a 02 January:
2003 In Queensland state, Australia, crocodile hunter Steve Irwin puts on a show at his zoo, during which he holds his 1-month-old son in one arm while feeding a dead chicken to a large crocodile [< photo] then puts the baby on the ground and moves him toward the crocodile's pond.
2002 Eduardo Duhalde is sworn in as Argentina's fifth president counting from Fernando de la Rúa who resigned on 21 December 2001. and following Adolfo Rodríguez Saá who resigned late on 30 December 2001. The next in line under the Constitution, the president of the Senate, Ramón Puerta, resigned too, which left power nominally in the hands of Eduardo Camaño, the majority leader of the lower house of Congress, but he did not consider himself president and the only official action he took was to call the special session of Congress which elected Duhalde late on 01 January 2002. Duhalde placed the condition that the March election be canceled so that he could remain in office until the end of 2003.
2001 Taiwanese ships make the first legal crossing to mainland China since 1949. 500 worshippers of Matsu (patron goddess of fishermen popular in Taiwan and southeastern China) sail from Matsu island to Mawei. And 190 passengers go to Xiamen from the island of Kinmen, just outside Xiamen harbor. Direct crossing from Taiwan itself is still banned.
2001 El gobierno salvadoreño de Francisco Guillermo Flores Pérez decide adoptar el dólar como moneda nacional.
2000 Contrary to the Y2K hoax, the world did not end yesterday, ballistic missiles did not self-launch, planes did not fall out of the sky, electricity did not fail, water still came out of the faucets, computers failed as irritatingly as always, and who is that working at the computer on a Sunday (it looks like an office, not a home)?
1998 Microsoft buys Hotmail
Microsoft announces its purchase of Hotmail, the Internet's leading free e-mail service. Hotmail became popular because its Web-based system allowed users to retrieve e-mail from any computer terminal connected to the Internet. The purchase indicated an important reversal in Microsoft's Internet strategy, which henceforth would focus on providing services and tools rather than publishing Web content.
1996 AT&T takes $6 billion charge against 4th-quarter earnings
In hopes of forwarding its ambitious restructuring program, which included plans to divide into three separate companies, telecommunications giant AT&T announces that it is planning to take a $6 billion charge against its fourth-quarter earnings. In the main, the charge was designed to pay for the massive round of layoffs necessitated by the restructuring program. AT&T estimated that it would trim its rolls by 40,000 workers over the ensuing three years; the company predicted that 30,00 of those cuts would be involuntary. While some Wall Street analysts applauded the move, praising it as a potential boon to AT&T’s shareholders, it was less popular with the scores of employees who were likely to lose their jobs.
1995 Most distant galaxy yet discovered found by scientists using Keck telescope in Hawaii (estimated 15 billion light years away)
1991 Soviet interior ministry troops seize key buildings in Latvia and Lithuania. This puts in doubt whether Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika is being sabotaged by Soviet hardliners.
| 1990 Dow Jones for the first time goes above 2800
1986 191.66 million shares traded in New York Stock Exchange.
1986 Se decreta el cierre de la emisora nicaragüense "Radio Católica", por negarse a transmitir, el día anterior, el mensaje dirigido al país por el presidente Daniel Ortega Saavedra.
1985 Egyptian President Mubarak re-appoints Coptic pope Shenuda III
| 1975 US Department of Interior designates grizzly
bear a threatened species
1974 Worst fire in Argentine history destroys 5000 square kilometers.
1974 55 MPH (88 km/h) speed limit imposed on the 50 US states under penalty of losing federal highway funds. President Richard M. Nixon signs the bill designed to reduce accidents and to conserve enerygy, in the wake of the OPEC oil embargo of the preceding few years. Federal speed limits were abolished in 1995.
1973 Se reanudan en París las conversaciones sobre Vietnam.
1971 A team of Israeli scholars announced the discovery in Jerusalem of a 2000-year-old skeleton of a crucified male. Found in a cave-tomb, it was the first direct physical evidence of the well-documented Roman method of execution.
1970 US population is 203'200'000; Black population 22'600'000 (11.1%)
1968 Swiss Reformed theologian Karl Barth wrote in a letter: "In the Church of Jesus Christ there can and should be no non-theologians."
1965 Martin Luther King Jr begins a drive to register black voters.
1965 Mohammad Ayub Khan es elegido presidente de Pakistán.
1964 Ayub Khan elected President of Pakistan
1961 Hawaii's, then all time low temperature, –10ºC recorded atop Haleakale
1960 Senator John F Kennedy, announces his candidacy for President
1960 John Reynolds sets age of solar system at 4'950'000'000 years
1959 Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista flees. Fidel Castro Ruz se hace con el poder en Cuba y Manuel Urrutia Lleo es nombrado presidente por el Movimiento 26 de Julio.
1956 Poujadists/communists win French parliamentary elections.
1954 El día antes del comienzo de las emisiones de la televisión italiana, el papa Pío XII advierte de los peligros que entraña la televisión para la familia.
1947 Mahatma Gandhi begins march for peace in East-Bengali
1945 Allied air raid on Nurenberg
1944 first use of helicopters during warfare (British Atlantic patrol)
1942 28 nations, at war with Axis, pledge no separate peace
1942 German troops in Bardia surrender
1942 Japanese troops occupy Manila Philippines. General Douglas MacArthur is forced to withdraw his forces from the Bataan peninsula. Relevant MacArthur quotes: "We shall return" (as he waded to his boat upon abandoning the Philippines); "In war, there is no substitute for victory." Indeed he would make a return, carefully staged for publicity, in 1945.
1934 El poeta español Vicente Aleixandre y Merlo gana el primer premio del Concurso Nacional de Poesía.
1933 The US Marines Corps withdraws from Nicaragua. They had been there since 1909. The marines had withdrawn in August 1925, but Coolidge sent them back in May.
1931 El presidente panameño Alcibiades Arosemena es destituido por el movimiento nacionalista de la Acción Comunal Patriótica.
1930 Chiang Kai-Shek asume la jefatura del poder civil en China.
1926. The US marines trained and left behind a powerful National Guard in Nicaragua besieged by struggle between Liberal and Conservative forces, centered respectively in the cities of León and Granada.
1920 10'000 US union and socialist organizers arrested (Palmer Raids)
1919 Anti-British uprising in Ireland
1919 Lithuania gains independence.
1914 El rey de España, Alfonso XIII, disuelve el Congreso.
1913 National Woman's Party forms
1910 first junior high schools in US open in Berkeley CA
1903 President T Roosevelt shuts down post office in Indianola MI, for refusing to accept its appointed postmistress because she was Black.
1902 Tomán Estrada Palma, es elegido presidente de Cuba.
1900 US Secretary of State John Hay announced the Open Door Policy to prompt trade with China.
1893 Frederick Douglass delivers a "Lecture on Haiti," at the World's Columbian Exposition, in Jackson Park , Chicago. Douglass, a prominent writer, abolitionist and publisher for many years of the North Star, spent 1891 to 1893 in Haiti serving the Harrison administration as US minister and general consul.
1890 Record 5m84 alligator shot in Louisiana by E A McIlhenny
1885 General Wolseley receives last distress signal of General Gordon in Khartoum
1882 Because of anti-monopoly laws, Standard Oil is organized as a trust
1879 Thomas Edison began construction on his first electric generator.
1874 Emilio Castelar y Ripoll, presidente de la República española, pierde la confianza del Parlamento y presenta su dimisión.
1872 Brigham Young, 71, leader of the Mormon Church, is arrested on a charge of bigamy. They ought to have said dodecapentagamy (or at least “polygamy”): he had 25 wives.
1871 King Amadeus I of Spain, 25, inaugurated. El rey de España Amadeo I de Saboya jura solemnemente la Constitución.
1870 Se convierte en monarquía constitucional la dictadura imperial que había ejercido en Francia Napoleón III.
1870 L'obsession du ministère d'Emile Ollivier est le maintien de la paix. En endossant toutes les responsabilités, jusqu'au dernier moment, il tentera d'empêcher la guerre avec l'Allemagne.
1863 Battle of Stones River (Murfreesboro), Tennessee concludes
1861 South Carolina troops seize old Fort Johnson in Charleston Harbor
1839 first photo of the Moon (French photographer Louis Daguerre)
1833 Gran Bretaña se apodera del archipiélago argentino de las Malvinas con la entrada de la corbeta Cleo en Puerto Soledad.
1812 Le banquier Benjamin Delessert accueille Napoléon 1er dans sa fabrique de Passy où il produit du sucre de betterave.
1762 Inglaterra declara la guerra a España, temerosa del Pacto de Familia entre los Borbones franceses y españoles.
1757 British troops occupy Calcutta
1602 Spanish forces in Ireland surrender to the English at Kinsdale
1585 Spain and Catholic France sign Saint League of Joinville
1570 Tsar Ivan the Terrible's march to Novgorod begins
0533 John II begins his reign as Pope
0069 Roman Lower Rhine army proclaims its commander, Vitellius, emperor
2006 Martin Toler, 51; Alva Martin Bennett, 51; James “Jim” Bennett, 61; Jerry Lee Groves, 56; Terry Helms, 50; David Lewis, 28; Fred Ware Jr., 59; Jack Weaver, 52; Marshall Winans, 50; Thomas P. Anderson, 39; George Hamner Jr., 54; and Jesse L. Jones, 44; who are 12 of the 13 miners trapped by a 06:30 (11:30 UT) explosion 80m below ground at the Sago coal mine in Upshur County near Tallmansville, West Virginia. In spite of improvising a shelter, they are slowly killed hours later by the resulting carbon monoxide. Helms was fire boss and mine examiner; Toler section foreman; Weaver section electrician; Winans scoop operator; Anderson, Hamner, and Jim Bennett, shuttle car operators; Alva Bennett and Ware, continuous miner operators; Jones, Lewis, and Groves, roof bolters. The comatose survivor, Randal McCloy Jr., 27, a roof bolter, is late on 03 January 2006. – (060106)
2006 Fifteen persons after the collapse of the roof of a bad hall: the ice-skating rink in Bad Reichenhall, Germany, where there were some 50 persons. All the survivors are injured. — (060129)
2005 A police lieutenant, 29, and three other policemen of those besieging the 160 members of the Movimiento Etnocacerista in the police station of Andahuaylas (región Apurímac), in the Peruvian Andes, which, led by Antauro Humala Tasso [1964~], they took over at 03:00 (08:00 UT) the previous day and hold 10 policemen hostage. They demand the resignation of the Defense Minister, retired general Roberto Chiabra, and of President Alejandro Toledo Manrique [28 Mar 1946~], whose popularity rating is down to 9%, 3 1/2 years into his five-year term, because of government corruption scandals and the lack of improvement in the economy. Retired Maj. Antauro Humala first became known to the public on 29 October 2000 when he participated in a failed coup led by his brother Lt. Col. Ollanta Moisés Humala Tasso [27 Jun 1963~] against the moribund regime of Alberto Fujimori [28 Jul 1938~]. The 3rd and 4th of 7 brothers, they were imbued by their father Isaac Humala Núñez with veneration for a hero of the war lost against Chile (14 Feb 1879 - 20 Oct 1883): mariscal Andrés Avelino Cáceres [04 Feb 1833 – 10 Oct 1923], later president of Peru (1886-1890, 1894-1895), after whom Ollanta Humala named his still tiny Movimiento Etnocacerista, for which he formed an ideology which combines aspects of militarism, socialism, indigenism, and is virulently anti-Chilean. Less that a week before today, Ollanta Humala, then the military attaché in Korea, was expelled from the Army, together with other officers, for severely criticizing the new Commander-in-Chief, general Luis Muñoz Díaz. Antauro Humala expresses his opinions on the web site Ollanta Prensa.
2005 A suicide car bomber, 18 members of Iraq's 203rd National Guard Battalion, and the civilian driver of their bus, as it passes near a US military base near Balad, Iraq. 6 guardsmen are wounded.
2005 Col. Abdel Karim Riyadh, police chief of Jebala, Iraq, by terrorists who attack his house.
2002 Buddy, 4, struck by a car on Route 117 near the Chappaqua NY home of the Clintons, whose dog he was since given to them as a puppy in late 1997, so that the then-president would have one loyal friend in Washington (according to then White House spokesman Mike McCurry).
1995 Mohamed Siyad Barre, político y presidente de Somalia.
1994: 57 dead in fighting between Mexican army and rebellious "Zapatistas" in Chiapas. Zapatistas and opposed right-wing militias would remain active for years.
1984 More than 100 people in riot in Tunis.
1984 Sebastián Juan Arbó, escritor español.
1955 José Antonio Remón Cantera, presidente de Panamá, asesinado a tiros.
1952 Louis Valtat, French Fauvist painter born on 08 August 1869. MORE ON VALTAT AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1948 Vicente Huidobro, poeta chileno.
1923: 8 killed by Ku Klux Klan in surprise attack on Black residential area, Rosewood FL. (compensation awarded in 1995)
1923 Sam Carter black resident of Rosewood FL, lynched by KKK.
1915 Karl Goldmark, 84, Austria-Hungarian composer (Queen of Saba)
1901 George Smith, British artist born on 18 April 1829.
1873 Napoleón III, emperador (destituido) de Francia.
1868 John Doyle, Irish artist born in 1797.
1819 María Luisa de Parma, reina de España.
1809 Les morts du Combat d’Astorga: Poursuivant l’armée anglaise de Moore qui se replie vers La Corogne, Soult rattrape son arrière-garde et la bat à Astorga, mais le gros des forces anglaises lui échappe et poursuit sa retraite.
1614 Luisa de Carvajal y Mendoza, poetisa española.
1322 Philippe V, atteint de dysenterie, succombe après cinq mois de lutte acharnée contre le mal. Sans enfant, il laisse le royaume à son frère, Charles IV le Bel.
— 17 BC Ovide, poète romain qui s'était distingué par une poésie légère et pleine de finesse Les Métamorphoses et L'art d'aimer.
— 17 BC Titelive, historien romain, qui s'était distingué par une histoire très fouillée de Rome: Les décades.
1994 Neon compact car introduced by the Chrysler Corporation. The Neon, a sporty plastic-bodied economy car, would quickly become a popular car, particularly among young drivers.
1966 first Jewish child born in Spain since 1492 expulsion
1964 Christopher John Gray, priest (also listed as 1996 Aug 13, Christopher John Gray, priest, dies at 42 [sic]) [I can only find him in lists of birth or deaths; what is his claim to fame???]
1939 Jim Bakker televangelist (PTL Club) / philanderer (Jessica Hahn) (PTL = Praise The Lord; others say that it means: Pass The Loot)
1934 Víctor García de la Concha, filólogo y escritor español.
1932 Edward Malefakis, historiador estadounidense.
1931 Toshiki Kaifu, premier of Japan (1989-91)
1930 La hermana San Sulpicio, de Armando Palacio Valdés, se estrena en el teatro Alcázar de Madrid.
1928 Dan Rostenkowski (Representative-D-IL, -94), House Ways and Means Committee chairmanp
^ 1920 Isaac Asimov, Jewish Russian born, came to the US at age 3. He became both a biochemistry professor and a major science-fiction writer. His novels and stories envisioned many aspects of modern technology. In his work, he coined the terms "robot" and "robotics."
In October 1938, Asimov started publishing science fiction stories in such magazines as Amazing Stories (at 1 cent a word) and Astounding Science Fiction. Asimov's first book was the sci-fi novel Pebble in the Sky (1950). By October 1969 he had written 100 books, 200 by March 1979, 300 by December 1984, and almost 500, on a wide variety of subjects, before he died on 06 April 1992 (of heart and kidney failure). His usual work day was from 07:30 to 22:00.
One book would lead to another, for example: Words of Science — Words on the Map — The Greeks — The Roman Republic — The Roman Empire — The Egyptians — The Near East — The Dark Ages — The Shaping of England — Words From History — Words in Genesis — Words From the Exodus — Asimov's Guide to the Old Testament (1968) — Asimov's Guide to the New Testament (1969) — Azimov's Guide to Shakespeare.
He is most admired for his 'Foundation Trilogy', which takes place in a future galactic empire and consists of Foundation (1951) Foundation and Empire (1952) and Second Foundation (1953). He added: Foundation's Edge (1982), Foundation and Earth (1986), Prelude to Foundation (1988), Forward the Foundation (1992).
In I, Robot (1950), Asimov invented the ‘Three Laws of Robotics’ (1. robots may not harm a human or let a human be harmed — robots must obey humans, unless it conflicts with law 1 — robots must protect their own existence, unless in conflicts law 1 or 2).
Among Asimov's other books are: The Caves of Steel (1954) — The End of Eternity (1955) — The Naked Sun (1957) — The Gods Themselves (1972) — The Human Body (1963) — The Shaping of England (1969) — ABC's of Ecology (1972) — Asimov's Annotated Paradise Lost (1974) — Asimov on Chemistry (1974) — Lecherous Limericks (1975) — Animals of the Bible (1978) — Murder at the A.B.A. (1976) — In Joy Still Felt (1980) — Counting the Eons (1983) — The Roving Mind (1983) — The Robots of Dawn (1983) — Robots and Empire (1985) — Nemesis (1989) — Asimov Laughs Again (1992) — In Memory Yet Green (1979, first volume of his memoirs).
1920 Vicente Palacio Atard, historiador español.
1915 La verdad, obra teatral de Jacinto Benavente y Martínez, se estrena en Barcelona.
1910 McKinley School, the US’s first junior high school, opens. in Berkeley, CA, for seventh and eighth grade students. In a separate building, students attend grades 9-12.
1909 La ciudad de la niebla, novela de Pío Baroja y Nessi, se publica.
1899 Paul-Henri Spaak, Belgium, Premier/Secretary-General of NATO (1957-1961)
1895 Count Folke Bernadotte, Swedish diplomat, humanitarian (Red Cross, UN). He died on 17 September 1948.
--1884 Jacques Chardonne, en Charente, romancier.
^ 1882 Standard Oil Trust formed
John D. Rockefeller officially united his Standard Oil Company with its various producing, refining, and marketing affiliates to form the Standard Oil Trust, the nation’s first sanctioned monopoly. Indeed, the Standard Oil Trust was a behemoth that effectively dominated the oil industry. Under the terms of the Standard Oil Trust Agreement, brokered by Rockefeller and eight other trustees, the oil giant could be acquired, sold, combined or divided as necessary. While this was all good for Standard Oil’s trustees, the company’s cutthroat tactics raised the ire of certain legislators, as well as some sectors of the public. In 1892, the Ohio Supreme Court ruled in favor of splitting Standard Oil’s monopoly, though Rockefeller was able to maintain the company’s choke-hold on the industry by shifting its holdings to companies located in other states. In 1899, Rockefeller formally reunited these companies under the New Jersey-based Standard Oil Company. However, the passage of the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), which was a byproduct of the growing distaste for Standard Oil’s hard-driving practices, finally spelled the end of the company’s monopoly. In 1911, the US Supreme Court ruled that Standard Oil was illegal under the terms of the Sherman Act and forced the company to shed its primary holdings.
1880 Louis Bréguet French aviation pioneer.
1873 Marie Françoise Thérèse Martin, Sainte Thérèse de Lisieux, the Little Flower of Jesus, in Alençon, France [< photo as a child]. On 09 April 1888, she would enter the Carmelite convent in Lisieux, where she died on 30 September 1897. She would be canonized on 17 May 1925 and declared a doctor of the Church. SAINTE THERESE ONLINE: Histoire d'une Ame _ Oeuvres complètes _ and (in English translation): Poems of Sr. Teresa, Carmelite of Lisieux, Known as the "Little Flower of Jesus", Links _ Liens
1870 Ernst Barlach, German sculptor and playwright who died on 24 October 1938.
1863 Lucia Zarate became lightest known adult human (2.1 kg at 17)
1837, Mili Alexeyevich Balakirev, Nizhny-Novgorod, Russia, composer (Tamara)
1831 Liberator, abolitionist newspaper, begins publishing in Boston
1822 Rudolf Clausius, German mathematical physicist who died on 24 August 1888.
1821 Adolphe Alexandre Dillens, Belgian artist who died on 01 January 1877.
1795 Hendrik Bakhuyzen (or Backhuyzen) van de Sande, Dutch artist who died on 12 December 1860.
1791 Mercurio peruano, aparece el primer número de este periódico.
1783 Christoffer-Wilhelm Eckersberg, Danish artist who died on 22 July 1853.
1776 Fray Patricio de las Torres, escritor español.
1727 James Wolfe, English general who captured Québec He died on 13 September 1759. [When the Wolfe is at the door, it's bad for Québec]
1699, Osman III [or II?], sultan (ruled Turkey 1754-57)
^ 1642 Mehmed IV “Avci”, [portrait >] Ottoman sultan who died on 06 January 1693. During his reign there was at first administrative and financial decay and later a period of revival under the able and ruthless Köprülü viziers. Mehmed IV, however, devoted himself to hunting rather than to affairs of state (“avci” means “hunter”).
Mehmed became sultan when his mentally ill father, Ibrahim I “the Mad” [04 Nov 1615 – 18 Aug 1648] was executed ten days after being deposed. Power was exercised by factions led by his grandmother Kosem Sultana (as during the nominal reign of Ibrahim) and his mother while the chiefs of the Janissary corps dominated the state administration. During this period revolts broke out in Constantinople and Anatolia, and a series of grand viziers sought in vain to solve the empire's financial crisis. Temporary domestic relief and victories against Venice in the Mediterranean and against Austria and Poland in the Balkans came when Köprülü Mehmed Pasha [1577 – 31 Oct 1661] became grand vizier in 1656 and continued when his eldest son Köprülü Fazil Ahmed Pasha [1635 – 03 Nov 1676) succeded him.
Mehmed IV participated in the military campaigns against Austria (1663) and Poland (1672); his primary interest, however, remained the pursuit of new hunting grounds. Merzifonlu “Kara” Mustafa Pasha [1634 – 25 Dec 1683], who succeeded his brother-in-law Fazil Ahmed Pasha as grand vizier, concocted a grandiose scheme to conquer Vienna. Mehmed IV opposed this, but was unable to prevent the vizier from entering into a disastrous war with Austria. The Ottoman army, under the command of Kara Mustafa Pasha, laid siege to Vienna from 17 July 1683, but was defeated on 12 September 1683 by the Austrian-Polish army under Jan III Sobieski [17 Aug 1629 – 17 Jun 1696], king of Poland. Kara Mustafa Pasha was beheaded at Belgrade (or strangled?) on orders from Mehmed IV. However this did not prevent Mehmed from suffering the consequences of the humiliating defeat and he was deposed by a coup on 07 Nov 1687. He was succeeded by his half-brother Süleyman II [15 Apr 1642 – 23 Jun 1691] and he spent the last three years of his life in confinement in Edirne, near his favorite hunting grounds.
1614 Luisa de Carvajal y Mendoza, poetisa española.