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^  On a February 09:
2003 Presidential election in Montenegro fails again, as only 47.1% of the electorate of 450'000 voted (on the first try, 22 December 2002, only 45.9% voted). Filip Vujanovic, candidate of the main ruling party gets 81.7% of the vote, the rest is spread among eight candidates. Before the next try, the law will probably be repealed which requires a minimun of 50% of the electorate to vote for the election to be valid. Opposition parties, led by the Socialist People's Party (SNP), boycotted the election again. The SNP accused the ruling coalition of ruining the country's economy while some other parties blame it for giving up independence plans.
.^ 2001 Blind cod saved by emergency operation.
     A blind cod was clinging to life today after surviving a critical medical operation and 40 nettings by a Norwegian fisherman.  
     The blind cod had swum into the same net about 35 times in the Norwegian fjord of Hardanger and is only alive because a soft-hearted fisherman frees him each time. "He's too thin to eat and he's in bad condition," said Harald Hauso, 69, on 26 January 2001, "and I feel a bit sorry for him."
    The cod, blind in both eyes and weighing about 2.5 kg, first swam into Hauso's hooped nets in March of 2000. In the nets are tiny crabs and starfish, on which the cod feeds. "He's found out that it's an easy place to find food. And he knows I let him go every time. Also, maybe he feels safe because the net protects him," Hauso said. He says that a marine park from nearby Aalesund offered today to let the fish retire in the safety of its aquarium. "I've said 'yes' to the offer. It'll be a good place for him to be a pensioner," he says.
     Hauso would catches the cod for the 40th and last time on 7 February, and sees it off to Aalesund, about 300 km north of Hardanger, where it is to share a private pool at the marine park with a Big Mama, a short-sighted halibut.
     The celebrity fish was caught off Norway for the 40th and final time on 07 Feb by Harald Hauso, 69, who gave up the chase and sent it to retire in a private pool in a marine park in Aalesund. Almost entirely blind in both eyes and weighing a meager 4-6 lbs., it was touch and go whether it would survive the 190-mile journey north from the Hardanger fjord where it was caught. The cod had to undergo an emergency operation to remove gas which built up inside its body because of its repeated capture. "He had too much gas inside, so we put the needle inside and took the gas out," Jan Einarsen, director at Aalesund's Atlantic Sea Park, told Reuters. He said the cod — nicknamed Balder after a handsome god in Norwegian mythology — was also stressed after being trapped and released so many times. Einarsen said his biggest concern was the fish's loss of appetite, despite being tempted by squid, shrimp, herring and mussels. The cod first blundered into Hauso's nets in March 2000 and returned almost every week, apparently attracted by the smell of the nylon. Hauso repeatedly freed the scrawny fish because it was too thin to eat and he felt sorry for it.
PKK icon2000 Kurdistan "freedom fighters" of PKK embrace non-violence, non-Kurdistan, with one condition: that Turkey free Öcalan from death-row. Turkey has not renounced violence against them. (AP)   (Reuters)

2000 Hackers step up their "denial of service" attacks on popular Internet sites, zeroing in on such targets as ETrade and ZDNet, inconveniencing millions of Web users and unnerving Wall Street.
^1999 Closed Senate deliberation on Clinton impeachment trial.
(1)
The Senate rejects a move to look further into allegations that White House aide Sidney Blumenthal lied in his Senate deposition.
  • Sen. Arlen Specter (R-Pennsylvania) had asked for an investigation of allegations that Blumenthal may have lied in a deposition before the Senate when he said he was not the source of media stories which described Monica Lewinsky as a "stalker."
  • The motion, which needed the consent of all the senators, fails.
  • Senate Republican leaders say they have not reached any decision about whether to ask the Justice Department to look into the allegations concerning Blumenthal.
    (2) Even as the closed Senate deliberations get under way, a bipartisan group of senators is still at work on drafts of a strong censure resolution condemning Clinton's behavior in trying to hide his extramarital affair with Lewinsky.
  • The White House obviously does not want a censure resolution.
  • Ironically, this aligns the White House with many Republicans who are fighting against censure, arguing that it is unconstitutional, would set a dangerous precedent and is designed only to give Democrats some political cover.
    (3) Before the doors are closed for internal Senate debate, Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott urges his colleagues to use self-restraint in their speeches, reminding them that Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg address only took three minutes. During the deliberations, each senator is alloted 15 minutes to speak. If all members took their full time, the debate would last for 25 hours over two to three days.
  • Sources say that 18 to 20 senators speak during the first four hours of deliberations. The Senate adjourns shortly after 18:30 EST and is scheduled to resume debate at 10 a.m. EST on 10 February. Sources say a final vote on the articles of impeachment is expected on 11 February, though a source says "in public and in private it is still the US Senate" and things "have a way of sliding."
  • A number of the day's speakers take their full alloted 15 minutes. Some senators reportedly speak off prepared texts while others ad lib their remarks.
  • 1999 En Francia se reinicia el proceso contra el ex primer ministro socialista Laurent Fabius, el antiguo secretario de Estado de Sanidad y la ex titular de Asuntos Sociales, acusados de homicidio involuntario en el caso de la sangre contaminada con el virus del sida.
    1998 Failed assassination attempt on Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze. — Edvard Amvroseyevich Shevardnadze, presidente de Georgia y antiguo ministro de Exteriores de la URSS de la perestroika, sobrevive a un atentado perpetrado en Tbilisi.
    1995 Jordania confirma la retirada israelí del territorio jordano ocupado desde 1967 en el sur del valle de Araba.
    1994 Israeli minister Shimon Perez signs accord with PLO's Arafat
    1994 Apple cuts prices on its Macintosh Quadra computers, in preparation for Apple's introduction of the PowerPC, a new chip developed by Apple, Motorola, and IBM that would allow one computer to run both Macintosh and Windows software.
    1994 Digital introduces two more powerful workstations, priced between $5000 and $8000. It also announces a new line of software and hardware called Roamabout, designed for wireless mobile computing. Digital would be purchased by Compaq in 1998.
    1994 Electronic Arts announces that it will purchase Broderbund, distributor of creative educational software like the best-selling "Where in the World Is Carmen Sandiego?" and '"Myst." The deal would fall through, however, due to management disagreements.
    1991 In a non-binding plebiscite, voters in Lithuania overwhelmingly endorse independence from the Soviet Union. — Aprobada en plebiscito por abrumadora mayoría la independencia de Lituania de la URSS, ratificada dos días después por el Parlamento de la república báltica.
    1990 Namibia's constitution ratified.
    ^1990 Ashton-Tate announces graphics program
          Ashton-Tate, which dominated the computer database software market in the 1980s, had seen a dramatic drop in market share, largely because the company had been slow to upgrade its popular dBase products. In response to the decline, the company began shipping a new product, a graphics program called Applause II. Although graphics and presentation software would become an increasingly important market segment, the company was unsuccessful in its bid to regain its lost position.
    1989 Bush's Budget Blues: Shortly after rolling over Michael Dukakis to become the forty-first president of the United States, George Bush set about compiling his first budget. On 09 February 1989, the former Vice President submitted a budget of $1.16 trillion, including an estimated deficit of $91.1 billion. While hardly small numbers, Bush's budget and defect projections seemed like improvements over his predecessor, Ronald Reagan. During his last two years in office, President Reagan submitted budgets that climbed over the then unheard of trillion mark, and in 1988, he projected that the deficit would climb to $129.5 billion. However, any notions that Bush would restrain federal spending or reign in the defect proved to be wishful thinking: in 1992, the president submitted what proved to be his final budget, which estimated a deficit of $352 billion.
    1986 Haydar Bakr al-Attas appointed President of South Yemen
    1986 Halley's Comet's 30th perihelion (closest approach to Sun).
    1981 El general Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski es nombrado primer ministro de Polonia.
    1979 Nigeria amends constitution.
    1977 España y la URSS establecen relaciones diplomáticas plenas.
    ^1972 A 3rd US aircraft carrier arrives in Vietnam.
          The aircraft carrier USS Constellation joins aircraft carriers Coral Sea and Hancock off the coast of Vietnam. From 1964 to 1975, there were usually three US carriers stationed in the water near Vietnam at any given time. Carrier aircraft participated in the bombing of North Vietnam and also provided close air support for US and South Vietnamese forces in South Vietnam. In 1972, the number of US carriers off Vietnam increased to seven as part of the US reaction to the North Vietnamese Eastertide Offensive that was launched on March 30 — carrier aircraft played a major role in the air operations that helped the South Vietnamese defeat the communist invasion.
    1969 World's largest airplane, Boeing 747, makes first commercial flight.
    1968 España modifica la ley de Bases del régimen autónomo de Guinea Ecuatorial.
    1967 La CEE (Comunidad Económica Europea) inicia el desarrollo normativo sobre el IVA (Impuesto al Valor Agregado).
    1967 Chinese New Year: Year of the Sheep 4665. —(070206)
    1966 Dow-Jones Index hits record 995 points.
    ^1965 US sends its first combat troops to South Vietnam
          A US Marine Corps Hawk air defense missile battalion is deployed to Da Nang. President Johnson had ordered this deployment to provide protection for the key US airbase there. This was the first commitment of American combat troops in South Vietnam and there was considerable reaction around the world to the new stage of US involvement in the war. Predictably, both communist China and the Soviet Union threatened to intervene if the United States continued to apply its military might on behalf of the South Vietnamese. In Moscow, some 2,000 demonstrators, led by Vietnamese and Chinese students and clearly supported by the authorities, attacked the US Embassy. Britain and Australia supported the US action, but France called for negotiations.
    1963 first flight of Boeing 727 jet.
    1962 Jamaica signs agreement to become independent.
    1962 EE.UU. incrementa la ayuda militar a Vietnam del Sur para enfrentarse a la guerrilla comunista del Vietcong.
    1961 Joseph Ileo appointed premier of Congo.
    1960 Adolph Coors, of the brewery family, is kidnapped and held for ransom, later murdered. Joe Corbett would be convicted of the crime in 1961 and be in prison until released in 1980.
    1955 US federations of trade unions merge into AFL/CIO.
    1954 Mario Scelba forms new government in Italy.
    1953 General Walter Bedell Smith, USA, ends term as 4th director of CIA. Allen W Dulles, becomes acting director of CIA.
    ^ 1950 McCarthy starts his infamous McCarthyism.
          Joseph Raymond McCarthy, a relatively obscure Republican senator from Wisconsin, announces during a speech in Wheeling, West Virginia, that he has in his hand a list of 205 Communists who have infiltrated the US State Department. The unsubstantiated declaration, which is little more than a publicity stunt, suddenly thrusts Senator McCarthy into the national spotlight. Asked to reveal the names on the list, the reckless and opportunistic senator names officials he determines guilty by association, such as Owen Lattimore, an expert on Chinese culture and affairs who had advised the State Department and President Franklin D. Roosevelt. McCarthy describes Lattimore as the "top Russian spy" in America. These and other equally shocking accusations prompt the Senate to form a special committee headed by Senator Millard Tydings of Maryland to investigate the matter.
          The committee finds little to substantiate McCarthy's charges, but McCarthy nevertheless touches a nerve in the American public and over the next two years makes increasingly sensational charges, even attacking President Harry S. Truman's respected former secretary of state, George C. Marshall. In 1953, a newly Republican Congress appoints McCarthy chairman of the Subcommittee on Investigations of the Senate Committee on Governmental Operations, and "McCarthyism" reaches a feverish pitch. In widely publicized hearings, McCarthy bullies defendants under cross-examination with unlawful and damaging accusations, destroying the reputations of hundreds of innocent citizens and officials.
          In the early months of 1954, McCarthy, who had already lost the support of much of his party, finally overreaches himself when he takes on the US army. Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower pushes for the investigation of McCarthy's conduct, and the subsequent televised hearings expose McCarthy as a reckless and excessive tyrant who never produced proper documentation for a single one of his charges. In December, the Senate finally votes to censure him. By his death from alcoholism in 1957, the influence of Senator Joseph McCarthy in Congress is negligible.
          During a speech in Wheeling, West Virginia, Senator Joseph McCarthy (Republican-Wisconsin) claims that he has a list with the names of over 200 members of the Department of State that are "known communists." The speech vaulted McCarthy to national prominence and sparked a nationwide hysteria about subversives in the US government. Speaking before the Ohio County Women's Republican Club in Wheeling, West Virginia, Senator McCarthy waved before his audience a piece of paper. According to the only published newspaper account of the speech, McCarthy said that, "I have here in my hand a list of 205 [State Department employees] that were known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping the policy of the State Department."
          In the next few weeks, the number fluctuated wildly, with McCarthy stating at various times that there were 57, or 81, or 10 communists in the Department of State. In fact, McCarthy never produced any solid evidence that there was even one communist in the State Department. Despite McCarthy's inconsistency, his refusal to provide any of the names of the "known communists," and his inability to produce any coherent or reasonable evidence, his charges struck a chord with the US people. The months leading up to his February speech had been trying ones for the US's Cold War policies. China had fallen to a communist revolution. The Soviets had detonated an atomic device. McCarthy's wild charges provided a ready explanation for these foreign policy disasters: Communist subversives were working within the very bowels of the American government.
          To be sure, McCarthy was not the first to incite anxiety about subversive communists. Congress had already investigated Hollywood for its supposed communist influences, and former State Department employee Alger Hiss was convicted of perjury in January 1950 for testimony dealing with accusations that he spied for the Soviet Union during the 1930s. But McCarthy went a step further, claiming that the US government, and the Department of State in particular, knew that Communists were working in their midst.
          "McCarthyism," as the hunt for communists in the United States came to be known during the 1950s, did untold damage to many people's lives and careers, had a muzzling effect on domestic debate on Cold War issues, and managed to scare millions of Americans. McCarthy, however, located no communists and his personal power collapsed in 1954 when he accused the Army of coddling known communists. Televised hearings of his investigation into the US Army let the American people see his bullying tactics and lack of credibility in full view for the first time, and he quickly lost support. The US Senate censured him shortly thereafter and he died an alcoholic in 1957.
    1946 La Asamblea General de la ONU condena el régimen de Franco.
    1946 Josif Stalin anuncia un nuevo plan quinquenal para la URSS a fin de superar a Occidente en la producción de petróleo, acero y hierro.
    1945 Germany destroys Ruhrdammen.
    ^ 1943 Battle for Guadalcanal ends
          After six months of bloody jungle fighting, the US Fourteenth Marine Corps announces that the Japanese have evacuated Guadalcanal and that the area is secure. In preparation for the great Allied offensive aimed at the heart of Japan, the capture of Guadalcanal, one of the Solomon Islands located east of New Guinea, was considered a strategic necessity. On the 6500-square-km island, the Japanese possessed an air base which put their long-range aircraft in range of New Caledonia, a Pacific island group that the Japanese could employ to isolate Australia. On 07 August 1942, 11'000 men of the US First Marine Division commanded by General Alexander A. Vandergrift assaulted the island, and took the airfield with little effort, renaming it Henderson Field.
          However, the Allied fleet failed to achieve naval superiority in the waters around the Solomon Islands and the marines at the airfield were not reinforced as planned. At night, hundreds of Japanese reinforcements and tons of supplies would arrive in the so-called "Tokyo Express" — an ingenious landing program involving the use of small Japanese speedboats that evaded the Allied naval defenses. Japanese forces on Guadalcanal launched several bloody offensives out of the jungle against the perimeter of Henderson Field, but the US First Marine Division managed to hang on.
          In November, while the Japanese forces massed for a major offensive against the US positions, the Allied fleet finally managed to gain naval superiority, and the First Division was relieved by the US Fourteenth Marine Corps under General Alexander M. Patch. It was now the turn of the Japanese troops to desperately hang on to their positions on Guadalcanal. In late January of 1943, Japanese command ordered an evacuation of the island and by the end of the first week of February it was complete. On 09 February, US command declared Guadalcanal secure. It was the first major Japanese land defeat in World War II.
    1943 Shoe rationing goes into effect in the US: no more than 3 pairs per person can be bought for the rest of 1943.
    1943 FDR orders minimal 48 hour work week in war industry.
    1943 Japanese evacuate Guadalcanal, epic battle ends.
    1942 The US Joint Chiefs of Staff held its first formal meeting to coordinate military strategy during World War II
    ^1942 War Time imposed in US, would become Daylight Saving Time.
          Congress pushes ahead standard time for the United States by one hour in each time zone, imposing daylight saving time — called at the time "war time." Daylight saving time, suggested by President Roosevelt, was imposed to conserve fuel, and could be traced back to World War I, when Congress imposed one standard time on the United States to enable the country to better utilize resources, following the European model. The 1918 Standard Time Act was meant to be in effect for only seven months of the year — and was discontinued nationally after the war. But individual states continued to turn clocks ahead one hour in spring and back one hour in fall. The World War II legislation imposed daylight saving time for the entire nation for the entire year. It was repealed Sept. 30, 1945, when individual states once again imposed their own "standard" time. It was not until 1966 that Congress passed legislation setting a standard time that permanently superseded local habits.
    ^1942 Luxury liner, seized by US from the French, catches fire.
          The largest and most luxurious ocean liner on the seas at that time, France's Normandie, catches fire while in the process of being converted for military use by the United States. The Normandie, built in 1931, was the first ship to be constructed in accordance with the guidelines laid down in the 1929 Convention for Safety of Life at Sea. It was also enormous, measuring 313 m long and 36 m wide and displacing 85'000 tons of water. It offered passengers seven accommodation classes (including the new "tourist" class, as opposed to the old "third" class, commonly known as "steerage") and 1975 berths. It took a crew of more than 1300 to work her. Despite its size, it was also fast: capable of 32.1 knots (59.4 km/h *). The liner was launched in 1932 and made its first transatlantic crossing in 1935. In 1937, it was reconfigured with four-bladed propellers, which meant it could cross the Atlantic in less than four days.
          When France surrendered to the Germans in June 1940, and the puppet Vichy regime was installed, the Normandie was in dock at New York City. The Navy immediately placed it in "protective custody," since the US government did not want a ship of such size and speed to fall into the hands of the Germans, which it certainly would if it returned to France. In November 1941, Time magazine ran an article stating that in the event of the United States' involvement in the war, the Navy would seize the liner altogether and turn it into an aircraft carrier. It also elaborated on how the design of the ship made such a conversion relatively simple.
          When the Navy did take control of the ship, shortly after Pearl Harbor, it began the conversion of the liner — but to a troop ship, renamed the USS Lafayette in honor of the French general who aided the American colonies in their original quest for independence. The Lafayette never served its new purpose, as it caught fire and capsized. Sabotage was originally suspected, but the likely cause was sparks from a welder's torch. Although the ship was finally righted, the massive salvage operation cost $3'500'000 and the fire damage made any hope of employing the vessel impossible. It was scrapped — literally chopped up for scrap metal — in 1946.
    — * Note: 1 knot = 1 nautical mile per hour. 1 nautical mile = 1 minute of arc on a great circle = 1.852 km [All you wanted to know and then some about why it is called a “knot”: http://www.iws.net/wier/logline.html]
    1942 Japanese troops land near Makassar, South Celebes.
    1941 British troops conquer El Agheila.
    1939 Belgian Spaak government falls.
    1933 -63ºF (-53ºC), Moran WY (state record)
    1929 USSR, Estonia, Latvia, Poland and Romania sign Litvinov Pact.
    1927 Sofocado el movimiento revolucionario que estalló seis días antes en Portugal contra el Gobierno del general Antonio Oscar de Fragoso Carmona.
    1926 Teaching theory of evolution forbidden in Atlanta GA schools.
    1924 Nakhichevan ASSR constituted within Azerbaijan SSR.
    1922 Italian government of Bonomi falls
    ^1922 US Congress tackles WWI debt
          World War I left a mountain of debt in its wake: Great Britain owed the US government over four billion dollars, while France and Italy racked up war-related loans of roughly $3 billion and $1.6 billion, respectively. Alhough President Woodrow Wilson blindly insisted on full repayment of all debts to the US, the reality was far thornier, as the European governments were simply too strapped for cash to make good on their loans. Britain attempted to broker a deal for the reciprocal remittance of the debts, but Wilson rebuffed the offer. The debt dilemma festered into the early 1920s, stirring-up bitter and often anti-foreign feelings on both sides of the Atlantic. In hopes of resolving the issue, Congress convened on 09 February 1922, and voted in favor of establishing the World War Foreign Debt Commission. The Commission rounded the money owed to the US to $11.5 billion and established a sixty-two-year term, at 2% interest, for the repayment of the debts.
          However, by 1925, the US could no longer ignore fiscal reality: the loans would never be repaid in full. Despite his initial refusal to scuttle the debts, President Calvin Coolidge relented and cancelled good chunks of various governments' outstanding debts.
    1920 International treaty recognizes Norwegian sovereignty over Svalbard
    ^1913. En México se inicia la Decena Trágica.
          Los alumnos de la Escuela Militar de Aspirantes, de Tlalpan, D.F., se sublevan contra el gobierno de don Francisco I. Madero y parten hacia Palacio Nacional para tomarlo. El general Manuel Mondragón sale de los cuarteles de Tacubaya y libera a los generales Féliz Díaz y Bernardo Reyes, prisioneros del gobierno de Madero; con ellos se dirige a Palacio Nacional con intención de tomarlo. Los sublevados se enfrentan con las fuerzas que custodian Palacio Nacional. En el enfrentamiento muere el general Bernardo Reyes y cae herido el general Lauro Villar, comandante militar de la plaza. Los generales Féliz Díaz y Manuel Mondragón toman la Ciudadela; los secundan Gregorio Ruíz y Fidencio Hernández. Esta sublevación es auspiciada por Victoriano Huerta ("fiel" a Madero) y por el embajador de EUA, Henry Lane Wilson.
    Marcha de la Lealtad.
          Sublevados los militares citados en contra del presidente Madero, los cadetes del H. Colegio Militar, fieles a las instituciones federales, escoltan a los señores Madero y Pino Suárez, desde Chapultepec hasta Palacio Nacional.
          El general Victoriano Huerta ("leal" a Madero), sustitute en la Comandancia Militar de la plaza al general Lauro Villar, quien cayera herido. El presidente Madero marcha a Cuernavaca, Morelos, en busca de refuerzos militares para defender las instituciones militares.
    1909 First US federal legislation prohibiting narcotics (opium).
    1909 El acuerdo entre Francia y Alemania sobre Marruecos reconoce la preponderancia política francesa sobre el país africano.
    1906 Natal proclaims state of siege in Zulu uprising.
    1904 Japan declares war on Russia.
    1893 Canal builder De Lesseps and others sentenced to prison for fraud.
    1886 President Cleveland declares a state of emergency in Seattle because of anti-Chinese violence.
    1885 First Japanese arrive in Hawaii.
    1867 Nebraska becomes 37th US state.
    1863 Se reune en Ginebra un comité que decide la creación de la Cruz Roja.
    1861 Confederate Provisional Congress declares that all laws under the US Constitution are consistent with the constitution of Confederate states.
    1861 Tennessee votes against secession.
    ^ 1861 Davis elected President of the Confederacy
          Representatives from the seceded slave states meeting in Alabama to establish an independent Southern government elect Jefferson Davis, a former US secretary of war and congressman from Mississippi, as the first president of the Confederate States of America. Alexander H. Stephens, a former US representative from Georgia, is elected vice-president.
          As early as 1858, the ongoing conflict between the North and South over the issue of slavery had led Southern leadership to discuss a unified separation from the United States. By 1860, the majority of the slave states were publicly threatening secession if the Republicans, the anti-slavery party, were elected to the presidency. On 20 December 1860, six weeks after Republican Abraham Lincoln's electoral victory over the divided Democratic Party, South Carolina passed the "Ordinance of Secession," which declared that "the Union now subsisting between South Carolina and other states, under the name of the United States of America, is hereby dissolved." After the declaration, South Carolina set about seizing forts, arsenals, and other strategic locations within the state.
          Within six weeks, five more Southern states had followed South Carolina's lead. On 04 February 1861, representatives from the six seceded states met in Montgomery, Alabama, to formally establish a unified government, and on 09 February, Jefferson Davis of Mississippi was elected the first president of the Confederacy. When Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated on 04 March 1861, seven states had seceded from the Union, and federal troops held only Fort Sumter in South Carolina, Fort Pickens off the Florida coast, and a handful of minor outposts in the South. On 12 April 1861, the US Civil War began when Confederate shore batteries under General P. G. T. Beauregard opened fire on Fort Sumter in South Carolina's Charleston Bay.
    ^1849 La république instaurée à Rome.
          Giuseppe Mazzini proclame la déchéance du pouvoir temporel du pape et instaure la République. Un demi-siècle plus tôt, les révolutionnaires français avaient semé en Italie les germes de la démocratie et du nationalisme. Les intellectuels italiens, sous l'influence du romantisme, se prennent à rêver à l'unité politique de la péninsule.
          L'avocat Giuseppe Mazzini est de ceux-là. Né à Gênes en 1805, il complote dans la Charbonnerie, une association secrète née à Naples au temps de l'occupation française. Après plusieurs soulèvements infructueux, Mazzini se réfugie à Marseille où il crée son propre mouvement, Jeune Italie (Giovine Italia). Son programme est simple: l'unité dans la République, avec une devise, "Dieu et Liberté". Ses soulèvements ne réussissent pas mieux que les précédents malgré le soutien d'un hardi combattant, le Niçois Giuseppe Garibaldi.
          Survient l'élection de Pie IX. Le nouveau pape réforme les Etats pontificaux dans un sens libéral. De son exil de Londres, Mazzini l'appelle à prendre la tête du mouvement italien mais le pape n'en a cure. La Révolution de Février 1848, à Paris, semble enfin apporter l'occasion tant attendue. Chacun évoque le "printemps des peuples" et rêve d'une Europe fraternelle et républicaine. Milan, Venise et Florence se soulèvent.
          Au Vatican, un ministre du pape est assassiné et Pie IX s'enfuit dans la citadelle de Gaète, au sud de Rome, en laissant sa capitale aux mains des démocrates. Giuseppe Mazzini, revenu d'exil, institue un triumvirat avec deux autres républicains. Mais le vent tourne. Le roi de Piémont-Sardaigne se fait battre à plate couture par les Autrichiens à Novare et doit abdiquer.
          La situation devient des plus confuses... comme le rappelle l'expression "fare un quarantotto" (faire un 48, en d'autres termes, semer la pagaille). Les armées rétablissent partout l'ordre ancien. A Rome, le souverain pontife fait appel à la République française. Celle-ci envoie une armée sous les ordres du général Oudinot. Elle se heurte à la résistance de 10'000 volontaires commandés par Garibaldi, les Chemises rouges. C'est seulement le 02 Jul 1849 que tombera la République romaine. Giuseppe Mazzini, une nouvelle fois, prendra le chemin de l'exil et reportera ses espoirs sur l'union de l'Europe. En 1872, cet utopiste incurable aura la satisfaction de revenir mourir dans une Italie enfin réunifiée.
    ^1825 US House of Representatives decides presidential election.
          As no presidential candidate received a majority of the total electoral votes in the election of 1824, the US House of Representatives votes to elect John Quincy Adams, who had won less votes than Andrew Jackson in the popular election, as president of the United States.
          In November of 1824, the first presidential election was held in which popular votes were counted as well as electoral votes, and no candidate won an electoral majority. Andrew Jackson of Tennessee won ninety-nine electoral and 153'544 popular votes, John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts received eighty-four electoral and 108'740 popular votes, Secretary of State William H. Crawford, who had suffered a stroke before the election, received forty-one electoral votes, and Representative Henry Clay of Virginia won thirty-seven electoral votes. In December, Congress decided to turn over the presidential election to the House of Representatives, as dictated in the Twelfth Amendment to the US Constitution. The Twelfth Amendment states that if no electoral majority is won, only the three candidates who received the most popular votes would be considered in the House. Representative Henry Clay, who was disqualified from the House vote as a fourth-place candidate, agreed to use his influence to have John Quincy Adams elected, provided that Adams subsequently appointed him secretary of state. Clay and Adams were both members of a loose coalition in Congress that by 1828 becomes known as the National Republicans, while Jackson's supporters were later organized into the Democratic Party.
          Thanks to Clay's backing, on 09 February 1825, the House of Representatives elects Adams as president of the United States in an infamous US political event that became known as the "Corrupt Bargain." A majority of thirteen states were won by Adams, compared to seven states for Jackson and four for Crawford.
    Luis I1812. El general Morelos, con tres mil hombres procedentes de Taxco (del hoy Estado de Guerrero), se detienen en Cuautla, camino a Puebla, donde pensaba dar batalla a los realistas. Morelos decide quedarse en Cuautla ante el anuncio del arribo de las tropas de Félix María Calleja, las más granadas del virreinato, a quien desea enfrentarse.
    1801 France and Austrian sign treaty of Lunéville, which confirmed the treaty of Campo Formio (17 Oct 1797), by which Austria recognized the Cisalpine Republic, surrendered the Austrian Netherlands and received the Republic of Venice.
    1795 Se firma un acuerdo entre Austria y Francia, anterior a la Paz de Basilea, para poner fin a la primera guerra entre la Francia republicana y la Primera Coalición contrarrevolucionaria.
    1788 Austria declares war on Russia.
    1775 English Parliament declares Massachusetts colony is in rebellion.
    1744 Battle at Toulon (French/Spanish vs English fleet of Admiral Matthews)
    1724 Es coronado rey de España Luis I [retrato por Houasse >], hijo de Felipe V, quien había abdicado es 15 Jan 1724. Se nombra un gabinete de tutela, debido a la juventud del monarca (nació el 25 Aug 1707). Ha de morir de viruela el 31 Aug 1724. Dos días después su padre toma nuevamente el cetro.
    1674 English re-conquer New York from Netherlands.
    1667 Russia and Poland sign Truce of Andrusovo.
    1621 Alexander Ludovisi is elected Pope Gregory XV (-1623)
    1556 El pirata inglés Francis Drake saquea la ciudad de Cartagena de Indias (en la actual Colombia).
    1554 Battle at London Sir Thomas Wyatt defeated.
    1537 Pope Paul III routes Cardinal Pole to England.
    1499 France and Venice sign treaty against Milan.
    1111 Se firma el Tratado de Sufri entre Enrique V, emperador de Alemania, y el Papa Pascual II, con el que pretendían poner fin a la Guerra de las Investiduras.
    TO THE TOP
    < 08 Feb 10 Feb >
    ^ Deaths which occurred on a 09 February:

    2006 Frederick Alfred “Freddie” Laker, born on 06 August 1922, UK entrepreneur who, in 1966, founded the low-cost Laker Airways, which went bankrupt and made its last flight on 06 February 1982. Moving to the Bahamas, Laker resuscitated his airline from the early 1990s until 2005. — (060210),
    2005 Wayne Koester, 33, Lake County, Florida, sheriff's deputy, shot in the head with a shotgun by Jason Lee Wheeler, 29, while responding to a domestic violence report, at 09:00 (14:00 UT), at a home in Paisley, in the Ocala National Forest, with two other deputies, who suffer leg wounds. Wheeler escapes on a motorcycle, which is later found ditched. He is captured at 17:30 (22:30 UT) after a manhunt in the forest by bloodhounds and some 500 deputies and officers from 28 different law enforcement agencies. He shoots at them and is wounded by the return gunfire.
    2004 A suicide bomber, the only one killed at the Ramadi, Iraq, house of brothers Majid and Amer Ali Suleiman, who are among the most prominent local tribal leaders collaborating with the US-led occupiers. They are not hurt but three guards are seriously injured.
    2003 Three Palestinians, when their car explodes after one of them starts firing at Israeli soldiers manning a post in the Gush Katif block of Jewish enclave settlements in the Gaza Strip, in the afternoon.
    2002 Atala Lipovsky, 79, Israeli, when car in which she was riding is fired upon by Palestinians near Marda, south of Nablus, West Bank, at about 21:45. She had immigrated from the Ukraine in 1993 and was a resident of the enclave settlement Ma'aleh Ephraim.
    Ehime Maru2002 Bulelani Vukwana, 29, suicide after shooting his girlfriend, her father, and 8 unrelated others, in the Mdantsane suburb of East London, South Africa. Earlier in the day Vukwana and his girlfriend had a fight and she had ended their relationship. In the evering Vukwana goes to his girlfriend's house to try to persuade her to come back to him, and after a further argument he shoots her dead. Then he kill a man in a bar next door, then the owner of a pickup truck and drives off in the vehicle, then returns to kill his girlfriend's father. After that he shoot whoever he sees, six more men. Finally he points the gun at his temple and pulls the trigger. Seven persons are wounded.
    ^2001 Toshiya Sakashima, 17, student; Yusuke Terata, 17, student; Katsuya Nomoto, 17, student; Takeshi Mizuguchi, 17, student; Hiroshi Makizawa, 37, instructor; Jun Nakata, 33, instructor; Toshimichi Furuya, 47, chief engineman; Hirotaka Segawa, 60, chief radioman; Hiroshi Nishida, 49, engineman; on fishing school boat Ehime Maru [photo >] as, at 13:45 Hawaii Standard Time, submarine USS Greeneville (SSN 772), practicing emergency surfacing hits with its stern and sinks the fishing boat 15 km south of Diamond Head, in Honolulu, Hawaii. There is no attempt from the submarine to assist the 26 survivors floundering in the water.
          The submarine was showing off its capabilities to some 15 civilian visitors, 2 of whom were at the controls at the time of the accident.
          The Ehime Maru was operated by the Uwajima Fisheries High School. Of the dead, four were high school students, two were teachers, and three were crew members. // — Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 10 Feb 01
    collision diagram
    1996 Five workers of the beach detail and one of its former workers who shoots them and then himself, in Fort Lauderdale, Flhorrida.
    1996 Two persons by truck bombing in London's financial district, with which the Irish Republican Army ends its 17-month cease-fire. 37 are injured.
    1995 J. William Fulbright, 89, former US Senator (D-AR)/anti-Vietnam War)
    1994 Howard Martin Temin, virólogo estadounidense, Premio Nobel de Medicina 1975.
    1993 Some 60 persons killed by army of opium king Khun Sa in NE Burma.
    1988 Herstein, mathematician.
    1984 Yuri V. Andropov, 69, Soviet ruler, less than 15 months after succeeding Leonid Brezhnev; he is succeeded by Konstantin U. Chernenko.
    1979: 60 personas, la mayor parte niños de corta edad, por una epidemia desconocida, en Nápoles.
    1977 Sergei Ilyushin, 82, Russian airplane builder (Ilyushin)
    1960 Aleksandr Nikolayevich Benois, Russian theater art director, painter, and ballet librettist born on born on 04 May (21 Apr Julian) 1870. — more with links to images.
    1943 Antonio Zozaya y You, escritor español.
    ^ 1940 Day 72 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
    More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

    10'000 Danes volunteer for work in Finland
           Ladoga Karelia: Finnish troops surround a Red Army regiment in Vorojenkivi, to the east of the great Kitelä 'motti', establishing what was later to become known as the 'regimental motti' to the north of Lake Ladoga. The name came naturally from the fact that an entire Russian regiment (JR 203) was trapped there.
          The Finnish attempt to immediately take the 'motti' grinds to a halt in face of the Soviet tanks trapped inside. A bloody struggle ensues.
          Karelian Isthmus: the commanders of the Soviet northwest front on the Isthmus order a general offensive. Around midday, the Soviet infantry launches a tank-supported assault in the Finnish 4th Division's positions in Marjapellonmäki.
          The assault is repulsed, but Soviet troops manage to take the Karhu stronghold to the north of Marjapellonmäki on the Summa front. Finnish attempts to retake the stronghold prove unsuccessful.
          In Summa, a fresh battalion is sent in during the course of the evening to relieve the battalion fighting in the Lähde sector.
          Helsinki: graduation as a qualified nurse is to be made easier and more courses provided for trainee nurses in the Helsinki area.
          The armed forces payment system is to be overhauled by presidential decree. Every soldier is to receive a monthly salary, ranging from 500 markkaa for a private soldier up to 2,500 markkaa for a general. This basic salary will be further supplemented by 150 markkaa for the first child in the family and an additional 100 markkaa for each subsequent child.
          The Government is also to decide on the payment of maintenance benefits to the wife, child or disabled and dependent parents or siblings of a man called up to serve in the armed forces.
          Sweden: more than two out of every hundred Swedish doctors are now in Finland, and the Swedish Medical Association's collection for Finland has already brought in over 100'000 krona.
          A collection organized by a Lutheran priest in Gothenburg has raised 240'000 krona to buy a fighter aircraft for Finland.
          Denmark: 10'000 Danes have volunteered to go and work in Finland.
          London: a credit agreement has been signed to facilitate Finland's purchase of war materiel from the United Kingdom.
    ^ 10'000 tanskalaista on ilmoittautunut työvoimaksi Suomeen Talvisodan 72. päivä, 09.helmikuuta.1940
           Suomalaiset saartavat Puna-armeijan rykmentin Kitelän suurmotista itään sijaitsevassa Vorojenkivessä. Näin syntyy niin sanottu Rykmenttimontti Laatokan pohjoispuolella. Nimi johtuu siitä, että mottiin on jäänyt kokonainen venäläisrykmentti JR 203.
          Suomalaiset yrittävät vallata motin heti sen synnyttyä, mutta hyökkäys pysähtyy motissa olevien neuvostopanssareiden tuleen. Veriset taistelut alkavat.
          Neuvostoliiton Luoteisen Rintaman sotaneuvosto antaa joukoilleenhyökkäyskäskyn: Neuvostojalkaväki hyökkää panssareiden tukemana puolen päivän aikaan 4. Divisioonan alueella Marjapellonmäessä.
          Vihollisen hyökkäys torjutaan, mutta neuvostojoukot valtaavat Karhu-tukikohdan Marjapellonmäen pohjoispuolella Summan rintamalla.
          Suomalaisten hyökkäykset tukikohdan takaisinvaltaamiseksi epäonnistuvat.
          Summassa Lähteen lohkolla taisteleva pataljoona vaihdetaan illan kuluessa uuteen.
          Sairaanhoitajattarien valmistumista helpotetaan ja kursseja lisätään pääkaupunkiseudulla.
          Asevelvollisten palkkaus järjestetään uudelleen presidentin asetuksella.Kaikille määrätään kuukausipalkka, jonka suuruus vaihtelee 500 markasta sotamiehelle 2500 markkaan kenraalille. Lisäksi tulee 150 markkaa ensimmäisestä ja 100 markkaa seuraavasta perheen lapsesta.
          Valtioneuvosto tekee päätöksen myös huoltorahasta, jonka piiriin kuuluvat sotapalvelukseen kutsutun vaimo, lapsi tai työkyvyttömät vanhemmat tai sisarukset, joiden elatus riippuu palvelukseen kutsutusta.
          Yli kaksi prosenttia Ruotsin lääkäreistä on Suomessa ja Ruotsin lääkäriliiton keräys Suomen hyväksi ylittää 100'000 kruunun rajan.
          Göteborgilaisen kirkkoherran järjestämällä keräyksellä on hankittu 240'000 kruunua hävittäjäkoneen ostamiseksi Suomelle.
          10'000 tanskalaista on ilmoittautunut vapaaehtoiseksi työvoimaksi Suomeen.
          Lontoossa allekirjoitetaan Suomen Englannista tapahtuvien sotatarvike-hankintojen rahoittamiseksi tehty luottosopimus.
    ^ 10'000 danskar har anmält sig som frivillig arbetskraft till Finland Vinterkrigets 72 dag, den 09 februari 1940
          De finska styrkorna omringar ett av Röda Arméns regementen i Vorojenkivi öster om stormottin i Kitelä. På det här sättet uppstår den så kallade Regementsmottin norr om Ladoga. Namnet beror på att hela det ryska regementet JR 203 har blivit kvar i mottin.
          Finland försöker invadera mottin genast när den bildas, men attacken stoppas av det ryska artilleriet inne i mottin. Blodiga strider börjar.
          Krigsrådet för Sovjetunionens nordvästliga front ger sina trupper order om anfall: sovjetinfanteriet anfaller med stöd av pansrar vid middagstid på den 4. Divisionens område i Marjapellonmäki.
          Fiendens anfall slås tillbaka men de ryska trupperna lyckas inta Karhubasen norr om Marjapellonmäki vid Summafronten.
          Finnarnas försök att återerövra basen misslyckas.
          Bataljonen som strider vid Summa på Lähdeavsnittet byts under kvällen ut mot en annan.
          Sjuksköterskeutbildningen underlättas och nya kurser startas i huvudstadsregionen.
          Med en författning av presidenten omorganiseras avlöningen av värnpliktiga. En månadslön fastställs för alla. Lönen varierar mellan 500 mark för soldater till 2500 mark för generaler. Dessutom betalas 150 mark för det första barnet och 100 mark för varje följande barn i familjen.
          Statsrådet fattar beslut om en försörjningspenning som berör hustrur och barn till män som kallats till krigstjänst och dessa mäns arbetsoförmögna föräldrar eller syskon vars uppehälle beror på män som kallats till kriget.
          Över två procent av de svenska läkarna befinner sig i Finland och Sveriges läkarförbunds insamling för Finland överstiger 100'000 kronors gränsen.
          En insamling som arrangerats av en kyrkoherde i Göteborg har resulterat i 240'000 kronor som ska användas för anskaffning av ett jaktplan till Finland.
          10'000 danskar har anmält sig som frivillig arbetskraft till Finland.
          I London undertecknas kreditavtalet som ingåtts för att Finland ska kunna skaffa krigsförnödenheter från England.
    1937 Macaulay, mathematician.
    1932 Junnosuke Inouye Japanese minister of Finance, murdered.
    1929. José de León Toral , militante católico, fusilado en el polígono de la Penitenciaría de Lecumberri, en la ciudad de México, por haber asesinado al general Álvaro Obregón, presidente electo de la República, el 17 Jul 1928.
    1925. Don Francisco Sosa muere en la más completa pobreza, en Coyoacán, D. F. Era un campechano distinguido en el periodismo y la poesía. Él fue el promotor de la instalación de las treinta y seis estatuas originales que adornan el Paseo de la Reforma.
    1920 Pietro Scoppetta, Italian artist born on 15 February 1863.
    1918 Wilhelm List, Austrian artist born on 22 November 1864. — more with links to images.
    1916 Aloys François Joseph Loir, French artist born on 22 December 1845.
    1913 Some 3000 die in 10 Day Tragedy of Mexico City.
    1909 Charles Edwin Conder, English Australian painter born on 24 October 1868. MORE ON CONDER AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1905 Adolf Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel, German Realist painter born on 08 December 1815. — more with links to images.
    1891 Johan Barthold Jongkind, Dutch Realist painter and printmaker born on 03 June 1819. MORE ON JONGKIND AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1883 Smith, mathematician.
    1881 (28 Jan Julian) Fyodor Mikhaylovich Dostoyevsky
    , 59, great Russian novelist born on 11 November (30 Oct Julian) 1821. DOSTOEVSKY ONLINE: biographical note, online works in Russian and in English. Pietr Fedor Dostoïevski s'éteint à Saint-Pétersbourg. Les Russes accordent des funérailles solennelles à l'auteur de "Crime et châtiment".

    ^1874 Jules Michelet, French nationalist historian, born on 21 August 1798, is best known for his monumental Histoire de France (1833–1867). Michelet's method, an attempt to resurrect the pastby immersing his own personality in his narrative, resulted in a historical synthesis of great dramatic power.
         Michelet was the son of a modest printer who managed to give Jules an education. A brilliant student, Michelet at 29 was teaching history and philosophy at the École Normale Supérieure. He had already published textbooks and a translation (1827) of Principi di scienza nuova d'intorno alla comune natura delle nazioni (zipped), of Giambattista Vico [23 Jun 1668 – 23 Jan 1744]. The July Revolution (1830) confirmed Vico's influence on Michelet in stressing man's own partin the making of history, conceived as a continuous struggle of human freedom against fatality. This, the main theme of the Introduction à l'histoire universelle (1831), was to underlie Michelet's later writings.
          After the Histoire romaine, (2 vol., 1831), Michelet devoted himself to medieval and modern history; his appointment as head of the historical section of the Record Office in the same year provided him with unique resources for carrying out his monumental life's work, the Histoire de France. The first six volumes (1833–43) stop atthe end of the Middle Ages; they include the “Tableau de la France,” in which the emergence of France as a nation is seen as a victory over racial and geographic determinism; they also include his treatment of Joan of Arc as the very soul of France and the living symbol of his ownpatriotic and democratic ideals.
          Michelet deliberately threw his intimate self into his narrative, convinced that this was the way to achieve the historian's ultimate aim: the resurrection (or re-creation) of the past. Such a resurrection must be integral: all the elements of the past, artistic, religious, economic, as well as political, —must be brought back, intertwined, as they once were, in a living synthesis. Arbitrary and overambitious as the undertaking seems, Michelet's compassionate genius and romantic imagination enabled him to conjure up an effective evocation, unsurpassed for poetic and dramatic power.
         Toward the end of this period, which was marked by private crises reflected in his work (the death of his first wife, in 1839, and of his friend Mme Dumesnil, in 1842, cast shadows over whole periods of his Histoire de France), Michelet turned away from Christianity and began to profess a messianic belief in democratic progress. His increasing hostility to the church, expressed in his lectures at the Collège de France, eventually brought him into conflict with the Jesuits and caused his lectures to be suspended in January 1848.
          A month later, the revolution that he had heralded in Le Peuple (1846) seemed to bring about the realization of his dreams. But they were soon shattered: in 1852 Michelet, having refused allegiance to the Second Empire, lost his posts. In 1847 he had interrupted the sequence of the Histoire de France to write the Histoire de la révolution française, 7 vol. (1847–1853). He visualized the French Revolution as a climax, as the triumph of la Justice over la Grâce (by which he meant both Christian dogma and the arbitrary power of the monarchy). These volumes, written at a feverish pace, are a vivid, impassioned chronicle.
          Michelet then resumed the Histoire de France from the Renaissance to the eve of the revolution (11 vol., 1855–1867). Unfortunately, his hatred of priests and kings, his hasty or abusive treatment of documents, and his mania for symbolic interpretation continually distort these volumes into hallucinations or nightmares. Also thus distorted is La Sorcière (1862), an apology for witches considered as godforsaken souls, victims of the antinatural interdictions of the church.
          A new and happier inspiration produced a series of books on nature: L'Oiseau (1856); L'Insecte (1858); La Mer (1861); La Montagne (1868). They reflect the influence of his second marriage to Athénaïs Mialaret, 30 years his junior, in 1849; written in a lyrical vein, they contain some of the most beautiful pages of a supreme prose writer. L'Amour (1858) and La Femme (1860), written under the same influence, are erotic and didactic.
          The Franco-German War of 1870 shattered Michelet's idealism and his illusions about Germany. After his death, in 1874, his widow tampered with his diaries, and their publication as a whole was begun only in 1959 (Journal, vol. 1, 1959, vol. 2, 1962; Écrits de jeunesse, 1959). They record his travels through Europe, and, above all, they give a key to his personality and illuminate the relationship between his intimate experiences and his work.
    —       Né dans le choeur d'une ancienne église située au croisement de la rue de Tracy (n°14) et de la rue Saint-Denis, dans le quartier des Halles, occupée au cours de la Terreur par l'imprimerie paternelle, Jules Michelet connaîtra une enfance pauvre. La famille déménagera successivement rue Montmartre, rue du Jour, rue Française, 10 rue des Saints-Pères, boulevard Saint-Martin, rue Notre-Dame de Nazareth, rue du Carême-Prenant, rue de Périgueux, où décédera madame Michelet en 1814. Son père, réduit à la pauvreté par la censure napoléonienne, terminera sa vie comme comptable d'une maison de santé située 7 rue Buffon, après avoir envoyé son fils au collège Charlemagne.
          Le jeune Michelet remportera un prix de discours français au concours général et obtiendra, en 1819, le titre de docteur ès lettre avec deux thèses, l'une sur les Vies de Plutarque, l'autre sur L'Idée de l'infini d'après Locke. Il obtiendra l'agrégation de lettres, le 21 septembre 1821, et deviendra professeur à l'institution Briand. L'abbé Nicole, l'un des fondateurs du collège Sainte-Barbe, lui demandera d'enseigner l'histoire dans son institution. Michelet publiera, à l'intention de ses élèves, le Tableau chronologique de l'histoire moderne (1453-1789) en 1824, puis un Précis d'histoire moderne en 1829.
          Traducteur par passion d'ouvrages de philosophie, Michelet obtiendra la chaire de philosophie et d'histoire de l'École normale, rétablie en 1826 par monseigneur Frayssinous sous le titre d'École préparatoire. Il renoncera à celle de philosophie en 1829 et entamera son Histoire romaine, dont la première partie, qui traite de la République, sera publiée en 1831. Bien que catholique depuis son baptême en 1816, Michelet proclamera son libéralisme politique et philosophique dans son Introduction à l'histoire universelle, écrite au lendemain de la Révolution, dans lequel il présentera le Christianisme, la Réforme et la Révolution comme les trois étapes capitales de l'histoire de la liberté humaine. Chargé d'enseigner l'histoire du Moyen-Age et des temps modernes à l'École normale après 1830, Michelet sera nommé par Guizot, alors ministre de l'Intérieur, chef de la section historique des Archives Nationales en 1834. Il suppléera ce dernier à la Sorbonne, dans ses cours d'histoire de France et entamera, à partir de 1831, la composition son vaste ouvrage sur l'histoire de France. Les deux premiers volumes seront publiés en 1833.
          Nommé à la chaire d'histoire et de morale du Collège de France en 1838, Michelet abandonnera son Histoire de France à la fin du XVème siècle, pour se consacrer à l'Histoire de la Révolution qui donnera naissance à sept volumes publiés entre 1847 et 1853. Il y ajoutera un ouvrage sur Les Femmes de la Révolution, en 1854, puis reprendra la rédaction son Histoire de France au point où il l'avait laissée en 1847. Cette suite donnera naissance à onze nouveaux volumes, publiés entre 1855 et 1867. Le premier volume de l'Histoire du XIXème siècle, publié en 1872, sera suivi de deux autres qui paraîtront en 1875, après son décès.
          La révolution de 1848, saluée par Michelet comme la réalisation de toutes ses espérances pour la liberté de la France et du monde, sera ingrate à son égard. Elle le suspendra du Collège de France en 1849. Michelet, destitué des Archives en 1852 pour avoir refusé de prêter serment au gouvernement de Louis-Napoléon, partira pour Nantes.
    — Portrait by Thomas Couture [21 Dec 1815 – 30 Mar 1879]: Jules Michelet ( 933x661pix, 61kb _ ZOOM to 1206x992pix, 91kb _ ZOOM++ to 1729x1437pix, 120kb)

    MICHELET EN-LIGNE:
    Le PeupleLa montagneLa merIntroduction à l'histoire universelleHistoire romaine.1ère partie. [1-2] République

    1811 Maskelyne, mathematician.
    1675 Ambrosius Brueghel, Flemish artist born on 10 August 1617.
    1675 Gerrit Dou (or Dow, Dov), Dutch painter born on 07 April 1613. MORE ON DOU AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1670 Frederik III, 60, King of Denmark / Norway (1648-1670).
    ^1649Tuesday (30 January Julian) Charles I, King of England, beheaded for treason
          In London, King Charles I is beheaded for treason. Born on 29 (19 Julian) November 1600, Charles ascended to the English throne in March 1625 after the death of his father, King James I. In the first year of his reign, Charles offended his Protestant subjects by marrying Henrietta Maria, a Catholic French princess, and responded to political opposition to his rule by dissolving Parliament on several occasions. On 20 February (02 March Julian) 1629, he ordered the adjournment of Parliament and for the next 11 years ruled entirely without it.
         On 02 December (22 November Julian) 1641, Parliament voted 159 to 148 the “Grand Remonstrance to the King”.
         The bitter struggle between king and Parliament for supremacy led to the 01 September (22 August Julian) 1642 outbreak of the first English Civil War. The Parliamentarians were led by Oliver Cromwell, whose formidable Ironsides force won an important victory against the king's Royalist forces at Marston Moor in 12 (02 Julian) July 1644 and at Naseby on 24 (14 Julian) June 1645. As a leader of the New Model Army in the second English civil war, Cromwell helped repel the Royalist invasion of Scotland, and in 1646, Charles surrendered to a Scottish army. On 30 (20 Julian) January 1649, Charles was forced to appear before a special high court controlled by his enemies, where he was convicted of treason and, on 06 February (27 January Julian) 1649 sentenced to death as a tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy.
          On 09 February 1649, Charles is beheaded in London. The monarchy was later abolished, and Cromwell assumed control of the new English Commonwealth. In 1658, Cromwell died and was succeeded by his son, Richard, who was forced to flee to France in the next year with the restoration of the monarchy and the crowning of Charles II, the son of Charles I. Oliver Cromwell was posthumously convicted of treason and his body was disinterred from its tomb in Westminster Abbey and hung from the gallows at Tyburn.
    Exécution du roi d'Angleterre Charles Ier.
          Le roi d'Angleterre monte sur l'échafaud. Charles 1er meurt sans abdiquer devant le Parlement. Né en 1600, roi d'Angleterre, d'Écosse et d'Irlande, second fils de Jacques VI Stuart, roi d'Écosse (et d'Angleterre depuis 1603 sous le nom de Jacques Ier), Charles Ier monte sur le trône en 1625. Jeune, séduisant et indécis, il est un jouet entre les mains de son entourage. L'impopulaire duc de Buckingham le pousse à attaquer l'Espagne. Pour se garantir du côté de la France, Charles Ier demande la main d'Henriette-Marie, la plus jeune fille de Henri IV. Le couple royal s'aime tendrement.
          Mais Buckingham accumule les maladresses. Vaincu par les Espagnols à Cadix (1626), il s'aliène les Français en soutenant les protestants de La Rochelle, ce qui lui vaut d'être battu à l'île de Ré (1627). Les princes protestants d'Europe se trouvent bientôt en mauvaise posture. Malgré ses préventions absolutistes, Charles Ier doit convoquer le Parlement en 1628 afin d'obtenir des subsides. Il est mis en demeure d'accepter la pétition du Droit qui limite les prérogatives royales. Nouvelle rebuffade : le renouvellement des droits de douane (tunnage and poundage ), traditionnellement accordés à vie au monarque, est refusé par les parlementaires. Au mois d'août 1628 enfin, Buckingham meurt sous le poignard du lieutenant Felton.
          À la session de 1629, le conflit se déplace sur le terrain religieux. Charles Ier soutenait la réaction épiscopalienne et arminienne de William Laud, évêque de Londres puis archevêque de Canterbury. Le Parlement vote trois résolutions condamnant le papisme, l'arminianisme, et la perception d'impôts non votés par le Parlement. Charles Ier fait jeter les meneurs en prison, renvoie le Parlement, et décide de gouverner sans son appui. Pendant onze ans, il se conduit en monarque absolu. On a naturellement parlé de "tyrannie" et stigmatisé à l'envi la fameuse Chambre étoilée. Pour être équitable, constatons que l'absolutisme de Charles Ier était moins dirigé contre le peuple que contre l'individualisme effréné des classes enrichies (limitation des enclosures, défense de la théorie médiévale contre le prêt à intérêt) et contre le fanatisme des puritains (laxisme de la censure ecclésiastique et tiède répression de la sorcellerie). C'est d'Écosse que jaillit l'étincelle. Laud y voulait introduire le rituel anglican. Les farouches presbytériens se soulèvent en masse. Devant ce danger, Strafford, homme de confiance du roi, conseille la manière forte. Il part lever une armée dans cette Irlande où, en tant que vice-roi, il a joué les colons anglicans contre les presbytériens d'Ulster et les indigènes catholiques.
          Néanmoins, Charles Ier doit à nouveau réunir le Parlement en avril 1640. L'opposition véhémente qu'il y rencontre l'incite à dissoudre ce Court Parlement dix-huit jours après l'ouverture de la session. L'avance victorieuse des Écossais pousse cependant les lords et le peuple à exiger la convocation d'un nouveau Parlement. Charles Ier s'incline. Convoqué au mois de novembre 1640, le Long Parlement durera treize ans. Il est déjà révolutionnaire, même s'il ne met pas encore la personne du roi en cause. Les partisans du roi sont exécutés.
          Voyant l'Angleterre en proie à ces luttes intestines, les Irlandais se soulèvent et massacrent les colons. Charles Ier demande des crédits pour organiser une expédition punitive. Méfiant, le chef de l'opposition parlementaire, John Pym, fait voter la "grande remontrance" qui énumère les griefs contre la couronne. Présumant de la faiblesse de l'opposition, Charles Ier exige " l'impeachment " pour haute trahison de Pym et de quatre autres chefs parlementaires. Il va même jusqu'à se rendre en personne aux Communes, afin de se saisir des cinq parlementaires qui ont pris la précaution de se mettre à l'abri. Le roi quitte alors Londres au bord de l'émeute. La guerre civile est commencée. Mais la victoire boude les deux camps. Le Parlement signe alors avec les Écossais un traité d'alliance qui lui permet de prendre rapidement l'avantage. Le 12 Jul 1644, à Marston Moor, les royalistes sont vaincus grâce aux " Côtes de fer " d'Olivier Cromwell. L'armée parlementaire réorganisée par Cromwell provoque la déroute royaliste de Naseby (24 Jun 1645).
          Charles Ier ne voit d'autre solution que de se rendre, peu après, à la merci des Écossais. Ceux-ci s'empressent de le livrer au Parlement qui lui présente aussitôt les Dix-Neuf Propositions stipulant notamment l'adoption du Covenant presbytérien, l'abolition de l'épiscopat, le droit pour le Parlement de contrôler l'armée, la marine, et la nomination aux grandes charges de l'État, enfin, la proscription des chefs royalistes. Le souverain biaise et négocie en sous-main avec toutes les factions. Sur ces entrefaites, une crise éclate entre l'armée et le Parlement. Cromwell occupe Londres avec vingt mille soldats décidés à faire reconnaître leurs droits. Indécis malgré tout, Cromwell fait des ouvertures au roi qui le lanterne comme il l'a fait avec le Parlement, avant de se réfugier dans l'île de Wight (1647) d'où il appelle les Écossais à son secours. Le péril rétablit la concorde entre l'armée et le Parlement. Cromwell met en pièces les Écossais à Preston en août 1648. Enlevé dans l'île de Wight, Charles Ier est ramené à Londres, déféré devant le Parlement, mis en procès et condamné à mort malgré de vives résistances de la part de nombreux chefs puritains. Le 30 janvier 1649 (calendrier julien = 09 Feb grégorien) , le roi Charles Ier monte à l'échafaud avec un courage exemplaire, sans avoir rien renié des convictions absolutistes qui périssent avec lui.
    — PAINTINGS:
    BY VAN DYCK: — Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria with Charles, Prince of Wales and Princess Mary (1632) — Charles I in Three Positions (1636) — Charles I, King of England (1636) — Charles I: King of England at the Hunt (1635) — Charles I of EnglandCharles I of England and Henrietta of FranceCharles I on Horseback (1635)
    De Saint-André's Allegory of Charles I of England and Henrietta of France
    1640 Murad IV, 27, sultan of Turkey (1623-1640), in Baghdad.
    1583 Jeseph Sanalbo, Jewish convert in Rome, burned at stake
    1567 Henry Stuart earl of Darnley, Scottish consort of Mary Stuart Queen of Scots, murdered.
    1555 John Hooper deprived Bishop of Gloucester, burned for heresy.
     
    < 08 Feb 10 Feb >
    Births which occurred on a February 09:

    1963 Boeing 727's first flight. Over 1830 of these planes will be built through 1984, when production will stop in order for Boeing to begin building larger planes.
    1950 Javier Mariscal, diseñador gráfico, industrial, ilustrador de comics, y pintor valenciano. MÉS SOBRE MARISCAL EN ART PER FEBRER with links to images.
    ^1944 Alice Walker, in Eatonton, Georgia, the youngest of eight children born to sharecroppers. In their poor, rural community, Walker's mother set an example of generosity and community support by taking in children whose families couldn't care for them. Walker treasured her close relationship with her mother for many years.
          A shooting accident when Walker was eight left her blind in one eye. She attended Spelman College in Atlanta on a scholarship for the disabled and traveled to the Soviet Union and Africa as part of study programs. She transferred to Sarah Lawrence College in New York and graduated in 1965. She moved to Mississippi, became a civil rights activist, and wrote poetry. Her first collection was published in 1968. She married a fellow activist, Mel Leventhal, but the marriage dissolved. In 1970, she published her first novel, The Third Life of Grange Copeland, about emotional dynamics through three generations of an African-American family. Her second novel, Meridian(1976), follows a young woman in the civil rights movement.
          In the mid-'70s, Walker moved to Northern California, where she wrote her Pulitzer Prize-winning novel, The Color Purple (1982; film, 1985), about an abused and uneducated black woman. Her later novels include The Temple of My Familiar (1989) and Possessing the Secret of Joy (1992).
    1931 Robert Morris, US Minimalist painter. — LINKS
    1926 Garret FitzGerald, Prime Minister of Ireland.
    1923 Norman E. Shumway, Michigan, pioneer cardiac transplant surgeon.
    1923 Brendan Behan, Irish author and political commentator who died on 20 March 1964.
    1923 Soviet Aeroflot airlines established
    1910 Jacques Lucien Monod, French 1965-Nobel Prize-winning biologist, third and youngest son of painter Hector Lucien Monod [21 Jul 1867 — 1957] and of Charlotte Todd MacGregor [Milwaukee 1869 – 1954]. J. L. Monod died on 31 May 1976. Author of Chance and Necessity (1970). — Il devient en 1934 assistant au laboratoire de zoologie de la faculté des sciences. En 1941, il soutint sa thèse de Doctorat ès Science sur la croissance bactérienne. Résistant pendant la seconde guerre, il vient souvent se réfugier à l'Institut Pasteur, où de 1945 à 1953, il dirige le laboratoire de physiologie microbienne, puis en 1954 crée le service de biochimie cellulaire. En 1959, il est nommé professeur à la faculté des sciences de Paris. En 1965, il partage le Prix Nobel de médecine avec François Jacob [17 Jun 1920–] et André Michel Lwoff [08 May 1902– 30 Sep 1994] pour ses travaux sur le contrôle de l'expression de l'information génétique. Avec F. Jacob également, il conçoit puis démontre la réalité de l'A.R.N.-messager. Titulaire de la chaire de biologie moléculaire au Collège de France en 1967, il devient directeur de l'Institut Pasteur en 1971.
    1909 Dean Rusk, US Secretary of State under Kennedy and Johnson administrations. He died on 20 December 1994.
    1908 Dinghas, mathematician.
    1907 Donald Coxeter, mathematician.
    1895 Volleyball is invented by W. G. Morgan in Massachusetts.
    1894 The Hershey Chocolate Company is founded.
    1880 Lipót Fejér, mathematician.
    1879 Jacques Bainville, à Vincennes, auteur de Les conséquences politiques de la paix (1919)
    1874 Amy Lowell, US critic, lecturer, and Pulitzer Prize-winning poet: What's O'Clock [1926]; Sword Blades and Poppy Seeds). She died on 12 May 1925.
    1870 The US Weather Bureau is established.
    ^1870 US National Weather Service under its original name:
    Division of Telegrams and Reports for the Benefit of Commerce, Signal Service Corps, US Department of War.

          President Ulysses S. Grant signes a joint resolution of Congress authorizing the Secretary of War to establish a national weather service. This resolution required the Secretary of War "to provide for taking meteorological observations at the military stations in the interior of the continent and at other points in the States and Territories...and for giving notice on the northern (Great) Lakes and on the seacoast by magnetic telegraph and marine signals, of the approach and force of storms"
          After much thought and consideration, it had been decided that this agency would be placed under the Secretary of War because military discipline would probably secure the greatest promptness, regularity, and accuracy in the required observations. Within the Department of War, it was assigned to the Signal Service Corps under Brigadier General Albert J. Myer. General Meyer gave the National Weather Service its first name: The Division of Telegrams and Reports for the Benefit of Commerce.

         Later that year, the first systematized, synchronous weather observations ever taken in the US were made by "observing-sergeants" of the Army Signal Service at 22 stations and telegraphed to Washington.
    1868 Jesús Urueta y Siqueiros, en la ciudad de Chihuahua. Se distinguirá como abogado, poeta, novelista, peridista, político revolucionario y excelente orador, a tal grado que será bautizado como "El Príncipe de la Palabra". Será catedrático de la Escuela Nacional Preparatoria y diputado al Congreso de la Unión en el gobierno de Francisco I. Madero; asimismo, Secretario de Relaciones Exteriores del presidente Carranza.
    1863 Fire extinguisher patented by Alanson Crane.
    1849 Roman Republic declared.
    1830 Abdül Aziz, Istanbul, Ottoman Empire, 32nd sultan of Turkey (1861-1876)
    1823 Ulises Francisco Espaillat Quiñones, in Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic (occupied by Haiti at the time), pharmacist, writer, and politician who was president during 7 months in 1876. He died on 25 April 1878 in his native town. A nearby province, with capital at Moca, has been named after him.
    1815 Reinhard Sebastian Zimmermann, German artist who died on 16 November 1893.
    1801 José Joaquín Pesado, en San Agustín del Palmar, Puebla. Se distinguirá como eclesiástico conservador, periodista, funcionario público y poeta clásico e indigenista.
    1794 (or 10 or 11 Feb 1794) Henri Auguste Calixte César Serrur, French painter who died on 02 September 1865. — link to an image.
    1775 Farkas Wolfgang Bolyai, Hungary, mathematician (parallel axiom). He died in 1856.
    1773 William Henry Harrison, Virginia, (Whigs) 9th US President (04 March – 04 April 1841) the first US president to die in office, the shortest term.
    1699 Étienne Jeaurat (or Joras), French painter who died on 14 December 1789. UN PEU PLUS SUR JEAURAT À ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1662 Paolo de Matteis, Italian painter who died on 26 July 1728. — more with links to images.
    1650 Jan Verkolye (or Verkolje), Dutch painter who died on 08 May 1693. MORE ON VERKOLYE AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1617 Nicolaas van Eyck I, Dutch artist who died in 1679.
    1404 Constantine XI Dragases, last Byzantine Emperor {his nickname is NOT “Drag-Asses” nor “Kick-Butts”}.
     
    Roman Catholic : Commemoration of Saint Apollonia, deaconess/martyr / Santos Apolonia, Donato, Nicéforo, Primo y Sabino / Sainte Apolline fut martyrisée à Alexandrie en 249. Insensibles à son grand âge, ses bourreaux lui brisèrent les dents. Apolline se jeta alors dans le brasier préparé à son intention plutôt que de renier sa foi. Elle est invoquée contre les maux de dents!
    Ash Wednesday: 1622, 1633, 1701, 1780, 1785, 1842, 1853, 1910, 1921, 2005, 2084, 2157, 2214, 2225, 2372, 2377, 2456, 2461, 2524, 2529, 2676, 2681, 2738, 2749, 2828, 2833, 2901, 2980, 2991
    First Sunday of Lent: 1845, 1913, 2600, 2972

    DICTIONNAIRE TICRANIEN: tondu: ce que, en toute justice. je te paierai.
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