<< Feb 18| HISTORY “4” “2”DAY |Feb 20 >>
Events, deaths, births, of FEB 19 v.9.10
[For Feb 19 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Mar 01 1700s: Mar 02 1800s: Mar 03 1900~2099: Mar 04]
• Marines invade Iwo Jima... • Napoléon becomes First Consul... • Finns repulse Soviets... • Communist plot in El Salvador?... • Suisse: acte de médiation... • Amy Tan is born... • Rescuers reach Donner party... • Myanmar officials die in crash... • South Vietnam coup fails... • Chicago 7 found guilty... • Detroit's newspaper strike...
a 19 February:
2001 Fugitives James Parker, 16, and Robert Tulloch, 17, are captured in Indiana. They are believed to be the murderers by stabbing, 21 January 2001 of Half Zantop, 62, who taught earth sciences at Dartmouth College, and Susanne Zantop, 55, who was chairwoman of the German Studies Department.
2000 El grupo francés Usinor, el luxemburgués Arbe y el español Aceralia presentan en Bruselas su proyecto de fusión para crear el líder mundial de la industria siderúrgica.
1999 US President Clinton posthumously pardons Henry O. Flipper, the first black graduate of West Point, whose military career was tarnished by a racially motivated discharge.
1999 Clinton impeachment aftermath
(1) Matt Drudge Reports:
XXXXX DRUDGE REPORT XXXXX FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 19, 1999 23:58:42 ET XXXXX
BROADDRICK EXPLOSION: CALLS FOR NBC NEWS PRESIDENT TO RESIGN; LOCKHART LOSES CONTROL!
The WALL STREET JOURNAL went. Then the WASHINGTON POST went. Next, NBC News President Andy Lack may be going, going, gone.
President Lack may become Juanita Broaddrick's first victim as media outlets worldwide blared rape allegations against President Clinton allegations that Lack suppressed when he refused to allow NBC hot shot Lisa Myers' 30-minute interview with the once Jane Doe to clear air.
NBC News President Lack was being hit with all of the blame for the Broaddrick debacle late Friday night.
"Andy Lack should resign. Resign now. We have to save our face," declared one insider Friday night as word spread throughout elite media circles that the WASHINGTON POST had frontpaged a chilling story of sexual assault and coverup.
Myers fought to get it on the air. Washington Bureau Chief Russert fought to get it on the air. Thousands of phone calls jammed NBC's phone lines after the DRUDGE REPORT revealed that NBC News put Broaddrick on ice for the second time.
"I feel so betrayed by NBC," Broaddrick told the WASHINGTON POST.
[The race is now on to secure a new Broaddrick television interview. Lewinsky hot Barbara Walters is a possible front-runner. Lewinsky hot Larry King would offer a less glamorous venue, and earned no points during Friday's Paula Jones interview when he completely failed to mention the Broaddrick story that had consumed the capital.]
It was Lack who personally blocked the interview, and continued to thwart NBC's Washington bureau going into the last week of network sweeps. Behind the scenes on Friday night, calls for Lack's resignation accelerated. And there are new signs that Lack knowingly stood by as the White House manipulated NBC owner GENERAL ELECTRIC. "The White House pressure to prevent the Broaddrick interview from reaching air worked its way to the highest levels of the parent company GE," says a senior executive at another network.
After all, it was Lack himself who allowed Myers' original NBC NIGHTLY NEWS story on Broaddrick's rape charge to run last March. Working with nothing but court records and second-hand corroboration, Lack and NBC News aired Broaddrick's story on the eve of the Paula Jones case dismissal. Now with Broaddrick herself confirming Myers' original report on camera and on the record, Lack has put on the brakes.
WASHINGTON POST media savant Howard Kurtz reported on Saturday:
"Several NBC sources said Myers and her Washington bureau chief, Tim Russert, were frustrated by their inability to get the story on the air. They and other advocates believe that each time they came up with further corroboration, NBC management raises the evidentiary bar a little higher."
It is not clear if White House Press Secretary Joe Lockhart has been in personal contact with NBC News President Lack, or to what lengths Lockhart has gone to keep the story bottled up. One thing became clear Friday night. The cork had popped and had shot around the world.
The rape charges hit front pages of the world's newspapers Saturday after the WALL STREET JOURNAL's Dorothy Rabinowitz secured Broaddrick's first on-the-record comments on NBC's interview coverup. Lockhart, operating on autopilot, tried to smear the JOURNAL. "They lost me when they accused the president of being a drug smuggler and a murderer," Lockhart sneered during his Friday briefing.
But Pete Yost at the ASSOCIATED PRESS quickly picked up the JOURNAL's cue hours later, getting his very own Broaddrick exclusive. Lockhart was forced off cruise control by the Yost.
And then word hit just as the president and first lady were reportedly again cleaning out closets. The WASHINGTON POST had prepared a front-page, in-depth, on-the-record, deeply sourced expose on Broaddrick. The impeachment threat had just ended and the next scandal had already broken. "We only had three calm days," sighed one administration insider.
The WASHINGTON POST surprised scandal watchers late week with its Broaddrick bombshell. The paper had been floundering as the NEW YORK TIMES produced exclusive after exclusive on the Clinton scandal front. The TIMES was silent on Saturday, likely preparing a catch-up story for Sunday. As the race to an unseen finish line drew a step closer.
(2) The White House denies allegations that President Bill Clinton sexually assaulted a woman more than 20 years ago, when he was attorney general of Arkansas.
(3) Gennifer Flowers arrives in Oxford to tell undergraduates how she had survived America's greatest sex scandal and to advise against sleeping with a future President as a fast track to fame and fortune.
| 1998 El nicaragüense Sergio Ramírez Mercado y el cubano,
residente en México, Eliseo Alberto, ganan el Premio Alfaguara de Novela.
Detroit’s 19-month newspaper strike ends but not the litigation.
The Detroit News and Detroit Free Press accepted an offer from six unions to end a nineteen-month strike, and announced a plan to return the former strikers to work. The agreement formally ended the tense and at times turbulent strike that had begun on July 13, 1995, when failed contract talks prompted roughly 2000 union newspaper workers to hit the picket line. However, the February 1997 deal left a few festering conflicts in its wake. For one, the newspapers didn’t necessarily guarantee that the striking workers would be able to return to their old jobs. Instead, the papers devised a four-point re-hiring plan that promised to put the strikers on a "preferential hiring list" when and if positions became available. That crucial caveat led the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to take legal action against the papers. However, in August of 1997, US District Judge John Corbett O'Meara rejected the NLRB’s injunction, which called for a chunk of the 1275 replacement workers hired at the outset of the walk-off to be laid off in favor of the strikers. The NRLB lodged an appeal that was ultimately denied by the 6th US Circuit Court of Appeals in 1998. The board marshaled other suits against the newspapers, one of which was shot down later that year.
| 1996 Pent-up demand for reliable and secure forms of
Internet payment sent shares of CyberCash soaring on its first day of public
trading. CyberCash planned to release an electronic credit-card system.
By the end of the day, its offering price had risen 79%.
1992 Ratificado el histórico acuerdo de no agresión y desnuclearización entre las dos Coreas, oficialmente en guerra desde 1953.
1991 Russian Federation President Boris Yeltsin makes an unprecedented public appeal for Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev to resign.
1988 El Sistema Monetario Europeo propone el "ecu" (unidad de cuenta europea) como moneda habitual.
1987 Marruecos construye un sexto muro en el Sáhara para impedir el paso del Frente Polisario al Atlántico.
1987 Reagan lifts trade boycott against Poland
1987 Anti-smoking ad airs for first time on TV, featuring Yul Brynner
1986 the US Senate approves a treaty outlawing genocide, 37 years after the pact had first been submitted for ratification.
1986 Jordanian King Hussein severs ties with PLO
Chicago Seven wrongfully found guilty.
The Chicago Seven (formerly the Chicago Eight one defendant, Bobby Seale, was being tried separately) are acquitted of riot conspiracy charges, but found guilty of inciting riot. The eight antiwar activists were charged with the responsibility for the violently repressed demonstrations at the August 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago (Where mayor Daley had said: The police is not there to create disorder, the police is there to preserve disorder and an official inquiry later found that there had been a police riot).
The defendants included David Dellinger of the National Mobilization Committee (NMC); Rennie Davis and Thomas Hayden of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS); Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, founders of the Youth International Party ("Yippies"); Bobby Seale of the Black Panthers; and two lesser known activists, Lee Weiner and John Froines.
The defendants were charged with conspiracy to cross state lines with intent to incite a riot. Attorneys William Kunstler and Leonard Weinglass represented all but Seale. The trial, presided over by Judge Julius Hoffman, turned into a circus as the defendants and their attorneys used the court as a platform to attack Nixon, the Vietnam War, racism, and oppression. Their tactics were so disruptive that at one point, Judge Hoffman ordered Seale gagged and strapped to his chair-Seale's behavior eventually caused the judge to try him separately.
By the time the trial ended in February 1970, Hoffman had found the defendants and their attorneys guilty of 175 counts of contempt of court and sentenced them to terms between two to four years. Although declaring the defendants not guilty of conspiracy, the jury found all but Froines and Weiner guilty of intent to riot. The others were each sentenced to five years and fined $5000. However, none served time because in 1972, a Court of Appeal overturned the criminal convictions and eventually most of the contempt charges were also dropped.
Coup in South Vietnam fails
Dissident officers move several battalions of troops into Saigon with the intention of ousting Gen. Nguyen Khanh from leadership. General Khanh escaped to Dalat with the aid of Air Vice Marshal Nguyen Cao Ky, commander of the South Vietnamese Air Force, who then threatened to bomb Saigon and the Tan Son Nhut Airport unless the rebel troops were withdrawn. Ky was dissuaded from this by Gen. William Westmoreland, Commander of US Military Assistance Command Vietnam, who told Ky that more political instability might have a negative impact on continued US aid. Khanh was able to get troops to take over from the insurgents without any resistance on February 20.
Meanwhile, Ky met with the dissident officers and agreed to their demand for the dismissal of Khanh. On February 21, the Armed Forces Council dismissed Khanh as chairman and as commander of the armed forces. General Lam Van Phat replaced him. The next day, Khanh announced that he had accepted the council's decision, after which he was appointed a "roving ambassador," assigned first to go to the United Nations and present evidence that the war in South Vietnam was being directed from Hanoi by the North Vietnamese.
| 1963 The Soviet Union informs US President Kennedy
that it will withdraw "several thousand" of an estimated 17'000 Soviet soldiers
1961 Albania disavows Chinese "Revisionism"
1960 Protest strike in Poznan Poland
1959 Britain, Turkey and Greece sign agreement granting Cyprus independence. Reino Unido, Grecia y Turquía acuerdan otorgar la plena independencia a Chipre en el plazo de un año.
1959 USAF rocket-powered rail sled attains Mach 4.1 (4970 kph), New Mexico
1959 Gabon adopts its constitution (holiday)
1955 South East Asia Collective Defense Treaty goes into effect SEATO
1952 French offensive at Hanoi
1949 Mass arrests of communists in India
1949 first Bollingen Prize for poetry awarded to Ezra Pound
1945 Los norteamericanos desembarcan en la isla de Iwo Jima, estratégica base para atacar el territorio japonés.
1944 823 British bombers attack Berlin
1944 II Guerra Mundial: La Luftwaffe desencadena los mayores ataques contra Londres desde mayo de 1941.
1943 German tanks under Brigadier General Buelowius attack Kasserine Pass Tunisia
1942 Japanese troop land on Timor
1936 Manuel Azaña becomes Spanish premier. Comienza el primer gobierno de la II República española, que fue presidido por Manuel Azaña Díaz tras las elecciones que dieron la victoria al Frente Popular.
1933 Prussian minister Göring bans all Catholic newspapers.
| 1927 General strike against British occupiers in Shanghai.
Huelga insurreccional en Shanghai contra el general-dictador de la ciudad,
Sun Chuan Fang, y las fuerzas británicas de ocupación.
1926 Subastado en Nueva York, en $106'000, un ejemplar de la Biblia de Johann Gensfleisch von Sulgeloch Gutenberg, el primer libro impreso.
1925 Designado jefe del Tercio de Marruecos el coronel Francisco Franco Bahamonde.
1919 Atentado frustrado contra Georges Clemenceau, presidente del Consejo de Ministros francés.
1918 I Guerra Mundial: Incursión aérea francesa sobre Mannheim, puerto fluvial alemán en el Rin.
1915 British fleet fire on Dardanelles coast Les forts des Dardanelles sont bombardés par les flottes française et britannique. Il s'agit de forcer le détroit des Dardanelles et le Bosphore pour créer un autre front au sud-est de l'Allemagne. Ce fut fait mais très chèrement payer en vie humaines. 1915 débute l'offensive navale des Alliés dans les Dardanelles. La flota inglesa bombardea las fortificaciones de Gallípoli (Turquía).
1913 Mexican General V Huerta takes power with US support.
1900 British troops occupy Hlangwane Natal.
1906 W K Kellogg and Charles D Bolin incorporate Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Company, Battle Creek MI.
1878 Thomas Alva Edison patents the gramophone (phonograph).
1881 Kansas becomes first US state to prohibit all alcoholic beverages.
1861 Russian Tsar Alexander II abolishes serfdom.
1861 Louisiana State troops seize the US paymaster's office in New Orleans.
1859 Dan Sickles is acquitted of murder on grounds of temporary insanity first time this defense is successfully used
1858 Une loi de sûreté générale marque le durcissement du régime impérial de Napoléon III suite à l’attentat d’Orsini. contre l'empereur Napoléon III le 14 janvier 1858, qui. sert de prétexte à cette loi proposée par le général Espinasse qui stipule que l'on peut arrêter et déporter sans jugement quiconque a fait l'objet de condamnation, lors des événements de juin 1848 et de décembre 1851. Plus de 2000 français seront inquiétés par cette loi de sûreté générale appelée aussi "loi des suspects".
Donner party cannibal survivors found
In the eastern foothills of California’s Sierra Nevada Mountains, a relief party reaches the Donner Party, finding that only about half of the original eighty-nine pioneers have survived one of the most infamous ordeals in the history of Western expansionism. In 1846, a group of California-bound families mostly from Illinois and Iowa set out on the long journey west. Most prominent among them were the two Donner families, led by George and Jacob Donner, and the Reed family. After passing Fort Bridger in Wyoming, George Donner suggested that the group use a lesser-traveled route through the Wasatch Mountains in Utah in order to cut time. The Donner Party’s covered wagons were severely delayed in the salt flats of Utah’s Great Salt Lake Desert, and in October of 1846, the expedition finally reached the Sierra Nevada Mountains in eastern California. However, while pausing to gather strength for their final journey over the mountains and into Sacramento Valley, an early snowfall covered the mountain passes and the pioneers were trapped. A small party led by Charles T. Stanton and his Indian guides set out for help, while the rest of the group set up camp at Alder Creek and at what is now known as Donner Lake. However, Stanton’s party returned having failed to breach the snow-choked passes and within weeks the pioneers’ limited food gave out and the cold and snow became worse. The surviving pioneers were driven to cannibalism and Stanton died attempting to break through the pass again.
Finally, in early 1847, James Reed, who had reached California in a separate party, succeeded in organizing a relief party to save his family and the rest of the Donner Party. On February 19, 1847, a snowshoed group of settlers from the Johnson’s Ranch and Sutter’s Fort area of California broke through the mountain snowdrifts to the hunger-maddened pioneers, finding only forty-five of the original eighty-nine migrants still alive. Twenty-one of the strongest survivors were led back over the mountains while the rest were left with supplies. It would take two more months and three more relief parties before the last surviving Donner Party members were safely led out of the death encampment.
1847 Rescuers reach Donner Party The first rescuers from Sutter's Fort reach the surviving remnants of the Donner emigrant party at their snowbound camp in the high Sierra Nevada Mountains. The events leading up to the Donner party tragedy began the summer before, when 89 emigrants from Springfield, Illinois, set out overland for California. Initially all went well, and they arrived on schedule at Fort Bridger, Wyoming, in early August. There the emigrants made the mistake of deciding to leave the usual route in favor of a supposed shortcut recently blazed by the California promoter Lansford Hastings. The so-called Hastings Cutoff proved to be anything but a shortcut, and the Donner party lost valuable time and supplies on the trip. When the emigrants finally began the difficult final push over the rugged Sierra Nevada Mountains, it was early October and uncomfortably late in the season to be attempting a high mountain passage.
The Donner party almost made it. On October 28, they camped near a high mountain lake (later named Donner Lake) with plans to begin the final push over the pass the next day. Unfortunately, an early winter storm arrived in the mountains. By morning, a thick mantle of snow covered the ground and the pass was blocked. The Donner party was trapped.
The panicked emigrants constructed makeshift tents out of the canvas from their wagons, hoping a thaw might still save them. Warmer weather never came, and by mid-December their food supplies were running low. All agreed that if they did not send for help the entire party would starve to death. Fifteen of the strongest emigrants set out west for Sutter's Fort on December 16. Three weeks later, having endured violent storms and been reduced to cannibalism to stay alive, seven survivors reached an Indian village, where news of the disaster was quickly dispatched to Sutter's Fort near San Francisco.
On 31 January, seven rescuers left Sutter's Fort. When they arrived at Donner Lake 20 days later, the men saw nothing but tall white drifts of snow and ice. The men yelled out a hello, and a woman's head appeared above the snow. "Are you men from California or are you from heaven?" she asked. As the other survivors emerged from their snow-covered shelters, one writer recorded that, "It was if the rescuers' hallo had been Gabriel's horn raising the dead from their graves. Their flesh was wasted from their bodies. They wept and laughed hysterically."
After feeding the starving emigrants as much as they safely could, the rescuers began their evacuation. Other rescue parties arrived soon after to help. The trials of the Donner Party, however, were far from over. As the rescue parties struggled to lead the survivors back to Sutter's Fort, they too began to succumb to the harsh winter conditions. Many among the main body of pioneers were also forced to resort to cannibalism to stay alive. The last survivors would not reach safety until late April. Of the 89 emigrants who had departed Fort Bridger the year before, only 45 survived to reach their destination in sunny California. ^top^
| 1846 Texas state government formally installed in Austin.
1834 Se autoriza la construcción del primer ferrocarril alemán, que enlazaría las ciudades de Nuremberg y Furth, distantes 20 kms.
1831 First practical US coal-burning locomotive makes first trial run, Pennsylvania.
1814 Noruega, en su resistencia a la dominación sueca, toma por regente al príncipe de Dinamarca Christian Federico.
^1803 Les Suisses adoptent l'Acte de médiation
Napoléon Bonaparte convoque les représentants de la République helvétique à Paris et leur fait signer l’Acte de médiation. Créée par les révolutionnaires français en 1798, la République helvétique "une et indivisible" s'est avérée un échec. Le Premier Consul restaure donc les cantons suisses, à l'exception de Genève et Mulhouse qui sont annexés par la France. Il crée six autres cantons. La nouvelle Confédération helvétique compte dix-neuf cantons. Elle dispose surtout d'un pouvoir fédéral plus important que l'ancienne Confédération, avec notamment une monnaie et une armée communes. Alliée de force à la France, la Suisse obtiendra la garantie internationale de sa neutralité à la chute de Napoléon, en 1814. Mais l'Acte de médiation sera aboli et avec lui les institutions fédérales. Il faudra une guerre civile en 1847 pour restaurer une autorité centrale. Le nouvel équilibre des pouvoirs entre les cantons et la Confédération donnera pleine satisfaction jusqu'à nos jours.
1803 US Congress votes to accept Ohio's borders and constitution, but Congress would not formally ratify Ohio statehood until 1953.
^1800 Napoléon becomes First Consul [Le Premier Consul, by Ingres >]
Three months after he overthrew the French Revolutionary government in a military coup, General Napoléon Bonaparte assumes the office of first consul, and with the visible support of the army, effectively becomes dictator of France. The Corsica-born Napoléon, one of the greatest military strategists in history, rapidly rose in the ranks of the French Revolutionary army during the late 1890s. By 1899, France was at war with most of Europe, and Napoléon returned home from a campaign in Egypt to take over the reigns of French government and save the nation. After becoming first consul in February of 1800, he reorganized his armies and defeated Austria. In 1802, he established the Napoléonic Code, a new system of French law, and in 1804, was crowned emperor of France in Notre Dame Cathedral. By 1807, Napoléon controlled an empire that stretched from the River Elbe in the north down through Italy in the south, and from the Pyrenees to the Dalmation coast. Beginning in 1812, Napoléon began to encounter the first significant defeats of his military career, suffering through a disastrous invasion of Russia, losing Spain to the Duke of Wellington in the Peninsula War, and enduring total defeat against an allied force by 1814. Exiled to the island of Elba, Napoléon escaped to France in early 1815, and raised a new Grand Army that enjoyed temporary success before its crushing defeat at Waterloo against an allied force under the Duke of Wellington. Napoléon was subsequently exiled to the remote island of St. Helena in the Atlantic Ocean. After six years of exile, he died, most likely of stomach cancer, and in 1840, his body was returned to Paris, where it was interred in the Hotel des Invalides.
1797 1/3 of papal domain ceded to France 1797, Avignon et le Comtat-Venaissin sont cédés par le pape à la France.
1796 (30 pluviôse an IV), on brûle les planches à assignats en place Vendôme.
| 1700 Last day of the Julian calendar in Denmark
1674 Netherlands and England sign Peace of Westminster (NYC becomes English)
1634 Battle at Smolensk Polish king Wladyslaw IV beats Russians
1539 Jews of Tyrnau Hungary (then Trnava Czechoslovakia), expelled
1512 French troops under Gaston de Foix occupy Brescia.
1493 La armada portuguesa intenta apresar en las islas Azores a Cristobal Colón en su viaje de regreso, para evitar que divulgue la otra ruta hacia las Indias que cree haber descubierto.
0842 The Medieval Iconoclast Controversy ended, when a Council in Constantinople formally reinstated the veneration of images (icons) in the churches. (This debate over icons is often considered the last event which led to the Great Schism between the Eastern and Western Churches.)
0607 Boniface III is elected Pope
0356 Emperor Constantius II shuts all heathen temples 356, par une loi qui impose la fermeture des temples païens, l'empereur romain Constance II confirme l'unification religieuse de l'empire autour du christianisme.
2006 Javier Pérez, 31; José Hernández; and 63 other miners after a 02:10 (08:10 UT) explosion 160 m deep and 1 km into the tunnels of Pasta de Conchos mine #8a , belonging to Industrial Minera México (IMMSA), in San Juan de Sabinas, Coahuila, Mexico. — (060220)
2005 All but some 20 of the approximately 200 on board the ferry M.V. Maharaj, which, late in the night, capsizes and sinks completely during a tropical storm on the Buriganga river, on its way to Chandpur from Dhaka, Bangladesh. [photo: the next day, a crane pulls up the ferry >]
2005 Some 200 persons by an avalanche about 10 km southwest of Verinag, Banihal district, Indian-occupied Kashmir.
2005 (10 Muharram 1426 AH: 'Ashura') Seven persons, including a suicide bomber in a public bus stopped in the predominantly Shiite Kadhimiya neighborhood of Baghdad, Iraq. One child is among the dead. — 'Ashura' is a Muslim holy day observed on the 10 of Muharram, the first month of the Islamic year (Gregorian date variable). 'Ashura' was originally designated in 622 by Muhammad [570 – 08 Jun 632], soon after the Hegira (16 July 622 = 01 Muharram 1 AH, Anno Hegirae), as a day of fasting from sunset to sunset, probably patterned on the Jewish Yom Kippur. When Jewish-Muslim relations became strained, however, Muhammad made Ramadan the Muslim month of fasting, leaving the 'Ashura' fast a voluntary observance, as it has remained among the Sunnites. Among the Shiites, the first ten days of Muharram are days of lamentation and 'Ashura' is a major festival, the tazia, commemorating the death of “the third imam”, Husayn [Jan 626 – 10 Oct 680], second son of “the first imam”, 'Ali [600 – Jan 661], and grandson of Muhammad, on 10 Muharram, 61 AH (10 Oct 680), in Karbala, in present-day Iraq, ambushed by the followers of the second Umayyad caliph, Yazid [645-683], against whom Husayn was starting a revolt. It is a period of expressions of grief and of pilgrimage to Karbala; passion plays are also presented, commemorating the death of Husayn. On 10 Muharram 1425 AH (02 Mar 2004) at least 181 persons, mostly Shiites, were killed in Iraq by terrorists.
2005 Nine Iraqi collaborationist soldiers and a suicide car bomber at an Iraqi army checkpoint in Latifiya, Iraq.
2005 An Iraqi National Guardsman and a suicide car bomber outside a National Guard base in Baqouba, Iraq. Another guardsman is wounded.
2005 A suicide bomber who explodes prematurely and fails to kill anyone in a group of Iraqi National Guardsmen near a northwest Baghdad mosque.
2005 Four persons including a suicide bomber in a tent outside a Sunni mosque in western Baghdad. 10 persons are injured. About 50 people were inside the tent attending a funeral. The bomber may have mistaken it for a Shiite 'Ashura' celebration.
2005 Bodyless conjoined twin, born on 30 March 2004, unavoidably dies in a 13-hour operation in Benha, Egypt, to separate the complete conjoined girl, Manar Maged. The condition is called craniopagus parasiticus. The second twin had developed no body. The head that was removed from Manar had been capable of smiling and blinking but not separated life. Pre-operation video shows Manar smiling and at ease in a cot with the dark-haired "parasitic" twin, attached at the upper left side of the girl's skull, occasionally blinking. Actually they were triplets: the third, born separate, Noora, is normal and healthy. Alfy said the 13-strong surgical team separated Manar's brain from the conjoined brain in small stages, cutting off the blood supply to the extra head while preventing increased blood flow to Manar's heart, which would have risked cardiac arrest. Manar's skull had been reconstructed during prior surgery and her skin had been joined over the bone, leaving no need for further reconstructive surgery. The doctors decided not to carry out Manar's operation soon after her birth, as they had to to study how the blood supply of the parasite was working. The condition occurs when an embryo begins to split into identical twins but fails to complete the process and one of the conjoined twins fails to develop fully in the womb. The second twin can form as an extra limb, a complete second body lacking vital organs, or, in very rare cases, a head. In February 2004, seven-week-old Rebeca Martinez died in the Dominican Republic after surgery to remove a second head. The leader of that team, Jorge Lazareff of the University of California at Los Angeles, noted on viewing one picture of the Egyptian baby that the face of the undeveloped twin was "very well developed" compared to that in Rebeca's case. Rebeca had a more vertical sibling, whereas in the case of Manar the second growth is tangential.
2004 Manuel Gehring, 44, suicide by hanging, at the Merrimack County Jail, New Hampshire, where he was awaiting trial for the 04 July 2003 murder of his children Sarah Nicole Gehring [18 Aug 1988–], and Philip Palacios Gehring [19 Sep 1991–]. — (051204)
2004 One Iraqi, and two US soldiers of Task Force All-American, by a roadside bomb in Khalidiyah, Iraq.
2003 Nasser Abu Safiyeh, 32, shot by Israeli troops in Nablus, West Bank, while he is walking home from prayers, with his father, 93.
2003 All 302 aboard an Iranian military Ilyushin-76 cargo plane used to carry passengers, which crashes at 17:40 (14:10 UT) in mountains near Shahdad, 35 km southeast of its destination, Kerman, Iran. 284 of the dead are Revolutionary Guards of the Sarallah brigade, returning from a mission in Zahedan; the other 18 are the aircrew. (total 276 instead of 302 ?)
2002 Three men, shot by a fourth who then commits suicide, in Munich, Germany A gunman killed three people in a rampage that started when he killed his former boss and a foreman at the home furnishings company that had recently fired him. Afterward, he traveled 20 km to a Munich suburb, entered a high school and shot the headmaster after he was unable to find the teacher he was after. He shot another teacher in the face and set off homemade bombs before committing suicide.
2002 Six Israelis, shot by Palestinian attackers, in a building close to an Israeli roadblock near the village of Ein Arik, West Bank, at about 21:00.
2002 Iyad Abu Safiyeh, 22, and Mohamed Hamdan, 25, when an Israeli helicopter gunship fired three missiles at a civilian building in the Jabalya refugee camp, Gaza Strip. Ten other Palestinians are injured, mostly children going home from school.
2002 Mariam Bahabsa, 40, her daughter Mona, 14, and Abdul Wahab Najar, 19, Palestinians, early in the day when an Israeli tank shell hit their homes, in Khan Yunis, Gaza Strip.
2002 Mohammed Al Kasser, 21, shot by Israeli troops making an incursion into Deir Al Balah, Gaza Strip.
2001 Charles Trenet, poeta, cantante y compositor francés.
2000: 17 muertos en el mayor motín de la historia carcelaria de Brasil, organizado por la agrupación Primer Comando de la Ciudad (PCC), responsable del narcotráfico en las cárceles brasileñas.
2000 Friedrich Stowasser Hundertwasser, Austrian painter born on 15 December 1928 — MORE ON HUNDERTWASSER AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
1997 Deng Xiaoping, the last of China's major Communist revolutionaries.
1997 The principal and a student of the Bethel, Alaska, high school, by shotgun of Evan Ramsey, 16, who would be sentenced to two 99-year terms in prison. Two other students were wounded.
1990 Eight demonstrators for multi party system in Nepal, killed by police.
1990 Neugebauer, mathematician.
1988René Char, poeta francés.
1985 Los 148 ocupantes de un Boeing 727 que se estrela en la ladera noroeste del monte Oiz (Vizcaya) al prepararse a aterrizar en el aeropuerto de Sondica.
1952 Knut Pedersen Hamsun, escritor noruego.
1951 André[-Paul-Guillaume] Gide, 81, French writer (Nobel 1947)
1938 Leopoldo Lugones, poeta y novelista argentino.
1908 Hermann Laurent, mathematician.
1897 Karl Weierstrass, mathematician.
1894 Joseph Keppler, Austrian born US caricaturist and magazine founder born on 01 February 1838.
1884 Tornadoes in Mississippi, Alabama, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky and Indiana kill 800 persons.
1878 Charles-François Daubigny, French painter born on 15 January 1817. — MORE ON DAUBIGNY AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
1799 Borda, mathematician.
1750 Jan-Frans van Bredael I, Flemish artist born on 01 April 1686.
1735 Ottmar Elliger II, German artist who dies on his 69th birthday.
1666 Willem van Honthorst, Dutch painter born in 1594.
1657 Evert van Aelst, Dutch artist born in 1602. — link to an image.
1622 (burial) Frans Pourbus II, Flemish painter born in the fall of 1569, — MORE ON POURBUS AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
1622 Savile, mathematician.
1414 Thomas Arundel archbishop of Canterbury/chancellor of England.
1401 William Sawtree first English religious martyr, burned in London
0197 Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus[picture >], having been proclaimed emperor by his Roman army of Britain and advancind toward Rome through Gaul, is defeated in battle and killed near Lyon by the army of emperor Lucius Septimius Severus.
1989 L A Baby orangutan at Woodland Park Zoo, Seattle WA
1983 Matthew Kechter one of the students massacred at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, 990420.
1940 Saparmurat Niyasov Turkmenbashi , in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. Orphaned by age 8 (his father died in combat during WW2, the rest of his family in the magnitude 7.3 earthquake of 05 October 1948), he would join the Communist Party and rise to be its head in Soviet Turkmenistan, turning into an absurdly extravagant kleptocratic dictator when Turkmenistan became independent on 27 October 1991.
1939 Alfredo Bryce Echenique, escritor peruano.
1934 Raymundo Joseph Peña, who would be ordained a priest of the diocese of Corpus Christi on 25 May 1957, appointed Auxiliary Bishop of San Antonio on 16 October 1976 and consecrated a bishop on 13 December 1976, appointed Bishop of El Paso on 29 April 1980, then Bishop of Brownsville on 23 May 1994.
1932 Guillermo Larco Cox, político peruano.
1931 Camillo Ruini, Italian who would be ordained a priest of the archdiocese of Rome on 08 December 1954, appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Reggio Emilia on 16 May 1983 and consecrated a bishop on 29 June 1983, appointed auxiliary bishop of Rome on 17 January 1991, made a cardinal on 28 June 1991.
1906 Ernst Boris Chain, colaborador del doctor Fleming, con quien recibió el Premio Nobel de Medicina 1945.
1906 Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Company is incorporated by W. K. Kellogg and Charles D. Bolin, Battle Creek MI
1901 Octavio Amórtegui Rojas, escritor colombiano.
1899 Lucio Fontana, Argentine~Italian sculptor and painter who died on 07 September 1968. MÁS SOBRE FONTANA EN ART 4 FEBRUARY Concepto espacial (1959, tela rasgada, 65x72cm) [>>>]
1888 José Eustasio Rivera Salas, escritor y abogado colombiano.
1885 Roberto Montenegro, Mexican artist who died on 13 October 1968. MÁS SOBRE MONTENEGRO EN ART 4 FEBRUARY
1878 The gramophone is patented by Thomas Alva Edison. He accidentally invented the phonograph while attempting to improve the telegraph. The first phonograph, which operated with tinfoil cylinders and a hand crank, played "Mary Had a Little Lamb."
1878 Thomas Alva Edison patents the gramophone (phonograph)
1877 Gabriele Münter, German Expressionist painter who died on 19 May 1962. — more with links to images.
1876 (or 20 Feb) Constantin Brancusi, Romanian abstract sculptor who died on 15 or 16 March 1957, having become a French citizen a few days before. — link to images.
1877 Louis François-Marie Aubert French composer (Habanera)
1863 Augusto Bernardino Leguía y Salcedo President of Perú (1908, 1919)
1863 Thue, mathematician.
1859 Svante Arrhenius, Swedish Nobel Prize-winning physical chemist who died on 02 October 1927.
1849 Hans Dahl, Norwegian artist who died in 1937.
1843 Leonardo de Mango, Italian artist.
1833 Elie Ducommun, Swiss writer, editor and Nobel Peace Prize winner, who died on 07 December 1906.
1817 Willem III last male monarch of Netherlands (1849-90)
1815 Don Federico de Madrazo y Küntz, Spanish painter who died on 10 January 1894. — more with links to images.
1753 Willem van Leen, Dutch artist who died on 06 April 1825.
1743 [Ridolfo] Luigi Boccherini Italian composer, cellist (Minuet). He died on 28 May 1805.
1717 David Garrick, English actor, producer, dramatist and comanager of the Drury Lane Theatre. He died on 20 January 1779.
1683 Philip V France, King of Spain (1700-24, 24-46)
1666 Ottmar Elliger II, German artist who died on his 69th birthday.
1640 Nicolaes van Veerandael, Flemish artist who died on 11 August 1691. — more with links to images.
1473 Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikolaj Kopernick) Torún, Poland, mathematician, astronomer (the Copernican theory: the Sun, not the Earth as previously believed, is the center of our universe). He died on 24 May 1543. Date présumée de la naissance du moine astronome Nicolas Copernic, à Thorn (Pologne). L'autre date serait le 14 Feb. Après avoir étudié à Cracovie (Pologne), puis à Bologne et à Padoue (Italie), il rentre en Pologne et rédige en 1530 , son révolutionnaire "traité sur les révolutions des orbes célestes".