono often brought home would hardly be missed by anyone if they disappeared. Idle speculation quickly led to action and on October 6, 1977, the pair picked up Elissa Kastin in their van, raped and strangled her, and then dumped her body on a hillside in Glendale, California.
          Within a month Buono and Bianchi had attacked three other women and developed a trademark method of operation. They picked up the women in their van, drove them back to Buono's house where they were sexually assaulted in all manners, tortured, and strangled to death. The duo then thoroughly cleaned the bodies before taking and posing them in lascivious positions on hillsides in the Los Angeles area, often near police stations. Thus, they earned the nickname the "Hillside Strangler." The press assumed that it was the work of one man.
          Following the death of the 10th victim in February 1978, the murders suddenly stopped. Buono and Bianchi were no longer getting along, even with their common hobby. Bianchi moved to Washington and applied for a job at the Bellingham Police Department. He didn't get the job, but became a security guard instead. However, he couldn't keep his murderous impulses in check and killed two college students. A witness who had seen the two girls with Bianchi came forward and the case was solved.
          Bianchi, who had read Sybil and The Three Faces of Eve many times [both books were made into movies], suddenly claimed to have multiple personalities. He blamed the murders on "Steve," one of his alternate personalities. Psychiatrists examining Bianchi quickly dismissed his ruse and Bianchi then confessed to the Hillside Strangler murders, testifying against Buono to avoid the death penalty in Washington.
          During his trial, Buono fiercely insisted on his innocence, pointing to the fact that there was no physical evidence tying him to the crimes. Buono's house was so clean that investigators couldn't even find Buono's own fingerprints in the home. But after more than 400 witnesses testified, Buono was convicted and sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole. Bianchi will be eligible for parole in Washington in 2005.
    The Three Faces of Eve (1957) by Corbett H. Thigpen:
          A depressed housewife, Eve White, is brought by her husband to consult a psychiatrist because her behavior has been strange. Although she denies it, she has purchased uncharacteristically seductive clothing and has been singing and dancing in bars. Her surprised doctor is soon confronted with a different but equally inadequate personality, the sexy Eve Black. He recognizes the case as an example of the rare condition, multiple personality disorder, and embarks on a course of psychotherapy in search of the woman's missing memories.
          Eve's unhealthy marriage disintegrates when she chooses to remain in therapy rather than move away with her violent husband. Psychotherapy helps her to the repressed memory of an instance of childhood abuse: being forced by her mother to kiss the corpse of a dead relative. A third personality, that of intelligent, insightful Jane, slowly emerges to replace the other two. Jane establishes a new life with a loving man.
    "Sybil" Shirley A. MasonSybil (1973) by Flora Rheta Schreiber
         Allegedly factual story of young "Sybil Isabel Dorsett," who developed 16 personalities (two of them male) as a way to cope with fears stemming from her upbringing by her cruel, mentally ill mother "Hattie". After her 26 February 1998 death (from breast cancer), at age 75, it was revealed that in real life she was art teacher Shirley Ardell Mason [photo], a 7th-Day Adventist and a vegetarian. The story may have been a knowing misrepresentation by her psychiatrist Dr. Cornelia Wilbur (who treated her from 1954 to 1965 and on whom Shirley Mason developed a lifelong dependency) and the author. Shirley Mason had read The Three Faces of Eve. Shirley Mason was born 25 January 1923, in Dodge Center, Minnesota, the daughter of Walter Mason and Martha "Mattie" Alice Hageman Mason. Shirley Mason never married. Before the publication of Sybil, there were only about 75 reported cases of MPD (multiple personality disorder); in the following 25 years, there have been perhaps 40'000 such diagnoses, almost all in North America. Psychological Self Help does not cover MPD (also called DID: dissociative identity disorder), which some experts view as a phony condition. However others, such as the International Society for the Study of Dissociation, consider it legitimate and estimate that from 1 per 1000 to 1 per 100 of the US population suffers from it..
         The personalities of Sybil in the book:
    Sybil: The 'real' patient, Sybil was 'extremely suggestible'
    Victoria: Warm and cultured, claimed total recall
    Peggy Lou: Assertive and eager, but obstinate and quick to anger
    Peggy Ann: More tactful than Peggy Lou, also more fearful
    Mary: The most religious personality; a maternal homebody
    Marcia: A fiery painter and writer; British accent
    Vanessa: Attractive and dramatic, Vanessa scorned religion
    Mike: A proud, swarthy carpenter; wanted to 'give a girl a baby'
    Sid: Also a carpenter, but fair-skinned and less outspoken
    Nancy: Paranoid; obsessed with Armageddon and conspiracy
    Sybil Ann: Pale, timid and extremely lethargic; the defeated Sybil
    Ruthie: A toddler, the Ruthie personality was poorly developed
    Clara: Very religious; critical and resentful of Sybil
    Helen: Timid, afraid, but determined 'to be somebody'
    Marjorie Serene and quick to laugh, enjoyed parties and travel
    The Blonde: A nameless teen, fun-loving and carefree
    1981 Francisco Balsamao elected President of Portugal — Francisco Jose Pereira Pinto Balsemao, se convierte en el nuevo jefe de Gobierno en Portugal.
    1979 Supreme Court strikes down (6-3) PA law requiring doctors performing an abortion to try to preserve lives of potentially viable fetuses
    1978 Commonwealth of Northern Marianas established
    1977 Porgy & Bess closes at Uris Theater New York City NY after 122 performances
    1972 reclusive billionaire Howard Hughes, speaking by telephone from the Bahamas to reporters in Hollywood, says that a purported biography of him by Clifford Irving is a fake.
    1970 Constitution of Singapore enacted
    1970 After 140 years of unofficial racial discrimination, the Mormons issued an official statement declaring that blacks were not yet to receive the priesthood "for reasons which we believe are known to God, but which He has not made fully known to man."
    1969 Concorde jetliner's 1st test flight (Bristol England)
    1968 the Surveyor 7 space probe made a soft landing on the moon, the end of the US series of unmanned explorations of the lunar surface.
    1967 Georgia legislature seats Representative Julian Bond
    1967 Construction of the Volga Automobile Works begins in Togliatti (named after Italian Communist leader) in the Soviet Union. By April of 1970, Zhiguli automobiles (later known as "Lada" autos) were rolling off the assembly lines. In association with Fiat, the Volga works became the largest producer of small European automobiles.
    1967 The US Agency for International Development (AID) reports to the Presiden that "No more than 5-6 percent of all economic assistance commodities delivered to Vietnam were stolen or otherwise diverted."
    ^ 1965 Support for Saigon civilian government, but not for long.
          Under pressure from United States officials, Gen. Nguyen Khanh and the newly formed Armed Forces Council — generals who participated in the bloodless coup on December 19, 1964 — agree to support the civilian government of Premier Tran Van Huong. The coup occurred when Khanh and a group of generals, led by Air Commodore Nguyen Cao Ky and Army Maj. Gen. Nguyen Van Thieu, arrested three dozen high officers and civilian officials and took control of the government. The coup was part of the continuing political instability that followed the November 1963 coup that resulted in the murder of President Ngo Dinh Diem. The period following the overthrow of Diem was marked by a series of coups and "revolving door" governments.
          In addition to pledging to support Huong, Khanh and the generals agreed to release five High National Council members and 50 others arrested during the coup. They also promised to confine their activities to the military sphere. A national convention was to be convened to "assume legislative powers" and to draw up a permanent constitution. However, this did not happen. Tran Van Huong was unable to put together a viable government and the Armed Forces Council ousted him on 27 January and installed General Khanh to power. Khanh was ousted by yet another coup on February 18, led by Ky and Thieu. Khanh then moved to the United States and settled in Palm Beach, Florida.
          A short-lived civilian government under Dr. Phan Huy Quat was installed, but it lasted only until June 12, 1965. At that time, Thieu and Ky formed a new government with Thieu as the chief of state and Ky as the prime minister. Thieu and Ky were elected as president and vice-president in general elections held in 1967. They served together until 1971, when Thieu was re-elected president.
    1960 Building of Aswan dam in Egypt, begins
    1958 The Toyota and Datsun (later Nissan) brand names made their first appearances in the United States at the Imported Motor Car Show in Los Angeles, California. Previously, these auto makers had sold in the US only under American brand names, as part of joint ventures with Ford and GM.
    1957 British premier Anthony Eden resigns for health reasons (he says). — es sustituido por Maurice Harold MacMillan.
    1957 Karachayevo-Cherkess Autonomous Region reestablished in RSFSR
    1957 Checheno-Ingush ASSR reformed in RSFSR.
    1954 -87ºF (-66ºC), Northice Station, Greenland (Greenland record)
    1954 Se presenta en Nueva York la primera calculadora de circuitos integrados o cerebro electrónico.
    ^ 1952 State of the Union: perilous, says US president.
           In his 1952 State of the Union address, President Harry S. Truman warns the US that it is "moving through a perilous time," and calls for vigorous action to meet the communist threat. Though Truman's popularity had nose-dived during the previous 18 months because of complaints about the way that he handled the Korean War, his speech received a standing ovation from congressmen and special guest Prime Minister Winston Churchill.
          Truman spent much of his speech addressing foreign policy concerns. The primary focus was on meeting the communist challenge. The president declared that the United States was confronted with "a terrible threat of aggression." He also pointed with pride to US action in meeting that threat. In Korea, combined US and United Nations forces "turned back the Chinese Communist invasion;" elsewhere in Asia, US assistance to its allies was helping to "hold back the Communist advance;" and in Europe and the Middle East, the fight against Soviet expansion was also ongoing.
          Truman was particularly proud of the Point Four program, which provided US scientific and technical assistance (such as in the field of agriculture) to the underdeveloped world, claiming that it helped "feed the whole world so we would not have to stomach communism." There could be no slacking of effort, however, since the Soviet Union was "increasing its armed might," and with the Soviet acquisition of atomic bomb technology, the world was still walking "in the shadow of another world war."
          Truman's speech was a stirring rebuttal to domestic critics like Senator Joseph McCarthy, who attacked Truman's "softness" on communism. It was also an effort to recapture political momentum as he prepared for the 1952 presidential election. Perhaps the speech, in which Truman confronted both the successes and failures of his administration, helped swing a few voters his way, but it was too few to help — he lost the election to Dwight D. Eisenhower.
    1952 Belgian Pholien government resigns
    1945 US soldiers led by General Douglas MacArthur invade Philippines.
    1943 Heinrich Himmler, chief of the SS, visits the Warsaw ghetto. He ordered the deportation of 8000 Jews of the 55'000 remaining after the previous year's massive deportations to the Treblinka death camp. On 18 January 1943, the Germans will enter the ghetto to select the Jews to be deported (click on the date to find out the outcome).
    1942 La ofensiva rusa llega hasta la zona oriental de Smolensko en la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
    1939 Libia es incorporada al territorio de Italia.
    1937 Italian regime bans marriages between Italians and Abyssinians
    1936 Semi-automatic rifles adopted by US army.
    1934 Se reanudan hostilidades en la guerra del Chaco al negarse Paraguay a mantener el armisticio.
    1932 Dimite el ministro de Asuntos Exteriores francés Aristide Briand por motivos de salud.
    1925 Terminan los compromisos unilaterales del Tratado de Versalles.
    ^ 1924 Virginia Woolf buys a house in Bloomsbury
          Virginia Woolf and her husband buy a house at 52 Tavistock Square, in the Bloomsbury district of London near the British Museum. Woolf had been associated with the district since 1902, when she took a house in the area with her three siblings after their father's death. She had remained in the neighborhood, becoming a central character of the "Bloomsbury Group," a set of writers and thinkers including biographer Lytton Strachey and writer E.M. Forster.
          Woolf, born in 1882, grew up surrounded by intellectuals. The Bloomsbury set embraced progressive intellectual ideas and sexual liberty: Many of the group, including Woolf herself, were bisexual or homosexual. Woolf became a regular contributor to the Times Literary Supplement and also took odd jobs to support herself until she inherited a comfortable income from an aunt.
          Virginia married writer and social reformer Leonard Woolf in 1912. The couple established the Hogarth Press in their dining room several years later. In addition to Virginia Woolf's later novels, the press also published T.S. Eliot and translations of Chekhov and Dostoevsky.
          Woolf published her groundbreaking novel Mrs. Dalloway in 1925. Its stream-of-consciousness structure deeply influenced later writers. That same year, she fell in love with poet Vita Sackville-West, who was married to the bisexual diplomat and author Harold Nichols. The affair inspired Woolf's most whimsical work, Orlando. Woolf wrote several more novels as well as social and literary criticism. However, she suffered from depression and mental illness all her life. In 1941, fearful for her own sanity and afraid of the coming world war, she filled her pockets with rocks and drowned herself.
    1923 Juan de la Cierva makes 1st autogiro (helicopter) flight, Spain.— Primer vuelo en autogiro del inventor aeronáutico español Juan de La Cierva y Codorníu.
    1916 The last British forces complete their withdrawal from the disastrous campaign of the Dardanelles.
    1912 US marines invade Honduras
    ^ 1911 Alleged "car's inventor" patent ruled invalid
          In 1895, George Selden was awarded the first American patent for an internal-combustion automobile, although Selden hadn’t yet produced a working model. Other inventors, such as Ransom Olds and the Duryea brothers, were already driving their home-built automobiles through the streets. Beginning in 1903, however, the Selden patent began to make itself felt. The Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers was organized to gather royalties on the Selden patent from all auto makers. Soon, every major automobile manufacturer was paying royalties to the A.L.A.M. and George Selden—except for one major standout, a young inventor named Henry Ford. Ford refused to pay royalties. The A.L.A.M launched a series of lawsuits against Ford. On this day in 1911, the United States Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the Ford Motor Company was not infringing on the Selden patent. It was the beginning of the end for the A.L.A.M. and Selden’s royalties.
    1902 Héctor Carballo sustituye al presidente [ Emilio Aceval en la presidencia de Paraguay.
    1879 Cheyenne prisoners led by Dull Knife revolt at Fort Robinson.
    1879 Kirland Warbler discovered on Andros Island in Bahamas
    1878 The Battle of Shipka Pass, which had raged sinced August 1877, comes to an end as the Turks led by general Vessil Pasha surrender to the Russians of General F. F. Radetsky.
    1880 6' (1.8 meters) of snow falls in Seattle in 5 days
    1863 -Jan 11th] Battle of Arkansas Post AR (Fort Hindman)
    1861 Mississippi secedes from the Union. — El estado de Mississippi se separa de la Unión Norteamericana para formar parte de la Confederación de los Estados del Sur.
    1861 Star of the West fails to relieve Fort Sumter
    ^ 1861 South Carolina cannon fires at Union merchant ship.
         A Union merchant ship, the Star of the West, is fired upon as it tries to bring supplies to Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. This incident was the first time shots were exchanged between North and South but it not trigger the Civil War.
          When it seceded from the Union on 20 December 1860, South Carolina demanded the immediate withdrawal of the Federal garrison at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. President James Buchanan refused to do so but was also careful not to make any provocative move. Inside the fort, Major Robert Anderson and his 80 soldiers needed supplies. The Buchanan administration decided to dispatch a civilian ship, the Star of the West, instead of a military transport, in order to keep tensions from flaring.
          The ship left New York on 05 January. After it was en route, Secretary of War Joseph Holt received a dispatch from Anderson saying that the garrison was safe and supplies were not needed immediately. Anderson added that the secessionists were building gun emplacements overlooking the main shipping channel into Charleston Harbor. Holt realized that the ship was in great danger and that a war might erupt. He tried in vain to recall the Star of the West, and Anderson was not aware that the ship continued on its way.
          In the morning on 09 January, ship captain John McGowan steered the ship into the channel near the fort. Two cannon shots roared from a South Carolina battery on Morris Island. They came from gunner George E. Haynsworth, a cadet at The Citadel in Charleston. They were poor shots, but they represented the opening salvo of the war. More shots were fired, and the ship suffered a minor hit. Anderson watched from Sumter but did not respond in support of the ship. If he had, the war may have started on that day. The incident resulted in strong talk on both sides, but they stopped short of war. The standoff at Fort Sumter continued until the Confederates attacked in April, triggering the Civil War.
    1861 Mississippi becomes 2nd state to secede from the Union (South Carolina was first) when a state convention at Jackson passes an Ordinance of Secession by a vote of 84 to 15.
    1848 People's uprising in Palermo, Sicily, is the first of the revolutions of 1848, a series of republican revolts against European monarchies, which spread throughout Italy, and to France, Germany, and the Austrian Empire. They all end in failure and repression.
    1839 Daguerrotype photo process announced at French Academy of Science.
    1837 Cae gravemente herido en un duelo el poeta ruso Alexandr Sergueyevich Pushkin.
    1834 HMS Beagle with Charles Darwin on board arrives in Port San Julian, Patagonia
    1812 Swedish Pomerania (Germany) seized by Napoleon.
    1812 Tras cuatro días de bombardeo, Valencia capitula ante las fuerzas del francés Louis Gabriel Suchet.
    1809 Arthur Colley Wellesley, duke of Wellington, concierta con España un tratado de amistad y de ayuda militar.
    1799 Income Tax introduced in UK
    1792 Russia and Turkey sign Peace of Jassy
    1788 Connecticut becomes 5th state to ratify the US Constitution.
    1760 Afghans defeat Marathas in battle of Barari Ghat
    1719 Le roi Philippe V d'Espagne a des prétentions au trône de France. Pour les déjouer, le régent français met en scène un attentat contre sa personne. L'attentat aurait été fomenté dans l'entourage de l'ambassadeur d'Espagne, ce qui tient lieu de prétexte à l'entrée en guerre.
    1718 France declares war on Spain
    1522 Cardinal Adrian Florenszoon Boeyens [02 Mar 1459 – 14 Sep 1523] is elected pope Adrian VI. He was the only Dutch pope, and the last non-Italian pope until the election of John Paul II in 1978. He tried to reform the Church, starting with the Curia, but could accomplish little in the face of opposition by the Italian cardinals, the German Protestants, and the Turkish armies.
    1493 First sighting of manatees by a non-Amerindian (Christopher Columbus).
    1316 Felipe V se convierte en rey de Francia y de Navarra tras la muerte de su sobrino Juan I.
    1317 Phillips V, the Tall, crowned king of France
    TO THE TOP
    < 08 Jan 10 Jan >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 09 January:

    2006 Ahmad Kazemi, and all the other 12 aboard a French-built Falcon jet plane, whose landing gear jams and which crashes near Urumiyeh, Iran. General Kazemi was, since 2005, the ground forces commander of the Revolutionary Guards, of which 10 of the dead were subordinate commanders; the other 2 dead were the crew of the plane. — (060109)

    2005 Rev. Jack Arnold, 69, of cardiac arrest in mid-sentence of his sermon at Covenant Presbyterian Church in Oviedo, a suburb of Orlando, Florida, suburb after saying “And when I go to heaven ...”. He had bypass surgery five years earlier.
    2005 Scott Stewart, 36, of Wheeling, WV.; Tom Fisher, 25, of Latrobe, PA.; Edward Crevda, 22, of West Brownsville, PA; and one more crewman of the tugboat Elizabeth M and the six coal barges it is pushing north on the Ohio River, are drowned. The other three crewmen are rescued. The tugboat went through the lock at the Montgomery Island Dam at 02:30. After it emerges on the other side, currents made stronger by heavy rains push the boat back against the dam. The barges are then pushed by the currents into the tugboat, forcing it through a gate in the dam.. The tug sinks in the churning water below the dam. Three of the barges sink downriver, while the other three barges sink above the dam.
    2005 Israeli 1st Lt. Sharon Elmakayis from Atlit, near Haifa, after an armored jeep hit an explosive device of Hezbollah, at 11:50 (09:50 UT), during a patrol in the disputed Har Dov (or Shebaa Farms) region at the borders of Israeli, Lebanon, and Syria. Several other soldiers from the Golani infantry brigade were lightly injured. Commandant (= major) Jean-Louis Valet, a French officer of the UN observer force in south Lebanon is killed, and the Swedish officer and the Lebanese driver who are with him are wounded, when the Israelis react by shelling across the border. A member of Hezbollah is also killed.
    2005 Eight soldiers of the occupation troops in Iraq, by the explosion of a bomb being transported for destruction while decomissioning an ammunition cache in Wasit province. The dead are 7 Ukrainians and 1 Kazakh. 7 Ukrainians and 4 Kazakhs are injured.
    2005 Col. Mohammed Mudhafir, deputy police chief of Samarra, Iraq, driving alone, dressed in civilian clothes, killed in a drive-by-shooting.
    2005 A US soldier of Task Force Baghdad, by a roadside bomb explosion in Iraq.
    2005 A sailor, among the 24 who suffered injuries the previous day aboard the submerged nuclear submarine USS San Francisco heading for Australia, when it ran aground about 550 km south of its home port of Guam. The damage to the submarine does not prevent it from surfacing and heading back to Guam.

    2003 Christophe Dubois, Belgian living in Peru, his Peruvian wife Sofía Porfirio, all 40 other passengers and 4 crew members aboard state-owned TANS Airline Flight 222, a Fokker F-28 twin-engine turbo jet, which — after taking off from Chiclayo, Peru, at 08:05 — crashes into a cloud-covered Cerro Coloque, 3300 above sea level, in the mountainous jungle near the village Luyo, 3 minutes before its scheduled 08:46 landing at Chachapoyas, Peru. Chachapoyas, 2300 m above sea level, is frequented by tourists and backpackers visiting Kuelap, a pre-Colombian cloud-shrouded citadel . TANS Peru had been flying the route from Chiclayo to Chachapoyas for two months to draw tourists to Chachapoyas and Kuelap. The airport does not have radar or a fixed phone line.

    2002 Anna Maria Zanchi, Italian born on 19 November 1891.

    2002 Four Israeli soldiers and Mohammed Abu Jamous and Emad Rizzek who attack an Israeli military position near the Gaza airport before dawn. The attackers were dressed in Palestinian police uniforms. Jamous is a naval policeman. The attackers cut through the fence between Israel and the Gaza Strip, and then stormed the nearby army outpost, throwing grenades and firing assault rifles. After the initial attack, an army patrol rushed to the scene to help the soldiers under fire. Three soldiers were killed in the attack, two soldiers were wounded, one of them seriously, who dies shortly afterwards. The first attacker was killed on the spot, and the second was shot dead after a chase. The post guarded the small Israeli farming village of Kerem Shalom. The assailants are residents of the Rafah refugee camp and belong to the Qassam brigades (the military wing of Hamas).

    2002 Ashley Marie Pond [born 01 March 1889] [photo below, right ], abducted while walking after breakfast to the school bus stop 8 minutes from her home in Oregon City, Oregon, later murdered. Miranda Diane Gaddis, 13, who lived in the same apartment complex (Newell Creek Village), would be similarly abducted and murdered early on 08 March 2002. Ward Weaver, 39 [photo below, left], who leaves near-by, would be arrested on 13 August 2002 for the rape and attempted murder by smothering of the girlfriend (who fled naked) of the girlfriend of his son, Francis Weaver, 19, who reports it to police and adds that his father had admitted killing the two girls. Ashley, a friend of Ward Weaver's daughter Mallori (who was in the same dance class with her and Miranda), had been a frequent guest at their house; for several months in 2001 she lived there while her own father was in jail on charges of sexually abusing her (he pled guilty and was sentenced to probation). In the summer of 2001, Ashley had accused Ward Weaver of sexually molesting her, but he denied it and was never charged. On 24 August 2002 Miranda's remains are found in a shed in Ward Weaver's backyard. On 25 August 2002 Ashley's remains are found under a concrete slab which Ward Weaver had poured in his backyard three days after Miranda's disappearance. Ward Weaver's father is on death row in California for a 1981 double murder, after which he buried the body of one of the victims, a young woman, in his backyard then covered it with a slab of concrete..
    Ward Weaver Ashley Pond

    2001 Magomed Khasuyev
    , 70, imam of the mosque of the village of Germenchuk, Chechnya, murdered.
    2001 Quatre russes, assassinés par un groupe armé, en Algérie. Les russes étaient allé cueillir des champignons dans une forêt près de Berrahal, à 25 kilomètres d'Annaba. Ils étaient employés par l'entreprise Asmidal (engrais) sise à Annaba.
    2001 Saru Dawa, 27, while held at the Nyari Detention Center in the city of Shigatse, China. The authorities claim he commited suicide. He was a Tibetan monk returning to Tibet from India where he had visited his ailing mother, when Chinese police arrested him at the border on 20 November 2000, for “the serious crime of carrying a picture of himself and the Dalai Lama and some books published in the Tibetan exile community in Dharamsala, India.
    1998 Kenichi Fukui, 79, Japanese Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1981)
    1998 José Ignacio Iruretagoyena, el concejal del Partido Popular en Zarautz, asesinado por la banda terrorista ETA (Euskadi Ta Azkatasuna).
    1997 Edward Osobka-Morawski prime minister of Poland (1945-47)
    1997 All 26 passengers and 3 crew members aboard Comair Flight 3272, an Embraer 120RT Brasilia, which had left Cincinnati at 14:53 and, with iced wings loses air speed and crashes at 15:56 near Monroe, Michigan, 29 km short of Detroit-Metropolitan Airport runway 03 as it was on its approach to it.
    1995 Souphanouvong [Red Prince], 85, President of Laos (1975-1987)
    1992 William JF "Bill" Naughton, 81, Irish/British playwright (Alfie)
    1989 Stone, mathematician.
    1987 Some 1500, in Chinese-Vietnamese border fights.
    ^ 1980: 63 Islamic rebels, beheaded in Saudi Arabia
          In Saudi Arabia, sixty-three Islamic fundamentalists are executed for their part in the occupation of the Mecca's Great Mosque, historically the focus of Muslim worship. In November of 1979, armed fundamentalist rebels occupied the holy place, calling for the overthrow of the Saudi government. The government responded by sending troops to suppress the uprising, and after two weeks of fighting the siege ended, leaving a total of twenty-seven Saudi soldiers and over one hundred rebels dead. In January of 1980, sixty-three more fundamentalist rebels were publicly beheaded. The Great Mosque, or Haram, is located at the center of Mecca, the holiest city of Islam and the birthplace of Muhammad, the founder of the religion. Inside the religious structure is the Kaaba, an enormous cubic stone covered with black cloth that is said to have been built by Adam, and rebuilt by Abraham and the descendants of Noah. As one of the five basic requirements of Islam, millions of Muslim pilgrims travel to Mecca and the Great Mosque every year
    1975 Novikov, mathematician.
    1973 Vandiver, mathematician
    ^ 1972 Queen Elizabeth destroyed by fire
          In Hong Kong harbor, a fire breaks out aboard the Seawise University, formerly known as the Queen Elizabeth, and by the next morning the famous vessel lies in a wreck on the bottom of the sea floor. The RMS Queen Elizabeth, boasting a 200,000-horsepower engine and elegant art deco style, made its public debut in 1946, leaving Southampton, England, on a luxurious run across the Atlantic. However, before her days as a lavish passenger liner, the Queen Elizabeth steamed across the ocean for another purpose — as a transport vehicle during World War II. During the late 1930s, workers at a Scottish construction site began building a sea vessel that would be larger and more luxurious than anything the world had ever seen. However, the outbreak of World War II in 1939 prevented the completion of the Queen Elizabeth's finer points. The vessel was hastily made seaworthy for wartime service, and until the war's end was used as a transport vessel for the Allies during the war, carrying massive amounts of supplies and several hundred thousand troops around the world. After her retirement from the Cunard Line in 1968, the Queen Elizabeth was auctioned off to the highest bidder, eventually being purchased in 1970 by C. W. Tung, a Taiwanese shipping tycoon. Tung renamed the vessel Seawise University, and began work on converting the ship into a learning center that would tour the world. However, in early 1972, as the mobile university neared completion, a fire destroyed the pride of the Cunard Line.
    1964: 21 Panamanians and 3 US soldiers, in anti-US rioting in the Panama Canal Zone.
    1961 Emily Greene Balch, born on 08 January 1867, US sociologist, political scientist, economist, and pacifist, a leader of the women's movement for peace during and after World War I. She received the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1946 jointly with John Raleigh Mott [25 May 1865 – 31 Jan 1955].
    1958 Paul Fechter German writer/historian (God's Magician)
    1953: 249 people, as Korean ferryboat "Chang Tyong-Ho" sinks off Pusan.
    1953 Hans Aanrud, 89, Norwegian author (Storken)
    1947 Karl Mannheim , 53, sociologist (Diagnosis of Our Time)
    1946 Countee Cullen , 42, US poet (Black Christ, One Way to Heaven), in New York City NY.
    ^ 1945 “Light casualties” on first day of US invasion of Luzon.
          General Douglas MacArthur and the American 6th Army land on the Lingayen Gulf of Luzon, another step in the capture of the Philippine Islands from the Japanese.
          The Japanese controlled the Philippines from May 1942, when the defeat of American forces led to General MacArthur's departure and Gen. Jonathan Wainwright's capture. But in October 1944, more than 100,000 American soldiers landed on Leyte Island to launch one of one of the bloodiest battles of the Pacific war-and herald the beginning of the end for Japan.
          Newsreels captured the event as MacArthur waded ashore at Leyte on October 20, returning to the Philippines as he had famously promised he would after the original defeat of American forces there. What the newsreels didn't capture were the 67 days it took to subdue the island, with the loss of more than 55'000 Japanese soldiers during the two months of battle and approximately 25'000 more soldiers killed in smaller-scale engagements necessary to fully clear the area of enemy troops. The US forces lost about 3500.
          The sea battle of Leyte Gulf was the same story. The loss of ships and sailors was horrendous for both sides. That battle also saw the introduction of the Japanese kamikaze suicide bombers. More than 5000 kamikaze pilots died in this gulf battle, taking down 34 ships. But the Japanese were not able to prevent the loss of their biggest and best warships, which meant the virtual end of the Japanese Imperial Fleet.
          These American victories on land and sea at Leyte opened the door for the landing of more than 60'000 American troops on Luzon on January 9. Once again, cameras recorded MacArthur walking ashore, this time to greet cheering Filipinos. Although the American troops met little opposition when they landed, American warships were in for a new surprise: kamikaze boats. Japanese boats loaded with explosives and piloted by kamikaze personnel rammed the light cruiser Columbia and the battleship Mississippi, killing a total of 49 American crewmen.
          The initial ease of the US invasion's first week on land would be explained when is discovered the intricate defensive network of caves and tunnels that the Japanese created on Luzon. The intention of the caves and tunnels was to draw the Americans inland, while allowing the Japanese to avoid the initial devastating bombardment of an invasion force. Once Americans reached them, the Japanese fought vigorously, convinced they were directing American strength away from the Japanese homeland. Despite their best efforts, the Japanese lost the battle for Luzon and eventually, the battle for control over all of the Philippines.
         US General Douglas MacArthur orders the invasion of Luzon, the main Philippine island, after a week of massive aerial bombardment. The same day, nearly 70'000 soldiers from US Lieutenant General Krueger's Sixth Army wade ashore under heavy fire from Luzon's Japanese occupiers. Two days later, Krueger manages to establish a secure beachhead and begins forging inland to Manila, the Philippine capital located 110 miles to the south and MacArthur's goal. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Douglas MacArthur, as commander of US Army forces in the Far East, conducted a desperate defense of the Philippines against overwhelming Japanese forces. Forced to retreat, he promised the people of the Philippines and Manila — a city which had become his adopted home — that he would "return." On October 20, 1944, after advancing island by island across the Pacific Ocean, US forces under MacArthur stormed onto the island of Leyte, and the liberation of the Philippines had begun. In March of 1945, after a month of grim fighting, Manila finally fell to the Americans at the cost of 1000 US soldiers, 15'000 Japanese troops, and over 100'000 civilians. Although Manila and most other strategic areas in the Philippines had been liberated, the remaining Japanese forces bitterly resisted the American advance across the rest of the Philippines until the last day of the war.
    1945 Karl-Friedrich Goederler. haut fonctionnaire du III° Reich, éxécuté pour opposition à Hitler
          Né en 1884, Goederler, après des études de droit à Tübingen et à Königsberg, entre en 1911 dans l’administration communale. Maire de Königsberg (1922), puis de Leipzig (1930), il se révèle un grand administrateur et un excellent organisateur, notamment dans le domaine économique. Sceptique envers le régime parlementaire, il était membre du Parti national allemand. En décembre 1931, le chancelier Brüning fait appel à lui pour assurer la charge de Reichskommissar (commissaire du Reich) pour les prix. À l’avènement de Hitler, Goerdeler accorde sa confiance aux nouveaux dirigeants sans adhérer au parti et accepte de collaborer avec les nazis. Hitler le nomme à nouveau commissaire du Reich aux prix le 5novembre 1934. Mais Goerdeler ne tarde pas à reconnaître l’incompatibilité entre ses idées d’un État constitutionnel libéral et les thèses du national-socialisme. Il quitte son commissariat en juillet 1935; deux ans plus tard, il est obligé d’abandonner sa charge de maire de Leipzig. Devenu conseiller financier de la Stuttgart Company, que dirige l’industriel antinazi Robert Bosch, Goerdeler entreprend de nombreux voyages à l’étranger; il y noue des relations grâce auxquelles il va devenir bientôt le pivot central du mouvement de la résistance au nazisme. Sa personnalité, assez énigmatique, s’impose si impérieusement que les conjurés, discutant de l’éventualité d’un changement de régime, le désignent comme futur chancelier du Reich. Mais si Goerdeler fait preuve d’une volonté puissante, il n’a en revanche aucun sens des réalités. De 1941 à 1943, tandis que les résistants de tous horizons rongent leur frein, Goerdeler, lui, rédige d’interminables mémorandums, élabore des projets de constitution, organise le futur gouvernement qu’il substitue déjà en esprit à celui de Hitler... Pour se concilier d’autres chefs de l’antinazisme et malgré ses opinions conservatrices aussi rigides que sa personne, il adopte en partie leur programme politique de gauche.
          Par ses amis à l’étranger il tente d’obtenir des Alliés l’assurance qu’une paix honorable serait accordée au gouvernement qui succéderait à celui de Hitler après le coup d’État. À l’automne de 1943, il leur fait parvenir un mémorandum dans lequel il demande la reconnaissance des frontières allemandes de 1914, modifiées de façon à y inclure le pays des Sudètes et l’Autriche. Il ignore manifestement que les Alliés combattaient moins le national-socialisme qu’une Allemagne forte. Son échec est total sur ce plan. Tout en refusant d’admettre l’assassinat de Hitler, Goerdeler ne cesse d’aiguillonner les conspirateurs qui l’admirent mais ne l’aiment guère: "Irréductible et rétrograde" (Moltke); "téméraire, infatigable et réactionnaire" (von Hassel); "d’une rare indiscrétion" (Gisevius); "c’est le promoteur d’une révolution de barbes grises" (Stauffenberg). Tout un groupe de conspirateurs dirigés par Stauffenberg tournent leurs regards vers l’est; Staline serait-il plus compréhensif que Churchill et Roosevelt; Stauffenberg décide pourtant de passer à l’action au lendemain du débarquement en Normandie. Goerdeler, qui fait depuis longtemps l’objet d’une surveillance étroite de la part de la Gestapo, est arrêté le jour même de l’attentat manqué du 20juillet 1944. En prison, Goerdeler écrivit, à la demande de ses geôliers, une étude concernant l’administration future de l’État sous le régime... national-socialiste. Désireux de prolonger la procédure, il accumulait d’autre part les détails lors de ses interrogatoires. Entre le 3 et le 9janvier 1945, Goerdeler dicta quatre-vingt-deux pages dactylographiées sur le problème des réformes financières. Un autre texte, de sa main, s’arrête au milieu d’une phrase à la page soixante et une. Sans doute vint-on alors le chercher pour l’exécuter avant qu’il n’eût le temps de le terminer.
    1943 Robin G Collingwood, 53, English philosopher (Roman Britain)
    1941 Some 6000 Jews in pogrom, Bucharest Romania
    ^ Finn soldiers1940 Day 41 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
    More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

    Soviet assault fails in Ladoga Karelia — Day 41 of the Winter War, January 9, 1939
          Helsinki: President Kyösti Kallio holds a press conference for foreign journalists in the Presidential Palace. Among other matters raised, the President says that during the first month of the war the enemy has dropped approximately 4,000 bombs on about one hundred localities across Finland. These air raids have claimed the lives of 239 civilians.
          Northern Finland: another crushing Finnish victory is recorded in the north, this time at Suomussalmi. A second enemy division is destroyed as Finnish troops push onwards to the border.
          Ladoga Karelia: Soviet forces mount an unsuccessful assault to the north of Ruhtinaanmäki.
          Abroad: expressions of sympathy and support for Finland's struggle are pouring in from all over the world. In Paris, the French National Group of the Inter-Parliamentary Union responds to the appeal by the Finnish Parliament and expresses its support for Finland. The Canadian Red Cross sends 50,000 dollars in aid to Finland. Herbert Hoover, the former US President, sends his fifth 100,000 dollar check to Finland. In response to the appeal by the League of Nations, Argentina sends 50,000 tonnes of grain to Finland with no fixed date for payment. The Nicaraguan Government launches a national appeal for aid for Finland.
         Moscow objects to Swedish protests over the sinking of the steamer Fenris.

    Neuvostojoukot hyökkäävät tuloksetta Laatokan Karjalassa Talvisodan 41. päivä, 9.tammikuuta.1940
         -Tasavallan presidentti Kyösti Kallio pitää presidentin linnassa lehdistö- tilaisuuden ulkomaisille lehtimiehille. Presidentti toteaa mm. että vihollinen on ensimmäisen sotakuukauden aikana pommittanut noin sataa paikkakuntaa ja pudottanut noin 4000 pommia. Vihollisen ilma-hyökkäyksissä on saanut surmansa 239 siviilihenkilöä.
          Suomussalmella uusi suurvoitto: valtakunnan raja saavutetaan ja jo toinen vihollisdivisioona on tuhottu.
          Neuvostojoukot hyökkäävät tuloksetta Ruhtinaanmäeltä pohjoiseen Laatokan Karjalassa.
          Ulkomailta: Eri puolilta maailmaa saapuu myötätunnon ja tuen ilmauksia taistelevalle Suomelle. Pariisissa parlamenttien välisen liiton Ranskan ryhmä vastaa Suomen valtiopäivien vetoomukseen ja ilmaisee tukensa Suomelle. Kanadan Punainen Risti lähettää Suomelle 50 000 dollaria. Entinen Yhdysvaltain presidentti Herbert Hoover lähettää jo viidennen kerran100 000 dollarin sekin Suomeen. Kansainliiton päätöksen johdosta Argentiina lähettää Suomelle 50 000 tonnia viljaa, jonka maksuaikataulu on vapaa. Nicaraguan valtio aloittaa valta-kunnallisen keräyksen Suomen hyväksi. Moskova protestoi höyrylaiva Fenrisin upottamisen johdosta annettua Ruotsin vastalausetta.
    1931 Claude Anet [Jean Schopfer] French writer (La fille perdue)
    1929 Heiner Müller writer
    1927: 78 children in fire at Laurier Palace cinema in Montreal.
    1923 Katherine Mansfield, 34, New Zealand / British writer (Dove's Nest)
    1908 Wilhelm Busch, German artist and writer born on 15 April 1832. — more with links to images.
    1901 Manuel María de los Santos Acosta Castillo, político liberal colombiano.
    1898 Henry Stacy Marks, British painter born on 13 September 1829. MORE ON MARKS AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1893 Mohara Arab ivory/slave trader, dies in battle and is eaten.
    ^ 1887 Western US cattle, starved in blizzard
          On one of the worst days of the "worst winter in the West," nearly an inch of snow falls every hour for 16 hours, impeding the ability of already starving cattle to find food. The plains ranchers had seen hard winters before, but they had survived because their cattle had been well fed going into the winter. By the mid-1880s, though, the situation had changed. In the hopes of making quick money, greedy speculators had overstocked the northern ranges in Montana, Wyoming, and the Dakotas. Deceived by a string of mild winters, many ranch managers were also no longer putting up any winter-feed for their stock. Disaster arrived in 1886.
          The summer of 1886 was hot and dry, and by autumn, the range was almost barren of grass. The cold and snow came early, and by January, record-breaking snowfalls blanketed the plains, forcing the already weakened cattle to expend vital energy moving through the snow in search of scant forage. In January, a warm Chinook wind briefly melted the top layers of snow. When the brutal cold returned (some ranches recorded temperatures of 63 degrees below zero), a hard thick shell of ice formed over everything, making it almost impossible for the cattle to break through the snow to reach the meager grass below. With no winter hay stored to feed the animals, many ranchers had to sit by idly and watch their herds slowly die. "Starving cattle staggered through village streets," one historian recalls, "and collapsed and died in dooryards." In Montana, 5000 head of cattle invaded the outskirts of Great Falls, eating the saplings the townspeople had planted that spring and "bawling for food."
          When the snow melted in the spring, carcasses of the once massive herds dotted the land as far as the eye could see. One observer recalled that so many rotting carcasses clogged creek and river courses that it was hard to find water fit to drink. Millions of cattle are estimated to have died during the "Great Die Up" as it came to be called, a darkly humorous reference to the celebrated "Round Up." Montana ranchers alone lost an estimated 362'000 head of cattle, more than half the territory's herd.
          Besides sending hundreds of ranches into bankruptcy, the hard winter also brought an abrupt end to the era of the open range. Realizing they would always have to grow crops to feed their animals, ranchers decreased the size of their herds and began to stretch barbed wire fences across the open range to enclose new hay fields. By the 1890s, the typical rancher was also a farmer, and cowboys spent more time fixing fences than riding herd or roping mavericks. Belatedly, settlers realized that they had to adapt to the often-harsh demands of life on the western plains if they were to survive and thrive.
    1878 Victor Emmanuel II, 57, king of Sardinia (1849-61) / Italy (1861-78). — Victor Manuel II, rey y fundador del Reino de Italia.
    1873 Empereur (déchu) Napoléon III. Il souffrait depuis longtemps de problèmes rénaux. L'intervention chirurgicale, en Angleterre, tentée pour extraire un calcul de la taille d'un caillou, provoque une septicémie dont il meurt à soixante-cinq ans.
    1855 Some 480 on Clipper Guiding Star as it disappears in Atlantic.
    1853 Juan N. Gallego, 75, Spanish poet / interpreter (El dos de Mayo). — Juan Nicasio Gallego, sacerdote y poeta español.
    1851 Michel-Martin Drolling, French artist born on 07 March 1786. — more with links to images.
    1848 Caroline Herschel, mathematician.
    1844 Jean-Antoine Constantin, French artist born on 21 January 1756.
    ^ 1836 Pierre François Lacenaire, guillotiné
          L’exécution d’un assassin resté célèbre grâce au cinéma, Pierre François Lacenaire. Bien éclipsée pendant un siècle par tant d’autres criminels aussi effrayants et plus récents, la figure de Lacenaire est sortie de l’ombre grâce aux Enfants du paradis de Prévert et Carné. Fils d’honorables commerçants établis près de Lyon, élève au lycée de cette ville puis au petit séminaire d’Alès dont il est chassé, Pierre-François Lacenaire entame sa licence en droit à Chambéry. Ses indélicatesses et ses débauches le contraignent à chercher refuge à Paris en 1825. Il sait s’y faire accueillir par les journaux de l’opposition. Mais un duel malheureux, en 1829, avec un neveu de Benjamin Constant, qu’il tue, le prive de ressources. Il vole et revend alors un cabriolet, ce qui lui vaut un an de prison purgé à Poissy. Il fait là, dira-t-il, son “université criminelle” et, dès sa sortie, fonde une association de malfaiteurs.
          Il encourt bientôt une nouvelle condamnation en 1832 et c’est en prison qu’il écrit une ballade qui le rend célèbre, "Pétition d’un voleur à un roi, son voisin". Cela lui vaut d’entrer au journal "Le Bon Sens" (dirigé par Altaroche, un détenu politique) où il publie un article remarqué sur le régime pénitentiaire, "Les Prisons et le régime pénitentiaire". Lacenaire y décrit l’initiation criminelle et les mœurs infâmes qui sont de règle dans les maisons centrales. Sans argent, il décide d’égorger les garçons de recettes des banques au retour de leur tournée. Au deuxième crime, sa tentative échoue. Il est identifié et arrêté par le célèbre policier Canler en 1835. Les assises de la Seine le condamnent à mort. En attendant son exécution, il écrit ses "Mémoires et révélations" qui dénotent un indéniable don littéraire ; il reçoit dans sa cellule la haute société parisienne, "émerveillée par son éducation et son talent", qui vient solliciter des autographes. Il est exécuté le 09 janvier 1836, refusant les prières de l’aumônier, lui qui avait écrit: “Dieu, le Néant, notre âme, la Nature; c'est un secret. Je le saurai demain”.
    1821 Pierre Alexandre Wille, French artist born on 19 July 1748. MORE ON WILLE AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1799 Maria Gaetana Agnesi, Milanese mathematician.and philosopher born on 16 May1718. She is the first woman in the Western world to have achieved a reputation in mathematics. Agnesi was the eldest child of a wealthy silk merchant who provided her with the best tutors available. She was an extremely precocious child who mastered Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and several modern languages at an early age, and her father liked to host gatherings where she could display her knowledge. Propositiones philosophicae, a series of essays on natural philosophy and history based on her discussions before such gatherings, was published in 1738. Agnesi's best-known work, Instituzioni analitiche ad uso della gioventù italiana (1748), in two huge volumes, provided a remarkably comprehensive and systematic treatment of algebra and analysis, including such relatively new developments as integral and differential calculus. In this text is found a discussion of the Agnesi curve, a cubic curve known in Italian as versiera, which was confused with versicra (“witch”) and translated into English as the “Witch of Agnesi.” Agnesi turned increasingly to religion and, after the death of her father in 1752, she devoted herself almost exclusively to charitable work and religious studies. She established various hospices and died in one of the poorhouses that she had once directed.
    1757 Bernard Le Bovier (or Bouyer), sieur de Fontenelle French mathematician, scientist, and man of letters born on 11 February 1657. He was described by Voltaire as the most universal mind of the era of Louis XIV. His works set forth in embryonic form many of the characteristics ideas of the Enlightenment. His most famous book is Entretiens sur la pluralité des mondes (1686; 213kb _ at another site, 234kb), entertaining dialogues backing the Copernican system on the basis of the Cartesian theory of vortices which would be refuted by Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) of Isaac Newton [04 Jan 1643 = 25 Dec 1642 Julian – 31 Mar 1727 = 20 Mar 1727 Julian]. — Portrait du Philosophe Bernard Le Bouyer de Fontenelle (1400x1120pix, 163kb) par Rigaud [bap. 18 Jul 1659 – 29 Dec 1743].
    1570 Some 1500 residents of Novgorod massacred by Tsar Ivan the Terrible.
    1569 St. Philip of Moscow, primate of the Russian Orthodox Church, murdered by Tsar Ivan IV "the Terrible".
    1349 700 Jews of Basel Switzerland, burned alive in their homes.
    1324 Marco Polo, Italian explorer. MARCO POLO ONLINE: Il Milione
     
    < 08 Jan 10 Jan >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 09 January:

    1996 Java Soft Division of Sun Microsystems created to develop and promote its Java programming language. Former Delphi Internet Services Corporation president Alan Baratz is named president of the division.
    ^ 1995 Microsoft Bob, introduced at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.
          Bob, a much-ballyhooed "social interface," converted the user's desktop into a cartoon office complete with phone, desk, file cabinets, a date book, and an animated "assistant" to help coach the user through computer tasks. The product flopped when the public failed to become interested in computer advice from adorable animated characters. The spirit of Bob lives, though, in the animated paper clip that offers pointers to users of Microsoft Word. The addition of "assistants" was meant to give basic software users access to the increasingly sophisticated but often little-known features included in the application.
    1976 La Agrupación Liberal Democrática, base del Partido Liberal español, se crea en España.
    1963 "Reply to Comrade Kuo Mo-jo" Mao Tse-tung writes his poem.
    1959 Rigoberta Menchú, líder indígena guatemalteca.
    1944 Ian Hornak, US representational still-life painter who would die on 09 December 2002. — more with links to images.
    1942 Laureano Albán, escritor costarricense.
    1936 Noël Coward's "Astonished Heart," premieres in London
    1928 Judith Krantz, New York, New York, author (Scruples, I'll Take Manhattan, Princess Daisy, Dazzle)
    1928 Eugene O'Neill's "Marco Millions," premieres in New York City NY.
    1927 A los pies de Venus, novela de Blasco Ibáñez, se pone a la venta.
    Nixon1925 Abdelhamid Benhadugah novelist.
    1922 Har G Khorana India/Canada bio-chemist (Nobel 1968)
    1922 Ahmed Sékou Touré, who, shortly after Guinea became the first independent French-speaking state in Africa on 02 October 1958, was elected its president. He ruled with an iron hand until his death on 26 March 1984.
    1920 José Luis Vilallonga, escritor y actor español.
    1914 Celso Emilio Ferreiro, escritor español.
    1913 Richard Milhous Nixon (R) 37th US President (1968-1974), who died on 22 April 1994. [photo >] Ce fils de paysan (ancien conducteur de tramway à Colombus (Ohio) mais le froid qui le mordait dans sa cabine ouverte à tous les vents l'avait incité à descendre en Californie) né à Yorba Linda (USA) sera l'un des présidents des USA les plus controversé. Sa famille appartient à la secte religieuse des Quakers et Nixon fait des études au Collège Quaker de Whittier. Après avoir obtenu ses diplômes, il décide de s'orienter vers la profession d'avocat. Mobilisé dans la marine lors de la deuxième guerre mondiale, il sert dans le Pacifique Sud. En 1947, il est élu député à la chambre des Représentants. Il est élu sénateur en 1950 où il représente la Californie. En 1952 et 1956, il est choisit par Eisenhower comme vice président. A près une défaite en 1960 face à J.F. Kennedy. Il est élu le 04 novembre 1968. Le reste est affaires ...
    1908 Simone de Beauvoir, France, feminist writer (Mandarins, 2nd Sex). She died on 14 April 1986.
    1908 Francisco Javier Martín Abril, periodista y escritor español.
    1902 José María Escrivá de Balaguer y Albás [–26 Jun 1975], declared a saint on 06 October 2002, Spanish priest (ordained on 28 March 1925) who founded the Opus Dei on 02 October 1928. — Vatican biographyPapal Homily at canonization —(090527)
    1901 Chic Young, US cartoonist (Blondie). He died on 14 March 1973.
    1900 Richard Halliburton, US travel writer who died on 23 March 1939.
    1891 August Gailit Estonia, writer (Ekke Moor)
    1891 Catarina Carreiro-Pascoal, in Portugal. She would live at least past her 113th birthday.
    1890 Kurt Tucholsky German journalist/writer (Panther Tiger & Co)
    1891 August Gailit Estonia, writer (Ekke Moor)
    1890 Karel Capek Czechoslovakia, writer (R U R ); coined the word "robot"
    1881 Giovanni Papini, Italy, journalist and novelist (Il Diavolo). He died on 08 July 1956.
    1881 Lascelles Abercrombie English poet/critic (Revaluations)
    1876 Hans Bethge writer.
    1875 Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, US sculptor and arts patron who died on 18 April 1942. She founded the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York City.
    1873 Hayyim Nahman Bialik Rädi Ukraine, Hebrew poet/translator
    1873 Blichfeldt, mathematician.
    1869 Richard Wilhelm Heinrich Abegg [–03 Apr 1910], physical chemist whose work contributed to the understanding of valence (the capacity of an atom to combine with another atom). —(080108)
    1864 Steklov, mathematician.
    1860 François-Joseph Guiguet, French artist who died on 03 September 1737.
    1859 Frederik Pijper Dutch vicar/church historian (The Monasteries)
    1857 Henry B Fuller, US writer (Under the Skylights)
    1856 Anton Askerc Slavic priest/poet (Primoz Trubar)
    1856 Lizette Woodworth Reese, US poet (Branch of May, Tears)
    1851 Luis Coloma Spanish jesuit/writer/theologian (Pequeñeces, Boy)
    1830 Arthur Johann Severin Nikutowski, German artist who died on 14 February 1888.
    1829 Thomas William Robertson England, playwright (Caste)
    ^ 1827 "Cénacle de Joseph Delorme", créé par Sainte-Beuve et Hugo.
         Ce cénacle romantique est nommé en l’honneur du célèbre poème de Sainte-Beuve dans lequel ce terme se trouve appliqué au groupe d’amis et d’artistes qui, de 1827 à 1830 (à peu près du "manifeste" de la préface de Cromwell à l’apothéose d’"Hernani"), furent au cœur de la révolution romantique. Certes, Sainte-Beuve, qui entre en relation avec Victor Hugo après un article extrêmement élogieux dans Le Globe du 9 janvier 1827 sur le premier volume des Odes, y joue un rôle non négligeable par l’œuvre de théoricien et de critique qu’il commence à édifier comme par l’aide matérielle qu’il lui apporte en faisant du Globe l’organe des théories nouvelles. Mais c’est bien Victor Hugo qui constitue la figure maîtresse du Cénacle. Il a abandonné son appartement de la rue de Vaugirard pour un autre plus spacieux, rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs; Sainte-Beuve, si forte était alors l’amitié qui unissait les deux hommes, emménage à quelques numéros de là. Les réunions, qui se tiennent chez Hugo, dans le salon appelé "chambre au lys d’or" (la fleur poétique gagnée à l’académie des jeux Floraux), rassemblent un nombre toujours plus grand de sympathisants et d’amis. L’esprit qui animait ce groupe, assez ouvert pour recueillir presque tout ce que le romantisme français compta de gloires, et, fait nouveau dans l’histoire des lettres, les musiciens et surtout les artistes s’y mêlaient de plus en plus nombreux aux écrivains. Tous les arts cherchaient à communier dans une même recherche. Jeunes rapins ou jeunes poètes, tous avaient le sentiment exalté de vivre un tournant de l’histoire en se débarrassant des conventions académiques et des vieux conformismes, pour inventer des formes résolument modernes, laissant libre cours à l’imagination. Chacun lisait ses œuvres, on se dispensait mutuellement encouragements et félicitations; véritable "camaraderie littéraire", pour reprendre l’expression d’un détracteur, Henri de Latouche.
           Les plus célèbres des réunions du Cénacle furent les lectures des pièces de Hugo, Marion Delorme (10 juillet 1829), alors appelée Un duel sous Richelieu, où assistèrent notamment Balzac, Eugène Delacroix, Vigny, Dumas, Musset, Sainte-Beuve, Villemain, Mérimée, Armand et Édouard Bertin, Louis Boulanger, Frédéric Soulié, Taylor, Soumet, Émile et Antony Deschamps, les frères Devéria, Charles Magnin, Mme Belloc, Mme Tastu.
          La lecture d’Hernani (30 sept. 1829), véritable soirée historique, fut le prélude à la bataille de la représentation du 25 février 1830 et des suivantes; dans les semaines qui précédèrent cette bataille, gagnée de haute lutte, la maison de Hugo ressemblait davantage à un quartier général, où les combattants viennent prendre les instructions, qu’à un salon littéraire.
          Mais cette même année 1830 marque la fin du Cénacle: jalousies et rivalités de théâtre, répercussions de la révolution de 1830 qui désagrège et éparpille le groupe suivant les prises de position des uns et des autres; refroidissement certain dans les rapports entre Victor Hugo et Sainte-Beuve, dû autant au malaise croissant du critique devant l’absence de mesure, d’équilibre et de bon goût du génie hugolien qu’à l’attraction réciproque que s’avouent Adèle Hugo et "Joseph Delorme", alias Sainte-Beuve (qui deviendront d’ailleurs amants). Hugo lui-même éprouve le besoin d’une plus grande solitude méditative et imaginaire (c’est l’heure des Feuilles d’automne), et se sent peut-être las de jouer au général en chef d’une armée littéraire. Dès l’été de 1830, il déménage et va s’installer rue Jean-Goujon, dans un quartier lointain et alors peu fréquenté. Les foyers du romantisme vont essaimer, se multiplier et se diversifier, désormais chaque aventure sera menée en ordre dispersé, chaque exploit deviendra plus solitaire.
    1823 Francisco Bilbao Barquín, político chileno.
    1790 Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom Swedish poet (Lycksalighetens)
    1789 Louis Dupré, French artist who died on 12 October 1837. — more.
    ^ 1768 The modern circus is born.
          Englishman Philip Astley stages the first modern circus in London. Trick riders, acrobats, clowns, trained animals, and other familiar components of the circus have existed throughout recorded history, but it was not until the late 18th century that the modern spectacle of the circus was born. Astley, a former cavalry sergeant major, found that if he galloped in a tight circle, centrifugal force allowed him to perform seemingly impossible feats on a horse's back. He drew up a ring and on January 9, 1768, invited the public to see him wave his sword in the air while he rode with one foot on the saddle and one on the horse's head.
          Astley's trick riding received such a favorable response that he soon hired other equestrians, a clown, and musicians and in 1770 built a roof over his ring and called the structure Astley's Amphitheatre. In 1772, Astley went to Versailles to perform his "daring feats of horsemanship" before King Louis XV, and he found France ripe for a permanent show of its own, which he founded in 1782. Also in 1782, a competitor in London set up shop just down the road from Astley's Amphitheatre, calling his show the "Royal Circus," after the Roman name for the circular theaters where chariot races were held. In the 19th century, the term "circus" was adopted as a generic name for this new form of entertainment. Astley, who lived till 1814, eventually established 18 other circuses in cities across Europe.
          In 1792, English equestrian John Bill Ricketts opened the first American circus in Philadelphia and later opened others in New York City and Boston. President George Washington reportedly attended a Ricketts circus and sold the company a horse. Smaller traveling circuses arose in Europe in the early 19th century, visiting towns and cities that lacked elaborate permanent shows. Larger traveling tent shows evolved in the 1820s. In 1859, the Cirque Napoleon in Paris offered the first "flying trapeze" act, which remains a popular component of the modern circus.
          In 1871, William Cameron Coup and showman P.T. Barnum opened an enormous circus in Brooklyn that they dubbed "The Greatest Show on Earth." Ten years later, Barnum went into business with James Anthony Bailey; the "Barnum and Bailey" circuses were so large they required simultaneous performances in three rings.
          In 1884, the five Ringling brothers staged their first circus, and they soon were buying out other circus companies, including Barnum and Bailey, which they purchased in 1907. During the next three decades, the Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Combined Shows grew into the largest touring organization in the world, with hundreds of tents and an army of workers and performers. The Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey downsized after World War II but continues to tour today. Canada's Cirque du Soleil, which gave an artistic sensibility to its acrobatic acts while shunning the use of animals, was an innovative circus development of the late 20th century.
    1728 Thomas Warton, poet laureate of England (Pleasures of Melancholy)
    1671 Jean-Baptiste Vanmour, Flemish artist who died on 22 January 1737.
    1590 Simon Vouet, French painter who died on 30 June 1649. MORE ON VOUET AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1554 Gregory XV [Alessandro Ludovisi], pope (1621-1623)
     
    Holidays Connecticut : Ratification Day (1788) / Panama, Canal Zone: Martyrs' Day/Dia de los Martires.

    Religious Observances: Roman Catholic: St Adrian / St Julian the Hospitaller and companions. / Santos Eulogio de Córdoba, Julián y Basilisa.

    DICTIONNAIRE TICRANIEN GÉOGRAPHIQUE FRANÇAIS-ANGLAIS: BREST: organe de l'allaitement. Exemple: BREST MILK: lait maternel.
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