• Deerfield population is massacred... • Darwin delighted by a Brazilian forest... • Racism blamed for riots... • Scottish preacher is burned at the stake... • 6~year~old kills 6~year~old... • Founder of Shakers is born... • Minimum working age... • UNIX continues open to all... • Lotus Notes precursor... • Hollerith is born...
a 29 February:
2004 In a corporate jet airplane that takes off at 06:45, Haiti's President Jean-Bertrand Aristide [15 Jul 1953~] flees the country abandoning his pledge to serve out his term (which expires in February 2006) as Haiti's first democratically elected president in 200 years of independence. The goons that support him have already lost half the country to the goons that started a rebellion on 05 February in Les Gonaïves, in fighting that caused at least 100 deaths. Foreign countries, far from responding to Aristide's plea for aid, have shown themselves clearly in favor of his resignation. Three hours after Aristide's departure, Chief Supreme Court Justice Boniface Alexandre, a former jurist in his 60s with a reputation for honesty, declares that he is taking over as called for by the constitution. But the Haitian constitution calls for parliament to approve him as President and the legislature has not met since early this year when lawmakers' terms expired.
The crisis has been brewing since Aristide's party swept flawed legislative elections in 2000 and international donors froze millions of dollars in aid. Opponents also accused him of breaking promises to help the poor, allowing corruption fueled by drug-trafficking and masterminding attacks on opponents by armed gangs. It was the second time the former Salesian slum priest (ordained in 1982, secularized in 1994) fled his country. Aristide was ousted in a 1991 coup, months after he was elected president for the first time. He was restored to power three years later by U.S. troops. President Bill Clinton sent 20,000 troops to restore Aristide but insisted he respect a constitutional term limit and step down in 1995. Aristide chose his successor, René Preval, but was considered the power behind the scenes until he won a second term in 2000, in presidential elections marred by a low turnout and an opposition boycott.
1992 Start of a two-day referendum on independence in Bosnia. Nearly two-thirds of the electorate casts a vote, almost all for independence, which is proclaimed on 03 March 1992 by President Izetbegovic.
1988 NYC Mayor Koch calls Reagan a "WIMP" in the war on drugs
1984 Pierre Elliott Trudeau [18 Oct 1919 – 28 Sep 2000], prime minister of Canada (Apr 1968 – May 1979; 03 Mar 1980 – Jun 1984), resigns from the leadership of the Liberal Party, but he remains in office until John Turner is chosen to succeed him at the party leadership convention in June 1984.
1968 first pulsar discovered (CP 1919 by Jocelyn Burnell at Cambridge)
1956 Islamic Republic established in Pakistan.
1956 President Eisenhower announces he would seek a 2nd term.
1944 5 leaders of Indonesia Communist Party sentenced to death.
1944 World War II: US troops invade Los Negros in the Admiralty Islands.
1940 45 U boats sunk this month (170'000 tons)
1936 FDR signs 2nd neutrality act.
1936 In Tokyo is put down the revolt started on 26 February 1936 by a regiment about to leave for Manchuria. The ringleaders were quickly arrested and executed. On 26 February 1936, several outstanding statesmen (including retired Admiral Saito Makoto) were murdered; Prime Minister Okada Keisuke escaped when the assassins mistakenly shot his brother-in-law. For more than three days the rebel units held much of downtown Tokyo.
1932 Failed coup attempt by fascist Lapua Movement in Finland
1904 Theodore Roosevelt, appoints 7 man committee to study Panama Canal
1864 George Custer's cavalry fights skirmishes at Stanardsville and Charlottesville, Virginia during a raid on Albemarle
1868 first British government of Disraeli forms
1856 Hostilities in umteenth (actually 11th) and next to last Russo-Turkish War, or Crimean War, cease (?). Actually Russia accepted preliminary peace terms on 18560201, the Congress of Paris worked out the final settlement from 18560225 to 18560330, when.the resulting Treaty of Paris was signed, which guaranteed the integrity of Ottoman Turkey and obliged Russia to surrender southern Bessarabia, at the mouth of the Danube.
1848 Neufchatel declares independence of Switzerland.
Darwin is delighted by a Brazilian forest
He makes this entry in The Voyage of the Beagle:
BAHIA, OR SAN SALVADOR. BRAZIL, Feb. 29th. The day has passed delightfully. Delight itself, however, is a weak term to express the feelings of a naturalist who, for the first time, has wandered by himself in a Brazilian forest. The elegance of the grasses, the novelty of the parasitical plants, the beauty of the flowers, the glossy green of the foliage, but above all the general luxuriance of the vegetation, filled me with admiration. A most paradoxical mixture of sound and silence pervades the shady parts of the wood. The noise from the insects is so loud, that it may be heard even in a vessel anchored several hundred yards from the shore; yet within the recesses of the forest a universal silence appears to reign. To a person fond of natural history, such a day as this brings with it a deeper pleasure than he can ever hope to experience again. After wandering about for some hours, I returned to the landing-place; but, before reaching it, I was overtaken by a tropical storm. I tried to find shelter under a tree, which was so thick that it would never have been penetrated by common English rain; but here, in a couple of minutes, a little torrent flowed down the trunk. It is to this violence of the rain that we must attribute the verdure at the bottom of the thickest woods: if the showers were like those of a colder climate, the greater part would be absorbed or evaporated before it reached the ground. I will not at present attempt to describe the gaudy scenery of this noble bay, because, in our homeward voyage, we called here a second time, and I shall then have occasion to remark on it.
On 27 December 1831, British naturalist Charles Robert Darwin had set out from Plymouth, England, aboard the HMS Beagle, on a five-year surveying expedition of the southern Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Visiting such diverse places as Fernando Noronha island (20 February 1832), Brazil, the Galapagos Islands, and New Zealand, Darwin acquired an intimate knowledge of the flora, fauna, wildlife, and geology of many lands. This information proves invaluable in the development of his theory of evolution, first put forth in his groundbreaking scientific work of 1859, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Darwin's theory of natural selection argues that species are the result of a gradual biological evolution of living organisms in which nature encourages, through natural selection, those species best suited to their environments to propagate future descendants. The Origin of Species is the first significant work on the theory of evolution, and is greeted with great interest in the scientific world, although it is also violently attacked because it contradicts the account of creation given in the Bible. Nevertheless, the work, unquestionably one of the most important in the history of science, eventually succeeds in gaining acceptance from almost all biologists.
The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life would be published in England on 24 November 1859. Darwin's theory of natural selection argues that species are the result of a gradual biological evolution of living organisms in which nature encourages, through natural selection, those species best suited to their environments to propagate future descendants.
The first printing of 1250 copies sells out in a single day. By 1872, it would have run through six editions, and become one of the most influential books of modern times. Darwin, the privileged and well-connected son of a successful English doctor, had been interested in botany and natural sciences since his boyhood, despite the discouragement of his early teachers. At Cambridge, he found professors and scientists with similar interests and with their help began participating in scientific voyages. He traveled around South America for five years as an unpaid botanist on the HMS Beagle. By the time Darwin returned, he had developed an outstanding reputation as a field researcher and scientific writer, based on his many papers and letters dispatched from South America and the Galapagos Islands, which were read at meetings of prominent scientific societies in London. Darwin began publishing studies of zoology and geology as soon as he returned from his voyage. Fearing the fate of other scientists, like Copernicus and Galileo, who had published radical scientific theories, Darwin held off publishing his theory of natural selection for years. He secretly developed his theory during two decades of surreptitious research following his trip on the Beagle. Meanwhile, he married and had seven children. He finally published Origin of Species after another scientist began publishing papers with similar ideas. His book laid the groundwork for modern botany, cellular biology, and genetics. He died in 1882.
Darwin, who was influenced by the work of French naturalist Jean Baptiste de Lamarck, and later by English scientist Alfred Russel Wallace, acquired most of the evidence for his theory during a five-year surveying expedition aboard the HMS Beagle during the 1830s. Visiting such diverse places as Brazil, the Galapagos Islands, and New Zealand, Darwin acquired an intimate knowledge of the flora, fauna, wildlife, and geology of many lands. This information, along with his experiments with variation and interbreeding after returning to England, proved invaluable in the development of his theory of natural selection. His On the Origin of Species is the first significant work on the theory of evolution, and is greeted with great interest in the scientific world, although it is also violently attacked because it contradicts the account of creation given in the Bible. Nevertheless, the work, unquestionably one of the most important in the history of science, eventually succeeds in gaining acceptance from almost all biologists.
Darwin, born 12 February 1809 the privileged and well-connected son of successful English doctor Robert Waring Darwin, had been interested in botany and natural sciences since his boyhood, despite the discouragement of his early teachers. At Cambridge, he found professors and scientists with similar interests and with their help began participating in scientific voyages, including the HMS Beagle's trip.
By the time Darwin returned, he had developed an outstanding reputation as a field researcher and scientific writer, based on his many papers and letters dispatched from South America and the Galapagos Islands, which were read at meetings of prominent scientific societies in London. Darwin began publishing studies of zoology and geology as soon as he returned from his voyage, while also secretly working on his radical theory of evolution.
Knowing that scientists who had published radical theories before had been ostracized or worse, Darwin held off on publishing his theory of natural selection for nearly two decades. Meanwhile, he married and had seven children. He finally published On the Origin of Species after another scientist began publishing papers with similar ideas. His book laid the groundwork for modern botany, cellular biology, and genetics. He died on 19 April 1882.
| 1796 Jay's Treaty proclaimed, settles some differences
1784 Marquis de Sade transferred from Vincennes fortress to the Bastille
1720 Queen Ulrica Eleonora of Sweden resigns
1644 Abel Janszoon Tasman [1603 – 21 Oct 1659] sails from Batavia (now Jakarta) on a second voyage of exploration towards Australia. Greatest of the Dutch navigators and explorers, he had discovered not only Tasmania (on 24 November 1642) which he named Van Diemen's Land, but also New Zealand's (13 Dec 1642, at South Island, which he named Staten Landt), Tonga (21 Jan 1643), and the Fiji Islands (06 Feb 1643).
1504 Columbus uses a lunar eclipse to frighten hostile Jamaican Indians.
which occurred on a February 29:
2008 Faris Gorgis Khoder, driver, Ramy, and Samir, bodyguards; killed by the terrorists who abduct from his car the Chaldean Catholic archbishop of Mossul, Iraq, Paulos Faraj Rahho [20 Nov 1942 – 06 Mar 2008], who dies a few days later. Together with subdeacons Basman Yousef Daud, Wahid Hanna Isho, and Gassan Isam Bidawed, the archbishop's secretary Father Ragheed Aziz Ganni [20 Jan 1972–] had been murdered on 03 June 2007. —(080313)
2000 Edwin Haroldo Ochoa López, and Julio Armando Vásquez Ramirez,
murdered in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala. They were environmental workers
with the Guatemalan National Council on Protected Areas (Conap). Ochoa
had investigated allegations of land-grabbing, illegal lumber cutting
and other environmental crimes in the departamentos of Petén and Izabal.
Ochoa’s cases included an Izabal deforestation accusation against retired
Col. Otoniel Ponciano García and two associates.
1960 Some 13'000 persons in magnitude 5.7 earthquake
at 23:40 with shallow epicenter at Agadir, Morocco. Some 20'000 persons
are made homeless.
|1604 John Whitgift, 74, Archbishop of Canterbury (from 1583)
which occurred on a February 29:
2004 Sydney Reed and Traci Reed, twin girls born to Marianne Thoms, 52, of Levelland, Texas, mother of their father Shawn Reed, husband of their genetic mother, Traci Reed, who could not carry a pregnancy because of scarring in her uterus. Shawn and Traci Reed underwent an in-vitro fertilization procedure in San Antonio. A physician told them that it would be best to find a family member to serve as a surrogate mother in order to avoid legal complications over custody of the children. Marianne Thoms, a pilot, skydiver, and scuba diver, who previously last gave birth in 1976, says:. "This pregnancy was much more exciting than those adventures."
1924 David Beattie British Governor-General of New Zealand.
1924 Andrzej Maria Descur, who would be made a cardinal on 25 May 1985.
1920 Howard Nemerov (Pulitzer Prize-winning poet: Collected Works ; 3rd poet laureate of US [1988-1990]).
1908 Balthasar Klossowski de Rola “Balthus”, French count, a painter, illustrator, and stage designer, who died, 354 days after his 23rd birthday, on 18 February 2001. MORE ON “BALTHUS” AT ART 4 FEBRUARY with links to images.
1904 Adolph Charles David Earl Frederick Gerald Irvin John Kenneth Lloyd Martin Nero Oliver Paul Quincy Randolph Sherman Thomas Uncas Victor William Xerxes Yancy Zeus Hubert Blaine Wolfeschlegelsteinhausenbergerdorfffvoralternwarengewissenhaftschaferswessenschafewarenwohlgepflegeundsorgfaltigkeitbeschutzenvonangreifendurch-
konntefortplanzenundsicherfreuenanlebenslanglichfreudeundruhemitnichteinfurchtvorangreifenvonandererintelligentgeschopfsvonhinzwischensternartigraum Sr, near Hamburg, Germany; had a given name for every letter in the alphabet, shortened it to Mr. Wolfe Plus 585, Sr.
1896 Ranchhodji Morarji Desai [–10 Apr 1995], premier of India (24 Mar 1977 - 15 Jul 1979).
1892 Augusta Christine Fells (later Mrs.) Savage, US sculptor and educator who battled racism to secure a place for African American women in the art world. She died on 26 March 1962.
1880 Gotthard railway tunnel between Switzerland and Italy opens.
1792 Gioacchino Rossini [–13 Nov 1868], Italian operatic composer: (Il barbiere di Siviglia, La Cenerentola, Guillaume Tell)
1784 Leo van Klenze, German artist who would die at age 79 one month and two days before his 19th birthday in 1864.