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"Shanghai Communiqué"... • The Valley of Fear is published... • Diem survives coup attempt... • US assails North Vietnamese "aggression"... • US aircraft carrier Langley is sunk... • Massacre in Borneo continues... • Nader is born... • Broadcasting pioneer is born... • Nazis burn Reichstag... • Microsoft abandons online entertainment... • Painter Fabritius is born... • Longfellow is born... • Finns fight delaying action against Soviet aggression... •  Henri IV couronné roi de France... • UK accepts Monroe Doctrine... • Amerindians occupy massacre site... • US Federal Reserve strengthened... • US women's suffrage upheld... • Mister Rogers dies...
click for another photo of Rowan Williams^  On a 27 February:
2005 The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) “enters into force”. Actually it has practically no force, as it lacks protocols. The tobacco companies are quite happy with it. Read it and weep, snicker, or yawn.
2005 Elections in Kyrgyzstan in the 75 constituencies, one for each of the 75 members (5-year term) of a new unicameral legislature, the Jorgorku Kenesh (Supreme Council), which, in accordance with a 2003 referendum, replaces the Assembly of People’s Representatives (45 seats) and the Legislative assembly (60 seats). The election is rigged by the government of Soviet-era president Askar Akayev and prime minister Nikolay Tanayev. Even so there are 44 constituencies with no clear winner; for these, the runoff election will be held on 13 March 2005. It will also be rigged, leading to massive popular protest demonstrations by the opposition.
2003 Rowan Williams [< photo] [14 June 1950~] is enthroned as the 104th (counting Saint Augustine as the 1st) archbishop of Canterbury and head of the Anglican Church (after being designated by the Prime Minister he was rubber-stamp elected on 23 July 2002), amidst protests against his liberal views. He was previously Archesgob Cymru. He is the author of The Wound of Knowledge: Christian Spirituality from the New Testament to St. John of the Cross (1979) — Resurrection: Interpreting the Easter Gospel (1982) — The Truce of God (1983) — Arius: Heresy and Tradition (1987) — Teresa of Avila (1991) — Open to Judgement: Sermons and Addresses (1994) — Christ on Trial: How the Gospel Unsettles Our Judgement (2000) — Lost Icons: Reflection on Cultural Bereavement (2000) — On Christian Theology (2000) — Ponder These Things: Praying With Icons of the Virgin (2002) — Writing in the Dust: Reflections on 11th September and Its Aftermath (2002) — Poems of Rowan Williams (2002).
2002 The Bangor Daily News reports that Harvey Taylor, a convicted sex offender, has threatened to sue detectives of the Penobscot County (Maine) Sheriff’s office because they were too slow to find him after he escaped from a County Sheriff and hid for three nights in the woods in northern Maine, resulting in his losing two toes to frostbite.
1999 On the first day where the impeachment aftermath is not in the news, nhe Clintons head to Park City, Utah today for daughter Chelsea's 19th birthday. It is the second year in a row that the first family has chosen Park City for Chelsea's birthday celebration. Chelsea, a student at Stanford University in Palo Alto, Calif., had decided that she would rather spend her birthday on Utah's slopes than at the school's Parents' Weekend. The Clintons intend to stay at Park City through 02 March, but will inexplicably cut their visit short on 01 March.
^ 1998 Microsoft abandons online entertainment
      In a massive strategy shift, Microsoft announced it would eliminate many of its online entertainment sites. The company had entered the online publishing business with a bang in 1996, launching a series of "Web shows" with titles like "Forever Cool," "Watercooler," and "One Click Away." These shows, along with "Car Talk," the online version of the popular radio program, were cut, however, and the company also announced it would scale back work on Cinemania Online and Music Central. The move eliminated dozens of jobs in Microsoft's Interactive Media Group. The company had already laid off a number of workers from Microsoft Sidewalk, a series of local city guides. Microsoft explained that its research showed that consumers did not want pure entertainment from the Web and that the company would focus on commerce tools and services that would help people accomplish everyday tasks.
1998 Apple Computer announces that it will discontinue development of the Newton operating system. Introduced in 1993, the handheld unit was much hyped by then-president John Sculley. Unfortunately, the Newton received poor reviews, largely because it failed to read handwriting reliably. In late December 1997, a number of Newton employees defected to join 3Com's Palm Computing subsidiary, maker of the popular PalmPilot.
1997 Divorce becomes legal in Ireland.
1991 Gulf War ends after Iraqi troops retreat and Kuwait is liberated: US President Bush (Sr.) declares that "Kuwait is liberated, Iraq's army is defeated," and announced that the allies would suspend combat operations at midnight.
1990 Exxon Corp and Exxon Shipping are indicted on 5 criminal counts (Valdez)
1985 Mauritania's new constitutional charter published.
1982 Wayne B. Williams was found guilty of murdering two of the 28 young blacks whose bodies were found in the Atlanta area over a 22-month period.
1981 Greatest passenger load on a commercial airliner-610 on Boeing 747.
1980 Robert Mugabe's ZANU-PF wins elections in Zimbabwe.
1976 Final meeting between Mao tse Tung and Richard Nixon.
1973 Pope Paul VI publishes constitution motu proprio Quo aptius.
1973 Members of the American Indian Movement occupied the hamlet of Wounded Knee in South Dakota, the site of the 1890 massacre of Sioux men, women and children.
^ 1973 Amerindians occupy Wounded Knee
      On the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, some two hundred Sioux Native Americans, led by members of the American Indian Movement (AIM), occupy Wounded Knee, the sight of the infamous 1890 massacre of three hundred Sioux by the US Seventh Cavalry. The AIM members, some of them armed, take eleven residents of the historic Oglala Sioux settlement hostage as local authorities and federal agents descend on the Pine Ridge Reservation. AIM was founded in 1968 by Russell Means and other Native leaders as a militant political and civil rights organization. In November of 1972, AIM members briefly occupied the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington DC, to protest programs controlling reservation development, and in early 1973, prepared for the more dramatic occupation at Wounded Knee. In additional to its historical significance, Wounded Knee was one of the poorest communities in the United States and shared with the other Pine Ridge settlements some of the country's lowest rates of life expectancy.
      The day after the Wounded Knee occupation begins, AIM members trade gunfire with the federal marshals surrounding the settlement and fire on automobiles and low-flying planes that dare come within rifle range. AIM leader Russell Means begins negotiations for the release of the hostages, demanding that the Senate launch an investigation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and all Sioux reservations in South Dakota, and that the Senate Foreign Relations Committee hold hearings on the scores of Indian treaties broken by the US government. The Wounded Knee occupation lasts for a total of seventy-one days, during which time two Sioux men are shot to death by federal agents and several more are wounded. On May 8, the AIM leaders and their supporters surrender after Senate officials promise to investigate their complaints. However, violence continues on the Pine Ridge Reservation throughout the rest of the 1970s, with some two dozen more AIM members and supporters losing their lives in confrontations with the US government. Russell Means himself continued to advocate Native rights at Pine Ridge and elsewhere, and in 1988 was a presidential candidate for the Libertarian Party.
      Angered over a long history of violated treaties, mistreatment, and discrimination, 200 members of the American Indian Movement (AIM) occupy the tiny hamlet of Wounded Knee, South Dakota. Former Sioux and Ojibwa convicts attempting to stop police harassment of Indians in the Minneapolis area founded the American Indian Movement in 1968. Borrowing some tactics from the antiwar student demonstrators of the era, AIM soon gained national notoriety for its flamboyant protests. Many mainstream Indian leaders, though, denounced the youth-dominated group as too radical. In 1972, a faction of AIM members led by Dennis Banks and Leonard Peltier sought to close the divide by making alliances with traditional tribal elders on reservations. They had their greatest success on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, after a group of young whites murdered a Sioux Indian named Yellow Thunder. Although Yellow Thunder's attackers only received six-year prison sentences, this was widely seen as a victory by the local Sioux accustomed to unfair treatment by the racist Anglo judicial system. AIM's highly visible publicity campaign on the case was given considerable credit for the verdict, winning the organization a great deal of respect on the reservation.
      AIM's growing prestige and influence, however, threatened the conservative Sioux tribal chairman, Dick Wilson. When Wilson learned of a planned AIM protest against his administration at Pine Ridge, he retreated to tribal headquarters where he was under the protection of federal marshals and Bureau of Indian Affairs police. Rather than confront the police in Pine Ridge, AIM decided to occupy the symbolically significant hamlet of Wounded Knee, the site of an 1890 massacre of a band of unarmed Sioux by the US Cavalry. Wilson, with the backing of the federal government, responded by besieging Wounded Knee. During the 71 days of the siege, federal officers and AIM members exchanged gunfire almost nightly. Two Native Americans were killed and a federal marshal permanently paralyzed by a bullet wound. The leaders of AIM finally surrendered after a negotiated settlement was reached.
      In a subsequent trial, the judge ordered their acquittal because of evidence that the FBI had manipulated key witnesses. AIM emerged victorious and succeeded in shining a national spotlight on the problems of modern Native Americans. The troubles at Wounded Knee, however, were not over. A virtual civil war broke out between the opposing Indian factions on the Pine Ridge reservation, and a series of beatings, shootings, and murders left more than 100 Indians dead. When two FBI agents were killed in a 1975 gunfight, the agency raided the reservation and arrested AIM leader Leonard Peltier for the crime. The FBI crackdown coupled with AIM's own excesses ended its influence at Pine Ridge. Peltier was convicted of killing the two FBI agents and sentenced to life in prison. Peltier's supporters, however, continue to maintain his innocence and seek a presidential pardon to this day.
^ 1972 US President Nixon and Chinese Premier Chou En-lai issued the Shanghai Communiqué
      As the concluding act of President Richard Nixon's historic visit to communist China, the president and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai issue a joint statement summarizing their agreements (and disagreements) of the past week. The "Shanghai Communiqué" set into motion the slow process of the normalization of relations between the two former Cold War enemies. President Nixon arrived in the People's Republic of China (PRC) on February 21, the first time an American president had ever set foot in China. The visit was immensely significant for other reasons, as well. Following communist leader Mao Zedong's successful 1949 revolution, the United States had refused to establish diplomatic ties with the PRC. Relations between the two nations were extremely chilly, and the US and PRC troops had clashed during the Korean War from 1950 to 1953. During the 1950s and 1960s, China was one of the main suppliers of aid to Ho Chi Minh's communist regime in North Vietnam. Nixon had been one of the harshest critics of the PRC during this time. When the United States came to the assistance of South Vietnam, and eventually committed combat troops to quell the communist insurgency in that nation in 1965, relations between the US and China became even more strained. The situation had changed dramatically by the early-1970s. Relations between the PRC and the Soviet Union had grown tense and angry. The United States was embroiled in an unpopular and fruitless battle in Vietnam. Nixon and his foreign policy advisors saw a unique opportunity in these circumstances. Establishing closer relations with the PRC might further divide the two great communist powers and make the Soviets more malleable concerning several issues-including their support of North Vietnam. And the PRC might conceivably put pressure on its North Vietnamese ally to agree to a peace settlement in Vietnam in order to curry more favor with the United States.
      The Shanghai Communiqué summarized the areas of agreement and disagreement between the United States and the PRC at the end of Nixon's visit. In one section of the document, their differences concerning events in Asia were apparent. The PRC restated its support for North Vietnam, while the United States steadfastly supported South Vietnam. On Korea, the Chinese stressed the need for "unification," while the United States pressed for a "relaxation" of diplomatic tensions between North and South Korea. However, the two nations also stressed their sense of unity on a number of general themes, including the need for peaceful coexistence between the East and West. Much of the statement concerned the Nationalist Chinese government on Taiwan. This was a point of tremendous importance, for the PRC declared that it would not begin diplomatic relations with the United States until the latter cut its diplomatic ties to Taiwan. In the statement, Nixon promised to slowly reduce the US military presence on Taiwan. Finally, the statement noted that both China and the US would encourage greater contact through increased trade and travel by each nation's citizens. The Shanghai Communiqué set the stage for a dramatic reversal in the US policy toward China. Since 1949, the United States had recognized the Nationalist regime on Taiwan as the government of China. It had consistently refused efforts to have the PRC government represented in the United Nations. After 1972, relations between the United States and the PRC began to warm. By the end of the administration of Jimmy Carter (1977-1981), the United States had-in one of the most surprising twists of the Cold War — severed diplomatic relations with Taiwan and formally extended diplomatic recognition of the PRC.
1970 New York Times (falsely) reports US army has ended domestic surveillance
1969 Communist offensive continues Communist forces shell 30 military installations and nine towns in South Vietnam, in what becomes known as the "Post-Tet Offensive." US sources in Saigon put American losses in this latest offensive at between 250 and 300, compared with enemy casualties totaling 5,300. South Vietnamese officials report 200 civilians killed and 12,700 made homeless.
1969 General Hafez al-Assad becomes head of Syria via military coup
1967 Rio de la Plata Treaty
1967 Antigua and St Christopher-Nevis become associated states of UK
1967 Dominica gains independence from England
^ 1965 United States assails North Vietnamese “aggression”
      The US State Department releases a 14'000-word report entitled "Aggression from the North — The Record of North Vietnam's Campaign to Conquer South Vietnam." Citing "massive evidence," including testimony of North Vietnamese soldiers who had defected or been captured in South Vietnam, the document claimed that nearly 20,000 Viet Cong military and technical personnel had entered South Vietnam through the "infiltration pipeline" from the North. The report maintained that the infiltrators remained under military command from Hanoi. The Johnson administration was making the case that the war in Vietnam was not an internal insurgency, but rather an invasion of South Vietnam by North Vietnamese forces. This approach was a calculated ploy by President Lyndon Johnson, who realized that he would have a hard time convincing the American public that the United States should get involved in a civil war — acting to stop the spread of communism by invading North Vietnamese would provide a much better justification for increased US involvement in the conflict.
1965 Dutch Marijnen government resigns.
Leaning Tower^ 1964 Help wanted to save the Leaning Tower of Pisa.
     The Italian government announces that it is accepting suggestions on how to save the renowned Leaning Tower of Pisa from collapse. The top of the 180-foot tower was hanging 17 feet south of the base, and studies showed that the tilt was increasing by a fraction every year. Experts warned that the medieval building — one of Italy's top tourist attractions — was in serious danger of toppling in an earthquake or storm. Proposals to save the Leaning Tower arrived in Pisa from all over the world, but it was not until 1999 that successful restorative work began. On 09 August 1173, construction began on the Leaning Tower, which was to house the bells of the vast cathedral of the Piazza dei Miracoli, the "Place of Miracles." Pisa at the time was a major trading power and one of the richest cities in the world, and the bell tower was to be the most magnificent Europe had ever seen.
      However, when the tower was just over three stories tall, construction stopped for an unknown reason. It may have been because of economic or political strife, or the engineers may have noticed that even then, the tower had begun to sink down into the ground on one side. In recent years, it has been determined that the tower's lean is caused by the remains of an ancient river estuary located under the building. The ground is made up in large part of water and silty sand, and one side of the heavy marble building began gradually sinking into the ground as soon as the foundation was laid. The 95-year pause in construction allowed the building to settle somewhat, and the new chief engineer sought to compensate for the tower's visible lean by making the new stories slightly taller on the short side. In 1278, workers reached the top of the seventh story, and construction was halted again. By that time, the southward tilt was nearly three feet. In 1360, work began on the bell chamber, the eighth and final story, and workers attempted to compensate for the lean by building the chamber at a slight slant with the rest of the tower. The tower was completed about in 1370.
      Despite its growing lean, the building was acclaimed as an architectural wonder, and people came from far and wide to admire its 200 columns and six external arcades. The lean grew a little every year, but this only increased interest in the tower. A measuring from 1550 showed the top was 4 meters south of the base. In 1838, an architect was given permission to excavate the base of the tower, a portion of which had sunk into the ground. As he dug, water came sprouting out of the ground, and the tower tilted another few centimeters south. In 1934, Benito Mussolini, the dictator of Italy, decided that the Leaning Tower was an inappropriate symbol for masculine Fascist Italy. In an attempt to reverse the tilt, engineers drilled holes into the foundation of the tower, and some 200 tons of concrete was poured in. The tower abruptly lurched another few centimeters south. In the 1950s, the heavy medieval bells in the tower were locked tight.
      In 1964, the Italian government publicly asks for suggestions on how to save the tower from what they believed was a forthcoming collapse. Two years later, a restorative attempt involving drilling was aborted when the tower tilted another fraction south. In 1985, another boring attempt likewise caused an increase in the lean. In 1990, the Italian government closed the Leaning Tower's doors to the public out of safety concerns and began considering more drastic proposals to save the tower. In 1992, in an effort to temporarily stabilize the building, plastic-coated steel tendons were built around the tower up to the second story. The next year, a concrete foundation was built around the tower in which counterweights were placed on the north side. The use of these weights lessened the tilt by nearly an inch. In 1995, the commission overseeing the restoration sought to replace the unsightly counterweights with underground cables. Engineers froze the ground with liquid nitrogen in preparation, but this actually caused a dramatic increase in the lean and the project was called off. Finally, in 1999, engineers began a process of soil extraction under the north side that within a few months was showing positive effects. The soil was removed at a very slow pace, no more than a gallon or two a day, and a massive cable harness held the tower in the event of a sudden destabilization. Within six months, the tilt had been reduced by about 3 cm, and by the end of 2000, nearly 30 cm. Once a fifty centimeter reduction is achieved, probably sometime in 2001, the project will end. Those 50 cm will give another 300 years of life to the Leaning Tower of Pisa and permit its reopening to the public, who will be hard-pressed to notice any difference in its famous lean.
^ 1962 Diem survives coup attempt
      South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem survives another coup attempt when Republic of Vietnam Air Force pilots Lieutenants Pham Phu Quoc and Nguyen Van Cu try to kill him and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu by bombing and strafing the presidential palace. Lieutenant Quoc was arrested after his fighter-bomber crash-landed near Saigon. Lieutenant Cu fled to Cambodia, where he remained until November 1963. The attack confirmed Diem's conviction that his main adversaries were domestic. As a result, he retreated deeper into himself, delegating more authority to his brother Nhu, who set about eradicating dissidents — dozens of Diem political opponents disappeared, and thousands more were sent to prison camps. Diem and his brother were killed during a coup in November 1963.
1956 Female suffrage in Egypt
1951 22nd amendment ratified, limiting President to 2 terms
1950 General Chiang Kai-shek elected President of Nationalist China
1949 Chaim Weizmann becomes first Israeli President
1948 The US Federal Trade Commission issues an order restraining the Willys-Overland Company from representing that it had developed the Jeep. Willys-Overland did produce the Jeep; but it was the Bantam Motor Company that first presented its design to the Army.
1945 Battle of US 94 Infantry
1942 first transport of French Jews to Nazi-Germany
1942 J S Hey discovers radio emissions from the Sun
1942 Battle of Java Sea began 13 US warships sunk-2 Japanese
1939 Belgian government of Pierlot falls
1939 US Supreme Court outlaws sit-down strikes
1938 Britain and France recognize Franco government in Spain
^ 1933 Reichstag burns on Hitler's orders
      In Germany, the Reichstag — the German Parliament's historic headquarters — is set to flames on the orders of German chancellor and Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler. The Nazi Party's propaganda officers publicize the attack as a Communist plot, and Marius van der Lubbe, an innocent Dutchman, is executed for starting the fire. In the early 1920s, the ranks of Hitler's Nazi Party swelled with resentful Germans who sympathized with the party's bitter hatred of Germany's democratic government, leftist politics, and Jews. On November 8, 1923, after the German government resumed the payment of war reparations to Britain and France, the Nazis launched the "Beer Hall Putsch" — their first attempt to seize the German government by force. The uprising was suppressed and Hitler was sent to Landsberg jail, where he spent his nine months in prison writing an autobiography, Mein Kampf, and working on his oratorical skills. Upon his release, the Nazi Party was reorganized as a fanatical mass movement that gained a majority in the German parliament — the Reichstag — by legal means in 1932. In the same year, President Paul von Hindenburg defeated a presidential bid by Hitler, but in January of 1933, appointed him as German chancellor, mistakenly believing that Hitler could be brought to heel as a member of the president's cabinet. However, Hindenburg underestimated Hitler's political audacity, and one of Chancellor Hitler's first acts was to order the burning of the Reichstag building. The Nazis disguised the attack as a Communist plot, arrested and executed a number of political opponents, and called general elections. In the weeks before the elections, the police under Nazi Hermann Goering disrupted political meetings of Hitler's opponents, and the Nazis won a bare majority. Shortly after, Hitler took on absolute power through the Enabling Acts. In 1934, Hindenburg died and the last remnants of Germany's democratic government were dismantled, leaving Hitler the sole master of a nation intent on war and genocide.
1933 Jean Genet's "Intermezzo" premieres in Paris.
^ 1932 Glass-Steagall Act strengthens US Federal Reserve.
      In February of 1932, troubles with both gold and currency threatened to send the US economy, already ravaged by the Depression, spiraling into even worse fiscal waters. As the Depression rolled along, many people stockpiled supplies of gold and cash, which created gaping shortages. Moreover, foreign governments were yanking their support for the gold standard: towards the end of 1931, the British withdrew completely from the standard. After surveying the situation with Secretary of the Treasury Ogden Mills, President Herbert Hoover declared that the "gold situation" was "critical" and worried that the US faced the "immediate danger of not being able to meet foreign withdrawals which were going on at the rate of $100 million a week." Hoping to ease the situation, Hoover enlisted the aid of Representative Carter Glass, as well as a few other key legislators, who helped hammer out the Glass-Steagall Act. Passed by Congress on this day, Glass-Steagall expanded the powers of the Federal Reserve Board, thus extending credit, as well as enabling the agency to "release" some of the government's gold to business as a response to the flood of foreign withdrawals.
1930 Bouvet Island declared a Norwegian dependency
1929 Turkey signs Litvinov-pact
1925 Hitler resurrects NSDAP political party in Munich
1924 Belgium's Theunis government falls
^ 1922 US Supreme Court unanimously upholds women's suffrage.
      In Washington, D.C., the Nineteenth Amendment to the US Constitution, which guarantees the right of women to vote, is unanimously declared constitutional by the eight members of the US Supreme Court. The Nineteenth Amendment, stating that "the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account of sex," was the product of over seven decades of meetings, petitions, and protests by woman suffragists and their supporters. In 1916, the Democratic and Republican parties endorsed female enfranchisement, and on June 4, 1919, the Nineteenth Amendment was passed by Congress and sent to the states for ratification. On August 18, 1920, Tennessee became the thirty-sixth state to ratify the amendment, achieving the required three-fourths majority of state ratification, and on August 26, the Nineteenth Amendment offically took effect.
1922 G B Shaw's "Back to Methusaleh I/II" premieres in New York NY
1912 Lord Kitchener opens Khartoum-El Obeid (Nyala) railway
1908 Star #46 was added to US flag for Oklahoma
1906 France and Britain agree to joint control of New Hebrides
1900 Battle at Pietershoogte; Boer General Cronjé surrenders to English in Pardenberg, South-Africa
1900 Conference in London calls for creation of a British labor party
^ 1897 UK recognizes US Authority over Western Hemisphere
      Great Britain agrees to US arbitration in a border dispute between Venezuela and British Guiana, defusing a dangerous US-British diplomatic crisis. In 1841, gold was discovered in eastern British Guinana, intensifying a long-standing boundary dispute between Britain and Venezuela. In 1887, Venezuela accused Britain of pushing settlements farther into the contested area and cut diplomatic ties with Great Britain. In 1895, Britain refused to submit the quarrel to US arbitration, which provoked a belligerent reaction from US President Grover Cleveland's administration.
      In July of 1895, Secretary of State Richard Olney, invoking a new and broader interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine, demanded US arbitration on the basis that any quarrel in the Western Hemisphere directly affected American interests, and thus the US had a right to intercede. The Marquis of Salisbury, the British prime minister, rebuffed Olney, prompting President Cleveland to appeal to the US Congress in December of 1895 to denounce British authority over the disputed zone. Congress, in support of the president, created a committee to settle the boundary and there was talk of war in both the Capitol and the British Parliament. However, Britain was suffering from European troubles and increasing difficulties in South Africa, and on February 27, 1897, Prime Minister Salisbury sent a conciliatory note to the US recognizing Cleveland's broad interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine and agreed to US arbitration. A US commission was appointed, and in 1899, a border was decided on that largely upheld Britain's original claims.
1881 Battle at Amajuba, South Africa Boers vs British army under General Colley.
1877 US Electoral College declares R Hayes winner Presidential election.
1865 Civil War skirmish near Sturgeon MO
1864 Near Andersonville GA, rebels open a new POW camp "Camp Sumpter"
1863 Skirmish on the Hatchie River in Tennessee
1854 Composer Robert Schumann saved from suicide attempt in Rhine
1844 Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti (National Day)
1827 1st Mardi Gras celebration in New Orleans LA
1813 first federal vaccination legislation enacted
1803 Great fire in Bombay, India
1801 Washington DC placed under Congressional jurisdiction
1700 Pacific island of New Britain discovered
1670 Jews are expelled from Austria by order of Leopold I
1665 Battle at Elmina, Gold Coast Vice-Admiral De Ruyter beats English
^ Henri IV is crowned king of France.
1594 Henri IV est couronné roi de France, à Chartres
     Dans la cathédrale de Chartres, Henri, roi de Navarre, devient roi de France sous le nom d'Henri IV. Contrairement à la tradition, le nouveau souverain n'a pu se faire sacrer à Reims car la ville est entre les mains de ses ennemis, la famille de Guise. Il n'empêche qu'avec ce sacre, les Français commencent à entrevoir la fin des guerres religieuses entre catholiques et protestants qui ont ensanglanté le pays pendant une génération. Le précédent roi, Henri III, avait été assassiné cinq ans plus tôt par un moine fanatique. Comme il n'avait pas de fils, la couronne devait revenir à son cousin Henri de Navarre, fils d'Antoine de Bourbon et de Jeanne d'Albret, qui était protestant. La perspective d'un roi protestant était insupportable à la majorité catholique du royaume. De sorte que la guerre religieuse se doubla d'une guerre civile. Les catholiques intransigeants se regroupèrent derrière la famille de Guise. Le roi d'Espagne, Philippe II, tenta de son côté d'imposer sur le trône de France sa fille Isabelle. L'armée catholique, conduite par le duc de Mayenne, de la famille de Guise, est battue par Henri à Arques puis à Ivry, dans le nord de la France. C'est au cours de cette bataille que le truculent Béarnais aurait lancé son apostrophe célèbre: «Ralliez-vous à mon panache blanc, vous le trouverez toujours au chemin de l'honneur et de la victoire!» Henri comprend qu'aussi nombreuses que soient ses victoires, elles ne lui permettront jamais de se rallier la majorité du royaume. Sur les conseils de son ami Sully, lui-même un protestant, il décide de se convertir à la religion dominante. Il ose enfin se faire sacrer roi à Chartres et quelques semaines plus tard, il rentre triomphalement à Paris, sa capitale. Henri IV va témoigner d'un sens politique assez rare en faisant fi de tout esprit de revanche. Encouragés par son indulgence, ses anciens ennemis se rallient sans difficulté. Il ne lui restera plus qu'à renvoyer les troupes espagnoles qui étaient entrées en France sous prétexte de défendre la cause catholique.
1557 first Russian Embassy opens in London, Russia and UK sign trade agreement.
1531 Evangelical German monarchy/towns form Schmalkaldische Union.
1526 Saxony and Hesse form League of Gotha (league of Protestant princes).
0837 15th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet.
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< 26 Feb 28 Feb >
^ Deaths which occurred on a February 27:

2006 Fahd bin Faraj al-Juwair (or Ibrahim al-Juweir), 36; Jaffal al-Shammari, Ibrahim Abdullah al-Mutair (or al-Muteir, al-Motair), 22; Abdullah al-Shammari (or al-Samary), and another al-Qaeda terrorist, killed at dawn by police during gunfight at a villa in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Two of them were implicated in the failed attack on the Abqaiq oil processing facility on 24 February 2006. Al-Juwair was the chief of al-Qaida in Saudi Arabia. — (060228)
Novikov and Kukoi2005 Four persons by gunfire from terrorists in Mosul, Iraq. Two persons are wounded.
2005 Eight persons, by a terrorist bomb near Mosul, Iraq.
2005 A US soldier, shot while manning a traffic checkpoint in Baghdad, Iraq.
Petroff2004 Eitan Kukoi, 30, and his wife Rima Novikov, 25, [photo >] shot as they were driving on a road on the Green Line border between Israel and the West Bank, to go to Ashdod on the Lahav-Eshkolot road, near Meitar. They were from the enclave settlement Livna-Shani, where they are survived by a two-year-old baby girl. As a result of the shots, the driver lost control of the vehicle, and the car overturned. Both the Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command claim responsibility for the shooting.
2004 A suicide bomber of Islamic Jihad by premature explosion as he approaches on bicycle an Israeli army outpost close to the enclave settlement Kfar Darom, Gaza Strip. No one else is hurt.
2004 Two of the demonstrators demanding a recall election of Venezuela's President Hugo Chávez, as National Guard troops battle them in Caracas. Some 20 demonstrators and three soldiers are injured.

2003 Peter Dimitroff Petroff
, 83 [< photo], Bulgarian-born US engineer (at NASA) and inventor who developed heart-monitoring equipment and the Pulsar digital wristwatch,
^ 2003 Fred McFeeley Rogers of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, 74, of stomach cancer.
     Fred Rogers was born on 20 March 1928 in Latrobe, Pennsylvania. In 1951 he earned magna cum laude a bachelor's degree in music composition at Rollins College in Florida. Then, early in his career, he was an unseen puppeteer in "The Children's Corner," a local Pittsburgh show he helped launch at WQED in 1954. In seven years of unscripted, live television, he developed many of the puppets used in his later show, including King Friday XIII and Curious X the Owl.
      In 1963 Rogers was ordained a Presbyterian minister with a charge to continue his work with children and families through television. That same year, Rogers accepted an offer to develop "Misterogers," his own 15-minute show, for the Canadian Broadcasting Corp.He brought the show back to Pittsburgh in 1966, incorporating segments of the CBC show into a new series distributed by the Eastern Educational Network to cities including Boston, Philadelphia and Washington. In 1968, Misterogers' Neighborhood (the spelling changed later) began distribution across the US through National Educational Television, which later became the Public Broadcasting Service.
Rogers starting a show      From 1968 to 2000, Rogers produced the show at Pittsburgh public television station WQED. It was the longest running program on public television. The final new episode, which was taped in December 2000, aired in August 2001, though PBS affiliates continued to air back episodes.
      Rogers composed his own songs for the show and began each episode in a set made to look like a comfortable living room by putting on sneakers and a zip-up cardigan whille singing in his own humble style “It's a beautiful day in this neighborhood, a beautiful day for a neighbor. Would you be mine? Could you be mine?”. [photo >]
     Kids, parents and grandparents knew what was coming next: “Let's make the most of this beautiful day. Since we're together we might as well say: Would you be mine? Could you be mine? Won't you be my neighbor? Won't you please, won't you please? Please won't you be my neighbor?”
      His message remained simple: telling his viewers to love themselves and others. On each show, he would take his audience on a magical trolley ride into the Neighborhood of Make-Believe, where his puppet creations would interact with each other and adults. Rogers taught children how to share, deal with anger and even why they shouldn't fear the bathtub by assuring them they'll never go down the drain. During the Persian Gulf War, Rogers told youngsters that "all children shall be well taken care of in this neighborhood and beyond - in times of war and in times of peace," and he asked parents to promise their children they would always be safe. He said in 1994: “We live in a world in which we need to share responsibility. It's easy to say ‘It's not my child, not my community, not my world, not my problem.’ ”
      Rogers did much of the puppet work and voices himself. He also studied early childhood development at the University of Pittsburgh and consulted with an expert there over the years.
      The show's ratings peaked in 1985-1986 when about 8% of all US households with televisions tuned in. By the 1999-2000 season, viewership had dropped to about 2.7%, or 3.6 million people. As other children's programming opted for slick action cartoons, Rogers stayed the same and stuck to his soothing message.
      Rogers swam daily, read voraciously and listened to Beethoven. He once volunteered at a state prison in Pittsburgh and helped set up a playroom there for children visiting their parents.
2002:: 59 Hindu activists on a train set on fire by a Muslim mob at 06:35 in Godhra, Gujarat. The dead include 15 children, 26 women, and 18 men . Some 50 persons are injured. In retaliation, during the following days, Hindu mobs, tolerated or even supported by the police and the Hindu fundamentalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) state government, would rampage, killing some 1000 Muslims. 60'000 Muslims would flee their destroyed homes into filthy refugee camps. The train, carrying 2500 Hindu fundamentalists, had left a disputed religious site in the northern town of Ayodhya. A right-wing Hindu group, Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP), wants to build a temple on the ruins of a 16th century Babri mosque, which was destroyed by Hindu nationalists in 1992, provoking nationwide riots that left more than 3000 dead. [photos]
[below: one coach of the burning train]
burning train
^ 2001: 118 fleeing settlers from Madura, massacred in Indonesian Borneo by native Dayak mob
     A mob of native Dayak fighters attack and massacre at least 118 migrants traveling under police escort. Thousands of desperate refugees on Borneo Island are scrambling to board ships taking them to safety. "We were assisting the evacuation of a Madurese group when a Dayak mob attacked," says a police spokesman. "We were outnumbered."
More Madurese massacred elsewhere in Borneo, while Indonesian army and police shoot at each other.
      The official death toll, probably much lower than reality, after 10 days of violence stands at 428 people, mostly Madurese migrants — some beheaded and with their hearts cut out, in keeping with ancient Dayak traditions of warfare.
     Earlier, massacred bodies were found overnight dumped near a government office in the town of Parenggean. Indonesia's security forces have been doing little to stop the bloodshed. In Palangakaraya, seven corpses, five of which had been decapitated, were brought to the morgue following fighting in the city late on 26 February. All were Madurese migrants.
      In Sampit, there were sporadic exchanges of gunfire between army soldiers and police officers throughout this morning in the crowded port area. One refugee was killed in the cross fire and at least 10 policemen and soldiers were injured, hospital officials said. The gunfight may have been over a dispute about bribes. Many refugees have complained that both troops and police officers were demanding payment for allowing people to board the vessels.
      Despite the gunfire, a passenger ferry capable of carrying 5000 people left for the port of Surabaya on Java island, located only a few miles from Madura. However, plans for a second sailing were abandoned because of the shooting,
      Dayaks have declared victory after a 10-day campaign to drive ethnic Madurese migrants from the region. Tens of thousands of terrified Madurese have abandoned their possessions and fled. In several towns and villages, the only Madurese remaining have taken shelter near police stations, waiting to be evacuated. As police and soldiers guarded an overcrowded refugee camp in Sampit, Dayaks armed with spears stood by but did not interfere with the evacuation. No ethnic violence was reported Tuesday. Across the town of 100,000 people, Madurese neighborhoods remained empty, and many of the homes had been burned and looted.
      Over the past 40 years, more than 100'000 Madurese have resettled in Kalimantan on Borneo island from their island of Madura. They were moved in as part of a government program designed to relieve overcrowding in other areas. Relations soured when Dayaks complained of discrimination in education and job opportunities. The first major clash occurred in 1997 in West Kalimantan province, when about 3000 people were killed.
     Now about 13'000 people, many of them Madurese settlers, are being relocated from hiding places in nearby jungles to Sampit's makeshift camp. About 30'000 others are already in the camp, waiting to be evacuated.
      Earlier in the day, scuffles broke out between people frantically trying to board trucks bound for the port area. Police fired warning shots and beat the refugees to restore order.
Corrupt Indonesian president continues foreign visits, unconcerned.
      Calls intensify for Indonesian President Abdurrahman Wahid, already in trouble because of corruption, to return home from abroad because of the ethnic violence. Wahid left for a 15-day tour of Africa and the Middle East and is due back March 7. A defiant Wahid, however, said his security ministers informed him that there was no need to return home. Speaking to Indonesian reporters in Cairo, he says that media reports have exaggerated the death toll in Sampit.
2001 Salim al-Akra, 37, as a result of torture, in a Nablus hospital. He was a Palestinian and had been arrested four weeks ago by Palestinian police on suspicion of collaborating with Israel. Two other Palestinians confessed to collaborating with Israel and named al-Akra, but he did not confess in spite of torture.
2000 Sandra Ottmann, 20, and Karin Rothermel, 41, in Darmstadt, Germany, by stones (as heavy as 8 kg) dropped onto their passing cars from an overpass by three sons of US military stationed in Germany, aged 14, 17, and 18. They would be sentenced on 22 December 2000 to prison terms of 8.5, 8, and 7 years, respectively.
1998 Jack Micheline (born Harvey Martin Silver in NY), 68, hobo poet, of a heart attack on a BART train between SF and Orinda. His first book of poetry was River of Red Wine, and his last Sixty Seven Poems for Downtrodden Saints.
1995 Some 70 by car bomb in Zakho, North-Iraq.
1992 Samuel Ichiyé Hayakawa, 85, semanticist (Language in Action, 1941), president of San Francisco State College (1968-1973), Senator (CA, 1977-83), of a stroke
1989 Konrad Lorenz, 85, Austria zoologist (Nobel 1973),
1985 Henry Cabot Lodge, 82, (Senator-R)/diplomat
1975 Hyman Levy, mathematician.
1970 Robert Bruce Lockhart, diplomat/writer,
1968 Johannes Tralow, 85, writer.
1966 Gino Severini, Italian Cubist / Futurist painter, born on 07 April 1883. — MORE ON SEVERINI AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
1960 Adriano Olivetti, 58, Italian engineer/manufacturer
1952 Theodorus Pangalos, 74, Greek General/dictator 1926
1950 Ivan Goll, 50, writer.
1948 Svend Hammershøi, Copenhagen ceramicist and painter born on 10 Aug 1873. — more with links to two images.
1943 Kostís Palamis, 84, Greek poet / scholar (Flogera tou Basília).
1942 Ernest Rouart, French artist born on 24 August 1874.
^ 1942: 16 US sailors as aircraft carrier Langley is sunk
      the US Navy's first aircraft carrier, the Langley, is sunk by Japanese warplanes (with a little help from US destroyers), and all of its 32 aircraft are lost. The Langley was launched in 1912 as the naval collier (coal transport ship) Jupiter. After World War I, the Jupiter was converted into the Navy's first aircraft carrier and rechristened the Langley, after aviation pioneer Samuel Pierpoint Langley. It was also the Navy's first electrically propelled ship, capable of speeds of 15 knots. On 17 October 1922, Lt. Virgil C. Griffin piloted the first plane, a VE-7-SF, launched from the Langley's decks. Although planes had taken off from ships before, it was nevertheless a historic moment. After 1937, the Langley lost the forward 40% of her flight deck as part of a conversion to seaplane tender, a mobile base for squadrons of patrol bombers.
      On 08 December 1941, the Langley was part of the Asiatic Fleet in the Philippines when the Japanese attacked. She immediately set sail for Australia, arriving on New Year's Day, 1942. On 22 February, commanded by Robert P. McConnell, the Langley, carrying 32 Warhawk fighters, left as part of a convoy to aid the Allies in their battle against the Japanese in the Dutch East Indies. On 27 February, the Langley parted company from the convoy and headed straight for the port at Tjilatjap, Java. About 120 km south of Java, the carrier met up with two US escort destroyers when nine Japanese twin-engine bombers attacked. Although the Langley had requested a fighter escort from Java for cover, none could be spared. The first two Japanese bomber runs missed their target, as they were flying too high, but the Langley's luck ran out the third time around and it was hit three times, setting the planes on her flight deck aflame. The carrier began to list. Commander McConnell lost his ability to navigate the ship. McConnell ordered the Langley abandoned, and the escort destroyers were able to take his crew to safety. Of the 300 crewmen, only 16 were lost. The destroyers then to sank the Langley before the Japanese were able to capture it.
^ 1940 Day 90 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

Delaying action begins to cover withdrawal to backline defenses

      The Finnish troops have held the intermediary defensive positions on the Isthmus for 12 days. Lieutenant-General Erik Heinrichs, commander of the Army of the Isthmus, orders withdrawal from these positions to begin at 7 o'clock in the evening. The Finns begin delaying action to cover withdrawal to the backline defences. Despite the critical situation in the intermediary positions as a result of the enemy breakthrough, the Finnish troops manage to pace their withdrawal successfully. The Soviet force follows behind relatively slowly. Following the realignment of the front on the western part of the Isthmus, the Finnish 2nd Division is ordered to withdraw to the eastern side of the Vuoksi and defend the Sintolanniemi-Vuosalmi line. The 2nd Division fighting in Vuosalmi ends its assessment of its present situation: "Today we're okay, tomorrow we'll be really struggling, and the day after tomorrow the 2nd Division will no longer exist unless we get full assistance from III Army Corps." The 2nd Division is placed under III Army Corps and begins a delaying action in the Vuosalmi sector.
      In the far north, enemy air raids on the Finnish positions at Heteoja in Petsamo continue throughout the day. In the face of an assault by a much larger enemy force, the outnumbered Finns are forced in the evening to withdraw to the west bank of the River Nautsijoki.
      Abroad: Finland's Foreign Minister Väinö Tanner is in Stockholm for talks with Swedish Prime Minister P.A. Hansson. The Swedish Government sticks to its previous position: it will not intervene to help Finland. Tanner proposes a defensive alliance to halt the Soviet advance. He also meets the Soviet Union's ambassador in Stockholm, Madame Alexandra Kollontai. The Soviet Union refuses to relax its peace terms.
      300 children evacuees arrive in Stockholm from Finland. 3,000 more are expected to arrive soon.
      Pope Pius XII donates a signed and sealed prayer on behalf of Finland to the Pro Finlandia auction of books organized by the Bukowski auction house in Stockholm.
      Helsinki's Swedish Theatre visits Oslo and receives public acclaim for its performance of J.J. Wecksell's play Daniel Hjort. After the performance the company are presented with flowers and Director Nyman presents his Finnish colleague with a laurel wreath. The Norwegian Royal Family and many members of the Government attend the performance, which ends with the singing of the Finnish and Norwegian national anthems.

^ Viivytystaistelut taka-asemaan alkavat Talvisodan 90. päivä, 27.helmikuuta.1940
       Kannaksen Armeijan komentaja kenraaliluutnantti Erik Heinrichs antaa käskyn, jonka mukaan suomalaisten irtautuminen kahdentoista päivän ajan pitämästä väliasemasta alkaa klo 19. Viivytystaistelut taka-asemaan alkavat. Vaikka tilanne väliasemassa on vihollisen sisäänmurtojen takia kriittinen, onnistutaan vetäytyminen tahdittamaan hyvin. Neuvostojoukot seuraavat suomalaisia suhteellisen hitaasti. Rintaman siirryttyä Länsi-Kannaksella uudelle linjalle 2. Divisioona saa käskyn vetäytyä Vuoksen itäpuolelle ja ottaa puolustaakseen Sintolanniemen-Vuosalmen linjan. Vuosalmella taistelevan 2. Divisioonan tilannekatsaus päättyy: "Tänään elämme, huomenna on täysi hätä ja ylihuomenna 2. Divisioonaa ei enää ole olemassa ellemme saa apua joka suhteessa III Armeijakunnalta." 2. divisioona alistetaan III Armeijakunnalle ja se aloittaa viivytystaistelun Vuosalmen suuntaan.
      Vihollinen suorittaa koko päivän ilmahyökkäyksiä Petsamossa Heteojan asemia vastaan. Suomalaiset joutuvat vetäytymään illalla Nautsijoen länsirannalle vihollisen hyökätessä suurella ylivoimalla.
      Ulkoministeri Tanner neuvottelee Tukholmassa Ruotsin pääministerin Hanssonin kanssa. Ruotsin hallituksen kanta ei muutu: Suomea ei auteta. Tanner ehdottaa yhteistä puolustusliittoa Neuvostoliiton etenemisen estämiseksi. Tanner tapaa myös Neuvostoliiton Tukholman suurlähettilään rouva Aleksandra Kollontain. Neuvostoliitto ei anna myönnytyksiä esittämilleen rauhanehdoille.
      Tukholmaan saapuu 300 Suomesta evakuoitua lasta. Lähiaikoina odotetaan saapuvan 3000 lasta lisää.
      Tukholmassa Bukowskin taidesalongin järjestämään Pro Finlandia-kirjahuutokauppaan saadaan Vatikaanista Paavi Pius XII lahjoittama sinetillä ja allekirjoituksella varustettu Rukous Suomen puolesta asiakirja.
      Helsingin Ruotsalainen teatteri vierailee Oslossa ja saavuttaa suuren menestyksen. Teatteri esittää J.J. Wecksellin näytelmän Daniel Hjort. Näytelmän jälkeen näyttelijät kukitetaan ja teatterinjohtaja Nyman ojentaa suomalaiselle kollegalleen laakeriseppeleen. Norjan kuningasperhe ja lukuisat Norjan hallituksen jäsenet ovatseuraamassa tätä tilaisuutta, joka päättyy Suomen ja Norjan kansallislauluihin.

^ Fördröjningsstriderna till den bakre ställningen börjar Vinterkrigets 90 dag, den 27 februari 1940
      Kommendören för armén på Näset, generallöjtnant Erik Heinrichs ger order om lösgöring från mellanställningen som finnarna har hållit i tolv dagar. Lösgöringen ska börja kl. 19. Fördröjningsstriderna till den bakre ställningen börjar. Även om situationen i mellanställningen är kritisk på grund av fiendens inbrytningar lyckas man organisera återtåget väl. De ryska trupperna följer finnarna förhållandevis långsamt. När fronten har förflyttat sig till en ny linje på västra Näset får den 2. Divisionen order om att retirera till den östra sidan av Vuoksen för att försvara linjen Sintolanniemi-Vuosalmi. Den 2. Divisionen som strider vid Vuosalmi avslutar sin lägesrapport med orden: "Idag lever vi, i morgon lider vi nöd och i övermorgon finns den 2. Divisionen inte längre om vi inte får hjälp i alla avseenden av den III Armékåren." Den 2. Divisionen underställs den III Armékåren och inleder fördröjningsstrider i riktning Vuosalmi.
      Fienden bombar hela dagen ställningarna i Heteoja i Petsamo. När fienden på kvällen går till anstormning tvingas finnarna retirera till den västra stranden av floden Nautsijoki.
      Utrikesminister Tanner förhandlar i Stockholm med Sveriges statsminister Hansson. Sveriges regering ändrar inte sin ståndpunkt. Finland får ingen hjälp. Tanner föreslår en gemensam försvarsallians för att förhindra Sovjetunionens avancemang. Tanner träffar också Sovjetunionens ambassadör i Stockholm, fru Alexandra Kollontaj. Sovjetunionen ger inga eftergifter i fråga om fredsvillkoren.
      300 evakuerade finska barn anländer till Stockholm. Ytterligare 3000 barn förväntas anlända inom de närmaste dagarna.
      Dokumentet "Bön för Finland", som donerats av Påven Pius XII och försetts med hans sigill och underskrift, sänds från Vatikanen till Bukowskis konstsalong i Stockholm för att säljas på bokauktionen Pro Finlandia.
      Svenska teatern från Helsingfors besöker Oslo och gör succé. Teatern framför pjäsen Daniel Hjort av J. J. Wecksell. Efter pjäsen hyllas skådespelarna med blommor och teaterdirektör Nyman överräcker en lagerkrans åt sin kollega. Den norska kungliga familjen och ett flertal regeringsmedlemmar närvarar evenemanget som avslutas med Finlands och Norges nationalhymner.
1939 Nadezhda K. Krupskaya, 70, Russian revolutionary / wife of Lenin.
1936 Ivan P. Pavlov, 86, Russian physiologist (reflexes, Nobel 1904).
1926 Olga Wisinger-Florian, Austrian painter born on 01 November 1844. —(080227)
1920 Alexandru D. Xenopol, 72, Romanian historian.
1915 Nikolay Yakovlevich Sonin [22 Feb 1849–], Russian mathematician.
1891 Hermann Winterhalter, German artist who born on 23 September 1808. —a bit more with link to an image.
1887 Alexander Porfir'yevich Borodin, 53, Russian composer.
1868 (07 Sep?) Maximilien de Meuron, Swiss painter born on 08 (07?) September 1785. — more
1867 Christian Ernst Bernhard Morgenstern, German painter who died on 29 September 1805. — more with links to images.
1864 6th and last day of Battle at Dalton, Georgia (about 600 casualties)
1862 Gabriele dell' Addolorata, 23, patron of Italian Catholic youth,
1861 Five demonstrators against Russian rule in Poland, as Russian troop fires on crowd, in Warsaw Massacre.
1834 Jean-Baptiste Joseph Wicar, French Neoclassical painter born on 22 January 1762. — more with links to images.
1818 (28 Feb?) Anne Vallayer Coster, French painter born on 21 December 1744.
1735 John Arbuthnot [Apr 1667–], physician / mathematician.
1706 John Evelyn [31 Oct 1620–], diarist.
<1693 Frans Ykens (or Ijkens), Flemish painter specialized in Still Life, born on 17 April 1601. — more with links to images.
1167 Robert of Melun, English theologian and philosopher, bishop of Hereford.
 
< 26 Feb 28 Feb >
^ Births which occurred on a February 27:

1980 Chelsea Victoria Clinton Daughter of Bill and Hillary Clinton
1936 Roger Michael Mahony, Hollywood CA, who, on 01 May 1962, would be ordained a priest of the diocese of Fresno, for which he would be consecrated bishop (auxiliary) on 19 March 1975. He would be appointed bishop of Stockton on 15 February 1950 and archbishop of Los Angeles on 16 July 1985. He would be made a cardinal on 28 June 1991. — Pastoral Letters and Statements of Cardinal Mahony —(080326)
^ 1934 Ralph Nader, consumer advocate, in Winsted, Connecticut.
      Nader would revolutionize consumer advocacy with his 1965 book, Unsafe at Any Speed: The Designed-In Dangers of the American Automobile, in which he lambasted the safety standards of the Big Three US automobile manufacturers. As presidential candidate in 2000 for the Green Party, Nader got blamed (unreasonably) for George W. Bush (Jr.) being able to “steal” the election from Al Gore.
1930 Jean-François Canu at 05:30 UT, mathematician, Catholic priest, teacher, webmaster.
^ 1928 Ariel Sharon, Israeli general and politician who was elected prime minister of Israel in February 2001. He died in 2006.
      Sharon received military training early in life, becoming part of a Jewish defense force that protected kibbutzim (collective-farming settlements) from raids by Bedouins and neighbouring Arab villagers. During the Israeli war of independence in 1948, he led one of the crack units, and after the war he was involved in intelligence and reconnaissance work and was in command of a controversial attack on a Jordanian village in 1953. During the 1956 Suez Crisis, Sharon captured the strategic Mitla Pass on the Sinai Peninsula, again garnering praise for his military ability and criticism for his headstrong leadership. After the crisis he studied military theory at Staff College in Camberley, England, and law at Tel Aviv University, graduating with a law degree in 1966.
      Sharon was made a major general in 1967, a few months before the Six-Day War of that year, in which he once again captured the Mitla Pass in a lightning-quick assault. Resigning from the Israeli army in July 1973, he was recalled for the Yom Kippur War of October 1973, in which he spearheaded the Israeli counterattack westward across the Suez Canal into Egypt.
      Amid charges of impulsiveness, uncontrollability, and dogmatism, Sharon made many enemies and was kept from the top army position that his military exploits might otherwise have gained him. He was instrumental in the formation of the Likud party in September 1973 and became a member of the Knesset that year. He was adviser (1975–1977) to Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin before joining in 1977 the Likud administration of Prime Minister Menachem Begin [16 Aug 1913 – 09 Mar 1992] as minister of agriculture in charge of settlements. In that position he supported the construction of Jewish settlements in occupied Arab territories.
      Begin appointed Sharon minister of defense in June 1981, and he was the principal architect of Israel's 1982 invasion of Lebanon, a war that swept Palestinian guerrillas from southern Lebanon but also worsened that country's civil war. A Lebanese Maronite Phalangist militia unit led by Elie Hobeika [1956 – 24 Jan 2002] massacred thousands of Palestinians in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps in Israeli-occupied Beirut (16 Sep to 18 Sep 1982). Afterwards Israel set up a commission of inquiry to determine responsibility. While finding Sharon not directly responsible for the massacres, the commission found him indirectly responsible for failing to take action to prevent the bloodshed. He resigned as minister of defense in 1983, although he continued to hold cabinet positions over the next decade, as minister of industry and trade (1984–1990) and minister of construction and housing (1990–1992). Under this second portfolio he continued his earlier policy of promoting intensive Israeli settlement in occupied territories.
      In 1996 Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu [21 Oct 1949~] created the cabinet post of minister of national infrastructure for Sharon. Two years later he was named foreign minister and in 1999 succeeded Netanyahu as Likud party leader. Controversy, however, continued to follow Sharon. His 28 September 2000 visit to Jerusalem's Temple Mount to press Israeli rights of sovereignty over a site viewed as holy by both Jewsand Muslims outraged Palestinians who started the al-Aqsa intifadah, seriously undermining Israeli-Palestinian peace talks. In December 2000 Prime Minister Ehud Barak [12 Feb 1942~] resigned his post, and a new election was scheduled for February 2001. Sharon announced his candidacy, and, disillusioned with Barak's inability to halt the fighting, Israelis voted Sharon into office by the largest margin in Israeli history. The killing of Israelis and of many more Palestinians intensified under Sharon.
—(060106)
1927 James Herlihy, actor, writer.
1917 John Connally (Governor-D/R-TX), wounded during Kennedy assassination in 1963, presidential candidate who got the one “10-million-dollar delegate”.
^ 1915 The Valley of Fear is published
      The Valley of Fear by Arthur Conan Doyle is published in novel form. Sherlock Holmes had been a popular character since he first appeared in the story A Study in Scarlet," published in Beeton's Christmas Annual in 1887. The thin, highly strung detective with extraordinary deductive powers was modeled partly on Dr. Joseph Bell, a medical school teacher at the University of Edinburgh, where Holmes' creator studied. Conan Doyle created Holmes while practicing medicine in London, where his shortage of patients left him ample free time to write. Starting in 1891, a series of Holmes stories appeared in The Strand magazine. Holmes' success enabled Doyle to leave his medical practice in 1891 and devote himself to writing, but the author soon grew weary of his creation. In The Final Problem, he appeared to kill off both Holmes and his nemesis, Dr. Moriarty, only to resuscitate Holmes later due to popular demand.
      In 1902, Doyle was knighted for his work with a field hospital in South Africa. In addition to dozens of Sherlock Holmes stories and several novels, Doyle wrote history, pursued whaling, and engaged in many adventures and athletic endeavors. After his son died in World War I, Doyle became a dedicated spiritualist. He died in 1930.
1913 Irwin Shaw, US, novelist (Rich Man Poor Man, The Young Lions)
1912 Lawrence Durrell, Darjeeling India, writer (Alexandria Quartet)
1910 Peter De Vries, Chicago IL, author (Reuben Reuben, The Prick of Noon)
1910 Doob, mathematician.
1904 James Thomas Farrell, US, author (Studs Lonigan trilogy)
1902 John Steinbeck Salinas CA, author (Cannery Row. The Grapes of Wrath—Nobel 1962)
1893 Ralph Linton US cultural anthropologist (Tree of Culture)
1891 David Sarnoff, broadcasting pioneer
      Russian-born Sarnoff moved to New York at age nine, and at seventeen, he took a job as a telegraph messenger boy. He used his first paycheck to buy a telegraph and taught himself Morse code. Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company hired him as a telegraph operator. In 1912, Sarnoff was the first telegraph operator to pick up the Titanic's distress call; He remained at his post for seventy-two hours, monitoring the call and passing on information. Sarnoff rose rapidly through the ranks of the company. He proposed that Marconi market a "radio music box" and, in 1921, became general manager of RCA. Sarnoff also set up the NBC radio network and established the first US television service in 1939.
1887 James Dickson Innes, Welsh painter who died on 22 August 1914. — more with link to images.
1886 Hugo L. Black Alabama, (Senator-D-AL)/78th US Supreme Court justice (1937-1971)
1881 Sveinn Björnsson first President of Iceland (1944-1952)/poet (Figur ild)
1881 L. E. J. Brouwer, mathematician.
1881 Luitzen [Bertus] Brouwers Dutch mathematician.
1879 Saccharin artificial sweetener is discovered by Constantine Fahlberg.
1869 Alice Hamilton, physician / writer (workmen's compensation laws)
1867 Irving Fisher, US economist (compensating dollar).
1863 Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida, Spanish painter who died on 10 August 1923. — MORE ON SOROLLA AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
1861 Rudolph Steiner, in Kraljevic, Austria, founder (doctrine of anthroposophy movement).
1835 Richard Garnett, English author (Ananda the Miracle Worker)
1824 Henri Pierre Picou, French artist who died on 17 July 1895.
1814 Charles Louis Baugniet, Belgian academic painter who died on 05 July 1886. — links to images.
^ 1807 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, America's most popular 19th century poet, in Portland, Massachusetts.
      Associated with New England all his life, the area was the setting for some of his most popular narrative poems. Longfellow attended Bowdoin College, a classmate of Nathaniel Hawthorne's, and graduated in 1825. After traveling abroad for several years, he became a professor of languages at his alma mater and later at Harvard College in Cambridge. In 1835, he spent time in Heidelberg, Germany, and when he returned he published his romantic novel Hyperion and a collection of poems called Voices of the Night. In an age without television, narrative poetry was a popular form of entertainment, and Longfellow's work swept the nation, especially poems like The Wreck of the Hesperus (1841), which caught the public's imagination. His other popular hits included Evangeline, Hiawatha, and Paul Revere's Ride, which was included in his collection Tales of a Wayside Inn, modeled after Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. In 1854, Longfellow retired from teaching to write full time. He won honorary degrees from Oxford and Cambridge before his death on 24 March 1882.
LONGFELLOW ONLINE:
  • Complete Poetical Works
  • Selected Works.
  • Tales of a Wayside Inn
  • The Courtship of Miles Standish
  • The Courtship of Miles Standish and Other Poems
  • Evangeline
  • Evangeline
  • Kavanagh: A Tale
  • Outre-Mer: A Pilgrimage Beyond the Sea, volume 1volume 2
  • Paul Revere's Ride
  • The Song of Hiawatha
  • The Song of Hiawatha
  • Norse Ballads
  • PAGE IMAGES:
  • The Song of Hiawatha
  • In the Harbor: Ultima Thule
  • Keramos, and Other Poems
  • The Golden Legend
  • Hyperion: A Romance
  • The Courtship of Miles Standish, and Other Poems
  • Aftermath
  • The Building of the Ship, and Other Poems
  • The Poetical Works
  • Twenty Poems
  • Voices of the Night, Ballads and Other Poems

  • translator of Dante's
  • The Divine Comedy
  • The Divine Comedy

    co-translator of Dante's
  • The Divine Comedy
  • The Divine Comedy (also in Italian)
  • 1805 Henri Pierre Pharamond Blanchard, French artist who died on 19 December 1873.
    1784 Elias Annes Borger, Dutch theologian / poet (To the Rhine).
    1741 Michel-Pierre-Hubert Descours II, French artist who died on 19 May 1814.
    1729 Jean-Hugues Taraval, French painter who died on 19 October 1785. — more with link to images.
    1634 Peter van den Velde, Flemish artist who died after 1687.
    1622 (infant baptism) Carel Fabritius, Dutch painter who died on 12 October 1654. — MORE ON FABRITIUS AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1606 Laurent de la Hire, French Baroque classical painter who died on 28 December 1656. — MORE ON DE LA HIRE AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    0289 Constantine the Great, Roman emperor (306-337), who would become a convert to Christianity.
     
    Holidays / Dominican Republic : Independence Day (1844) / St Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla : Statehood Day (1967) / St Kitts and Antigua : Independence Day (1967)
    Ash Wednesday in 1884, 1895, 1952, 1963, 1974, 2036, 2047, 2058, 2036, 2047, 2069, 2104, 2115.
    Sainte Honorine vivait à l'époque romaine dans le pays de Caux. Cette vierge fut martyrisée en raison de sa foi chrétienne et son corps fut jeté à la Seine puis recueilli et inhumé à Graville. Honorine deviendra plus tard la sainte patronne de Conflans-Sainte-Honorine.
    DICTIONNAIRE TICRANIEN GÉOGRAPHIQUE FRANÇAIS-ANGLAIS: Marseille: maman dire. Exemple: ANNECY MARSEILLE: “NANCY, pis NICE tout de PAU PAIMPOL, oui HAVRE LILLE TOULOUSE.” Anne voir maman dire: “Nancy, soit bonne envers les pauvres gens, nous avons peu à perdre.”
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “Let a fool hold his tongue and he will pass for a sage.”
    “Let a sage hold his tongue and he will pass for a fool trying to pass for a sage.”
    TO THE TOP
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4feb/h4feb27.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4feb/h4feb27.html
    http://www.ifrance.com/7aujourdhui/history/h4feb/h4feb27.html
    updated Thursday 26-Feb-2009 22:02 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.8.20 Wednesday 26-Mar-2008 21:02 UT
    Monday 26-Feb-2007 22:06
    v.6.10 Tuesday 28-Feb-2006 16:57 UT
    Monday 21-Mar-2005 15:04 UT
    Sunday 20-Jun-2004 17:11 UT

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