<< Jan 01      HISTORY “4” “2”DAY         |Jan 03 >>
Events, deaths, births, of JAN 02
v.9.00
 While connected to Internet click here for Universal Time clock (accept Script and Active~Xs) 
[For Jan 02 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jan 121700s: Jan 131800s: Jan 141900~2099: Jan 15]
ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY   ART “4” JAN 02    wikipedia
feeding crocodile^  On a 02 January:
2003 In Queensland state, Australia, crocodile hunter Steve Irwin puts on a show at his zoo, during which he holds his 1-month-old son in one arm while feeding a dead chicken to a large crocodile [< photo] then puts the baby on the ground and moves him toward the crocodile's pond.
2002 Eduardo Duhalde is sworn in as Argentina's fifth president counting from Fernando de la Rúa who resigned on 21 December 2001. and following Adolfo Rodríguez Saá who resigned late on 30 December 2001. The next in line under the Constitution, the president of the Senate, Ramón Puerta, resigned too, which left power nominally in the hands of Eduardo Camaño, the majority leader of the lower house of Congress, but he did not consider himself president and the only official action he took was to call the special session of Congress which elected Duhalde late on 01 January 2002. Duhalde placed the condition that the March election be canceled so that he could remain in office until the end of 2003.
At the computer 2 January 20002001 Taiwanese ships make the first legal crossing to mainland China since 1949. 500 worshippers of Matsu (patron goddess of fishermen popular in Taiwan and southeastern China) sail from Matsu island to Mawei. And 190 passengers go to Xiamen from the island of Kinmen, just outside Xiamen harbor. Direct crossing from Taiwan itself is still banned.
2001 El gobierno salvadoreño de Francisco Guillermo Flores Pérez decide adoptar el dólar como moneda nacional.
2000 Contrary to the Y2K hoax, the world did not end yesterday, ballistic missiles did not self-launch, planes did not fall out of the sky, electricity did not fail, water still came out of the faucets, computers failed as irritatingly as always, and who is that working at the computer on a Sunday (it looks like an office, not a home)?
1998 Microsoft buys Hotmail
      Microsoft announces its purchase of Hotmail, the Internet's leading free e-mail service. Hotmail became popular because its Web-based system allowed users to retrieve e-mail from any computer terminal connected to the Internet. The purchase indicated an important reversal in Microsoft's Internet strategy, which henceforth would focus on providing services and tools rather than publishing Web content.
1996 AT&T takes $6 billion charge against 4th-quarter earnings

      In hopes of forwarding its ambitious restructuring program, which included plans to divide into three separate companies, telecommunications giant AT&T announces that it is planning to take a $6 billion charge against its fourth-quarter earnings. In the main, the charge was designed to pay for the massive round of layoffs necessitated by the restructuring program. AT&T estimated that it would trim its rolls by 40,000 workers over the ensuing three years; the company predicted that 30,00 of those cuts would be involuntary. While some Wall Street analysts applauded the move, praising it as a potential boon to AT&T’s shareholders, it was less popular with the scores of employees who were likely to lose their jobs.
1995 Most distant galaxy yet discovered found by scientists using Keck telescope in Hawaii (estimated 15 billion light years away)
1991 Soviet interior ministry troops seize key buildings in Latvia and Lithuania. This puts in doubt whether Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika is being sabotaged by Soviet hardliners.
1990 Dow Jones for the first time goes above 2800 (2810.15)
1986 191.66 million shares traded in New York Stock Exchange.
1986 Se decreta el cierre de la emisora nicaragüense "Radio Católica", por negarse a transmitir, el día anterior, el mensaje dirigido al país por el presidente Daniel Ortega Saavedra.
1985 Egyptian President Mubarak re-appoints Coptic pope Shenuda III
1984 VHS defeats Beta as videotape standard
      Zenith Radio Corporation announces that it will stop selling Beta-format videocassette recorders and start selling VHS. Zenith was the first of many US companies to switch from the Beta to the VHS format. The two standards had battled it out for more than six years: VHS won out largely because a larger number of video programs were produced in VHS rather than Beta. The standards war between Beta and VHS indicated that programming, software, or other "content" could dictate the outcome of hardware standards wars, a pattern that would be repeated in the coming battles to establish personal computing standards.
1983 The final edition of Garry Trudeau’s comic strip, "Doonesbury", appeared in 726 newspapers. "Doonesbury" began running again in September 1984.
^ 1980 US reacts to Soviet intervention in Afghanistan
      In a very strong reaction to the December 1979 Soviet military intervention into Afghanistan, President Jimmy Carter requests that the Senate postpone action on the SALT-II nuclear weapons treaty and recalls the US ambassador to the Soviet Union. These actions indicated that the US-Soviet relationship had been severely damaged by the Russian action in Afghanistan and that the age of détente had ended.
      The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and the establishment by the Soviets of a puppet government in that nation, brought US relations with the Soviet Union to the breaking point. Carter's press secretary, Jodie Powell, called the Russian action "a serious threat to peace." On 02 January he announced that the Carter administration had asked the Senate to postpone deliberations on SALT-II, the complicated treaty dealing with nuclear arms. Carter also recalled US ambassador to the Soviet Union, Thomas J. Watson, Jr. home, ostensibly for "consultation." As Carter administration officials made clear, however, this action was intended to send a very strong message to the Soviets that military intervention in Afghanistan was unacceptable. In addition, the Carter administration was thinking about new trade restrictions against the Soviets and a boycott of the 1980 summer Olympics, which were to be held in Moscow.
      The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan marked a critical turning point in US-Soviet relations. With the action, the age of détente and the closer diplomatic and economic relations that were established during the presidency of Richard Nixon came to an end. Carter lost the election of 1980 to Ronald Reagan, who promised-and delivered-an even more vigorous anticommunist foreign policy.
1978 Bülent Ecevit forms government in Turkey
1975 US Department of Interior designates grizzly bear a threatened species
1974 Worst fire in Argentine history destroys 5000 square kilometers.
1974 55 MPH (88 km/h) speed limit imposed on the 50 US states under penalty of losing federal highway funds. President Richard M. Nixon signs the bill designed to reduce accidents and to conserve enerygy, in the wake of the OPEC oil embargo of the preceding few years. Federal speed limits were abolished in 1995.
1973 Se reanudan en París las conversaciones sobre Vietnam.
1971 A team of Israeli scholars announced the discovery in Jerusalem of a 2000-year-old skeleton of a crucified male. Found in a cave-tomb, it was the first direct physical evidence of the well-documented Roman method of execution.
1970 US population is 203'200'000; Black population 22'600'000 (11.1%)
1968 Swiss Reformed theologian Karl Barth wrote in a letter: "In the Church of Jesus Christ there can and should be no non-theologians."

1965 Martin Luther King Jr begins a drive to register black voters.
1965 Mohammad Ayub Khan es elegido presidente de Pakistán.
1964 Ayub Khan elected President of Pakistan
1961 Hawaii's, then all time low temperature, –10ºC recorded atop Haleakale
1960 Senator John F Kennedy, announces his candidacy for President
1960 John Reynolds sets age of solar system at 4'950'000'000 years
1959 Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista flees. — Fidel Castro Ruz se hace con el poder en Cuba y Manuel Urrutia Lleo es nombrado presidente por el Movimiento 26 de Julio.
1956 Poujadists/communists win French parliamentary elections.
1954 El día antes del comienzo de las emisiones de la televisión italiana, el papa Pío XII advierte de los peligros que entraña la televisión para la familia.
1947 Mahatma Gandhi begins march for peace in East-Bengali
1945 Allied air raid on Nurenberg
1944 first use of helicopters during warfare (British Atlantic patrol)
1942 28 nations, at war with Axis, pledge no separate peace
1942 German troops in Bardia surrender
1942 Japanese troops occupy Manila Philippines. General Douglas MacArthur is forced to withdraw his forces from the Bataan peninsula. Relevant MacArthur quotes: "We shall return" (as he waded to his boat upon abandoning the Philippines); "In war, there is no substitute for victory." Indeed he would make a return, carefully staged for publicity, in 1945.
^ 1942 US Navy opens a blimp base
      The Navy Airship Patrol Group 1 and Air Ship Squadron 12 are established at Lakehurst, N.J. The US Navy was the only military service in the world to use airships — also known as blimps — during the war.
      The US Navy was actually behind the times in the use of blimps; it didn't get around to ordering its first until 1915, at which time even the US Army was using them. By the close of World War I, the Navy had recognized their value and was using several blimps for patrolling coastlines for enemy submarines. They proved extremely effective; in fact, no convoy supported by blimp surveillance ever lost a ship.
      Between the wars, it was agreed that the Army would use nonrigid airships to patrol the coasts of the United States, while the Navy would use rigid airships (which were aluminum-hulled and kept their shape whether or not they were filled with gas) for long-range scouting and fleet support. The Navy ended its construction and employment of the rigid airships in the 1930s after two, the Akron and the Macon, crashed at sea. In 1937, the Army transferred all its remaining nonrigid blimps to the Navy.
      Meanwhile, in the civilian world, the Hindenburg, a commercial dirigible, burst into flames over Lakehurst on May 6, 1937. Thirty-six of the 97 passengers aboard were killed. The explosion was caused by an electric discharge that ignited a hydrogen gas leak; the tragedy effectively ended the use of airships for commercial travel, but they were still used to great advantage in the US military.
      At the outbreak of World War II, the Navy had 10 blimps in service; that number expanded to 167 by the end of the war. The only US blimp lost was the K-74, which, on July 18, 1943, spotted a German U-boat. The blimp opened fire on the submarine and damaged it, but only one of its two depth charges released. The submarine fired back and sent the blimp into the sea, but the crew was rescued. The only German blimp involved in the war was a passenger craft, Graf Zeppelin, which was used for electronic surveillance just before the outbreak of the war.
1939 Pacte des dictateurs de l’Allemagne et de l’Italie
      Mussolini, dictateur de l’Italie fasciste accepte le " Pacte d’Acier " avec Hitler L’initiative du pacte entre l’Allemagne et l’Italie, vint de Berlin. Le 28 octobre 1938, von Ribbentrop se rendit à Rome et proposa la conclusion d’une alliance. Mussolini se montra d’abord réticent, mécontent de ce que Hitler ne l’avait pas tenu informé au début de l’affaire tchèque. Mais, inquiet de l’accord franco-allemand du 6 décembre 1938 et désireux d’appuyer la campagne de revendications entamée le même mois au sujet de Nice et de la Corse, Mussolini donna l’ordre à Ciano d’écrire une lettre le 02 janvier 1939, acceptant le principe d’une alliance.
      Le pacte sera signé à Berlin le 22 May 1939. Il est connu sous le nom de “pacte d’acier”, l’alliance était à la fois automatique et offensive. Pour quelles raisons Mussolini accepta-t-il de donner un caractère automatique aux engagements, alors que lui-même déclarait aux Allemands que l’Italie ne pourrait pas entrer en guerre avant 1943 ? Peut-être à cause du souvenir des accusations portées contre la politique hésitante de l’Italie en 1914. Quoi qu’il en soit, on sait que l’Italie n’entra pas en guerre en septembre 1939 mais seulement en juin 1940.
1939 El físico atómico italiano Enrico Fermi se exilia en Nueva York.
1936 Electron-tube demonstration
      At the American Association for the Advancement of Science in St. Louis, Missouri, television pioneers Vladimir Kosma Zworykin and George Arthur Morton demonstrated an electron tube that was sensitive to ultraviolet and infrared rays. The device converted light rays from motion pictures into electrons, and it represented an important step in the development of television. Zworykin later obtained two essential television patents in 1938 for the cathode-ray transmitting and receiving tube. The cathode-ray receiving tube is still used in televisions and most computer monitors today.
1935 Bruno Hauptmann went on trial in Flemington, N.J., on charges of kidnapping and murdering the infant son of Charles and Anne Lindbergh. (Found guilty, Hauptmann was executed.)
1934 El poeta español Vicente Aleixandre y Merlo gana el primer premio del Concurso Nacional de Poesía.
1933 The US Marines Corps withdraws from Nicaragua. They had been there since 1909. The marines had withdrawn in August 1925, but Coolidge sent them back in May.
1931 El presidente panameño Alcibiades Arosemena es destituido por el movimiento nacionalista de la Acción Comunal Patriótica.
1930 Chiang Kai-Shek asume la jefatura del poder civil en China.
1926. The US marines trained and left behind a powerful National Guard in Nicaragua besieged by struggle between Liberal and Conservative forces, centered respectively in the cities of León and Granada.
^ 1923 Teapot Dome scandal: US Interior Secretary resigns
      Albert Fall, the secretary of the US Department of Interior, resigns in response to public outrage over the Teapot Dome scandal. Fall's resignation illuminated a deeply corrupt relationship between western developers and the federal government.
      Born in Kentucky in 1861, Albert Fall moved to New Mexico in 1887 because doctors told him the dry desert air would improve his health. Fall thrived in his new home, quickly building up a large ranching operation near Las Cruces and investing in silver mining and other ventures. By the turn of the century, Fall was a well-respected and powerful western businessman, and he used his considerable resources to win a seat in the US Senate when New Mexico became a state in 1912.
      In Washington, D.C., Fall quickly discovered the enjoyable prerogatives of power. He made several powerful allies, including President Warren G. Harding, who appointed him secretary of the US Department of Interior in 1921. As secretary of the interior, Fall was responsible for managing the government's vast western land holdings in the public interest. Unfortunately, Fall's close ties with western developers tempted him to abuse his position. Ostensibly acting to ensure adequate oil supplies for the navy in the event of war, Fall set aside a large oil deposit in Wyoming known as Teapot Dome. Secretly, he then began to sign leases with big western oilmen allowing them to exploit the supposed reserve.
      When news of the secret leases leaked out, Fall claimed he had signed them with the best interests of the public in mind. Subsequent investigations, though, threw Fall's integrity into question when they disclosed that many of his investments in New Mexico had recently collapsed, and he was on the verge of bankruptcy. Desperate for money, Fall had accepted "loans" of about $400,000 from the same oil men he granted access to Teapot Dome, two of whom were old friends from his New Mexico mining days. Fall insisted that the loans were unrelated to his granting of the Teapot Dome oil leases, but conservationists and government reformers were outraged. Such conflicts of interest were inevitable, they argued, when western developers were given control over federal agencies responsible for managing western natural resources.
      Forced to resign his office in shame, Fall spent the rest of his life trying to rebuild his fortune and redeem his tarnished reputation. He died in near poverty in 1944.
1922 Crimea se proclama independiente.
1920 10'000 US union and socialist organizers arrested (Palmer Raids)
1919 Anti-British uprising in Ireland
1919 Lithuania gains independence.
1914 El rey de España, Alfonso XIII, disuelve el Congreso.
1913 National Woman's Party forms
1910 first junior high schools in US open in Berkeley CA
^ 1905 Russian fleet surrenders to Japanese.
     At 21:00, Japanese General Nogi received from Russian General Stoessel a letter offering to surrender, ending the Russo-Japanese War.
      During the Russo-Japanese War, Port Arthur, the Russian naval base in China, falls to Japanese naval forces under Admiral Heihachiro Togo. On 08 February 1904, following a Russian rejection of a Japanese plan to divide Manchuria and Korea into spheres of influence, Japan launched a surprise naval attack on Port Arthur, decimating the Russian fleet. Over the next two years, Japan won a series of decisive victories over the Russians, who underestimated the military potential of its non-Western opponent. In January of 1905, the strategic naval base of Port Arthur fell to the Japanese, in March, Russian troops were defeated at Shenyang, China, by Japanese Field Marshal Iwao Oyama, and in May, the Russian Baltic fleet under Admiral Zinovi Rozhdestvenski was destroyed by Admiral Togo's fleet near the Tsushima Islands. These three crucial defeats convinced Russia that further resistance against Japan's imperial designs for East Asia was hopeless, and in August of 1905, US President Theodore Roosevelt mediated a peace treaty at Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Japan emerged from the conflict as the first modern non-Western world power but for Russia the disastrous outcome of the war was one of the immediate causes of the Russian Revolution of 1905.
Capitulation de la flotte russe, bloquée par les Japonais à Port-Arthur.
       Dalian, grande ville industrielle et portuaire, située à l'extrémité sud de la péninsule du Liaodong, dans la province du Liaoning, au nord-est de la Chine (ancienne Mandchourie). Le port s'ouvre sur la mer Jaune. Deuxième port chinois après Shanghai, Dalian est un port en eau profonde, dont le trafic n'est jamais paralysé par les glaces. Il relie le nord-est de la Chine avec le Japon, Hong Kong et la Corée. Le pétrole brut, provenant des immenses gisements de Daqing, au nord de la Mandchourie, et transporté vers Dalian par oléoduc constitue l'essentiel des exportations de la ville, qui, avec Lüshun (anciennement Port-Arthur), forme la vaste conurbation industrielle de Lüda.
       C’est dans le Pacifique Nord que, dès la fin du XIXème siècle, la Russie devient une rivale dangereuse pour les autres grandes puissances (Angleterre, États-Unis, France, Japon) qui luttent pour s’assurer les meilleures positions sur le marché chinois. Avec l’appui de la France et de l’Allemagne, elle oblige le Japon, vainqueur de la Chine en 1895, à renoncer à l’annexion de la péninsule du Liaodong.
       Mais, en 1896, elle obtenait la concession du chemin de fer transmandchourien qui consacrait la pénétration économique dans l’Est chinois ; en mars 1898, la Chine lui concédait le bail de Port-Arthur, avec le droit d’y établir une base navale.
       Le soulèvement national et populaire des Boxers (1900), réaction contre l’exploitation étrangère, fut écrasé par une intervention militaire de huit grandes puissances, parmi lesquelles la Russie, qui désormais entre en conflit permanent avec le Japon pour la prépondérance dans le Pacifique.
       Les intérêts économiques, et la certitude d’une guerre courte et victorieuse qui renforcerait la position du gouvernement à l’intérieur, ont, avec le désir de grandeur, poussé la Russie à une politique agressive qui conduit à la guerre russo-japonaise de 1904-1905. Comme un demi-siècle plus tôt, une défaite inattendue allait marquer le début d’une phase nouvelle de l’histoire russe, mais, cette fois, en déclenchant une révolution.
       La supériorité de l’armée japonaise se manifesta dès les débuts de la guerre : l’attaque inopinée de Port-Arthur, bloqué le 08 Feb 1904 avec la flotte russe du Pacifique et contraint à la capitulation le 02 janvier 1905, les batailles indécises de Liaoyang (24 Aug - 05 sept. 1904), du fleuve Shahe (05 oct - 18 oct 1904), de Moukden (21 Feb - 10 mars 1905), qui contraignaient les armées russes à la retraite, et l’anéantissement de la flotte de la Baltique, venue après un long périple pour tenter de sauver Port-Arthur (bataille de Tsushima, 27-28 mai 1905), révélèrent la faiblesse de l’armée russe, éloignée de ses bases, de son infrastructure économique et l’incompétence de nombre de ses chefs. Le traité de Portsmouth (05 sept. 1905) cédait au Japon le sud de l’île de Sakhaline, Port-Arthur et le chemin de fer de Port-Arthur à Changchun ; la Corée devenait zone d’influence japonaise.
       Les 2 dates fournies pour ces événements correspondent aux 2 calendriers :le calendrier grégorien qui ne fut adopté en Russie qu’après 1918 et le calendrier orthodoxe en usage auparavant. Il était de 13 jours en retard sur le calendrier grégorien.

Le 02 janvier 1905, la garnison russe de Port-Arthur capitule face à l'armée japonaise. Le port, qui commande l'accès à la province chinoise de Mandchourie, passe d'un colonisateur à un autre. Un demi-siècle s'écoulera avant que la souveraineté de Pékin sur la ville soit reconnue.
1904 Los hereros se sublevan contra los colonos europeos en Winhoek y Okahuadja.
1903 President T Roosevelt shuts down post office in Indianola MI, for refusing to accept its appointed postmistress because she was Black.
1902 Tomán Estrada Palma, es elegido presidente de Cuba.
1900 US Secretary of State John Hay announced the Open Door Policy to prompt trade with China.
^ 1897 Controverses sur le testament Nobel.
       Elle provoqua en Suède bien des remous, aussi bien politiques que juridiques ; elle suscita même un début de panique financière, notamment parmi les actionnaires de la Société des pétroles de Bakou, créée par les frères Nobel, installés à Saint-Pétersbourg avec leur père depuis le milieu du siècle précédent. Nobel, qui était à la tête d’une fortune considérable, ne laissait à sa mort aucun successeur direct. Ses rapports avec ses frères avaient été rarement bons: il les considérait comme aventuristes en matière d’investissements, ayant lui-même préféré asseoir sa fortune sur un monopole, la dynamite, plutôt que sur des produits soumis à une forte concurrence. Ses recherches sur la dynamite, à partir des travaux de l’Italien Sobrero, se révélèrent fructueuses puisque à sa mort ses cent usines produisaient dans le monde entier 65 000 tonnes par an, alors qu’en 1867, ses trois premières usines produisaient seulement 11 tonnes. Cette production était strictement calculée en fonction d’un marché totalement contrôlé par Nobel lui-même. Par contre, les Pétroles de Bakou nécessitaient une infrastructure à ses yeux trop compliquée et peu rentable. La Volga utilisé par les bateaux-citernes de ses frères, est, écrivait-il, “une affaire qui, 7 mois sur 12, ne fait que manger et ne rapporte rien”.
       De plus, Nobel était ennemi de la transmission des fortunes par héritage : “Elles vont trop souvent à des incapables et n’apportent que des calamités par la tendance à l’oisiveté qu’elles engendrent chez les héritiers.”
       Aussi son testament, très sommaire, stipulait-il : “La totalité de mes biens réalisables devra être utilisée de la façon suivante : le capital sera investi par mes exécuteurs testamentaires en placements de toute sécurité et constituera un fonds dont l’intérêt devra être annuellement distribué, sous forme de prix, à ceux qui, pendant l’année précédente, auront apporté les plus grands bienfaits à l’humanité. Cet intérêt sera divisé en cinq parts égales qui seront distribuées de la façon suivante : une part à qui aura fait la découverte ou l’invention la plus importante dans le domaine de la physique ; une à qui aura fait la découverte ou le progrès le plus remarquable en chimie ; une à qui aura fait la découverte la plus importante dans le domaine de la physiologie ou de la médecine ; une à qui aura produit dans le domaine littéraire l’œuvre la plus remarquable d’une tendance idéaliste ; et une part à celui qui aura agi le plus ou le mieux pour la fraternisation des peuples, l’abolition ou la réduction des armées permanentes ainsi que pour la formation et la diffusion de congrès de la paix. Les prix de physique et de chimie seront décernés par l’Académie suédoise des sciences, celui de physiologie ou de médecine par l’Institut Carolina de Stockholm ; pour la littérature, par l’Académie de Stockholm et pour les champions de la paix par une commission de cinq personnes élues par le Parlement norvégien. C’est ma volonté la plus expresse qu’il ne soit fait, dans l’attribution des prix, aucune considération de nationalité quelle qu’elle soit, et que le plus digne reçoive le prix, qu’il soit ou non scandinave.”
       Les exécuteurs testamentaires eurent donc à surmonter autant de difficultés qu’il y avait de phrases dans ce testament. Il s’agissait d’abord de rassembler le capital, dispersé dans plusieurs pays, d’un homme qui avait très peu vécu en Suède même et il fallut qu’un tribunal établisse, un an après sa mort, que Nobel avait été domicilié en Suède (ayant longtemps vécu en France, il était mort en Italie). Il fallait ensuite trouver les formes concrètes d’application des dernières volontés, exprimées en termes fort vagues, de Nobel.
       Ce testament devait allonger, à titre posthume, la liste de ses ennemis : outre ses frères, qui voulaient s’approprier le capital, et le fisc français, la bourgeoisie suédoise se déchaîna, par voie de presse, contre l’ “antipatriote” Nobel, accusé de cosmopolitisme, de pacifisme, de séparatisme. La tâche assignée au Storting (Parlement) norvégien était enfin considérée comme une atteinte à la domination suédoise sur la Norvège, l’Union personnelle entre les deux pays ne devant prendre fin qu’en 1905.
       Seule une intervention du gouvernement, du roi et du Parlement suédois permit d’apaiser le scandale et de calmer les opposants au projet de fondation au sein des instituts concernés par le testament. En septembre 1898, le gouvernement ratifia les accords conclus par ces instituts pour participer aux tâches de la fondation, mais c’est seulement en 1901 que les cinq prix furent distribués pour la première fois : les seules critiques vinrent alors de la gauche littéraire, qui protesta publiquement contre l’attribution à Sully Prudhomme du prix de littérature, qu’elle aurait voulu voir attribuer à Zola.
       Le caractère officiel de la fondation est symbolisé par la présence des monarques suédois lors des remises de prix. En 1968 la liste des prix a été complétée par la création d’un sixième prix, celui de science économique, dont les premiers lauréats devaient être le Néerlandais Jan Tinbergen et le Norvégien Ragnar Frisch ; la somme affectée à ce prix est fournie par la Banque royale de Suède et les lauréats sont choisis par l’Académie des sciences.
       D’ailleurs, c’est aussi le gouvernement qui désigne le président et le vice-président du conseil d’administration de la fondation, dont les autres membres sont élus par les instituts. Parmi les personnalités désignées figurent des scientifiques et des littéraires, mais également des représentants des grands groupes financiers.
       Le capital dont la rente alimente depuis 1901 les cinq prix attribués par la fondation Nobel était en 1898 de 33 millions de couronnes-or. C’est en 1946 que la fondation fut exemptée de taxes.
       Très peu dynamique et active, au contraire des fondations américaines, la fondation Nobel est aujourd’hui une vieille dame, dont on parle surtout lors des remises de prix le 10 décembre de chaque année, jour anniversaire de la mort d’Alfred Nobel. Elle n’est pas pour autant à l’abri des “scandales” que constitue le refus exprimé par certains lauréats de recevoir leur prix: les uns de leur plein gré (Jean-Paul Sartre, prix de littérature en 1964 ; Lê Duc Tho, prix de la paix en 1973), d’autre sous la contrainte de leur gouvernement (Boris Pasternak, prix de littérature en 1958).
^ 1897 Shipwreck that will become a short story
      American writer Stephen Crane, 25, survives the sinking of The Commodore off the coast of Florida. He will turn the harrowing adventure into his classic short story The Open Boat (1897). Crane had gained international fame with the publication of his novel The Red Badge of Courage on 03 October 1896. A Civil War story told from the soldier's point of view, the novel originally appeared as a syndicated newspaper series.
      Crane, the youngest of 14 children, was born in 1871 and grew up in New York and New Jersey. He became a journalist in New York, working short stints for various newspapers and living in near poverty. Immersed in the hand-to-mouth life of poor New York, Crane closely observed the characters around him, and in 1893, at age 23, he self-published Maggie, a Girl of the Streets, about a poor girl's decline into prostitution and suicide. The book was a critical success but failed to sell well. He turned his attention to more popular topics and began writing The Red Badge of Courage.
      After the book's success, the same newspaper syndicate dispatched Crane to write about the West and Mexico, and in 1897 Crane headed to Cuba to cover the insurrection against Spain. On the way there, he met his future lifelong companion, Cora Howard Taylor, the proprietress of a rundown hotel where he was staying. After The Commodore sank, Crane and four of his shipmates spent a day in a 10-foot lifeboat before they reached Daytona Beach. Crane published an account in a New York newspaper five days later, and The Open Boat was published in Scribner's magazine the following June. Crane later covered the war between Greece and Turkey, and settled in England, where he befriended Joseph Conrad, H.G. Wells, and Henry James.
     Crane contracted tuberculosis in his late 20s. Cora Howard Taylor nursed him while he wrote furiously in an attempt to pay off his debts. He exhausted himself and exacerbated his condition. He died in June 1900, at the age of 28.
CRANE ONLINE:
  • Active Service
  • Wounds in the Rain
  • The Blue Hotel
  • Maggie, a Girl of the Streets
  • The Monster, and Other Stories
  • The Red Badge of Courage
  • War is Kind, and Other Lines
  • The Black Riders, and Other Lines
  • Whilomville Stories
  • 1896 Battle at Doornkop, South Africa (Boers beat Dr Jamesons troops)
    1893 Frederick Douglass delivers a "Lecture on Haiti," at the World's Columbian Exposition, in Jackson Park , Chicago. Douglass, a prominent writer, abolitionist and publisher for many years of the North Star, spent 1891 to 1893 in Haiti serving the Harrison administration as US minister and general consul.
    1890 Record 5m84 alligator shot in Louisiana by E A McIlhenny
    1885 General Wolseley receives last distress signal of General Gordon in Khartoum
    1882 Because of anti-monopoly laws, Standard Oil is organized as a trust
    1879 Thomas Edison began construction on his first electric generator.
    1874 Emilio Castelar y Ripoll, presidente de la República española, pierde la confianza del Parlamento y presenta su dimisión.
    1872 Brigham Young, 71, leader of the Mormon Church, is arrested on a charge of bigamy. They ought to have said “dodecapentagamy” (or at least “polygamy”): he had 25 wives.
    1871 King Amadeus I of Spain, 25, inaugurated. — El rey de España Amadeo I de Saboya jura solemnemente la Constitución.
    1870 Se convierte en monarquía constitucional la dictadura imperial que había ejercido en Francia Napoleón III.
    1870 L'obsession du ministère d'Emile Ollivier est le maintien de la paix. En endossant toutes les responsabilités, jusqu'au dernier moment, il tentera d'empêcher la guerre avec l'Allemagne.
    1863 Battle of Stones River (Murfreesboro), Tennessee concludes
    1861 South Carolina troops seize old Fort Johnson in Charleston Harbor
    1839 first photo of the Moon (French photographer Louis Daguerre)
    1833 Gran Bretaña se apodera del archipiélago argentino de las Malvinas con la entrada de la corbeta Cleo en Puerto Soledad.
    1812 Le banquier Benjamin Delessert accueille Napoléon 1er dans sa fabrique de Passy où il produit du sucre de betterave.
    1811 First censuring of a US senator
          Senator Timothy Pickering, a Federalist from Massachusetts, becomes the first senator to be censured when the Senate approves a censure motion against him by a vote of twenty to seven. Pickering was accused of violating congressional law by publicly revealing secret documents communicated by the president to the Senate. During the Revolutionary War, Pickering served as General George Washington's adjutant general and in 1791 was appointed postmaster general by President Washington. In 1795, he briefly served as Washington's secretary of war before being appointed secretary of state in 1795. He retained his post under the administration of President John Adams, but was dismissed in 1800, when Adams, a moderate Federalist, learned that he had been plotting with the Alexander Hamilton faction of the Federalist Party to steer the United States into war with revolutionary France. Returning to Massachusetts, he was elected a US senator, but resigned after he was censured for revealing secret foreign policy documents sent by the president to Congress. Pickering, an outspoken opponent of the War of 1812, was elected as a representative from Massachusetts in 1813, and served two terms before retiring from American politics.
    1800 Free black community of Philadelphia PA petitions Congress to abolish slavery
    1788 Georgia enters the Union
          Georgia votes to ratify the US Constitution, becoming the fourth state in the modern United States. Georgia, named after King George II, was first settled by Europeans in 1733, when a group of British debtors led by English philanthropist James E. Oglethorpe traveled up the Savannah River and established Georgia's first permanent settlement — the town of Savannah. In 1742, as part of a larger conflict between Spain and Great Britain, Oglethorpe defeated the Spanish on St. Simons Island in Georgia, effectively ending Spanish claims to the territory of Georgia. Georgia, rich in export potential, was one of the most prosperous British colonies in America, and was thus slower than the other colonies to resent the oppressive acts of the Parliament and King George III. However, at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, Georgian Patriots had organized and delegates were sent to the Second Continental Congress. During the war, Georgia was heavily divided between Loyalists and Patriots, and by end of 1778 the British had captured Savannah and by 1780 held the majority of the state. Savannah served as a key British base for their Southern operations during the war, and many Georgians were won over to the Patriot cause during the grim four-year British occupation. In 1788, Georgia became the first Southern state to ratify the US Constitution.
    1776 Austria ends interrogation torture.
    1762 Inglaterra declara la guerra a España, temerosa del Pacto de Familia entre los Borbones franceses y españoles.
    1757 British troops occupy Calcutta
    1602 Spanish forces in Ireland surrender to the English at Kinsdale
    1585 Spain and Catholic France sign Saint League of Joinville
    1570 Tsar Ivan the Terrible's march to Novgorod begins
    ^ 1492 The reconquest of Spain concludes (Granada Day)
          The kingdom of Granada falls to the Christian forces of King Ferdinand V and Queen Isabella I, and the Moors lose their last foothold in Spain. Located at the confluence of the Darro and Genil rivers in southern Spain, the city of Granada was originally a Moorish fortress that rose to prominence as a city during the reign of Sultan Almoravid in the eleventh century. In 1238, the Christian Reconquest forced Spanish Muslims south, and the kingdom of Granada was established as the last refuge of the Moorish civilization. Granada flourished culturally and economically for the next two hundred years, but in the late fifteenth century internal feuds and a strengthened Spanish monarchy under Ferdinand and Isabella signaled the end of Moorish civilization in Spain. On January 2, 1492, Sultan Boabdil surrendered Granada to the Spanish forces, and in the same year, the Spanish crown ordered all Muslims and Jews who refused to convert to Christianity expelled from Spain.
    Prise de Grenade par les Rois Catholiques
          La reddition de Boabdil, dernier rejeton de la dynastie nasride, met fin au royaume musulman de Grenade. C'en est fini de la présence musulmane en Espagne après sept siècles de présence active. L'Espagne réunifiée sous la tutelle des Rois Catholiques, Isabelle de Castille et Ferdinand d'Aragon, cultive de mauvais penchants en faveur de l'unité religieuse. Le 31 mars, Isabelle ordonne l'expulsion de tous les Juifs, sans que l'Inquisition cesse de poursuivre les faux convertis. L'Espagne est aussi disponible pour se lancer dans des entreprises extérieures… Quelques mois plus tard, Christophe Colomb débarque aux Bahamas.
    1235 Emperor Joseph II orders Jews of Galicia Austria to adopt family names
    0533 John II begins his reign as Pope
    0069 Roman Lower Rhine army proclaims its commander, Vitellius, emperor
    Périhélie
         La Terre tourne autour du Soleil en se déplaçant approximativement sur une ellipse d’excentricité 0,01673 et de demi-grand axe 149'598'600 kilomètres, qui est, par définition l’unité astronomique de distance. Le plan de cette ellipse est celui de l’écliptique. Vers le 2 janvier, la Terre est le plus près du Soleil (périhélie) à une distance de 147'100'000 kilomètres, tandis que, vers le 02 Jul, elle se trouve à son aphélie, à une distance de 152'100'000 kilomètres environ.
    TO THE TOP
    < 01 Jan 03 Jan >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 02 January:

    2006 Martin Toler, 51; Alva Martin Bennett, 51; James “Jim” Bennett, 61; Jerry Lee Groves, 56; Terry Helms, 50; David Lewis, 28; Fred Ware Jr., 59; Jack Weaver, 52; Marshall Winans, 50; Thomas P. Anderson, 39; George Hamner Jr., 54; and Jesse L. Jones, 44; who are 12 of the 13 miners trapped by a 06:30 (11:30 UT) explosion 80m below ground at the Sago coal mine in Upshur County near Tallmansville, West Virginia. In spite of improvising a shelter, they are slowly killed hours later by the resulting carbon monoxide. Helms was fire boss and mine examiner; Toler section foreman; Weaver section electrician; Winans scoop operator; Anderson, Hamner, and Jim Bennett, shuttle car operators; Alva Bennett and Ware, continuous miner operators; Jones, Lewis, and Groves, roof bolters. The comatose survivor, Randal McCloy Jr., 27, a roof bolter, is late on 03 January 2006. – (060106)
    2006 Fifteen persons after the collapse of the roof of a bad hall: the ice-skating rink in Bad Reichenhall, Germany, where there were some 50 persons. All the survivors are injured. — (060129)

    2005 A police lieutenant, 29, and three other policemen of those besieging the 160 members of the Movimiento Etnocacerista in the police station of Andahuaylas (región Apurímac), in the Peruvian Andes, which, led by Antauro Humala Tasso [1964~], they took over at 03:00 (08:00 UT) the previous day and hold 10 policemen hostage. They demand the resignation of the Defense Minister, retired general Roberto Chiabra, and of President Alejandro Toledo Manrique [28 Mar 1946~], whose popularity rating is down to 9%, 3 1/2 years into his five-year term, because of government corruption scandals and the lack of improvement in the economy. Retired Maj. Antauro Humala first became known to the public on 29 October 2000 when he participated in a failed coup led by his brother Lt. Col. Ollanta Moisés Humala Tasso [27 Jun 1963~] against the moribund regime of Alberto Fujimori [28 Jul 1938~]. The 3rd and 4th of 7 brothers, they were imbued by their father Isaac Humala Núñez with veneration for a hero of the war lost against Chile (14 Feb 1879 - 20 Oct 1883): mariscal Andrés Avelino Cáceres [04 Feb 1833 – 10 Oct 1923], later president of Peru (1886-1890, 1894-1895), after whom Ollanta Humala named his still tiny Movimiento Etnocacerista, for which he formed an ideology which combines aspects of militarism, socialism, indigenism, and is virulently anti-Chilean. Less that a week before today, Ollanta Humala, then the military attaché in Korea, was expelled from the Army, together with other officers, for severely criticizing the new Commander-in-Chief, general Luis Muñoz Díaz. Antauro Humala expresses his opinions on the web site Ollanta Prensa.
    2005 A suicide car bomber, 18 members of Iraq's 203rd National Guard Battalion, and the civilian driver of their bus, as it passes near a US military base near Balad, Iraq. 6 guardsmen are wounded.
    2005 Col. Abdel Karim Riyadh, police chief of Jebala, Iraq, by terrorists who attack his house.

    2002 Buddy, 4, struck by a car on Route 117 near the Chappaqua NY home of the Clintons, whose dog he was since given to them as a puppy in late 1997, so that the then-president would “have one loyal friend in Washington” (according to then White House spokesman Mike McCurry).
    1995 Mohamed Siyad Barre, político y presidente de Somalia.
    1994: 57 dead in fighting between Mexican army and rebellious "Zapatistas" in Chiapas. Zapatistas and opposed right-wing militias would remain active for years.
    1984 More than 100 people in riot in Tunis.
    1984 Sebastián Juan Arbó, escritor español.
    ^ 1967 Seven MiGs are shot down over North Vietnam.
          In what is described as the biggest air battle of the Vietnam war to date, US Air Force F-4 Phantom jets down seven communist MiG-21s over North Vietnam. The Phantoms were flying cover for F-105 Thunderchief fighter-bombers, which were attacking surface-to-air missile sites in the Red River Delta. During this operation, Col. Robin Olds shot down one of the MiGs, becoming the first and only US Air Force ace with victories in both World War II and Vietnam (an "ace" is a flyer who has shot down five enemy planes.).
    ^ 1963 Some 80 South Vietnamese and fewer Viet Cong at Ap Bac
          At Ap Bac, a village in the Mekong Delta 80 km southwest of Saigon, the Viet Cong inflict heavy casualties on a much larger South Vietnamese force. About 2500 soldiers of South Vietnam's 7th Infantry Division — equipped with automatic weapons, armored amphibious personnel carriers, and supported by bombers and helicopters — failed to defeat a group of 300 guerrillas who escaped after inflicting heavy losses on the South Vietnamese.
          By the time the battle was over, the South Vietnamese suffered 80 killed and over 100 wounded in action. The battle was seen as symbolic of the poor fighting ability of the South Vietnamese army, revealing that government troops could neither cope with the strategy nor match the fighting spirit of the Viet Cong. Even with superior numbers and the assistance of American technology and planning, the South Vietnamese could not defeat the Viet Cong. South Vietnamese officials in Saigon were irate with US advisers' candid assessments of the action, which were highly critical of the South Vietnamese soldiers and their leaders. The Lao Dong party (the ruling Vietnamese Workers' Party) in Hanoi called the battle at Ap Bac a victory, saying that it "signified the coming of the new revolutionary armed forces in the South."
    1963 Les trois premiers soldats des USA tués au Vietnam
          Les premiers morts américains au Vietnam, la sale guerre du Vietnam a commencé. Depuis la fin de la guerre, la politique américaine toute entière est portée vers un grand objectif, endiguer le communisme. Leur stratégie en Asie du Sud-Est est de remplacer les Français, jugés trop peu agressifs face au communisme. Ils vont donc les en déloger (Dien Bien Phu) pour les remplacer. Loin de démontrer leur capacité d’endiguer le communisme alors triomphant, les Américains vont peu à peu s’enliser au Vietnam et y abandonner, à leurs propres yeux, une part de leur aura civilisatrice et de leur invincibilité : n’est-ce pas la première guerre de leur histoire qu’ils vont perdre ? Einsenhower, en refusant de respecter les termes de Genève (élections avant juin 1956 dans l’ensemble du Vietnam sur la question de la réunification) et en aidant le Sud à former une armée, et Kennedy, en augmentant considérablement le nombre des conseillers militaires américains au Vietnam du Sud et en les envoyant au combat (les trois premiers soldats américains trouvent la mort le 2 janvier 1963), ont commencé la deuxième guerre d’Indochine. Lyndon Johnson va lui donner toute son ampleur (il y aura jusqu’à 550 000 soldats américains au Vietnam et les premiers bombardements du Nord commencent en février 1965).
    1962 Kurt Seligmann, Swiss painter born on 20 July 1900. — more with link to an image.
    1955 José Antonio Remón Cantera, presidente de Panamá, asesinado a tiros.
    1952 Louis Valtat, French Fauvist painter born on 08 August 1869. MORE ON VALTAT AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1948 Vicente Huidobro, poeta chileno.
    ^ 1940 Day 34 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
    Birger Wasenius, 28, and many others die due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.
  • Northern Finland: the Finnish 9th Division begins its offensive, winning a major victory at Suomussalmi.
  • Eastern Isthmus: a five-and-a-half-hour artillery barrage ends with the launch of a strong assault by enemy infantry at Kirvesmäki. The Finnish troops hold their ground.
  • Lake Ladoga: the 28-year-old speed skating world champion, reserve Second Lieutenant Birger Wasenius, is killed along with nine other Finnish soldiers in fighting on the islands of Lake Ladoga.
  • The 44th course of the Reserve Officer School begins under exceptional circumstances and with an exceptionally large intake.
  • Abroad: more than 10'000 Swedish homes have volunteered to receive Finnish mothers and children. To date, 50 mothers and 400 children have been evacuated to Sweden.
  • 1926 Harry Humphrey Moore, US artist born in 1844.
    1923: 8 killed by Ku Klux Klan in surprise attack on Black residential area, Rosewood FL. (compensation awarded in 1995)
    1923 Sam Carter black resident of Rosewood FL, lynched by KKK.
    1915 Karl Goldmark, 84, Austria-Hungarian composer (Queen of Saba)
    1901 George Smith, British artist born on 18 April 1829.
    1873 Napoleón III, emperador (destituido) de Francia.
    1868 John Doyle, Irish artist born in 1797.
    ^ 1861 Friedrich Wilhem IV, born on 15 October 1795, king of Prussia from 1840. His conservative policies contributed to provoke the Revolution of March 1848. After its failure, Friedrich Wilhem IV became even more reactionary. On 23 October 1857 he was incapacitated by a stroke, and his brother, the future Wilhem I [22 Mar 1797 – 09 Mar 1888], became regent on 07 October 1858.
          Friedrich Wilhem was the son of the future king Friedrich Wilhem III [03 Aug 1770 – 07 Jun 1840] and Luise von Mecklenburg-Strelitz. He was educated by tutors, mainly experienced civil servants. Though he was completely unsoldierlike by nature, his experiences in the German War of Liberation (1813–1815) against Napoleon left lasting traces on his political and intellectual development. He became and remained a disciple of the German Romantic movement, with its nostalgia forthe Middle Ages. Romanticism appealed to his extremely sensitive dilettante artistic nature. A draftsman interested in architecture and landscape gardening, he was a patron of Christian Daniel Rauch, a noted sculptor, and Karl Friedrich Schinkel [13 Mar 1781 – 09 Oct 1841], an architect, city planner, and painter. His 29 November 1823 marriage to Elizabeth of Bavaria, a convert to Lutheranism, proved happy, although they had no children.
          As crown prince, Friedrich Wilhem developed romantic-conservative convictions that led him to approach even politics as a question of ideas and problems rather than as a matter of hard reality. Conservative philosophers, men of letters, and politicians were among his friends and the men he admired. Even though barely 20, he used his influence to restrict the promised constitution of 1815 to the creation of district and provincial estates, in which the landed aristocracy had an overwhelming majority. For him liberalism meant revolution: a modern constitution was “a scrap of paper” interposed as an intolerable barrier between the patriarchal, divinely justified king and his people. Though he was no absolutist and had no genuine will to domination, yet, by his romanticizing mystique and his unlimited respect for the alleged “organic growth” of the medieval estates, he stood irreconcilably opposed to the political ideas of the 19th century and to the heritage of the French Revolution. Tensions were not lessened by his genuine personal piety. As for him, cultural homogeneity outweighed political unity, but he was fundamentally opposed to the movement toward a German national state; after Prussia's occupation by Napoleon, he regarded his country's close alignment with Austria as essential. He never contested the Habsburg empire's primacy, which he saw as consecrated by history; for the king of Prussia he claimed only the military dignity of an “arch-general” of the empire.
          Friedrich Wilhem quickly disappointed the great hopes aroused by his accession in 1840, for he was not willing to fulfill the constitutional aspirations of the Liberals. In 1842 he permitted only “united committees” of the provincial estates; and in 1847, after long delay, he summoned not a popular representative assembly but the United Diet, comprising all the provincial estates, with the right to grant taxes and loans but without the right to meet at regular intervals. This unwieldy body remained his ideal, even though the narrow limits of his concessions immediately produced a conflict (the Diet's refusal of the proposed loan for the Berlin–Königsberg railway) and even though this first assembly of all Prussia powerfully increased the people's self-confidence on the eve of the Revolution of 1848.
         Despite belated attempts to organize a common resistance by the German governments, Friedrich Wilhem was eventually completely overwhelmed by the revolution in March 1848, which was inspired by the revolution of the preceding month in France. He could neither prevent the street fighting in Berlin by last-minute concessions nor ride the wave; after the withdrawal of the troops to barracks, he masked his submission to the revolution by a processional ride through Berlin under the black and red and golden flag, the symbol of the united Germany, by paying homage to the bodies of the victims of the soldiery, and by his promise that “Prussia is henceforth merged in Germany.” Finally he had to convene a Prussian national assembly. Under the influence of his entourage, however, he roused himself to a stubborn resistance: he appointed his uncle, the Count of Brandenburg (a son of Friedrich Wilhem II's last morganatic marriage), prime minister; removed the assembly fromBerlin and then dissolved it; and imposed a constitution the first moderately liberal draft of which was modelled on that of Belgium. These measures restored the leading role to the crown and its instruments, the army and the bureaucracy, firmly supported by the recently formed Conservative party.
          When, on 03 April 1849, Friedrich Wilhem refused the imperial crown offered by the national assembly in Frankfurt am Main, because as a true conservative he would accept it only from the German princes, he destroyed the constitution drafted by that assembly. Under Russian and English pressure, moreover, he had withdrawn Prussian support of the uprising in the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, aimed at overthrowing Danish rule there. Next, however, largely contravening his previous policy, he attempted to establish a German union under Prussian leadership (1849–1850), though this, as a “Little German” federation, should remain allied with a “wider” federation embracing Austria. When Austria challenged this union, the King shrank from war, preferring capitulation at the Punctation of Olmütz convention (29 Nov 1850). Though Prussia had to return to the federal Diet at Frankfurt am Main, Prussian leadership of the German customs union, which excluded Austria, remained unchallenged.
          In religious affairs Friedrich Wilhem, in 1841, settled the “Cologne church conflict” on terms very favourable to the Roman Catholics, with whom, largely influenced by his love for the old and picturesque, he had great sympathy; he also furthered the reconstruction of Cologne cathedral. On the other hand, he actively promoted the joint Anglican-Lutheran bishopric of Jerusalem.
          The final years of his reign were a period of reaction. Friedrich Wilhem, rejecting the bureaucratic absolutism of his prime minister Otto von Manteuffel, worked above all for recasting the constitution of 1848 in a conservative mold. This included the disastrous introduction of three-class suffrage according to income in 1850 instead of universal suffrage, the retention of the monarchical character of army and bureaucracy, the reestablishment of the conservative district assemblies and the provincial diets, and the conversion (1854) of the first chamber into a house of lords entirely dominated by the predominantly aristocratic landowners. He believed this house of lords to be modeled on the English upper house, but in a political testament he implored his successors to refuse to take the oath on the Prussian constitution.
          In 1857 a stroke resulted in paralysis. From this time on, with the exception of brief intervals, the King's mind was clouded, and his brother Wilhem (afterward emperor) took on the duties of government, becoming regent in 1858.
    1845 Antoinette-Cécile (Lescot) Handebourt, French artist born on 14 December 1784.
    1819 María Luisa de Parma, reina de España.
    1809 Les morts du Combat d’Astorga: Poursuivant l’armée anglaise de Moore qui se replie vers La Corogne, Soult rattrape son arrière-garde et la bat à Astorga, mais le gros des forces anglaises lui échappe et poursuit sa retraite.
    1614 Luisa de Carvajal y Mendoza, poetisa española.
    1322 Philippe V, atteint de dysenterie, succombe après cinq mois de lutte acharnée contre le mal. Sans enfant, il laisse le royaume à son frère, Charles IV le Bel.
    — 17 BC Ovide, poète romain qui s'était distingué par une poésie légère et pleine de finesse Les Métamorphoses et L'art d'aimer.
    — 17 BC Titelive, historien romain, qui s'était distingué par une histoire très fouillée de Rome: Les décades.
     
    < 01 Jan 03 Jan >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 02 January:

    1994 Neon compact car introduced by the Chrysler Corporation. The Neon, a sporty plastic-bodied economy car, would quickly become a popular car, particularly among young drivers.
    1966 first Jewish child born in Spain since 1492 expulsion
    1964 Christopher John Gray, priest (also listed as 1996 Aug 13, Christopher John Gray, priest, dies at 42 [sic]) [I can only find him in lists of birth or deaths; what is his claim to fame???]
    1939 Jim Bakker televangelist (PTL Club) / philanderer (Jessica Hahn) (PTL = Praise The Lord; others say that it means: Pass The Loot)
    1934 Víctor García de la Concha, filólogo y escritor español.
    1932 Edward Malefakis, historiador estadounidense.
    1931 Toshiki Kaifu, premier of Japan (1989-91)
    1930 La hermana San Sulpicio, de Armando Palacio Valdés, se estrena en el teatro Alcázar de Madrid.
    1928 Dan Rostenkowski (Representative-D-IL, -94), House Ways and Means Committee chairmanp
    ^ 1920 Isaac Asimov, Jewish Russian born, came to the US at age 3. He became both a biochemistry professor and a major science-fiction writer. His novels and stories envisioned many aspects of modern technology. In his work, he coined the terms "robot" and "robotics."
          In October 1938, Asimov started publishing science fiction stories in such magazines as Amazing Stories (at 1 cent a word) and Astounding Science Fiction. Asimov's first book was the sci-fi novel Pebble in the Sky (1950). By October 1969 he had written 100 books, 200 by March 1979, 300 by December 1984, and almost 500, on a wide variety of subjects, before he died on 06 April 1992 (of heart and kidney failure). His usual work day was from 07:30 to 22:00.
          One book would lead to another, for example: Words of Science — Words on the Map — The Greeks — The Roman Republic — The Roman Empire — The Egyptians — The Near East — The Dark Ages — The Shaping of England — Words From History — Words in Genesis — Words From the Exodus — Asimov's Guide to the Old Testament (1968) — Asimov's Guide to the New Testament (1969) — Azimov's Guide to Shakespeare.
          He is most admired for his 'Foundation Trilogy', which takes place in a future galactic empire and consists of Foundation (1951) Foundation and Empire (1952) and Second Foundation (1953). He added: Foundation's Edge (1982), Foundation and Earth (1986), Prelude to Foundation (1988), Forward the Foundation (1992).
          In I, Robot (1950), Asimov invented the ‘Three Laws of Robotics’ (1. robots may not harm a human or let a human be harmed — robots must obey humans, unless it conflicts with law 1 — robots must protect their own existence, unless in conflicts law 1 or 2).
          Among Asimov's other books are: The Caves of Steel (1954) — The End of Eternity (1955) — The Naked Sun (1957) — The Gods Themselves (1972) — The Human Body (1963) — The Shaping of England (1969) — ABC's of Ecology (1972) — Asimov's Annotated Paradise Lost (1974) — Asimov on Chemistry (1974) — Lecherous Limericks (1975) — Animals of the Bible (1978) — Murder at the A.B.A. (1976) — In Joy Still Felt (1980) — Counting the Eons (1983) — The Roving Mind (1983) — The Robots of Dawn (1983) — Robots and Empire (1985) — Nemesis (1989) — Asimov Laughs Again (1992) — In Memory Yet Green (1979, first volume of his memoirs).
    1920 Vicente Palacio Atard, historiador español.
    1915 La verdad, obra teatral de Jacinto Benavente y Martínez, se estrena en Barcelona.
    1910 McKinley School, the US’s first junior high school, opens. in Berkeley, CA, for seventh and eighth grade students. In a separate building, students attend grades 9-12.
    1909 La ciudad de la niebla, novela de Pío Baroja y Nessi, se publica.
    1899 Paul-Henri Spaak, Belgium, Premier/Secretary-General of NATO (1957-1961)
    1895 Count Folke Bernadotte, Swedish diplomat, humanitarian (Red Cross, UN). He died on 17 September 1948.
    Thérèse Martin enfant--1884 Jacques Chardonne, en Charente, romancier.
    ^ 1882 Standard Oil Trust formed
          John D. Rockefeller officially united his Standard Oil Company with its various producing, refining, and marketing affiliates to form the Standard Oil Trust, the nation’s first sanctioned monopoly. Indeed, the Standard Oil Trust was a behemoth that effectively dominated the oil industry. Under the terms of the Standard Oil Trust Agreement, brokered by Rockefeller and eight other trustees, the oil giant could be acquired, sold, combined or divided as necessary. While this was all good for Standard Oil’s trustees, the company’s cutthroat tactics raised the ire of certain legislators, as well as some sectors of the public. In 1892, the Ohio Supreme Court ruled in favor of splitting Standard Oil’s monopoly, though Rockefeller was able to maintain the company’s choke-hold on the industry by shifting its holdings to companies located in other states. In 1899, Rockefeller formally reunited these companies under the New Jersey-based Standard Oil Company. However, the passage of the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), which was a byproduct of the growing distaste for Standard Oil’s hard-driving practices, finally spelled the end of the company’s monopoly. In 1911, the US Supreme Court ruled that Standard Oil was illegal under the terms of the Sherman Act and forced the company to shed its primary holdings.
    1880 Louis Bréguet French aviation pioneer.
    1873 Marie Françoise Thérèse Martin, “Sainte Thérèse de Lisieux, “the Little Flower of Jesus”, in Alençon, France [< photo as a child]. On 09 April 1888, she would enter the Carmelite convent in Lisieux, where she died on 30 September 1897. She would be canonized on 17 May 1925 and declared a doctor of the Church. — SAINTE THERESE ONLINE: Histoire d'une Ame _ Oeuvres complètes _ and (in English translation): Poems of Sr. Teresa, Carmelite of Lisieux, Known as the "Little Flower of Jesus", — Links _ Liens
    1870 Ernst Barlach, German sculptor and playwright who died on 24 October 1938.
    1863 Lucia Zarate became lightest known adult human (2.1 kg at 17)
    1837, Mili Alexeyevich Balakirev, Nizhny-Novgorod, Russia, composer (Tamara)
    1831 Liberator, abolitionist newspaper, begins publishing in Boston
    1822 Rudolf Clausius, German mathematical physicist who died on 24 August 1888.
    1821 Adolphe Alexandre Dillens, Belgian artist who died on 01 January 1877.
    1795 Hendrik Bakhuyzen (or Backhuyzen) van de Sande, Dutch artist who died on 12 December 1860.
    1791 Mercurio peruano, aparece el primer número de este periódico.
    1783 Christoffer-Wilhelm Eckersberg, Danish artist who died on 22 July 1853.
    1776 Fray Patricio de las Torres, escritor español.
    1727 James Wolfe, English general who captured Québec He died on 13 September 1759. [When the Wolfe is at the door, it's bad for Québec]
    1699, Osman III [or II?], sultan (ruled Turkey 1754-57)
    Mehmed IV^ 1642 Mehmed IV “Avci”, [portrait >] Ottoman sultan who died on 06 January 1693. During his reign there was at first administrative and financial decay and later a period of revival under the able and ruthless Köprülü viziers. Mehmed IV, however, devoted himself to hunting rather than to affairs of state (“avci” means “hunter”).
          Mehmed became sultan when his mentally ill father, Ibrahim I “the Mad” [04 Nov 1615 – 18 Aug 1648] was executed ten days after being deposed. Power was exercised by factions led by his grandmother Kosem Sultana (as during the nominal reign of Ibrahim) and his mother while the chiefs of the Janissary corps dominated the state administration. During this period revolts broke out in Constantinople and Anatolia, and a series of grand viziers sought in vain to solve the empire's financial crisis. Temporary domestic relief and victories against Venice in the Mediterranean and against Austria and Poland in the Balkans came when Köprülü Mehmed Pasha [1577 – 31 Oct 1661] became grand vizier in 1656 and continued when his eldest son Köprülü Fazil Ahmed Pasha [1635 – 03 Nov 1676) succeded him.
         Mehmed IV participated in the military campaigns against Austria (1663) and Poland (1672); his primary interest, however, remained the pursuit of new hunting grounds. Merzifonlu “Kara” Mustafa Pasha [1634 – 25 Dec 1683], who succeeded his brother-in-law Fazil Ahmed Pasha as grand vizier, concocted a grandiose scheme to conquer Vienna. Mehmed IV opposed this, but was unable to prevent the vizier from entering into a disastrous war with Austria. The Ottoman army, under the command of Kara Mustafa Pasha, laid siege to Vienna from 17 July 1683, but was defeated on 12 September 1683 by the Austrian-Polish army under Jan III Sobieski [17 Aug 1629 – 17 Jun 1696], king of Poland. Kara Mustafa Pasha was beheaded at Belgrade (or strangled?) on orders from Mehmed IV. However this did not prevent Mehmed from suffering the consequences of the humiliating defeat and he was deposed by a coup on 07 Nov 1687. He was succeeded by his half-brother Süleyman II [15 Apr 1642 – 23 Jun 1691] and he spent the last three years of his life in confinement in Edirne, near his favorite hunting grounds.
    1614 Luisa de Carvajal y Mendoza, poetisa española.
     
    Holidays Georgia : Constitution Ratification Day (1788) / Haiti : Ancestor/Hero's Day / Japan : Kakizome / Japan : Shigoto Hajime-Begin Work Day [beginning of the work year] / Spain : Granada Day (1492) / Switzerland : Berchtold's Tag, founding of Berne / US : Betsy Ross Day (1776)
    Saints du jour: Basile et Grégoire de Nazianze, Docteurs de l'Église, vécurent tous deux au IVe siècle. Le premier fut évêque de Césarée en Cappadoce, le second patriarche de Constantinople. Tous les deux défendirent l'unité de la chrétienté face à l'hérésie arienne que prônait l'empereur / Santos Basilio, Gregorio, Nacianceno, Adelardo, Macario y Narciso.

    DICTIONNAIRE TICRANIEN: démonstration: trajet que l'on parcourt à toute vitesse quand on fuit des créatures épouvantables pour se réfugier dans la ville de Sion.
    On the 9th day of Christmas my true love gave to me... Nine Ladies Dancing _ code for the nine Gifts of the Holy Spirit: 1) love, 2) joy, 3) peace, 4) patience, 5) kindness, 6) generosity, 7) faithfulness, 8) gentleness, and 9) self-control.. (Galatians 5:22)
    click click

    Thoughts for the day: "The hardest thing to do is to disguise your feelings when sending a large crowd of visiting relatives home." — {but not as hard as to disguise your feelings when trying to send home a large army of occupying liberators.}
    “Extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice.” — Barry Goldwater [He meant "extremism in defense of my election campaign..."]
    “Liberalism in the defense of an extremity is a vice.”

    “Vice in the defense of Barry Goldwater is extremism.”

    “Extremism in the defense of liberty is killing the guards and escaping from prison.”

    “Extremism is not at liberty to defend vice.”

    “Extremism in the defense of vice is not liberty.”
    TO THE TOP
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/art/art4jan/h4jan02.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4jan/h4jan02.html
    http://greatquotes.gq.nu/history/h4jan/h4jan02.html
    updated Thursday 01-Jan-2009 20:52 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.8.00 Tuesday 01-Jan-2008 19:59 UT
    v.7.00 Tuesday 02-Jan-2007 6:22 UT
    v.6.02 Sunday 29-Jan-2006 16:57 UT
    Tuesday 04-Jan-2005 14:36 UT
    Saturday 03-Jan-2004 10:20 UT

    safe site site safe for children safe site