a 03 January:
2002 Israeli commandos seize Iranian ship Karim A. in international waters in the Red Sea some 500 km south of Elat. The ship is captained by a Palestinian and carries 50 tons of mainly Iranian-manufactured arms and munitions, including mortars and anti-tank missiles
2002 A UK Office of National Statistics news release includes the following findings based on names given to 267'875 boys and 254'978 girls born in 2001 in England and Wales:
Top 10 names given to boys: 1. Jack 2. Thomas 3. Joshua 4. James 5. Daniel 6. Harry 7. Samuel 8. Joseph 9. Matthew 10. Lewis.
To girls: 1. Chloe 2. Emily 3. Megan 4. Jessica 5. Sophie 6. Lauren 7. Charlotte 8. Hannah 9. Olivia 10. Lucy
2001 Outside of its scheduled meetings, at 13:15 ET (in the midst of the New York trading day) the US Federal Reserve cuts the federal funds rate from 6.5% to 6% and the discount rate from 6% to 5.75%. In reaction to this, the Dow-Jones Industrial Average rises 299.60 (2.8%) to close at 10'946.75, the SandP 500 closes up 64.29 (5.0%) at 1347.56, and the NASDAQ up 324.83 (14.2%) at 2616.69. Sun Microsystems makes its 52-week low (25.00) early in the session, but then surges $7.56 (29.7%) above yesterday's close, to close at 33.00 (still far from its 1 Sep 2000 52-week high of 64.66). But, contrary to what one might expect, the Treasury bonds decline, as they apparently had been priced in expectation of the rate cut, and now money goes out of them into stocks.
2001 La dracma griega se incorpora al sistema de moneda única.
1999 La moneda única europea inicia con éxito su primera jornada en los mercados financieros mundiales.
1998 El presidente de México Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León acepta la denuncia formal de su ministro del Interior, acusado de ser el máximo responsable de la matanza de 45 indígenas en Chiapas.
1997 El presidente de Estados Unidos, Bill Clinton, prorroga por otros seis meses la suspensión del Capítulo III de la Ley Helms-Burton sobre inversores extranjeros en Cuba.
1995 Sri Lanka: Cease-fire agreement between government and Tamil rebels.
1993 US President George Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin sign the second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START 2) in Moscow. Los presidentes de Estados Unidos y de Rusia, George Bush (padre) y Boris Nikolaievich Yeltsin, firman en el Kremlin el START II, con la intención de reducir los arsenales nucleares.
1993 Junk bond king Michael Milkin is released from jail after 22 months
1992 32 Cubans defect to the US via helicopter
1991 AIDS was removed from the list of diseases that bar a person from entering the US.
1990 Panama's leader General Manuel Noriega, holed up in the Vatican embassy for 10 days, surrenders to the US, who had invaded Panama to arrest him as a drug smuggler. Noriega had ceased cooperating with the CIA. He was flown to Miami., tried, and sentenced to prison.
| 1988 Margaret Thatcher becomes longest-serving British
PM in the 20th century
1985 Israel's government confirms resettlement of 10'000 Ethiopian Jews
1984 Syria frees captured US pilot after appeal from Jesse Jackson
1983 Times Beach, Missouri, declared disaster area due to dioxin contamination.
1980 Francisco Sá Carneiro es elegido primer ministro de Portugal.
1980 Gold hits record $634 an ounce.
1976 Falange Española y JONS (Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalistas) se constituyen en partido político.
1974 Burma accepts its constitution.
1970 African nationalist guerrillas based in Zambia stage their first infiltration raid on white-ruled Rhodesia since mid-1968. Because the guerrillas lack any overall political or military objective, and receive little local support, they are routed by Rhodesian security forces. The ineffectiveness of the infiltration strategy will cause dissension among the exiles. But, in 1972, guerrillas of one faction, the Zimbabwean African National Union, infiltrates the country with much greater success, and maintain an insurgent war that ousts Ian Smith's white regime in 1979.
1969 Representative Adam Clayton Powell Jr seated by US Congress
1961 Adam Clayton Powell elected Chairman of the US House of Representatives' Education and Labor committee.
| 1959 Alaska becomes the 49th and largest state in
the Union with US President Dwight D. Eisenhower's signing of a special
proclamation (celebrates Admission Day). When Secretary of State William
H. Seward negotiated the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867, many
called it "Seward's Folly." The Klondike Gold Rush changed all that, and
prospectors mined some fifty million dollars worth of gold between 1897
and 1900. Later petroleum was discovered.
1958 La expedición neozelandesa dirigida por Edmund Percival Hillary llega al Polo Sur.
1955 José Ramon Guizado becomes President of Panama
1951 9 Jewish Kremlin physicians are alleged to be British or US agents
1949 The US Supreme Court rules that, as part of the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947, states have the right to outlaw the closed shop, one of labor's most potent bargaining weapons.
1945 La ofensiva alemana de las Ardenas fracasa en la ciudad belga de Bastogne.
1945 Allies land on west coast of Burma, conquer Akyab
1945 Greek General Nikolaos Plastiras forms government
1945 US aircraft carriers attack Okinawa
| 1944 La Syrie et le Liban deviennent indépendants.
La France reconnaît la souveraineté de ces deux pays qui avaient été placés
sous son protectorat vingt-deux ans plus tôt. Dans le Liban à majorité
chrétienne, quarante années de prospérité et de paix s'écouleront avant
que l'intolérance religieuse ne dilapide l'héritage du protectorat.
1943 Serge Alexandre Stavisky, créateur et fondateur du Crédit municipal de Bayonne, a détourné plusieurs dizaines de millions de francs. "L'affaire Stavisky" éclate à Paris, et éclabousse de nombreuse personnalités politiques qui sont impliquées dans ce scandale.
1942 Chiang Kai-Shek es nombrado comandante en jefe de todas las fuerzas aliadas en China.
1941 Canada and US acquire air bases in Newfoundland (99 year lease)
1941 Italian counter offensive in Albania
1934 At Barmen-Gemarke, in Germany, 320 pastors of the German Confessing Church met to draw up a theological statement opposing the Nazi German Nationalist Church. Led by Karl Barth and Martin Niemüller, the gathering led to the formula afterward known as the Barmen Declaration.
1926 Greek General Theodorus Pángalos names himself dictator.
1926 Benito Mussolini acumula los ministerios de Asuntos Exteriores, Guerra, Marina y Navegación Aérea.
1925 Benito Mussolini dissolves Italian parliament and announces that he will take dictatorial powers. declara ilegales a todos los partidos de la oposición.
1915 El presidente paraguayo Eduardo Schaerer es detenido por los golpistas y liberado por las fuerzas leales.
1910 British miners strike for 8 hour working day.
1906 El ex presidente Eloy Alfaro Delgado vuelve a hacerse con el poder en Ecuador.
1904 John Edwuard Redmond intenta relanzar el movimiento nacionalista irlandés del Home Rule.
1899 An editorial in the New York Times made a reference to an "automobile" on this day. It was the first known use of the word.
1889 Admissions convention meets in Ellensburg WA, asks for statehood
1876 first free kindergarten in US opens in Florence MA
1870 Brooklyn Bridge construction begins; completed 24 May 1883
1868 Meiji Restoration returns authority to Japan's emperors [click to enlarge picture >] which means the fall of the shoguns (military rulers).
1862 Romney Campaign — Stonewall Jackson moves north from Winchester
1861 Delaware legislature rejects proposal to join Confederacy
1861 US Fort Pulaski and Fort Jackson, Savannah, seized by Georgia
1852 first Chinese arrive in Hawaii.
1828 En France, le ministère Villèle a fait voter des mesures impopulaires comme les lois limitant la liberté de la presse, etc. Il se retire sous la pression des libéraux. C'est le cabinet du semi-libéral Martignac qui lui succède.
| 1825 Scottish factory owner Robert
Owen buys 30'000 acres in Indiana as site for New
Harmony utopian community
1781 Inca besiege Cuzco (Peru) in attempt to dislodge Spanish.
1777 George Washington defeats the British, led by Cornwallis, at Battle of Princeton, New Jersey, during the US War of Independence.
1746 Bonnie Prince Charlies army leaves Glasgow
1642 Se aprueba la Gran Amonestación, acta de acusación del Parlamento contra Carlos I, rey de Inglaterra.
0269 St. Felix I begins his reign as Pope, which lasted until his death in 0274.
2006 Samnang (= “Lucky”) “Sam” Kok, 17, shot at 07:25 (15:25 UT) by Douglas Chanthabouly, 18, in a hall of their Henry Foss High School, on South 19th Street in Tacoma, Washington state, where classes were scheduled to start at 07:30. Sam Kok lived with his parents, Cambodian immigrants Roth Kok and Ry Sou, his sister Lisa Kok, his cohabiting mate, Tiari Johnson, 16, and their son, Makhai Kok, 18 months old. —(070104)
2006 Mona Salha, 22, Palestinian woman, struck her in the head by a bullet during an exchange of gunfire between Fatah and Hamas militants at the Jabalya refugee camp near Gaza City. —(070105)
2005 A policeman, near Mosul, Iraq, when his patrol sets off a booby-trap explosion as it tries to move a decapitated body.
2005 Two policemen, shot at a checkpoint in Baiji, Iraq.
2005 Six Iraqi National Guardsmen, by two roadside bombs in Tikrit, Iraq. Four guardsmen are injured.
2005 Four Iraqi National Guardsmen and a suicide car bomber at a checkpoint near a US base close to Balad, Iraq. 14 guardsmen are wounded.
2005 Two policemen, one civilian and a suicide taxi bomber (of Ansar al-Sunna) who tries to ram through a checkpoint 1 km from Interim Prime Minister Ayad Allawi's party headquarters in Baghdad, Iraq, but hits a police pick-up truck. 25 persons are injured.
2004 Two men, a woman, and a boy, 9, Iraqis machine gunned from the rear vehicle of a US army convoy their car was about to by-pass on a road near Tikrit, Iraq. The fifth Iraqi in the car is wounded.
2004 All 148 aboard a chartered Boeing 737-300 jet plane of the Egyptian company Air Flash, Flight , which crashes at 04:46 (02:46 UT) in the Red Sea 11 km south of the tourist resort town Sharm el-Sheikh, from where it had just taken off. The plane, bound for Paris, was headed first to Cairo for a crew change, carrying 133 French and 2 Moroccan passengers, as well as 13 crew members, Egyptian and Moroccan.
2004 Rohi Hazam Shoman, 19; Amjad al-Masri, 15; and Amar Arafat, 26; Palestinian men, two of which were in groups from which stones were thrown at Israeli soldiers raiding Nablus, West Bank, early in the day. In at least three separate incidents, Israelis fired at such group. Arafat was just a passer-by, shot in the back. Al-Masri and Shoman were shot in the chest. The Israelis claim that one of the Palestinians had dropped a large concrete block in the direction of a soldier, another was seen holding a weapon, and a third threw a Molotov cocktail in the direction of troops. Later in the day, Israeli troops fired from 200 m away, without provocation, at the funeral procession for the three victims, seriously wounding Mohammed al-Masri, a relative of Amjad al-Masri. The Israeli say that they shot at two men who were carrying weapons.
José María Gironella, from a blood clot
on the brain, Catalan author, born on 31 December 1917.
The best know works of Gironella [< photo] are novels about Spain before, during, and after the 1936~1939 Civil War (in which he fought on Franco's side): Los Cipreses Creen en Dios (1953), Un Millón de Muertos (1961), Ha Estallado la Paz (1966). Los Hombres Lloran Solos (1986) is about the transition to democracy after Franco's 1975 death. Gironella won literary prizes for his first novel, Un Hombre (1946), for Condenados a Vivir (1971), for La Duda Inquietante, and for Se Hace Camino al Andar (1997). Gironella also wrote travel books, essays, news stories. His first book wasHa Llegado el Invierno y Tú No Estás Aquí (1946, poems), and his last Apocalipsis (2001).
En las casi tres mil páginas de Los cipreses creen en Dios, Un millón de muertos y Ha estallado la paz, encontramos la historia de la familia Alvear, que vivía en Gerona. Son una familia española como muchas: la madre, una buena mujer y profundamente católica; el padre, telegrafista, una persona ilustrada, religioso más a causa de la esposa que por convicción, y los tres hijos, buenos muchachos y bien educados. El protagonista principal, Ignacio, es un muchacho sano, con las aficiones y enredos propios de sus 17 años.
En aquellos años de antes de la guerra, los españoles poseían una conciencia política; había muchas ideas que estaban revolucionando al país. Una parte de la sociedad rechazaba a la Iglesia, otros eran fanáticos. Los curas, que siempre habían tenido mucha influencia, eran ahora aborrecidos y agredidos, y los había — como acontece siempre — buenos y malos. Cada quien tenía su propio concepto de libertad.
A lo largo del relato iremos conociendo las diferentes ideas políticas de entonces. Había muchas agrupaciones, tanto de izquierda como de derecha, que aunque a veces tenían pocas diferencias ideológicas, jamás se ponían de acuerdo. Todos los ciudadanos tenían una etiqueta política distinta, de ahí la desunión que llevó a la guerra y a la posterior derrota de la democracia. Pues aunque el pueblo no quería a los fascistas, estaban todos tan divididos que por eso perdieron ante el poderío militar de Franco.
Aunque en el prólogo Gironella asegura su imparcialidad, ésta no resalta. El libro fue publicado por primera vez en 1953, la época de “oro” del franquismo — si tal cosa existió — . Además agrupa, sin diferencias casi, a los “rojos”. No es que diga mentiras, es que no presenta toda la verdad. Describe varios episodios sangrientos perpetrados por los “rojos” donde el lector está deseando que llegue alguien — Franco el salvador — a poner orden. También cuanta algunas de las atrocidades cometidas por los falangistas, pero deja entender que eran causadas por un inmenso amor a España; a la que los “rojos” preferían la Unión Soviética.
El gobierno republicano, por poco que se le menciona, aparece no como democrático, sino anarquista, el pretexto por el que Franco se levanta en contra. La principal congoja de la familia Alvear es causada por los “rojos” — sin distinción — y los dos hijos están enamorados de falangistas que eso sí, son heróicos y valientes y aman a su país.
La segunda novela aborda la guerra civil. Carmen Alvear reza para que ganen “los nuestros”, y Gironella minimiza el heroísmo de los “rojos”, mientras maximiza el de los mal llamados “nacionales”. En la tercera se cuenta lo acontecido en la posguerra.
|2003 Jairo Gregorio Morán, 23, and Oscar Aponte Gómez, 24, at 14:15 as pro-Chávez gunmen fire from ambush at the anti-Chávez “la Gran Batalla” demonstration (authorized by permit #602968, granted the previous day by the Caracas city government) headed for avenida Los Próceres, in Caracas, as it proceeds along the freeway Valle-Coche, by the Guaire River. From 13:00 to 17:00 there was a rock-throwing fight while security forces struggled to keep the two sides apart. Strikers, chavistas, and news media alike, are choked by tear gas, targeted by rubber bullets, and pelted by rocks and bottles. Five other persons are injured by gunfire, at least 23 by beatings or thrown rocks, at least 73 by tear gas. A national strike has been going on since 02 December 2002, aimed at forcing president Hugo Chávez to subject himself to a referendum.|
[Below: in Caracas, anti-Chávez demonstrators are met with tear gas]
[Below: in Caracas, anti-Chávez demonstrators flee in a cloud of tear gas, as riot policemen talk to rock~throwing chavistas]
|2002 Antonio Todde, Italian shepherd, born on 22 January
1889, before any other male human living on this day. The next oldest
living man, Japanese Yukichi Chuganji, was born on 23 March 1889, and
would die on 28 September 2003.
2002 Matsuno Oikawa, Japanese woman born on 20 February 1889.
1989 Sergei Sobolev, mathematician.
1984 A woman at Disneyland after falling from the Matterhorn bobsled. She had apparently unfastened her seatbelt.
1980 Joy Adamson, conservationist author of Born Free, killed in northern Kenya by a servant.
1956 Arturo Tosi, Italian artist born on 25 July 1871.
| 1931 Joseph Joffre, mariscal francés.
1927 Carle Runge, mathematician.
1915 William Strutt, British artist born in 1826. more with links to images.
1912 Amsler, mathematician.
1905 Anton Braith, German artist born on 02 September 1836.
1892 Schroeter, mathematician.
1882 William Ainsworth, English writer of popular historical romances.
1870 Javier de Ramírez, autor dramático sevillano.
1857 Marie-Dominique-Auguste Sibour [< portrait], archbishop of Paris, while celebrating Mass stabbed in the heart by the interdicted priest Jean-Louis Verger. Sibour was born on 04 August 1792. After his 14 June 1818 ordination to the priesthood in Rome, he was assigned to the Archdiocese of Paris. He was named canon of the cathedral of Nîmes in 1822, became favorably known as a preacher, and contributed to L'Avenir. In 1837, during a vacancy, he was chosen administrator of the Diocese of Nimes, and on 25 February 1840 he was consecrated a bishop to head the diocese of Digne. His administration was marked by his encouragement of ecclesiastical studies, a practical desire to increase the importance of the functions exercised by his cathedral chapter, and a faithful observance of canonical forms in ecclesiastical trials. The same principles actuated him in his rule of the Archdiocese of Paris, to which he was appointed on 10 July 1848, largely because of his prompt adhesion to the new government after the Revolution of 24 February 1848. He held in l849 a provincial council in Paris, and in 1850 a diocesan synod. In 1853 he officiated at the marriage of Napoleon III, who had named him senator the previous year. Although in his answer to Pius IX he declared the definition of the Immaculate Conception inopportune, he was present at the 08 December 1854 promulgation of the Decree and shortly afterwards solemnly published it in his own diocese. The benevolent co-operation of the imperial government enabled him to provide for the needs of the poor churches in his diocese and to organize several new parishes. He also aimed at introducing the Roman Rite in Paris and was progressing favorably in this direction when he was killed. — (060102)
1843 Thomas Christopher Hofland, British artist born in 1777. links to images.
1809 Henri-Pierre Danloux, French artist born on 24 February 1753. MORE ON DANLOUX AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1795 Josiah Wedgwood, 64, British ceramic craftsman / woodworker.
1699 Mattia Pretti il Calabrese, Italian artist born on 24 February 1613.
1661 Mary I Stuart, 29, Queen of England / wife of Wilhem II.
1557 Giacomo Raibolini Francia, Bolognese painter and goldsmith, born in 1486.
1543 Juan Cabrillo conqueror of Central America, discoverer of California.
1457 Beata Bonne, religiosa francesa.
1322 Philip V the Tall, King of France (1316-1322)
1981 La Academia Europea de Ciencias, Artes y Letras se crea en París. Entre sus miembros fundadores figuran los españoles Pedro Laín Entralgo, Federico Sopeña y Federico Mayor Zaragoza.
1977 Apple Computer incorporated
1957 First electric watch introduced, Lancaster PA
1953 En Attendant Godot, del dramaturgo irlandés Samuel Beckett, se estrena en París.
1952 Esperanza Aguirre Gil de Biedma, presidenta del Senado español.
1949 El reino de este mundo, novela de Alejo Carpentier, se publica.
1946 El galeón y el milagro, de Eduardo Marquina, se estrena en Madrid.
1939 La agencia española de noticias EFE
1938 Aurora roja, con poemas de Rafael Alberti, Apel les Mestres y Emilio Prados es estrenada en Barcelona, por una compañía constituida por niños de 9 a 16 años.
1938 The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, later renamed March of Dimes, is established by US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
1926 Pontiac car introduced by General Motors. The new Pontiac line was the descendant of the Oakland Motor Car Company, acquired by General Motors in 1909.
1924 André Franquin, autor de historietas belga.
1923 Jaroslav Hasek Czech writer (Good Soldier Schweik)
1922 Morten Nielsen, Danish poet and resistance fighter killed on 29 August 1944.
1917 Mytropolshy, mathematician.
1917 La ruta del aventurero de Pío Baroja y Nessi se publica.
1901 Ngo Dinh Diem President / Dictator of South Vietnam (1955-63). He was assassinated on 02 November 1963 with the connivance of the CIA, which did not consider him a sufficiently pliable puppet..
1892 John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, South Africa, philologist / writer who created a complex mythology in The Hobbit and the Lord of the Rings trilogy. Co-editor of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Tolkien died on 02 September 1973.
1887 August Robert Ludwig Macke, German painter who died on 26 September 1914. MORE ON MACKE AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1887 Helen Parkhurst US educator (Education on the Dalton plan)
1883 Clement Richard Attlee (L) British Labour Prime Minister (1945-51). He died on 08 October 1967.
1871 Oleomargarine patented by Henry Bradley, Binghamton NY. Margarine had been invented by the French chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès, who in 1869 won a prize offered by Napoleon III for a satisfactory butter substitute.
1863 William Marshall Brown, British artist who died in 1936.
1840 Father Joseph Damien de Veuster Belgium, helped lepers in Hawaii. He died on 15 April 1889.
1823 Robert Whitehead, British engineer, invented the modern torpedo. He died on 14 November 1905.
1793 Lucretia Coffin Mott, in Nantucket, Massachusetts, political and social reformer, she participated in many of the reform movements of the day including abolition, temperance, and pacifism. Most importantly, however, she inaugurated the woman suffrage movement. She died on 11 November 1880. [< photo] [satirical 03 Jan 1874 Thomas Nast cartoon on women's movement]
1777 Louis Poinsot, mathematician. He died in 1859.
1737 Heinrich Wilheim von Gerstenberg, German theorist of Sturm und Drang literary movement. He died on 01 November 1823.
1694 Paolo Francesco Danei Massari [–18 Feb 1775] “Saint Paul of the Cross”, Italian who would found the Passionists (writing the Rule 02-07 Dec 1920; its formal approval by pope Benedict XIV [31 Mar 1675 – 03 May 1758] was on 15 May 1741], be a ordained a priest on 07 June 1727 (by pope Benedict XIII [02 Feb 1649 – 23 Feb 1730], and be canonized on 29 June 1821. —(071019)
1624 William Tucker, first Black child born in Britain's American colonies.
1591Moïse Jean Valentin de Boulogne, French painter who died on 20 August 1632. MORE ON VALENTIN AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.