1999 Clinton impeachment
The impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton, formally charged with lying under oath and obstructing justice, begins in the Senate. As instructed in Article 1 of the US Constitution, Supreme Court Chief Justice William Rehnquist was sworn in to preside, and the senators were sworn in as jurors. Congress had only attempted to remove a president on one other occasion: the 1868 impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson, who incurred the Republican Party's wrath after he proposed a conservative Reconstruction plan.
In November 1995, Clinton began an affair with Monica Lewinsky, a 21-year-old unpaid intern. Over a year and a half, the president and Lewinsky had nearly a dozen sexual encounters in the White House. In April 1996, Lewinsky was transferred to the Pentagon. That summer, she first confided in Pentagon co-worker Linda Tripp about her sexual relationship with the president. In 1997, with the relationship over, Tripp began secretly to record conversations with Lewinsky in which she gave details about the affair.
In December, Lewinsky was subpoenaed by lawyers for Paula Jones, who was suing the president on sexual harassment charges. In January 1998, allegedly under the recommendation of the president, Lewinsky filed an affidavit in which she denied ever having had a sexual relationship with him. Five days later, Tripp contacted the office of Whitewater Independent Counsel Ken Starr to talk about Lewinsky and the tapes she made of their conversations. Tripp, wired by FBI agents working with Starr, met with Lewinsky again, and on January 16, Lewinsky was taken by FBI agents and US attorneys to a hotel room where she was questioned and offered immunity if she cooperated with the prosecution. A few days later, the story broke, and Clinton publicly denied the allegations, saying, "I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Ms. Lewinsky."
In late July, lawyers for Lewinsky and Starr worked out a full-immunity agreement covering both Lewinsky and her parents, all of whom Starr had threatened with prosecution. On August 6, Lewinsky appeared before the grand jury to begin her testimony, and on August 17, President Clinton testified. Contrary to his testimony in the Paula Jones sexual-harassment case, President Clinton acknowledged to prosecutors from the office of the independent counsel that he had had an extramarital affair with Ms. Lewinsky.
In four hours of closed-door testimony, conducted in the Map Room of the White House, Clinton spoke live via closed-circuit television to a grand jury in a nearby federal courthouse. He was the first sitting president ever to testify before a grand jury investigating his conduct. That evening, President Clinton also gave a four-minute televised address to the nation in which he admitted he had an inappropriate relationship with Lewinsky. In the brief speech, which was wrought with legalisms, the word "sex" was never spoken, and the word "regret" was used only in reference to his admission that he misled the public and his family.
Less than a month later, on September 9, Kenneth Starr submitted his report and 18 boxes of supporting documents to the House of Representatives. Released to the public two days later, the Starr Report outlined a case for impeaching Clinton on 11 grounds, including perjury, obstruction of justice, witness-tampering, and abuse of power, and also provided explicit details of the sexual relationship between the president and Ms. Lewinsky.
On October 8, the House authorized a wide-ranging impeachment inquiry, and on December 11, the House Judiciary Committee approved three articles of impeachment. On December 19, after nearly 14 hours of debate, the House approved two articles of impeachment, charging President Clinton with lying under oath to a federal grand jury and obstructing justice.
Clinton, the second president in American history to be impeached, vowed to finish his term. On January 7, 1999, the impeachment trial began. Five weeks later, on February 12, the Senate voted on whether to remove Clinton from office. Clinton was acquitted on both articles of impeachment. The prosecution needed a two-thirds majority to convict but failed to achieve even a bare majority. Rejecting the first charge of perjury, 45 Democrats and 10 Republicans voted "not guilty," and on the charge of obstruction of justice the Senate was split 50-50. After the trial concluded, President Clinton said he was "profoundly sorry" for the burden he imposed on Congress and the American people.
| 1997 Newt
Gingrich become the first Republican re-elected (albeit narrowly)
US House of Representatives Speaker in 68 years.
1997 Apple chairman Gilbert Amelio, at MacWorld, promises that a new Macintosh operating system, code-named Rhapsody, would help save the struggling computer company. His optimistic announcement followed an admission that Apple had sustained $150 million in losses in the previous quarter. Little did Amelio know that he would shortly be ousted from the company.
1991 Soviet paratroopers sent to Baltic Republics
1991 Haiti coup defeated
1991 Soviet paratroopers sent to Baltic Republics
1990 Loyalist troops in Haiti crushed a coup attempt that had threatened the transition of power to the country's first freely elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
1990 Tower Of Pisa closed to the public after leaning too far
1989 Akihito becomes emperor of Japan, upon the death of Hirohito (1922-89) after 62-year reign (1/2 Million people line Tokyo streets)
1989 International Conference on Limitation of Chemical Weapons opens in Paris
1987 French airplanes harass Libyan positions in Duadi Doum
1986 US President Reagan proclaims economic sanctions against Libya
1985 "King and I" opens at Broadway Theater New York City NY for 191 performances
1983 Reagan ends US arms embargo against Guatemala.
1979 Vietnamese invaders overthrow Kampuchea's genocidal
Vietnamese forces capture Phnom Penh from Khmer Rouge which they replace by a puppet government — the People's Republic of Kampuchea — consisting largely of Cambodian Communists who had deserted Pol Pot in 1977-78. The Khmer Rouge retreated to bases near the border with Thailand and resumed guerrilla warfare, aided by China.
Vietnamese troops seize the Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh, toppling the brutal regime of Pol Pot and his Khmer Rouge. The Khmer Rouge, organized by Pol Pot in the Cambodian jungle in the 1960s, advocated a radical Communist revolution that would wipe out Western influences in Cambodia and set up a solely agrarian society. In 1970, aided by North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops, Khmer Rouge guerrillas began a large-scale insurgency against Cambodian government forces, soon gaining control of nearly a third of the country.
By 1973, secret US bombings of Cambodian territory controlled by the Vietnamese Communists forced the Vietnamese out of the country, creating a power vacuum that was soon filled by Pol Pot's rapidly growing Khmer Rouge movement. In April 1975, the Khmer Rouge captured Phnom Penh, the Cambodian capital, overthrew the pro-US regime, and established a new government, the Kampuchean People's Republic.
[< Pol Pot addresses a closed meeting in Phnom Penh after the 1975 Khmer Rouge victory.]
As the new ruler of Cambodia, Pol Pot set about transforming the country into his vision of an agrarian utopia. The cities were evacuated, factories and schools were closed, and currency and private property was abolished. Anyone believed to be an intellectual, such as someone who spoke a foreign language, was immediately killed. Skilled workers were also killed, in addition to anyone caught in possession of eyeglasses, a wristwatch, or any other modern technology. In forced marches punctuated with atrocities from the Khmer Rouge, the millions who failed to escape Cambodia were herded onto rural collective farms.
Between 1975 and 1978, an estimated two million Cambodians died by execution, forced labor, and famine. In 1978, Vietnamese troops invaded Cambodia, capturing Phnom Penh in early 1979. A moderate Communist government was established, and Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge retreated back into the jungle.
In 1985, Pol Pot [photo >] officially retired but remained the effective head of the Khmer Rouge, which continued its guerrilla actions against the government in Phnom Penh. In 1997, however, he was put on trial by the organization after an internal power struggle ousted him from his leadership position. Sentenced to life imprisonment by a "people's tribunal," which critics derided as a show trial, Pol Pot later declared in an interview, "My conscience is clear." Much of the international community hoped that his captors would extradite him to stand trial for his crimes against humanity, but he died of apparently natural causes while under house arrest in 1998.
The Killing Fields at Choeung Ek. This mass grave, discovered in 1980, was one of the first proofs to the outside world of what had occurred during Pol Pot's regime.
| 1978 Angola revises its constitution.
1977 Human Rights Charter '77 established in Prague.
1972 Lewis F. Powell Jr. and William Hubbs Rehnquist are sworn in as the 99th and 100th members of the US Supreme Court.
1968 US first class postage raised from 5 to 6 cents
1963 US first class postage raised from 4 to 5 cents
1962 Assassination attempt on Indonesian president Sukarno, fails
1955 contralto Marian Anderson made her debut at the Metropolitan Opera, first black to perform there.
1953 US President Harry Truman announces in his State of the Union address that the United States has developed a nuclear fusion bomb.
1952 French Plevin government falls
1948 US President Truman raises taxes for Marshall-plan
1952 French Plevin government falls
1946 Cambodia becomes autonomous state inside French Union
1882 Gambetta propose à Londres de mener une action conjointe contre l'Egypte. Les deux gouvernements remettent au Caire une note laissant entrevoir l'éventualité d'une intervention de leurs armées.
| 1862 Battle of Manassas Junction VA
1862 Romney Campaign-Stonewall Jackson march towards Romney WV
1861 Florida troops takeover Fort Marion at St Augustine
1861 Mississippi and Alabama State Conventions meet to discuss secession
1835 HMS Beagle anchors off Chonos Archipelago
1822 Liberia (see its flag) colonized by Americans (celebrated as "Pioneers' Day") In the beginning of the 19th century the tide started to rise in favor of the abolition of slavery, and the Grain Coast was suggested as a suitable home for freed US slaves. In 1818 two US government agents and two officers of the American Colonization Society (founded 1816) visited the Grain Coast. After abortive attempts to establish settlements there, an agreement was signed in 1821 between the officers of the society and local African chiefs granting the society possession of Cape Mesurado. The first freed US slaves landed in 1822 on Providence Island at the mouth of the Mesurado River. They were followed shortly by Jehudi Ashmun, a US White, who became the real founder of Liberia. By the time Ashmun left in 1828 the territory had a government, a digest of laws for the settlers, and the beginnings of profitable foreign commerce.
1807 Les échecs répétés des français en Espagne ont permis aux Anglais de reprendre pied sur le continent. Ils en profitent pour bloquer les ports de France et décrètent aussi le blocus de ses colonies.
1789 The first US presidential election is held. US white men vote for electors who, a month later, would choose George Washington to be the nation's first president.
1698 Russian Czar Peter the Great departs Netherlands to England
1622 Germany and Transylvania sign Peace of Nikolsburg
1618 Francis Bacon becomes English lord chancellor
1598 Boris Godunov seizes the Russian throne on death of Feodore I
1584 Last day of the Julian calendar in Bohemia and Holy Roman empire
1579 England signs an offensive and defensive alliance with the Netherlands
1566 Saint Pius V (Antonio Michele Ghislieri) is elected Pope
1558 Calais, last English possession in France, retaken by French under Francois, Duke of Guise
1489 On a appelé cette guerre la Guerre folle à cause de l'imprudence des seigneurs qui s'attaquaient au pouvoir royal, elle conduit ce jour à l'invasion du duché de Bretagne par l'ost de Charles VIII
1325 Alfonso IV succeeds Dionysius as king of Portugal
0754 Pope Stephen III (sometimes counted as Stephen II, because the actual Stephen II died 4 days after his election, before being consecrated) arrives in Ponthion
2006 All 12 aboard a US UH-60 Black Hawk military helicopter, which, late in the night, crashes some 12 km east of Tal Afar, Iraq. — (060109)
2005 Some women Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) on a suicide bomb fishing boat and 13 of the 15 sailors aboard an Israeli-built Sri Lankan Navy Dvora fast attack craft which is destroyed just outside the naval port Trincomalee, Sri Lanka, before dawn. — (060107)
2004 Tom and Nola Blaylock, and their daughter Georgia Bradley, shot; and their grand-daughter Jerri "Harley" Jones, 10 months, strangled; in Ranger, Georgia, by Jerry William Jones, 31, a violent and mentally abnormal convicted thief, ex-mate (1998-Dec 2003) of their daughter Melissa Peeler, and father of the baby, who then kidnaps his daughters Tammy Jones, 3, and Brandy Jones, 4, and stepdaughter Brittney Phelps, 10, and flees in a stolen car. Late in the day, Jones phones Melissa Peeler, who is in Oregon visiting her “boyfriend”, tells her of the killings, and says that he will "start killing the kids one by one" if she alerts authorities. However, at 20:00 on 08 January 2003 (01:00 UT 09 Jan) police pursue and stop the car, Jones shoots himself in the head but survives, and the three girls are rescued unhurt.
2004 Brett Richards, 52, after bandits fire at 15:00 through the window of the bus traveling near Colomba, Guatemala, toward Mexico, on its 6th day of an 8-day tour of Book of Mormon sites in Central America, by its 13 passengers, all adults from Utah and Idaho. The bandits then board the bus, shoot the driver in the right ankle, take out the passengers, tie them up face-down on the ground for almost one hour and rob them of jewelry and money. Richards was a Mormon bishop and an architect who designed the Dinosaur Park Museum and the 2nd District Courthouse in Ogden, Utah. He graduated from Ogden High School in 1969, and is was the father of three daughters and two sons. Also on the bus were his wife Becky Richards, his parents Maurice and Patricia Richards, and his brother Reed Richards with his wife Martha Richards.
2004 US Pfc. Jesse D. Mizener, in mortar attack on the US Logistics base in west Baghdad, Iraq. 34 other US soldiers are wounded. Mizener was born on 24 December 1980 in Santa Clara, California. In 1987 the family moved to Stockton. After high school he entered the California Conservation Corp, performed volunteer work for the Veterans Administration, and met his wife Nicole. Settling in Auburn, he enlisted in the Army in September 2002. After basic training in Ft. Leonardwood MO, he and his family moved to be stationed at Ft. Lewis, Washington state. Jesse was sent to Iraq as a heavy equipment mechanic in the 542nd Maintenance Company, 44th Corps Support Battalion, 593rd Corps. After his military service he planned to become a police officer. He had a son, Jesse, born in November 2003, and two daughters, Gia, 3, and Eve, 2.
2004 Benjamin Flores, 52, of Bacoor, Cavite, Philippines, of tetanus. He had suffered wounds in his right hand and left eye when a firecracker he was holding exploded during New Year's celebrations.
2004 (approximate date) Anthony Delaven, 3, of Sucat, Parañaque, Philippines, of tetanus. He had suffered wounds from a firecracker during New Year's celebrations.
2003 José María Guillen Torres [photo >] and his brother Rafael Guillen Torres, shot at 04:10 in their car on a highway in Vera Cruz state, Mexico. José María Guillen, an agronomer, former mayor of Chinameca (1995-1997), was a diputado federal, of the PRI, for the 21st district of Vera Cruz state. His son Marco Tulio Guillen, 15, is seriously wounded.
2002 Simon Beisa Oryx, about 18
In Kenya's 104-square-kilometer Samburu National Reserve, the oryx is killed by a male lion while its kidnapper and protector, lioness Kamuniak (aka Larsen), 3, sleeps. On 22 December 2001, the lioness came across the baby oryx shortly after it was born, finding it lying in wait for its mother who had gone to search for food. The lioness kidnapped the oryx (instead of eating it, as would have been normal), giving it affection and protection from other predators as if it were her own cub, though still allowing the mother oryx to come and feed her calf occasionally before scaring her away. The baby oryx was very close to the lioness. Once a leopard wanted to kill the oryx, but the lioness was protecting it.
On 06 January, the lioness weakened by lack of food after two weeks of protecting "her" baby led the oryx to the Uaso Nyiro river to drink. When the lioness went to take a nap, the baby oryx was playing around and it was killed by a male lion. The lioness roared. She was very angry. She went around the lion about 10 times roaring, and then the lioness disappeared. Then the lion took the carcass down by the tree and ate half of it.
The lioness went on to kidnap more baby oryxes.
On 14 February 2002 Kamuniak kidnapped Valentine, a second baby oryx [< photo], but rangers took it away on 17 February to the Nairobi animal orphanage [photo >], because it seemed too young and weak to survive away from its mother.
On 31 March 2002, Kamuniak kidnapped a third baby oryx, “Easter”, but after several days of peaceful companionship. the oryx calf took off on its own.
On 23 May 2002, Kamuniak kidnapped a fourth baby oryx, about 8 days old, at the foot of Koitogor Hills, several hundred meters from Larsens Camp. This baby oryx was rescued by its mother early the next day while the lioness went hunting.
But with the Kamuniak's fifth adopted oryx, Naisimari (“taken by force”), rangers let nature take its course, and it died of starvation on 10 October 2002, whereupon the lioness ate its corpse. Kamuniak was starving herself too, as she did not take enough time off for hunting while she was protecting a baby oryx. Animal behaviorists believe Kamuniak suffers from a mental illness.
On 01 February 2003, Kamuniak snatched from its mother a new-born impala, which died the next day, apparently from stress, exhaustion, and lack of its mother's milk.
Kamuniak-Larsen preferentially eats warthogs and Gerenuk. She parted company with a pride of another eight lions midyear in 2001 and since then has kept the company of oryx herds.
The Oryx and the Lioness (by Sabretooth)
Young oryx and her lioness arose / And stretched. Our distant ken then dimly yawned: / Her orphan had no dam... Yet, love? God knows. / We smiled that cat and kid had purred and fawned. // She hearkened to the antelope as hers, / A roar of Judah's past and future fleece. / Deep in the darkest countenance, what stirs? / What breath behooves ferocious hearts to peace? // Their paths now crossed, her oryx at her side, / The lioness approached the pond to drink. / But nature's other hungers crouch and hide; / In underbrush, a fateful pride may slink.. // By other jaws, her oryx lamb was met… / Isaiah's oracle is not quite yet.
| 2001 Hasan Feelom, 39, hanged in public in Tehran,
Iran, for the 09 August 2000 murder of his wife Fatemeh Ahangaran, 24,
and their daughter Melika, 19 months, so as to elope with his lover.
2001 Liu Guimin, 30, from injuries to her lungs when Beijing police force fed her when she was on a hunger strike after being one of 700 Falun Gong members arrested while taking part in a New Year's Day protest in Tiananmen Square.
1996 More than 100 persons by blizzard which paralyzes the Eastern US.
1972 All 98 passengers and 6 crew members aboard an Iberia Sud Aviation Caravelle SE-210 VIR coming from Valencia, Spain, which hits a 415-meter-high mountain in the Sierra de Atalayasa, 30 meters below the summit, during its initial straight in approach to runway 07 at Ibiza airport.
1965 Anne Redpath, Scottish painter born on 29 March 1895.
1958 Dr Petru Groza, 74, premier of Romania.
1955 Samuel John Lamorna Birch, British artist born on 07 June 1869.
1928 Albert-Marie-Charles Lebourg, French painter born on 01 February 1849. MORE ON LEBOURG AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1926 Hugo Darien, French artist born on 08 January 1864.
1893 Josef Stefan, mathematician.
1892 Tewfik Pasha, 39, viceroy of Egypt
1695 Mary II Stuart, 32, queen of England [1683 portrait by Caspar Netscher]
1892 Some 100 killed in mine explosion, Krebs OK — Blacks trying to help rescue white survivors, driven away with guns.
1858 Hippolyte-Jean-Baptiste Garneray, French painter and engraver born on 23 February 1787.
1830 Thomas Lawrence, British painter and draftsman born on 13 April 1769. MORE ON LAWRENCE AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1819 Marie-Geneviève Bouliard, French artist born in 1772.
1766 Matthys Balen, Flemish artist born on 24 February 1684.
1722 Antoine Coypel, French painter born on 11 April 1661. MORE ON COYPEL AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1655 Innocentius X [Giambattista Pamfili], 80, pope (1644-1655) [1650 portrait of Innocent X, by Velázquez, one of the world's greatest portrait masterpieces, which the pope said was troppo vero, probably because it makes him look more crafty than innocent.]
1598 Theodorus I [Fedor Ivanovitch], 40, czar of Russia (1584-98)
1537 Alessandro de Medici, Italian monarch of Florence, assassinated
1536 Catherine of Aragon, first of the six wives of England's King Henry VIII.
1536 Baldassare Peruzzi, Italian architect, painter, and draftsman, born in 1481.
1507 Cosimo Rosselli (Filippo di Lorenzo), Florentine painter born in 1439. MORE ON ROSSELLI AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1451 Amadeus VIII of Savoy, 67, last anti-pope Felix V (1439-1449)
1325 Dionysius the Justified, King of Portugal (1279-1325)
1285 Charles I of Anjou, 58, king of Naples/brother of King Louis IX
0312 Lucian of Antioch heterodox theologian, biblical scholar, martyred.
1996 Abbey Speakman, England, born 19 days after her twin sister
1985 Saturn Corporation of GM.
Created through a unique partnership between General Motors and the UAW, GM creates Saturn as a wholly owned subsidiary in 1985. Saturn Corporation began selling vehicles in 1990, bringing a new level of customer service to automotive retailing and introducing its no-haggle, a la carte car buying structure. Saturn's automobiles featured innovations such as spaceframe construction and dent resistant polymer body panels. Based in Spring Hill, Tennessee, the car company has built a loyal following.
1965 Date whose anniversary is celebrated as the foundation of the Fatah organization by Yasser Arafat [24 Aug 1929 – 11 Nov 2004]. In fact he was the most prominent of several Palestinian exiles who jointly founded Fatah in 1958 or 1959. —(070108)
1928 William Peter Blatty, author ('The Exorcist')
1927 Transatlantic phone service
Walter Sherman Gifford, president of AT&T in New York, inaugurates the commercial service with a call to Sir George Evelyn Pemberton Murray, secretary of the British Post Office, in London. Thirty-one calls are placed the first day, each costing $75 for a three-minute conversation. New York Times publisher Adolph Simon Ochs made the first private call to Geoffrey Dawson, editor of The Times of London.
1919 Edward Howard “Robert” Duncan, “Robert Edward Symmes”, Californian poet who died on 03 February 1988. He was a leader of the Black Mountain group of poets in the 1950s.
Duncan attended the University of California at Berkeley in 1936–1938 and 1948–1950. He edited The Experimental Review from 1938 to 1940 and traveled widely thereafter, lecturing on poetry in the United States and Canada throughout the 1950s. In 1951 he became the domestic partner of the artist “Jeff” [06 Aug 1923 – 02 Jan 2004]. Duncan taught at Black Mountain College in North Carolina in 1956. He was a longtime resident of San Francisco and was active in that city's poetry community.
Duncan's poetry is evocative and highly musical and uses a rich fabric of associations and images whose meanings are sometimes obscure. Myths and a visionary mysticism inform muchof his poetry, though his thematic concerns also include strong social and political statements. His earlier poems were collected in The Years as Catches: First Poems, 1939–1946 (1966), and his poems of the 1950s appear in Derivations: Selected Poems, 1950–56 (1968). The Opening of the Field (1960), Roots and Branches (1964), Bending the Bow (1968), and Ground Work (1984) are collections of his finest poems. He also wrote plays, including Medea at Kolchis (1965).
1912 Charles Addams, US cartoonist (New Yorker, Addams Family). He died on 29 September 1988. His books of cartoons include: Drawn and Quartered — Addams and Evil — Monster Rally — Black Maria — Favorite Haunts — The Groaning Board — Nightcrawlers — Creature Comforts — The Charles Addams Mother Goose — Dear Dead Days — Afternoon in the Attic.
1910 Alain de Rothschild, France, banker / baron
1907 Paley, mathematician.
1906 Aristotle Onassis, Greek shipping magnate who died on 15 March 1975.
1906 Oscar Manuel Palazón Domínguez, Spanish Surrealist painter and sculptor, active in France, who died on 01 January 1958 (or 31 Dec 1957?). — more with links to images.
1904 Gordon Whyburn, mathematician
^ 1903 Zora Neale Hurston, novelist and folklorist, in Eatonville, Fla.
Although at the time of her death on 28 January 1960, Hurston had published more books than any other Black woman in the US, she was unable to capture a mainstream audience in her lifetime, and she died poor and alone in a welfare hotel. Today, she is seen as one of the most important Black writers in US history. Eatonville, Fla., was an all-black town when Hurston was born. The daughter of a Baptist preacher, Hurston had little contact with white people until her mother's death, when Hurston was 11. Until her teens, Hurston was largely sheltered from racism. A talented, energetic young women with a powerful desire to learn, she didn't finish high school but prepared herself for college and excelled at Howard University. In 1925, she moved to New York, where she became a central figure in the Harlem Renaissance. High-spirited, outgoing, and witty, she became famous for her storytelling talents. She studied anthropology with a prominent professor at Barnard and received a fellowship to collect oral histories and folklore in her home state. She also studied voodoo in Haiti.
In 1931, she collaborated with Langston Hughes on the play Mule Bone. Her first novel, Jonah's Gourd Vine, featuring a central character based on her father, was published in 1934. Mules and Men, a collection of material from her research in oral folklore, was published in 1935 and became her bestselling work during her lifetime, but even so, it earned her only $943.75. In 1937, she published Their Eyes Were Watching God, the story of a Black woman looking for love and happiness in the South. The book was criticized at the time, especially by black male writers, who condemned Hurston for not taking a political stand and demonstrating the ill effects of racism. Instead, the novel, now considered her masterwork, celebrated the rich tradition of the rural Black South.
Hurston's work remained uplifting and joyful despite her financial struggles. She published a memoir, Dust Tracks on a Road, in 1942. Hurston worked on and off as a maid near the end of her life, and she died in poverty in 1960. In the 1970s, her work, almost forgotten, was revived by feminist and black-studies scholars, and an anthology, I Love Myself When I Am Laughing...And Then Again When I Am Looking Mean and Impressive, was published in 1979.
1873 Adolph Zukor, US entrepreneur who built the Paramount movie empire. He died on 10 June 1976.
1871 Émile Borel, French mathematician who died on 03 February 1956.
1865 Valentin Alexandrovitch Serov, Russian painter specialized in portraits, who died on 22 November 1911. MORE ON SEROV AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1859 Georges Humbert, mathematician.
1854 Herbert John Gladstone, English statesman who died on 06 March 1930.
1852 Pascal-Adolphe-Jean Dagnan-Bouveret, French Realist painter and photographer who died on 03 July 1929. MORE ON DAGNAN~BOUVERET AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1844 Marie-Bernarde Soubirous [Saint Bernadette of Lourdes], child visionary. She died on 16 April 1879.
1842 Ludwig Vollmar, German artist who died on 01 March 1884.
1802 Karel Ferdinand Venneman, Charles, Flemish~Belgian artist who died on 22 August 1875.
1800 Millard Fillmore, Locke NY, (Whig) 13th US President (1850-53). He died on 09 March 1874.
1787 Peter Patrick Nasmyth, Scottish landscape painter, who died on 17 August 1831. MORE ON NASMYTH AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1714 Typewriter patented by Englishman Henry Mill (built years later)
1611 James Harrington (or Harington), English political philosopher who died on 11 September 1677. His major work The Common-wealth of Oceana (1656) is a restatement of Aristotle's theory of constitutional stability and revolution. HARRINGTON ONLINE: The Commonwealth of Oceana (at another site).
1549 Francesco Giambattista da Ponte Bassano, Italian Mannerist painter who committed suicide by throwing himself out of a window on 03 July 1592. MORE ON BASSANO AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1539 Sebastián de Covarrubias Horozco, Spanish lexicographer.
|Russian Orthodox Christmas (25 December Old Style) VESELOYE ROZHDESTVO
DICTIONNAIRE TICRANIEN GÉOGRAPHIQUE ANGLAIS-FRANÇAIS: TOULOUSE: perdre. LAUTREC: basse randonnée. Exemple: INSTEAD OF HIKING IN THE MOUNTAINS I AM GOING ON A LAUTREC. WHAT DO I HAVE TOULOUSE?
Thought for the day: All the rivers run to the sea and the sea is never full.
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