a 13 February:
2002 Heard on the radio: The thirty-second Berlin Film Festival opens today. [first impression: it lasts only half-a-minute!]
2001 In Afghanistan, Bamiyan falls to fighters of Hezb-e-Wahadat, one of several small parties that make up the opposition, led by ousted President Burhanuddin Rabbani. The Taliban, which rules 95% of Afghanistan now sees the communication between Mazar-e-Sharif and Kabul cut 135 km north of Kabul, at Doab-e-Belala, where the fighting now moves.
1998 El aeropuerto Santo Dumont, de Río de Janeiro, queda totalmente destruido en pocas horas tras haberse declarado un incendio que acabó con el edificio central inaugurado en 1936.
1998: 300 profesores, artistas, intelectuales y personajes públicos firman el Manifiesto por la Democracia en Euskadi (País Vasco), en el que rechazan cualquier clase de negociación con la banda terrorista ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna).
1996 CompuServe reports that most of the two hundred Internet discussion groups it banned from its service in December have been reinstated. These discussion groups had been condemned by German authorities for promoting hate-crimes and neo-Nazi propaganda.
1996 World chess champion Garry Kasparov, with Black, after the Alapin variation of the Sicilian opening, draws his third game against the IBM supercomputer "Deep Blue," leaving the six-game match in Philadelphia tied after three games. (Kasparov loses on 10 Feb Game 1 — wins on 11 Feb Game 2 — draws on 13 Feb Game 3 — draws on 14 Feb Game 4 — wins on 16 Feb Game 5 — wins on 17 Feb Game 6) The game:
1. e4 c5 2. c3 d5 3. exd5 Qxd5 4. d4 Nf6 5. Nf3 Bg4 6. Be2 e6 7. O-O Nc6 8. Be3 cxd4 9. cxd4 Bb4 10. a3 Ba5 11. Nc3 Qd6 12. Ne5 Bxe2 13. Qxe2 Bxc3 14. bxc3 Nxe5 15. Bf4 Nf3+ 16. Qxf3 Qd5 17. Qd3 Rc8 18. Rfc1 Qc4 19. Qxc4 Rxc4
20. Rcb1 b6 21. Bb8 Ra4 22. Rb4 Ra5 23. Rc4 O-O 24. Bd6 Ra8 25. Rc6 b5 26. Kf1 Ra4 27. Rb1 a6 28. Ke2 h5 29. Kd3 Rd8 30. Be7 Rd7 31. Bxf6 gxf6 32. Rb3 Kg7 33. Ke3 e5 34. g3 exd4+ 35. cxd4 Re7+ 36. Kf3 Rd7 37. Rd3 Raxd4 38. Rxd4 Rxd4 39. Rxa6 b4. White agrees to the draw requested by Black
1992 El Congreso de los Diputados español aprueba la Ley de Seguridad Ciudadana por 190 votos a favor (PSOE, CIU y PNV), 126 en contra (PP, IU, CDS y Grupo Mixto) y dos abstenciones.
Long-lost Twain manuscript authenticated
Sotheby's announces the discovery of a long-lost manuscript of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. The manuscript was the first half of Twain's original version, heavily corrected in his own handwriting, which had been missing for more than a century. The manuscript surfaced when a 62-year-old Los Angeles librarian finally got around to sorting through some old papers in six trunks sent to her when an aunt from upstate New York died.
Twain, it turned out, had sent the second half of the manuscript to the librarian's grandfather, James Gluck, who had solicited it for the Buffalo and Erie Library in Buffalo, New York, where Twain had once lived. At the time, Twain was unable to find the entire manuscript, and it was presumed lost for more than 100 years. However, it turned out that Twain did eventually find the manuscript and send it to Gluck.
A custody war over the manuscript ensued, with the sisters, the library, and the Mark Twain Papers Projects in Berkeley, California, squabbling over rights to the papers. Ultimately, the three parties struck a deal: The library would hold the rights to the physical papers, but all three parties would share in the publication rights. Because the novel contained previously unpublished material, and showed Twain's edits, interest in publishing the manuscript was high, and in 1995 Random House won the rights to publish the book for an undisclosed price.
1989 Cumbre de presidentes centroamericanos en El Salvador, en un clima de desánimo.
1988 European Community plans removal of inner boundaries for 1 January 1992
1988 Se produce la colisión de barcos de guerra norteamericanos con otros soviéticos en aguas jurisdiccionales de la URSS, en el mar Negro.
1985 Polish police arrests 7 Solidarity leaders
1985 Dow Jones closes at 1297.92 (record high) after topping 1300 earlier in the day.
| 1984 6 year old Texan Stormie Jones gets first heart
and liver transplant.
1981 Longest sentence published by New York Times1286 words.
1975 Cyprus premier Denktash proclaims Turkish-Cypriot Federation.
1974 Dissident Nobel writer Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn expelled from USSR.
1973 US dollar devalues 10%
1973 The National Council of US Catholic Bishops announced that anyone undergoing or performing an abortion would be excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church.
1971 12'000 South Vietnamese troops cross into Laos.
1969 Suriname government of Pengel resigns.
France performs its first nuclear test, at Reggane Proving Grounds
1955 Israel acquires 4 of 7 Dead Sea scrolls.
1947 El Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU acuerda la creación de una Comisión de Desarme Mundial.
1943 German assault on Sidi Bou Zid Tunisia, General Eisenhower visits front.
1942 Hitler's Operation Seelöwe (invasion of England) cancelled.
1936 Léon Blum, destacado parlamentario socialista francés, es agredido por jóvenes de extrema derecha y resulta herido en la cara y el cráneo.
1935 A jury in Flemington, N.J., finds Bruno Richard Hauptmann guilty of first-degree murder in the kidnap-death of the infant son of Charles and Anne Lindbergh. Hauptmann would be sentenced to death and, on 3 April 1936, executed. [New York Times headline the next day >]
1934 Austrian Dollfuss government bans socialistic party.
1927 Uprising against Portuguese regime of General Carmona defeated.
1924 King Tut's tomb is opened.
1920 League of Nations recognizes perpetual neutrality of Switzerland.
1920 Switzerland rejoins League of Nations.
1917 Mata-Hari es detenida por el servicio de espionaje francés, en un hotel de París, adonde había llegado procedente de Madrid.
1916 I Guerra Mundial: Los aliados se comprometen a garantizar en el futuro la neutralidad de Bélgica y a reintegrar a ese país los territorios anexionados por Alemania.
1910 Seis mil soldados chinos, instruídos por oficiales extranjeros, se indisciplinan y saquean Cantón.
1907 English suffragettes storm British Parliament and 60 women are arrested.
|1900 El Parlamento alemán (Reichstag) ratifica los tratados
con la isla de Tonga y las islas Samoa.
1895 Guerra chino-japonesa. Los restos de la flota china capitulan frente a los japoneses.
1880 Alfonso XII, rey de España, firma la Ley de abolición de la esclavitud.
1863 Skirmish near Washington, North Carolina
1862 Siege of Ft Donelson TN
1861 Abraham Lincoln declared President
1861 Colonel Bernard Irwin attacks and defeats hostile Chiricahua Indians
1860 King Basse Kajuara departs Boni South-Celebes
1858 Sir Richard Burton and John Speake explore Lake Tanganyika, Africa.
1839 Frederic Chopin, acompañado de "George Sand", abandona la isla de Mallorca, donde había permanecido desde noviembre del año anterior, a causa de su maltrecha salud.
1832 First appearance of cholera in London
1809 French take Saragossa, Spain after a long siege
1777 Marquis de Sade arrested without charge, imprisoned in Vincennes fortress
1755 Rebel leader Mangkubuni signs Treaty of Gianti Java
1668 Treaty of Lisbon Spain recognizes Portugal.
1635 Oldest US public institution, Boston Latin School founded
1633 Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei arrived in Rome for trial before Inquisition for professing belief that earth revolves around the Sun.
1542 Descubrimiento del río Amazonas por Gonzalo Pizarro y Francisco de Orellana, tras una épica travesía.
1349 Jews are expelled from Burgsordf Switzerland
2004 Zelimkhan Abdulmuslimovich Yandarbiyev and two bodyguards, in explosion in their car 300 meters from their departure point, in Doha, Qatar, where Yandarbiyev had been living for 3 years. His son is critically injured. Yandarbiyev [< 1996 photo], born in 1952, was a writer and poet who entered politics, became chairman of the Vaynakh Democratic Party (formed in May 1990.), was appointed on 22 April 1996 vice president of Chechnya by separatist president Dzhokhar Dudayev, and served as acting president of de facto independent Chechnya from 22 April 1996 to 12 February 1997 when he transferred power to Maskhadov who had been elected. Yandarbiyev had headed the rebel delegation to talks with Russian President Yeltsin and Prime Minister Chernomyrdin, signing on 27 May 1996 the Agreement on Cessation of Military Operations. Yandarbiyev opened a Chechen Embassy in Kabul and a consulate in Kandahar during the rule of the Taliban. In 2003 the United Nations put Yandarbiyev on a list of people linked to the al-Qaida terrorist network. The US put Yandarbiyev on a list of international terrorists subject to US financial sanctions. Yandarbiyev was considered a key link in the Chechen rebels' finance network, channeling funds from abroad.
2003 Walt Whitman Rostow [1962 photo >], born on 07 October 1916 to Socialist Jewish Russian immigrant parents (who gave their sons the names of famous US persons), US economic historian, bureaucrat, national security official from 1961 to January 1969, a Vietnam hawk like his less influential brother Eugene Victor Debs Rostow [25 Aug 1913 – 25 Nov 2002], Undersecretary of State during the Johnson presidency. The third brother is Ralph Waldo Emerson Rostow. Walt Rostow was the author of more than 30 books, including
British trade fluctuations, 1868-1896 : a chronicle and a commentary (1981) — Comparison of Russian and Chinese societies under communism (1955) — Diffusion of power; an essay in recent history (1972) — Division of Europe after World War II, 1946 (1981) — Eisenhower, Kennedy, and foreign aid (1985) — Essays on a half-century : ideas, policies, and action (1988) — Europe after Stalin : Eisenhower's three decisions of March 11, 1953 (1982) — Great population spike and after : reflections on the 21st century (1998) — Great transition: tasks of the first and second post-war generations (1967) — History, policy, and economic theory : essays in interaction (1990) — Politics and the stages of growth (1971) — Pre-invasion bombing strategy : General Eisenhower's decision of March 25, 1944 (1981) — Process of economic growth. (1985) — Prospects for the world economy (1983) — Regional organization: a planners perspective. (1965) — Rich countries and poor countries : reflections on the past, lessons for the future (1987) — Stages of economic growth, a non-Communist manifesto. (1960; economic growth is a multistaged process, stimulated by desire for improvement of life, as well as profits; modernization has a crucial takeoff period of rapid growth stimulated by expansion in a few crucial segments of the economy) — Theorists of economic growth from David Hume to the present : with a perspective on the next century (1990) — Two major Communist offensives (1964) — United States and the regional organization of Asia and the Pacific, 1965-1985 (1986) — United States in the world arena; an essay in recent history (1960) — View from the seventh floor (1964) — World economy : history & prospect ((1978) — British Economy of the Nineteenth Century : Essays (1948) — How It All Began: Origins of the Modern Economy (1975) — Barbaric Counter-Revolution: Cause and Cure (1983) — Getting from Here to There (1978) — Why the Poor Get Richer and the Rich Slow Down: Essays in the Marshallian Long Period (1980) — Open Skies: Eisenhower's Proposal of July 21, 1955 (1982) — Concept and Controversy: Sixty Years of Taking Ideas to Market (Jun 2003).
2003 James Thomas Flexner, born on 13 January 1908, US author of 26 books including his autobiography Maverick's Progress (1996), Doctors on Horseback: Pioneers of American Medicine (1937, includes a section on his father, a pathologist who developed a cure for spinal meningitis), America's Old Masters (1939) — First flowers of our wilderness; American painting, the colonial period (1947) — Double adventure of John Singleton Copley, first major painter of the new world (1969) — Nineteenth century American painting. — Pocket history of American painting. — That wilder image; the painting of America's native school from Thomas Cole to Winslow Homer (1962) — Gilbert Stuart; a great life in brief (1955) — On desperate seas : a biography of Gilbert Stuart — George Washington and the new nation, 1783-1793 (1970) — George Washington: anguish and farewell, 1793-1799 (1972) — George Washington in the American Revolution, 1775-1783 (1968) — George Washington: the forge of experience, 1732-1775 (1965) — The Traitor and the Spy: Benedict Arnold and John André (1953) — Washington: the Indispensable Man (1974) — Young Hamilton : a biography (1978) — States Dyckman : American loyalist (1980) — American saga : the story of Helen Thomas and Simon Flexner — Light of distant skies, 1760-1835 (1954) — Lord of the Mohawks : a biography of Sir William Johnson — Steamboats come true; American inventors in action (1944) — Poems of the twenties (1991)
2003 Robert St. John, born on 09 March 1902, he worked for many news organizations before losing his NBC job in the Red Scare of the 50's and becoming a full-time author. Among his 23 books are Foreign correspondent — This was my world — Encyclopedia of radio and television broadcasting; the man behind the microphone — Jews, justice, and Judaism; a narrative of the role played by the Bible people in shaping American history — Shalom means peace — Roll, Jordan, roll; the life story of a river and its people — They came from everywhere; twelve who helped mold modern Israel. — Ben~Gurion — Eban — Tongue of the prophets; the life story of Eliezer Ben Yehuda — Boss, the story of Gamal Abdel Nasser — Man who played God — Once around lightly — Through Malan's Africa — South America more or less — and two on Yugoslavia: From the Land of the Silent People (1942) and The Silent People Speak (1948)
2002 Three Palestinian policemen, by Israeli gunfire, as an Israeli bulldozer destroys their post in Deir al-Balah, Gaza Strip.
2002 Two Palestinian policemen, by Israeli gunfire, in Beit Hanoun, Gaza Strip.
2001 At least 402 persons by a 6.6 magnitude earthquake in El Salvador, one month to the day after a magnitude 7.6 quake killed more than 800 there. dos millares resultan heridas.
2001 Bilal Awad, 13, Palestinian shot in the chest without warning by Israeli soldiers as he and some friends walked along the main road in central Gaza, about 500 m from an Israeli army outpost (according to Palestinian witnesses; the Israeli army denies it). The total is now 391 people(including fewer than 50 Israeli Jews) killed in nearly five months of the al-Aqsa intifada.
2001 Massoud Ayyad, 54, by rockets from Israeli helicopters as he drove on the outskirts of the Jebaliya refugee camp, just outside Gaza City. Ayyad was an officer in the Palestinian Force 17, who Israel says was guilty of attacks on Israelis.
| 2000 Nicholas Kunselman, 15, and Stephanie Hart, 16, his
girlfriend, sophomores at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado,
shot shortly before midnight at a Subway shop where Kunselman worked. Hart
apparently arrived sometime after closing. Their bodies are found behind
a counter at 00:45 the next day. The sandwich restaurant is two blocks from
the school, where a massacre took place on 20 April 1999.
1997:: 39 passengers on bus which catches fire on an expressway in southern Guandong province, China.
1989 Patients at Encuentros hospital, raped, killed by Salvadoran army.
1985 Eduardo Carranza Fernández, poeta y escritor colombiano.
1983: 64 jóvenes italianos en el incendio de un cine en Turín.
1976 General Murtala Mohammed head of Nigeria, killed during a coup
1956 Lukasiewicz, mathematician.
1953 William C. Mack, 94, of Mack Trucks Inc. Mack trucks, with their hood-mounted bulldogs, are a symbol of durability and toughness in the commercial vehicle industry.
1952 Carlos Lozano y Lozano, político colombiano.
1947 Hecke, mathematician.
1945 The last of some 159'000 killed in 49-day battle for Budapest as it ends with USSR conquering it from Germany.
Some 35'000 burned or asphyxiated
as Allied planes fire bomb Dresden Germany; in the night of the 13th to
the 14th. [before and after photos >].
On the evening of 13 February 1945, the most controversial episode in the Allied air war against Germany begins as hundreds of British bombers loaded with incendiaries and high-explosive bombs descend on Dresden, a historic city located in eastern Germany. Dresden was neither a war production city nor a major industrial center, and before the massive air raid of February 1945 it had not suffered a major Allied attack. By February 15, the city was a smoldering ruin and an unknown number of civilians somewhere between 35,000 and 135,000 were dead.
By February 1945, the jaws of the Allied vise were closing shut on Nazi Germany. In the west, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler's desperate counteroffensive against the Allies in Belgium's Ardennes forest had ended in total failure. In the east, the Red Army had captured East Prussia and reached the Oder River less than 50 miles from Berlin. The once-proud Luftwaffe was a skeleton of an air fleet, and the Allies ruled the skies over Europe, dropping thousands of tons of bombs on Germany every day.
From February 4 to February 11, the "Big Three" Allied leaders US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin met at Yalta in the USSR and compromised on their visions of the postwar world. Other than deciding on what German territory would be conquered by which power, little time was given to military considerations in the war against the Third Reich. Churchill and Roosevelt, however, did promise Stalin to continue their bombing campaign against eastern Germany in preparation for the advancing Soviet forces.
An important aspect of the Allied air war against Germany involved what is known as "area" or "saturation" bombing. In area bombing, all enemy industry not just war munitions is targeted, and civilian portions of cities are obliterated along with troop areas. Before the advent of the atomic bomb, cities were most effectively destroyed through the use of incendiary bombs that caused unnaturally fierce fires in the enemy cities. Such attacks, Allied command reasoned, would ravage the German economy, break the morale of the German people, and force an early surrender.
Germany was the first to employ area bombing tactics during its assault on Poland in September 1939. In 1940, during the Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe failed to bring Britain to it knees by targeting London and other heavily populated areas with area bombing attacks. Stung but unbowed, the RAF avenged the bombings of London and Coventry in 1942 when it launched the first of many saturation bombing attacks against Germany. In 1944, Adolf Hitler named the world's first long-range offensive missile V-1, after Vergeltung, the German word for "vengeance" and an expression of his desire to repay Britain for its devastating bombardment of Germany.
The Allies never overtly admitted that they were engaged in saturation bombing; specific military targets were announced in relation to every attack. It was but a veneer, however, and few mourned the destruction of German cities that built the weapons and bred the soldiers that by 1945 had killed more than 10 million Allied soldiers and even more civilians. The firebombing of Dresden would prove the exception to this rule.
Before World War II, Dresden was called "the Florence of the Elbe" and was regarded as one the world's most beautiful cities for its architecture and museums. Although no German city remained isolated from Hitler's war machine, Dresden's contribution to the war effort was minimal compared with other German cities.
In February 1945, refugees fleeing the Russian advance in the east took
refuge there. As Hitler had thrown much of his surviving forces into a defense
of Berlin in the north, city defenses were minimal, and the Russians would
have had little trouble capturing Dresden. It seemed an unlikely target
for a major Allied air attack.
On the night of February 13, hundreds of RAF bombers descended on Dresden in two waves, dropping their lethal cargo indiscriminately over the city. The city's air defenses were so weak that only six Lancaster bombers were shot down. By the morning, some 800 British bombers had dropped 1478 tons of high-explosive bombs and 1182 tons of incendiaries on Dresden, creating a great firestorm that destroyed most of the city and killed numerous civilians.
Later that day, as survivors made their way out of the smoldering city, over 300 US bombers began bombing Dresden's railways, bridges, and transportation facilities, killing thousands more. On February 15, another 200 US bombers continued their assault on the city's infrastructure. All told, the bombers of the US Eighth Air Force dropped 954 tons of high-explosive bombs and 294 tons of incendiaries on Dresden. Later, the Eighth Air Force would drop 2,800 more tons of bombs on Dresden in three other attacks before the war's end.
The Allies claimed that by bombing Dresden, they were disrupting important lines of communication that would have hindered the Soviet offensive. This may be true, but there is no disputing that the British incendiary attack on the night of February 13-14 was conducted also, if not primarily, for the purpose of terrorizing the German population and forcing an early surrender. It should be noted that Germany, unlike Japan later in the year, did not surrender until nearly the last possible moment when its capital had fallen and its Führer was dead.
Because there were an unknown number of refugees in Dresden at the time of the Allied attack, it is impossible to know exactly how many civilians perished. After the war, investigators from various countries, and with varying political motives, calculated the number of civilians killed to be as little as 8,000 to more than 200'000. Estimates today range from 35'000 to 135'000. Looking at photographs of Dresden after the attack, in which the few buildings still standing are completely gutted, it seems improbable that only 35,000 of the million or so people in Dresden that night were killed. Cellars and other shelters would have been meager protection against a firestorm that blew poisonous air heated to hundreds of degrees Fahrenheit across the city at hurricane-like speeds.
At the end of the war, Dresden was so badly damaged that the city was basically leveled. A handful of historic buildings the Zwinger Palace, the Dresden State Opera House, and several fine churches were carefully reconstructed out of the rubble, but the rest of the city was rebuilt with plain modern buildings. American author Kurt Vonnegut, who was a prisoner of war in Dresden during the Allied attack and tackled the controversial event in his book Slaughterhouse-Five, said of postwar Dresden, "It looked a lot like Dayton, Ohio, more open spaces than Dayton has. There must be tons of human bone meal in the ground."
On the evening of February 13, 1945, a series of Allied firebombing raids begins against the German city of Dresden, reducing the "Florence of the Elbe" to rubble and flames, and killing as many as 135,000 people. It was the single most destructive bombing of the war including Hiroshima and Nagasaki and all the more horrendous because little, if anything, was accomplished strategically, since the Germans were already on the verge of surrender. Among the conclusions reached at the February 1945 Yalta Conference of the Allied powers was the resolution that the Allies would engage in concerted strategic bombing raids against German cities known for war-production and manufacturing, in an effort to bring the Nazi war machine to a crashing halt. The tragic irony of the raid on Dresden, a medieval city renowned for its rich artistic and architectural treasures, is that during the war it had never been a site of war-production or major industry. Both Allies and Germans alike have argued over the real purpose of the firebombing; the ostensible "official" rationale was that Dresden was a major communications center and bombing it would hamper the German ability to convey messages to its army, which was battling Soviet forces at the time. But the extent of the destruction was, for many, disproportionate to the stated strategic goal many believe that the attack was simply an attempt to punish the Germans and weaken their morale. More than 3,400 tons of explosives were dropped on the city by 800 American and British aircraft. The firestorm created by the two days of bombing set the city burning for many more days, littering the streets with charred corpses, including many children. Eight square miles of the city was ruined, and the total body count was between 35,000 and 135,000 (an approximation is all that was possible given that the city was filled with many refugees from farther east). The hospitals that were left standing could not handle the numbers of injured and burned, and mass burials became necessary. Among the American POWs who were in Dresden during the raid was novelist Kurt Vonnegut, who conveyed his experience in his classic antiwar novel Slaughterhouse Five.
1940 Day 76 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.
No respite for Viipuri
Karelian Isthmus: at 6.30 a.m. the 5th Division's 14th Infantry Regiment launches a counterattack to retake the lost main defensive line in Summa. By noon the Finnish troops have managed to advance a few kilometres, but then come up against enemy tanks and are forced to withdraw. The counterattack is ultimately unsuccessful.
Just after noon Soviet troops break through the support line in the Lähde sector. Despite a fierce Finnish counterattack, the enemy continues to advance and approaches the Lähde crossroads.
In Taipale, Finnish troops succeed in retaking the Kirvesmäki stronghold overrun by Soviet troops in yesterday's fighting.
General Headquarters orders the 23rd Division to move onto the Isthmus.
Squadron 26 shoots down 9 Soviet aircraft over the Isthmus.
Viipuri is suffering an endless barrage of enemy bombs.
On the home front, Lahti, Heinola and Porvoo are also bombed.
Foreign Minister Tanner holds talks in Sweden with representatives of the Swedish Government, expressing the hope for Swedish troops to be sent to Finland. The Swedish Government responds in the negative: Sweden will not give Finland direct military assistance.
The Finnish Parliament introduces draft legislation to leave the taxes of fallen servicemen uncollected.
Abroad: a benefit bandy international between Norway and Finland at the Bislet ice rink in Oslo ends in a 2-1 victory for Finland. The event was organized by sports journalists in the Norwegian capital, and the proceeds of 300,000 markkaa will be donated to help the families of Finnish sportsmen killed at the front.
Georg Gripenberg, Finland's diplomatic representative in London, and Lieutenant-General Enckell, who is currently on a visit to the British capital, appeal to Lord Halifax, the British Foreign Secretary, to send military aid to Finland. Halifax promises to raise the matter in the War Cabinet.
A fully equipped force of Hungarian volunteers has travelled to Scandinavia via France to help in the defense of Finland.
^Vihollinen pommittaa Viipuria herkeämättä Talvisodan 76. päivä, 13.helmikuuta.1940
5. Divisioonan JR 14:n vastahyökkäys menetetyn pääpuolustuslinjan takaisin-valtaamiseksi Summassa alkaa klo 6.30. Suomalaiset etenevät puoleen päivään mennessä muutaman kilometrin, mutta törmäävät vastassa oleviin vihollisen panssarivaunuihin ja joutuvat vetäytymään. Vastahyökkäys epäonnistuu.
Neuvostojoukot murtautuvat tukilinjan läpi Lähteen lohkolla puolen päivän jälkeen. Suomalaisten ankarasta vastahyökkäyksestä välittämättä vihollinen jatkaa etenemistään ja lähestyy Lähteen tienristeystä.
Taipaleessa Kirvesmäessä eilen menetetty tukikohta onnistutaan valtaamaan takaisin.
Päämaja määrää 23. Divisioonan siirrettäväksi Kannakselle.
Lentolaivue 26 ampuu Kannaksella alas 9 neuvostokonetta.
Vihollinen pommittaa Viipuria herkeämättä.
Kotirintamalla vihollinen pommittaa Lahtea, Heinolaa ja Porvoota.
Ruotsiin matkustanut ulkoministeri Tanner neuvottelee Ruotsin hallituksen edustajien kanssa esittäen toivomuksen "ruotsalaisten sotilasosastojen siirtämisestä Suomeen". Ruotsin hallituksen vastaus on kielteinen, Ruotsi ei myönnä Suomelle sotilasapua.
Eduskunta antaa lakialoiteen: kaatuneen verot on jätettävä perimättä.
Ulkomailta: Norjassa Bisletin jäästadionilla jääpallossa pelattu hyväntekeväisyys-maaottelu Suomi-Norja päättyy Suomen voittoon 2-1. Oslon urheilusanoma-lehtimiesten kerhon järjestämän ottelun tulot 300 000 markkaa luovutetaan kaatuneiden suomalaisten urheilijoiden perheiden avustamiseen.
Suomen Lontoon lähettiläs Gripenberg ja Lontoossa vieraileva kenraaliluutnantti Enckell vetoavat Englannin ulkoministeri Halifaxiin sotilaallisen avun saamiseksi Suomelle. Halifax lupaa viedä asian sotakabinetin käsiteltäväksi.
Täysin varustettu unkarilainen vapaaehtoisjoukko on matkustanut Ranskasta Skandinaviaan osallistuakseen Suomen puolustukseen.
^Fienden bombar Viborg utan uppehåll Vinterkrigets 76 dag, den 13 februari 1940
Den 5. Divisionens JR 14:s motoffensiv för att återerövra de förlorade huvudställningarna börjar kl. 6.30 i Summa. Fram till middagstid har de finska trupperna avancerat några kilometer men stöter på fiendens pansarvagnar och tvingas retirera. Motoffensiven misslyckas.
De ryska trupperna bryter in på Lähdeavsnittet på eftermiddagen. Trots finnarnas intensiva motattacker fortsätter fienden sin framryckning och närmar sig vägkorsningen vid Lähde.
Finland lyckas återerövra basen vid Kirvesmäki i Taipale som gick förlorad igår.
Huvudkvarteret ger order om att förflytta den 23. Divisionen till Näset.
Flygdivision 26 skjuter ner 9 ryska plan på Näset.
Fienden bombar Viborg utan uppehåll.
På hemmafronten bombar fienden Lahtis, Heinola och Borgå.
Utrikesminister Tanner har rest till Sverige och förhandlar med representanter för Sveriges regering. Han framför önskemålet om att "förflytta svenska militäravdelningar till Finland". Sveriges regering svarar nekande, landet kan inte ge Finland militär hjälp.
Riksdagen presenterar en lagmotion: de stupades skatter ska inte indrivas.
Utrikes: En välgörenhetslandskamp i bandy spelas på Bislet isstadion i Norge. Finland vinner med målen 2-1. Intäkterna från matchen som arrangerats av idrottsjournalistklubben i Oslo uppgår till 300 000 mark och doneras för att hjälpa familjer till stupade finska sportsmän.
Gripenberg, Finlands ambassadör i London, och generallöjtnant Enckell, som är på besök i London, vädjar till Englands utrikesminister Halifax om militärt bistånd till Finland. Halifax lovar framföra ärendet till krigskabinettet.
En frivillig ungersk trupp med full utrustning har rest från Frankrike till Skandinavien för att delta i Finlands försvar.
| 1926 Francis
1916 Vilhelm Hammershøi, Danish painter born on 15 May 1864. MORE ON HAMMERSHØI AT ART 4 FEBRUARY with links to images.
1898 U.K.’s First Auto Fatality Henry Lindfield of Brighton, England, died one day after being involved in an automobile accident, becoming the first driving fatality in Great Britain.
1883 Wilhelm Richard Wagner, 69, German composer (Die Walküre), in Venice.
1874 Taurinus, mathematician.
1837 Mariano José de Larra y Sánchez de Castro, escritor español.
1821 Jean-Jacques Lagrenée, French painter born on 18 September 1739. — more with links to images.
1787 Ruggero Boscovich, 75, mathematician.
1692 MacDonald clan, murdered on orders of King William III.
1660 Charles X Gustaaf, 37, king of Sweden (1654-60)
1592 Jacopo (or Giacomo) da Ponte Bassano, Italian painter born in 1515. MORE ON BASSANO AT ART 4 FEBRUARY with links to images.
1237 Jordanus of Saxon 2nd general of Dominicans, drowns
1130 Honorius II [Lamberto de Fagman], Pope (1124-30)
0616 San Lucinio.
^1996 Pointcast push technology.
Pointcast, an obscure company in Cupertino, California, announced a beta version of a free service that grabbed Web pages and information from the Internet and then displayed the data on the user's screen. The service became the year's most popular product, creating a near hysteria in the industry over Pointcast's so-called "push" technology. Media pundits predicted the end was near for the Web browser. By the following year, however, the limitations of push technologies became clear, and the hype died down.
^1959 Barbie Millicent Roberts (Barbie doll) goes on sale for $2.99.(worth thousands of dollars 40 years later). She was introduced at Toy Fair in New York City. She was created by Ruth Handler, inspired by a German cartoon character doll that was called *Lilli* that Ruth had seen on a trip to Germany and named after her daughter Barbara. The original Barbie was was introduced at the American Toy Fair in New York City in February of 1959 by Ruth and Elliot Handler, founders of Mattel Toys. Ruth Handler thought that a doll with a woman's figure would have considerable appeal but her initial proposal was refused. In 1957 whilst visiting Germany, Ruth Handler purchased a Lilli Doll. The dolls were based on a cartoon strip in Das Bild. In the comic strip Lilli was portrayed as a sultry, sexual character aimed at men. This was the complete opposite of the ideals Ruth wanted the doll to represent: purity and innocence. With a few changes to the heavy make-up, full lips and slight alterations Barbie was created.
The full name of Barbie doll is "Barbie Millicent Roberts." She is from Willows, Wisconsin and went to Willows High School.
Then in 1957, after purchasing three Bild Lilli dolls in Europe, Ruth Handler, co-founder of Mattel, came up with the "unique" idea of Barbie. This doll instead represented purity and innocence. Barbie doll first appeared in the now-famous black and white striped swimsuit and signature ponytail.
^1958 The first Ford Thunderbird with four seats is introduced.
The four-passenger "square bird" converted the top-of-the-line Ford from a sports car to a luxury car. The new four-seater packed a 352-cubic-inch 300 horsepower V-8. 38'000 cars were initially sold, making the T-Bird one of only two American cars to increase sales between 1957 and 1958. The T-Bird has become a symbol of 1950s American culture, immortalized in movies like Grease and rock songs like the Beach Boys’ "I Get Around."
1946 ENIAC computer is turned on for the first time. Weighing 30 tons and filling an entire room, it is the world's first fully functional electronic digital computer, and about as powerful as a single microchip 50 years later.
1941 Sigmar Polke, German Pop artist MORE ON POLKE AT ART 4 FEBRUARY with links to images.
1935 Marcelino Oreja, político español.
1929 Omar Torrijos Herrera, general, President of Panama.
1924 Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber French economist/politician
1921 Wou-Ki Zao, Chinese French artist.
^1910 William Shockley
English-born engineer and teacher William Shockley worked with John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at Bell Telephone Laboratories. Together, they invented the transistor, which heralded a revolution in radio, television, and computer circuitry. The three won the Nobel Prize in 1956 for their work with semiconductors and their development of the transistor. Later in his life, Shockley provoked outrage for his racist views and his proposal that people of low I.Q. be sterilized. He died on 12 August 1989.
1909 Mario Casariego, in Spain; ordained a Somascan priest in El Salvador on 19 July 1936; appointed Auxiliary of Guatemala on 15 November 1958 and consecrated a bishop on 27 December 1958; appointed Coadjutor Archbishop of Guatemala on 22 September 1963 and succeeded as Archbishop of Guatemala on 12 December 1964; kidnapped for a few days by terrorists in March 1968; made a cardinal on 28 April 1969; died on 15 June 1983.
1895 Cinématographe movie camera-projector is patented by French inventors Louis and August Lumière. Thomas Edison had patented his movie camera, the Kinetograph, and a separate viewing machine, the Kinetoscope, in 1893.
1892 Grant DeVolson Wood, US Regionalist painter who died on 12 February 1942. MORE ON WOOD AT ART 4 FEB 12 with links to images.
1889 Georg Schrimpf, German artist who died in 1938. — more with links to images.
1888 Georgios Papandreou Greek prefect of Lesbos, minister, Prime Minister three times. He died on 01 November 1968.
1875 Kanouse quintuplets Watertown WI, first quintuplets in US, born to Edna Kanouse.
1873 (01 Feb Julian) Feodor Ivanovich Chaliapin, Russian operatic basso profundo who died on 12 April 1938 in France. He wrote the autobiographical Pages from My Life (1926). In his memoirs Maska i dusha (1932), he denounced the lack of freedom under the Bolsheviks.
1869 Hugo Ungewitter, German artist who died possibly in 1944.
1849 Lord Randolph Churchill, English politician who died on 24 January 1895, father of Winston Churchill [30 Nov 1874 – 24 Jan 1965].
1847 Victor-Gabriel Gilbert, French artist who died in 1935. — links to images.
1826 The American Temperance Society (later renamed the American Temperance Union) is organized in Boston. It quickly grew into a national crusade, and within a decade over 8000 similar groups had been formed, boasting a total of 1.5 million members.
1805 Peter G. Lejeune Dirichlet Germany, number theorist / analyst.
1793 Henry Bryan Ziegler, British artist who died on 15 August 1874.
1792 Lucie-Marie Mandix Ingemann, Danish artist who died on 15 January 1868.
1791 Sil'vestr Feodosievich Shchedrin, Russian Romantic Italianate landscape painter who died on 08 November 1830. MORE ON SHCHEDRIN AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1785 Johann Baptist Pflug von Biberach, German artist who died on 30 May 1855.
1755 Philibert-Louis Debucourt, French painter who died on 22 September 1832. — more with links to images.
1741 The American Magazine, the first magazine in the US, is published in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
1682 Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, Italian painter, illustrator and designer who died on 28 April 1754.
1652 Antonio-Domenico Gabbiani, Italian painter who died on 22 November 1726. — more with links to images, including an Abduction of Ganymede by Gabbiani and several by others.
1647 Pieter van der Leeuw, Dutch artist who died on 11 September 1679.
1599 Alexander VII [Fabio Chigi], Siena Italy, pope (1655-1667)