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Groundhog Day^  On a 02 February:

2008 From today (Feast of the Presentation of the baby Jesus in the Temple) until 11 February 2008 (150th anniversary of the first appearance of the Virgin Mary at Lourdes) a daily Plenary Indulgence is granted to the Christian faithful who, devoutly and in accordance with the established conditions (Confession within one week, Communion, no attachment to sin,. prayer for the intentions of the Pope), visit a blessed image of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lourdes solemnly displayed for public veneration in any church, oratory, grotto, or suitable place, and in the presence of that image perform some pious act of Marian devotion, or at least pause to reflect for an appropriate length of time, concluding with the Our Father, some legitimate form of the Creed, and the Jubilee prayer or some other Marian invocation. (the DECREE)
2005 Ontario Education Minister Gerard Kennedy facing the possibility of a strike by the province's teachers: “I think strike is a bit of a five-letter word in education and that gets people nervous”. Someone points out that “strike” has six letters. Kennedy, of the Liberal Party, replies: "Pardon me, I was going to say four, but it really is a tough word in education. Thank you -- show off!" A Dan Quayle moment? (potato+e) “But then again, at least no one put Dan Quayle in charge of educating over a million schoolchildren," says legislator John Baird, of the opposition Conservative Party.
Gulli och plånbok2004 Gilli got back her wallet!
     She had lost the wallet in the summer of 1963. It is returned to her with its complete contents: receipts, photographs, and 45.54 kronor, equivalent to about 412 kronor, or $56 of 2004.
— Plånbok kom till rätta efter 40 år.

     För några dagar sedan damp ett tjockt kuvert ned i brevlådan hemma hos Gulli Wihlborg i Malmö. När hon öppnade det blev hon minst sagt förvånad. I kuvertet låg den plånbok som hon tappade i Trelleborg sommaren 1963.
     Jag tycker att det är helt fantastiskt, säger Gulli Wihlborg som hade gett upp hoppet om att få tillbaka sin plånbok för länge sedan.Men inte nog med att den röda skinnplånboken, efter 40 år, kommit tillrätta. I den fanns både pengar, fotografier, kvitton och allt annat kvar.
      - Det är exakt 45 kronor och 54 öre. Det var väldigt mycket pengar för mig på den tiden. Jag hyrde ett möblerat rum med kokvrå för 90 kronor i månaden så det var halva hyran, berättar Gulli.
      Hon minns väl sommarkvällen då hon tappade plånboken. Hon var 18 år och hade nyss flyttat till Trelleborg och börjat arbeta i köket på lasarettet.
      - Jag kom samma år till Trelleborg som en lantis från Norra Håslöv och hyrde ett rum i Kyrkoköpinge. Den kvällen skulle jag cykla till en arbetskamrat på Slussgatan. När jag kom fram hade jag inte plånboken i fickan.
      Nu har hon fått reda på var hon tappade den, för i kuvertet tillsammans med plånboken låg en handskriven lapp.
      “Kära Gulli, man skall aldrig ge upp hoppet. Här får du din plånbok tappad på Östersjögatan för många år sen. Hälsningar från Trelleborg”.
      Vem som skrivit lappen och skickat plånboken vet Gulli Wihlborg inte.
      - Det skulle vara roligt att få veta. Man undrar ju varför den har skickats först nu, säger hon och hoppas att personen hör av sig.
      Trots att hon flyttade till Malmö för över 25 år sedan kom plånboken till hennes rätta adress i Malmö. Men i plånboken låg en lapp med en adress till hennes föräldrar utanför Rydsgård.
      - Den hade jag lagt i ifall jag skulle tappa plånboken. Så ordentlig var jag, säger hon.
tidsresa till 60-talet.
      Hon gick flera gånger till polisens hittegods för att se om någon lämnat in plånboken. Men den dök aldrig upp där.
      Nu gläds hon i stället åt att genom innehållet i plånboken återuppliva sina minnen. Och den är som en spegling av en 18-årig kvinnas liv på 60-talet.
      - Jag köpte en klänning för 56,50, det kvittot finns här. Så har jag varit på Alunbruket och dansat, säger hon och visar en gammal dansbiljett.
      Även lönelappar, tandläkarkvitton och en liten inköpslista fanns i plånboken liksom fotografier på väninnor och tidningsurklipp över gifta och förlovade bekanta.
      - Man gjorde ju så då, klippte ut i tidningen när det var någon man kände. Det hade jag säkert inte haft kvar i dag om jag inte hade tappat plånboken, konstaterar Gulli som nu tänker bevara sin plånbok precis som den är, med allting i.

2003 Elections in two German states: the Christian Democrats beat the Social Democrats (party of Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder): in Lower Saxony 48% to 33% (lost 36% to 48% in 1998), in Hesse 49% to 29% (tied at 39% in 1999).
2003 World chess champion Garry Kimovich Kasparov [13 April 1963-], with Black, draws against computer program Deep Junior in the fourth game of a match which will end in a draw with its 6th game on 07 February 2003 (26 Jan Game 1 — 28 Jan Game 2 — 30 Jan Game 3 — 05 Feb Game 5). The match score stays tied, now at: Kasparov 2, Deep Junior 2. The game:
1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 e6 5. Nb5 d6 6. c4 Nf6 7. N1c3 a6 8. Na3 Nd7 [an unprecedented and dubious move, intended to get Deep Junior out of its opening book] 9. Nc2 Be7 10. Be2 b6 11. 0~0 Bb7 12. h3 [< a useless move] 0~0 13. Be3 Rc8 14. Qd2 Nce5 15. b3 Nf6 16. f3 Qc7 17. Rac1 Rfe8 [rather than b5, as Kasparov waits to see whether Deep Junior makes other dubious moves] 18. a3 [< another useless move] Ned7 [b5 19. cxb5!? Qxc5 20. bxa5 would give White passed pawns on the Queen side for the loss of a knight] 19. Rfd1 Qb8 [gets the Queen out of the Rook's way on the c file, it can now go to a8 to work with the b7 Bishop to put pressure on White's e pawn] 20. Bf2 Rcd8 21. b4 [White gains space on the Queen side and threatens to advance more. Kasparov shakes his head, looking unhappy] Ba8 22. a4 Rc8 23. Rb1 Qc7 24. a5 [White sacrifices the pawn for the strong positional advantage of the pawn headed to a6 where it inhibits Black] bxa5 25. b5 Bb7 26. b6 Qb8 27. Ne3 Nc5 28. Qa2 Nfd7 29. Na4 Ne5 30. Nc2 Ncd7 31. Nd4 Red8 32. Kh1 [< a useless move] Nc6 33. Nxc6 Rxc6 34. Kg1 [< a useless move] h6 35. Qa3 Rdc8 36. Bg3 Bf8 37. Qc3 Ne5 38. c5 Nd7 [forced] 39. Qxa5 Nxc5 40. Nxc5 Rxc5 41. Qa4 R5c6 42. Bf2 d5! 43. Bxa6 Bc5 44. Bxc5 Rxc5 45. Bxb7 Qxb7 46. exd5 exd5 47. Qa7 R5c7 [forcing the exchange of Queens] 48. Qxb7 Rxb7 49. Rxd5 Rc6 50. Rdb5 h5 51.Kf2 Re6 52. f4 g6 53. Kg3 Kg7 54. Kh4 Kh6 55. R1b4 Rd6 56. g3 f6 57. g4 hxg4 58. hxg4 Kg7 59. Rb3 Rc6 60. g5 f5 61. Rb1. Deep Junior can't get an advantage out of its extra pawn, so its human offers a draw and Kasparov accepts.
2001 Pope John Paul II issues his message for the 87th annual Day of Migration.
2000 El histórico dirigente de la banda terrorista ETA, Juan Carlos Iglesias Chozua, alias "Gadafi", es detenido en Francia.
2000 La Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, cerrada desde abril de 1999, se convierte en escenario de una manifestación masiva en protesta por la subida de las matrículas y para exigir la participación estudiantil en la reestructuración de la principal universidad de América Latina.
1999 Senegal becomes the first country to ratify the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (which, two years later, would not have been ratified nor even signed by the US)
^1999 Clinton impeachment trial in US Senate: Jordan's deposition.

(1)
In today's deposition of presidential pal Vernon Jordan, Rep. Asa Hutchison (R-Arkansas) quizzes him about inconsistencies between his earlier testimony and testimony from Lewinsky.
  • Sources say Jordan couldn't remember a 31 December 1997, breakfast meeting with Lewinsky at which, she testified, he suggested she destroy drafts of notes she planned to send the president. When Hutchison produces a restaurant receipt from that breakfast, Jordan admits he had breakfast with Lewinsky on that date. He denies, though, that he told Lewinsky to destroy notes she had drafted to the president. Lewinsky has stuck by her testimony that Jordan told her to "go home and make sure they're not there." At the time, the notes were under subpoena.
  • The sources also say Jordan denies he was trying to buy Lewinsky's silence about her relationship with the president when he tried to find her a job in New York at Clinton's request. Jordan describes his job hunting effort as "uncommon" but says he did it as a favor for his friend.
  • The deposition also is attended by Clinton attorneys Nicole Seligman, Cheryl Mills and David Kendall, the same group on hand for the Lewinsky deposition.
  • After Hutchison finishes his questioning, sources say that Clinton's lawyers ask Jordan, "Do you have anything to add?" They say Jordan then tells a Horatio Alger-style story of how he grew up in poverty, but was helped along the way, to explain why he now takes an interest in helping others.
  • Jordan's deposition begins at 9:10 a.m. EST and ends around 2:30 p.m. An electrical power outage halts the proceeding for 20 minutes. "The deposition was conducted with professionalism from all sides, and I am satisfied that we covered the areas that we needed to cover today," Hutchison says.
    (JORDAN SENATE DEPOSITION TRANSCRIPT)
  • (2) While Jordan is testifying in a super-secure room in the US Capitol, senators are able to view Lewinsky's videotaped deposition in four different secured locations elsewhere in the building. Sources say Lewinsky, who was questioned for four hours on 01 February at a Washington hotel, broke no new ground in her testimony.
    (3) "It is our intention to request live witnesses," House Impeachment Trial Manager Henry Hyde (R- Illinois) tells reporters on Capitol Hill. "We think that's the highest and best evidence, and that will be our firm request." Hyde says the testimony of Lewinsky and of Clinton confidant Vernon Jordan had "strengthened some points" of the prosecution case. He makes his comments shortly after Jordan, who helped Lewinsky search for a job outside Washington, testified for three hours behind closed doors.
    (4) The search in the Senate for a bipartisan exit strategy to end President Bill Clinton's impeachment trial continues.
  • A group of Republican senators is hoping to put together a finding of facts proposal in time for debate in a party meeting on 04 February. Senate Judiciary Ccommittee chairman Orrin Hatch continues to look for support for his "adjournment plus" plan. He called it "the highest form of condemnation that can be made under the circumstances."
  • And a group of Democrats is trying to put the final touches on a censure resolution and then push it across party lines. On Capitol Hill, Clinton suffers a blow when a key Senate Democrat, Robert Byrd of West Virginia — the man who sponsored an unsuccessful motion to dismiss the impeachment trial last week — says "there's no question about his having given false testimony under oath" on more than one occasion. In an interview, Byrd says Clinton's false testimony may not constitute perjury in the "strict legal sense," but: "For the chief executive to give false testimony under oath willingly, knowingly and intentionally and repeatedly, certainly to me gets awfully close to abusing and violating the public trust and trust in the judicial system." Byrd wants the Senate to vote up or down on acquittal and then move to censure Clinton. "Because he shouldn't get off scot-free and people should not see him as having gotten off scot-free," Byrd says. "I don't think it should be a wishy-washy censure resolution; I think it should be a very strong resolution of censure."
    ^(5) Matt Drudge reports: DRUDGE REPORT 02/02/99 22:08 UT
    EXCLUSIVE: WHITE HOUSE PRESSURES 2ND NETWORK NOT TO AIR 'JANE DOE' STORY
    White House spokesman Joe Lockhart personally warned a news network on Tuesday not to air a story on Juanita Broaddrick, the DRUDGE REPORT has learned.
    The development comes two weeks after Broaddrick sat for an exclusive in-depth interview with NBC NEWS reporter Lisa Myers — an interview that NBC NEWS executives have determined is not fit for air.
    FOX NEWS CHANNEL on Tuesday evening ran with a story about the interview and questions swirling around NBC NEWS.
    According to network sources, earlier in the day, Lockhart called FOX NEWS CHANNEL's White House correspondent and warned him not to pursue the story.
    "You guys will regret this," Lockhart told the reporter. "Clinton haters have been putting this story out for a decade now, as far back as the '92 campaign."
    Lockhart warned: "If you go with the story after NBC NEWS decided not to, there won't be any argument about whether FOX NEWS is right wing or not."
    White House spokesman Jim Kennedy later called FOX NEWS to explain that Lockhart's comments were strictly "off the record," according to a well-placed source.
    Meanwhile, Lisa Myers has been told by management not to comment on her spiked interview with Broaddrick.
    Over the weekend, Broaddrick told a friend that she is now deeply disappointed in NBC, a network she says "hounded" her for nine months to get the interview and is now giving her the run-around.
    "It had been very painful to relive the experience which she had buried deep down for years," says a source. "But she thought she could clear it up once and for all and make the media go away with a one-time only statement."
    "Now she's in an even worse fix — calls, e-mails and people driving by all the time. NBC seems like its protecting the president, and she feels used after eight hours under the kleig lights with them."
    On Tuesday, NBC NEWS Washington bureau chief Tim Russert was hit with a "Jane Doe" question on the IMUS IN THE MORNING radio show.
    As captured by HOTLINE:
    Imus: "So, are you people at NBC News sitting on this Lisa Myers interview with Juanita Broaddrick?"
    Russert: "This is one of the most amazing stories that I've ever been involved in, because it just hit the internet, and hit talk radio. The answer is very simple. If we honestly had a buttoned-up bombshell, we would go with it in a flash. That's what we do for a living, and every time you're involved in a story, this one or any other story, who, what, where, why. And when you lock up all those various corroborations, you go with the story. If you don't, you don't go with it. There are four or five stories we're working on, Lisa Myers has led the way in her coverage of this entire episode. And, believe me, if and when we lock up a story, we'll go with it. If we don't, we won't."
    On if a tape of the Myers/Broaddrick interview exists: "I'm not going to get into where we are. It's a work in the process, about a whole lot of things."
    But last week, one NBC insider told the DRUDGE REPORT: "The story is done, our investigation is over! I challenge anyone to point out the holes in Lisa's piece."
    Russert neglected to point out that Myers first reported details of Broaddrick's story on 28 March 1998 on NBC NIGHTLY NEWS, just days before the Paula Jones case was dismissed.
    . . . .
  • FOX NEWS CHANNEL's Rita Cosby, in a story that aired on Tuesday night, expanded on many of the details first reported by Myers.
    COSBY: "The alleged assault occurred when Broaddrick was at a nursing home conference at this Little Rock hotel 21 years ago. At the time, Bill Clinton was Arkansas's state attorney general and running for governor. Sources say he was going to meet her in a conference room, but at the last minute he switched the location to a hotel room. A friend of Broaddrick's who attended the conference saw her right after the alleged assault. Norma Kelsay told FOX NEWS that Broaddrick said she had been assaulted by Clinton. Quote, "She was hysterical," Kelsey said. "Her lip was blue and bleeding, and her hose were severely torn in the crotch area." Three others close to Broaddrick, say Broaddrick gave them similar accounts. But Kelsay says Broaddrick told her never to tell anyone about what happened in the hotel because she didn't want any publicity and feared she would be blamed because she let him in her room."
    Broaddrick's local paper the TIMES RECORD of Arkansas reported over the weekend that Broaddrick has been spending time in her rural Crawford County home behind an electrified fence.
    1998 IBM announced an experimental computer initiative co-sponsored by the City of Oakland and Pacific Bell. The initiative would install a $1.2 million computer training facility in an Oakland housing project, providing computer access and training to low-income workers and welfare recipients. IBM planned to install servers, which would be connected to network computers-inexpensive desktop stations-in individual apartments.
    1998 US President Clinton introduced the first balanced budget in 30 years. His fraudulent successor, George “Dubyu” Bush (Jr.) would promptly unbalance it again by pushing for reckless tax cuts in 2001.
    1998 El liberal Miguel Ángel Rodríguez gana las elecciones presidenciales de Costa Rica.
    1997 Se inaugura en Estados Unidos la Cumbre del Microcrédito, un movimiento internacional destinado a conceder pequeñas ayudas económicas a los 100 millones de familias más pobres del mundo para que los dediquen a actividades productivas concretas.
    1996 The US Congress votes to rewrite the 61-year-old Communications Act. Companies in the television, computer, and telephone industries are now allowed to enter and compete in each other's fields under the new Telecommunications Act.
    1995 El Consejo de Europa aprueba el Convenio Europeo de Bioética, primer instrumento de investigación en campos médico y científico.
    1994 America Online announced it would limit the number of users allowed on the system during peak evening hours. The company had added 70,000 new users in January, boosting its overall membership to 600,000. The company said members might receive refunds if denied access to the service.
    1991 US postage is raised from 25¢ to 29¢
    1990 South Africa's President F[rederik] W[illem] de Klerk promises to free Nelson Mandela and legalizes African National Congress and 60 other political organizations
    ^ 1989 Last apartheid president resigns in South Africa
          South African President Pieter Willem Botha resigns as leader of the all-white National Party over internal party opposition to his approval of Namibia’s independence. P. W. Botha, who served as South African minister of defense during the late 1960s and 1970s, was elected prime minister of the National Party in 1978. As leader of South Africa, he initiated a limited reform of South Africa’s racist apartheid policies and established a new constitution that provided legislative chambers for whites, Asians, and racially mixed "Coloureds," although the black majority was excluded. Later leading under the new title of executive president, Botha promoted the "homelands" policy: the granting of limited self-rule to a four small, all-black regions, but also actively repressed black dissent. Reelected in 1987, he resigns over party differences and is succeeded by F[rederik] W[illem] de Klerk, who would oversee the end of South Africa’s apartheid policies and the transfer to majority rule.
    click for Dalai Lama site1989 0ºF (-18ºC) or below in 15 US states.
    1989 Andrés Rodríguez Pedotti encabeza un golpe de Estado en Paraguay contra el régimen del general Alfredo Stroessner, cuyo éxito llevó a la democratización del país.
    1988 The SEC reported that the October 17, 1987, stock market crash was accelerated by stock futures trading and recommended that certain computerized trading in futures be limited.
    1987 Philippines adopts constitution.
    1986 Oscar Arias Sanchez elected President of Costa Rica.
    1986 Dalai Lama [photo >] meets Pope John Paul II in India.
    ^1985 The "Reagan Doctrine" is announced
          In his State of the Union address, President Ronald Reagan defines some of the key concepts of his foreign policy, establishing what comes to be known as the "Reagan Doctrine." The doctrine served as the foundation for the Reagan administration's support of "freedom fighters" around the globe.
          Reagan began his foreign policy comments with the dramatic pronouncement that, "Freedom is not the sole prerogative of a chosen few; it is the universal right of all God's children." America's "mission" was to "nourish and defend freedom and democracy." More specifically, Reagan declared that, "We must stand by our democratic allies. And we must not break faith with those who are risking their lives-on every continent, from Afghanistan to Nicaragua-to defy Soviet-supported aggression and secure rights which have been ours from birth." He concluded, "Support for freedom fighters is self-defense."
          With these words, the Reagan administration laid the foundation for its program of military assistance to "freedom fighters." In action, this policy translated into covertly supporting the Contras in their attacks on the leftist Sandinista government in Nicaragua; the Afghan rebels in their fight against the Soviet occupiers; and anticommunist Angolan forces embroiled in that nation's civil war. President Reagan continued to defend his actions throughout his two terms in office. During his farewell address in 1989, he claimed success in weakening the Sandinista government, forcing the Soviets to withdraw from Afghanistan, and bringing an end to the conflict in Angola. Domestic critics, however, decried his actions, claiming that the support of so-called "freedom fighters" resulted only in prolonging and escalating bloody conflicts and in US support of repressive and undemocratic elements in each of the respective nations.
    1984 Lebanese army fight in Beirut.
    1983 Pope John Paul II names 18 new cardinals, among which Chicago Archbishop Joseph L Bernardin.
    1982 Government troops and Moslem-fundamentalists battle in Hamah Syria.
    1980 FBI releases details of Abscam, a sting operation that targeted 31 elected and public officials for bribes for political favors from phony Arab businessmen. The "Abscam" codename is protested by Arab-Americans.
    1977 Radio Shack officially begins creating the TRS-80 computer.
    1977 Se escinde en dos facciones el Partido del Congreso, en la India, al dimitir el ministro de Agricultura.
    1976 Robo de 119 cuadros de la última época de Picasso en el palacio de los Papas de Aviñón.
    1975 Army offensive against rebels in Eritrea Ethiopia.
    1974 Pope Paul VI encyclical "To Honor Mary".
    1973 Los arzobispos españoles Marcelo González y Narciso Jubany, designados cardenales de la Iglesia Católica.
    1973 Richath Helms, ends term as 8th director of CIA.
    ^ 1972 British Embassy in Dublin is burned
          Three days after thirteen unarmed civil rights demonstrators were shot dead by British paratroopers in Londonderry, Northern Ireland, outraged Irish citizens burn down the British embassy in Dublin, the capital of independent Ireland. The crisis in Northern Ireland escalated in 1969 when British troops were sent to the British possession to suppress nationalist activity by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and to quell religious violence between Protestants and Catholics. On 30 January 30 1972, Northern Catholics staged a massive civil rights march to protest the British policy of internment of suspected Irish nationalists. British army paratroopers were sent to confront the demonstrators and upon arrival they fired indiscriminately into the crowd, killing thirteen unarmed protestors in an event that would become known as "Bloody Sunday." These killings brought worldwide attention to the crisis in Northern Ireland and sparked protests all across Ireland. Three days after Bloody Sunday, the British embassy in Dublin was burned to the ground, and two months later the British government released a report exonerating British troops from any illegal actions during the Londonderry protest. Irish indignation over Britain’s Northern Ireland policies grew, and Britain increased its military presence in the North while removing any vestige of Northern self-rule. On 21 July 21 1972, the IRA exploded twenty bombs simultaneously in Belfast, killing British military personnel and a number of civilians. Britain responded by instituting a new court system composed of trial without jury for terrorism suspects and conviction rates topped over ninety percent. Since 1969, the conflict over Northern Ireland has claimed more than 3000 lives.
    Idi Amin^ 1971 Idi Amin Dada Oumée becomes Uganda's new dictator.
          After toppling the regime of Ugandan dictator Milton Obote on 25 January 1971, Major General Idi Amin, 46, declares himself military head of state and forms an eighteen-man government to run the country. Amin, commander-in-chief of Uganda’s armed forces since 1966, staged his successful coup against Obote while the Ugandan president was out of the country. Amin’s new government initially faces substantial opposition within the army by officers and troops loyal to Obote, but by the end of 1971, he is in firm control of both the army and the country. During 1972, Amin, a Muslim, strengthens ties with Libya and other Arab nations and launches a genocidal program to purge Uganda of its Lango and Acholi ethnic groups. In August of 1972, he orders all Asians to leave the country, and within three months all 60'000 have fled, thrusting Uganda into economic chaos. Over the next few years, Amin’s regime becomes increasingly brutal and autocratic; he dismisses his civilian government, declares himself president for life, and steps up his suppression of various ethnic groups and political opponents in the military and elsewhere. In 1978, Amin invades Tanzania in an attempt to annex the Kagera region, but in the next year, Tanzania launches a successful counter-offensive with the assistance of the Uganda National Liberation Front, a coalition of various anti-Amin groups. Amin and his government flee the country, and Obote returns from exile to reassume the Ugandan presidency. It is estimated that up to 300'000 Ugandans were killed during Idi Amin’s eight years of rule.
         A member of the small Kakwa tribe of northwestern Uganda, Amin had little formal education and joined the King's African Rifles of the British colonial army in 1943. He served in the Allied forces' Burma (Myanmar) campaign during World War II and in the British action against the Mau Mau revolt in Kenya (1952-56). Amin was one of the few Ugandan soldiers elevated to officer rank before Ugandan independence in 1962, and he became closely associated with the new nation's prime minister and president, Milton Obote. He was made chief of the army and air force (1966-70).
          Conflict with Obote arose, however, and on 25 January 1971 Amin stages a successful military coup. He became president and chief of the armed forces in 1971, field marshal in 1975, and life president in 1976. Amin ruled directly, shunning the delegation of power. He was noted for his abrupt changes of mood, from buffoonery to shrewdness, from gentleness to tyranny. He was often extreme in his nationalism. He expelled all Asians from Uganda in 1972, an action that led to the breakdown of Uganda's economy, and he publicly insulted Great Britain and the United States. A Muslim, he reversed Uganda's amicable relations with Israel and befriended Libya and the Palestinians; in July 1976 he was personally involved in the Palestinian hijacking of a French airliner to Entebbe. Amin also took tribalism, a long-standing problem in Uganda, to its extreme by allegedly ordering the persecution of Acholi, Lango, and other tribes. Amidst reports of the torture and murder of 100'000 to 300'000 Ugandans during Amin's presidency, Uganda was invaded by Ugandan nationalist and Tanzanian troops in October 1978. When the invasion forces reached Kampala, Uganda's capital, on 13 April 1979, Amin had fled the city. Escaping first to Libya, he finally settled in Saudi Arabia.
    1970 Primer trasplante, con éxito, de nervios en una clínica de Munich (RFA).
    1967 Bolivia adopts its constitution — Se promulga la Constitución de Bolivia.
    ^1962 First US Air Force plane crash in Vietnam War.
          The C-123 aircraft crashed while spraying defoliant on a Viet Cong ambush site. The aircraft was part of Operation Ranch Hand, a technological area-denial technique designed to expose the roads and trails used by the Viet Cong. US personnel dumped an estimated 19 million gallons of defoliating herbicides over 10-20 percent of Vietnam and parts of Laos from 1962 to 1971. Agent Orange — so named from the color of its metal containers — was the most frequently used. The operation succeeded in killing vegetation but not in stopping the Viet Cong. The use of these agents was controversial, both during and after the war, because of questions about long-term ecological impacts and the effect on humans who handled or were sprayed by the chemicals. Beginning in the late 1970s, Vietnam veterans began to cite the herbicides, especially Agent Orange, as the cause of health problems ranging from skin rashes to cancer and birth defects in their children. Similar problems, including an abnormally high incidence of miscarriages and congenital malformations, have been reported among the Vietnamese people who lived in the areas where the defoliate agents were used. 1970 Antiwar protestors sue Dow Chemical Antiwar protestors take legal action in an attempt to prove that the Dow Chemical Company is still making napalm. Dow had claimed that it had stopped making napalm. Members of the antiwar movement filed suit against the Dow Chemical Company in a Washington, D.C., court. The plaintiffs were trying to force the company to disclose all government contracts to prove that the company was still making napalm.
    1962 For the first time in 400 years, eight of the nine planets in the solar system line up.
    1959 Indira Gandhi Shrimati es nombrada presidenta del Partido del Congreso Indio.
    1957 UN adopts a resolution calling for Israeli troops to leave Egypt
    1954 Snow falls on Gibraltar.
    1954 President Eisenhower reports detonation of first H-bomb (done in 1952)
    1953 El presidente Dwight David Eisenhower anuncia el final de la neutralización de Formosa.
    ^1949 US rejects proposal for conference with Stalin
          In response to Soviet leader Joseph Stalin's proposal that President Harry S. Truman travel to Russia for a conference, Secretary of State Dean Acheson brusquely rejects the idea as a "political maneuver." This rather curious exchange was further evidence of the diplomatic sparring between the United States and the Soviet Union that was so characteristic of the early years of the Cold War.
          Stalin broached the idea of Truman traveling to the Soviet Union, or perhaps to Poland or Czechoslovakia, during a statement in which he indicated that his health prohibited him from coming to the United States to meet his American counterpart. Stalin's agenda for such a meeting was sketchy, beyond a general call for a declaration by each nation that it would not resort to war in dealing with the other. Secretary Acheson stated that he found this idea "puzzling," arguing that treaty commitments and adherence to the United Nations Charter already excluded war between the two powers. Furthermore, without a more concrete agenda, Acheson was reluctant to commit the United States to any one-on-one negotiations with the Soviet Union. In any case, the secretary concluded, President Truman was not willing to go "halfway around the world" to meet with the Soviet leader. Acheson also indicated his disappointment that any nation would "play international politics" with an issue as important as world peace.
          Stalin's vague proposal and Acheson's blistering response were typical of the constant war of words that took place between the Soviet Union and the United States during the late-1940s and all during the 1950s. The verbal sparring illustrated the lack of trust on both sides and the failure to locate any foundation for diplomatic negotiations. Although relations between the two nations warmed slightly during the 1960s and 1970s, the war of rhetoric continued unabated.
    1949 first 45 RPM record released
    1948 President Truman urges congress to adopt a civil rights program
    1945 Escape attempt at Mauthausen concentration camp
    1944 Allied troops first set foot on Japanese territory
    1944 4th US marine division conquerors Roi, Marshall Islands
    ^1943 Last German troops in Stalingrad surrender.
         The last German troops in the Soviet city of Stalingrad surrender to the Red Army, ending one of the pivotal battles of World War II. On 22 June 1941, despite the terms of the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939, Nazi Germany launched a massive invasion against the USSR. Aided by its greatly superior air force, the German army raced across the Russian plains, inflicting terrible casualties on the Red Army and the Soviet population. With the assistance of troops from their Axis allies, the Germans conquered vast territory, and by mid-October the great Russian cities of Leningrad and Moscow were under siege. However, the Soviets held on, and the coming of winter forced a pause to the German offensive.
          For the 1942 summer offensive, Adolf Hitler ordered the Sixth Army, under General Friedrich von Paulus, to take Stalingrad in the south, an industrial center and obstacle to Nazi control of the precious Caucasian oil wells. In August, the German Sixth Army made advances across the Volga River while the German Fourth Air Fleet reduced Stalingrad to a burning rubble, killing over 40'000 civilians.
          In early September, General Paulus ordered the first offensives into Stalingrad, estimating that it would take his army about 10 days to capture the city. Thus began one of the most horrific battles of World War II and arguably the most important because it was the turning point in the war between Germany and the USSR. In their attempt to take Stalingrad, the German Sixth Army faced a bitter Red Army under General Vasily Zhukov employing the ruined city to their advantage, transforming destroyed buildings and rubble into natural defensive fortifications. In a method of fighting the Germans began to call the Rattenkrieg, or "Rat's War," the opposing forces broke into squads eight or 10 strong and fought each other for every house and every meter of territory.
          The battle saw rapid advances in street-fighting technology, such as a German machine gun that shot around corners and a light Russian plane that glided silently over German positions at night, dropping lethal bombs without warning. However, both sides lacked necessary food, water, or medical supplies, and tens of thousands perished every week. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin was determined to liberate the city named after him, and in November he ordered massive reinforcements to the area.
          On 19 November, General Zhukov launched a great Soviet counteroffensive out of the rubble of Stalingrad. German command underestimated the scale of the counterattack, and the Sixth Army was quickly overwhelmed by the offensive, which involved 500'000 Soviet soldiers, 900 tanks, and 1400 aircraft. Within three days, the entire German force of more than 200'000 men was encircled. Italian and Romanian troops at Stalingrad surrendered, but the Germans hung on, receiving limited supplies by air and waiting for reinforcements. Hitler ordered Von Paulus to remain in place and promoted him to field marshal, as no Nazi field marshal had ever surrendered.
          Starvation and the bitter Russian winter took as many lives as the merciless Soviet troops, and on 21 January, 1943, the last of the airports held by the Germans fell to the Soviets, completely cutting the Germans off from supplies. On 31 January, Von Paulus surrendered German forces in the southern sector, and on 02 February the remaining German troops surrendered. Only 90'000 German soldiers were still alive, and of these only 5000 would survive the Soviet prisoner-of-war camps and make it back to Germany. The Battle of Stalingrad turned the tide in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union. General Zhukov, who had played such an important role in the victory, later led the Soviet drive on Berlin. On 01 May 1945, he personally accepted the German surrender of Berlin. Von Paulus, meanwhile, agitated against Adolf Hitler among the German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union and in 1946 provided testimony at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. After his release by the Soviets in 1953, he settled in East Germany.
          The last of the German forces fighting at Stalingrad surrender, despite Hitler's earlier declaration that "Surrender is out of the question. The troops will defend themselves to the last!" The Battle of Stalingrad began in the summer of 1942, as German forces assaulted the city, a major industrial center and a potential strategic coup. But despite repeated attempts, the German 6th Army, under Friedrich von Paulus, and part of the 4th Panzer Army, under Ewald von Kleist, could not break past the adamantine defense by the Soviet 62nd Army, despite pushing the Soviets almost to the Volga River in mid-October and encircling Stalingrad. Diminishing resources, partisan guerilla attacks, and the cruelty of the Russian winter began to take their toll on the Germans. On 19 November, the Soviets made their move, launching a counteroffensive that began with a massive artillery bombardment of the German position. The Soviets then encircled the enemy, launching pincer movements from north and south simultaneously, even as the Germans encircled Stalingrad. The German position soon became untenable. Surrender was their only hope for survival. But Hitler wouldn't hear of it: "The 6th Army will hold its positions to the last man and the last round."
          Von Paulus held out until 31 January 1943, when he finally surrendered. Of more than 280'000 men under Paulus' command, half were already dead or dying, about 35'000 had been evacuated from the front, and the remaining 91'000 were hauled off to Soviet POW camps. Pockets of German belligerence continued until 02 February. Hitler berated Von Paulus for not committing suicide. Von Paulus, captured by the Soviets, repaid Hitler by selling out to the Soviets, joining the National Committee for Free Germany, and urging German troops to surrender on other battlegrounds in the USSR.
    ^1942 Quisling becomes Nazis' puppet prime minister of Norway
          Vidkun Quisling, a collaborator with the Nazi occupiers of Norway, is established as prime minister of a puppet government. On April 9, 1940, German warships entered major Norwegian ports, from Narvik to Oslo, deployed thousands of German troops, and occupied Norway. German forces were able to slip through the mines Britain had laid around Norwegian ports because local garrisons were ordered to allow the Germans to land unopposed. The order came from a Norwegian commander, Vidkun Quisling, who was loyal to Norway's pro-fascist former foreign minister.
          Hours after the invasion, the German minister in Oslo demanded Norway's surrender. The Norwegian government refused, and the Germans responded with a parachute invasion. In September 1940, "commissarial counselors" in the control of the Germans replaced Norway's administrative council. Chief of these "counselors" was Quisling, who was given dictatorial powers and who proceeded to earn the enmity of Norwegians as he sent thousands of people to German concentration camps and executed members of the resistance movement. On 01 February 1942, the commissarial counselors formed a formal government loyal to Germany, with Quisling as its prime minister. When Germany finally surrendered in May 1945, Quisling was arrested by Norway's Allied liberators, tried for treason, and executed. His name continues to be a synonym for "traitor."
    1942 US auto factories switch from commercial to war production
    1942 Los Angeles Times urges security measures against Japanese-Americans.
    1941 Encuentro Franco-Mussolini, en Bordighera (Italia).
    1935 Lie detector first used in court (Portage WI)
    1933 Göring bans communist meetings/demonstrations in Germany
    1933 2 days after becoming chancellor, Adolf Hitler dissolves Parliament
    1932 Geneva disarmament conference begins with 60 countries
    1931 first use of a rocket to deliver mail (Austria)
    1929 The US Federal Reserve announces a ban on bank loans for margin trades.
    1923 US signs friendship treaty with Central American countries.
    1921 Manifestaciones en Alemania contra los acuerdos sobre las reparaciones de guerra.
    1920 Proclamation of Estonia's independence, recognized by Russia (Dorpat Peace)
    1920 France occupies (German) Memel territory
    1919 Monarchist riot in Portugal
    1906 Pope encyclical against separation of church and state
    1893 Thomas Edison's early movie technology, called a Kinetoscope, debuted in the early 1890s. His associate, William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, filmed the first close-up—forty-seven images of comedian Fred Ott sneezing-in a studio consisting a frame cabin covered with black roofing paper (which could rotate to face the sun) on Edison's property in West Orange, New York. The film was the first movie to be copyrighted and was listed in the patent records as Edison's Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze.
    1887 The beginning of groundhog day in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania. [see http://www.groundhog.org].
    1878 Greece declares war on Turkey
    1870 The "Cardiff Giant," supposedly the petrified remains of a human discovered in Cardiff, N.Y., is revealed to be nothing more than carved gypsum.
    1864 Cruise of the CSS Florida
    1863 Samuel Clemens becomes Mark Twain for first time
    1854 Pope Pius IX encyclical "On the persecution of Armenians"
    ^1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed
          In Mexico, representatives from the US and Mexico sign the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, formally ending the Mexican War and extending the boundaries of the United States west to the Pacific Ocean. The Mexican-American War began with a dispute over the US government’s 1845 annexation of Texas. In January of 1846, President James K. Polk, a strong advocate of westward expansion, ordered General Zachary Taylor to occupy disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio Grande rivers. Mexican troops attacked Taylor’s forces, and on May 13, 1846, Congress approved a declaration of war against Mexico. On September 14, 1847, US General Winfield Scott entered Mexico City and raised the American flag over the Hall of Montezuma, concluding a devastating advance that began with an amphibious landing at Vera Cruz seven months earlier. On February 2, 1848, the two nations signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, in which Mexico agreed to recognize Texas as part of the United States, and ceded over 500,000 square miles of territory to the US, including all of the future states of California, Nevada, and Utah, almost all of New Mexico and Arizona, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. In return the US agreed to pay Mexico $15,000,000 and to assume all the claims of American citizens against Mexico, amounting to $3,250,000.
         The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the Mexican War and extends the boundaries of the United States west to the Pacific Ocean. The terms of the agreement established the border between the US and Mexico at the Rio Grande and the Gila River and granted the US more than 525,000 square miles of former Mexican territory that includes present-day Arizona, California, western Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah. This treaty, along with the 30 December 1853 Gadsden Purchase, completed the continental expansion of the United States.
    — Se firma el Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo entre México y EEUU, por el que este último gana California (Alta), Arizona, Nuevo México, Nevada, Colorado, Utah y parte de Wyoming, así como el reconocimiento de la independencia (y anexión voluntaria) de Texas.
    1848 first shipload of Chinese arrive in San Francisco
    1843 US and British settlers in Oregon Country choose governmental committee
    1832 Les légitimistes de Vendée et de Provence, sur l'instigation de la duchesse de Berry complotent pour porter sur le trône Henri de Chambord, le fils posthume du duc de Berry. De tentative en tentative avortée, les complots tous seront déjoués par le gouvernement en place.
    1811 Russian settlers establish Fort Ross trading post, north of San Francisco
    1802 first leopard exhibited in US, Boston (admission 25¢)
    1742 British Walpole government resigns.
    1737 Se produce un incendio, llamado "Fuego Grande", que devastó la ciudad de Panamá.
    1709 British sailor Alexander Selkirk is rescued after being marooned on a desert island for 5 years, his story inspires "Robinson Crusoe"
    1653 New Amsterdam becomes a city (later New York NY) — Nueva Amsterdam, más tarde denominada Nueva York, adquiere la categoría de ciudad.
    1652 la Fronde des Princes étant vaincue, le ministre Mazarin peut enfin rentrer à Paris. Le pouvoir du roi Louis XIV ne connaîtra désormais plus d'entrave. Il deviendra absolu.
    1550 English Edward Seymour duke of Somerset, freed.
    1542 La expedición de 50 hombres de Francisco de Orellana descubre el río Amazonas.
    1529 Ambrosio Alfinger, al mando de la expedición de la familia Welser, desembarca en Santa Marta (Venezuela). Este hecho inicia la experiencia colonizadora de los Welser, que terminará en un completo fracaso.
    1518 Las Cortes de Valladolid acuerdan la incorporación de las Indias a la Corona de Castilla.
    1461 2nd battle of St Alban's-Lancastrians defeat Yorkists
    1428 Un fort terratrèmol tingué lloc amb l'epicentre prop de Puigcerdà, Cerdanya, i d'una intensitat valorada sobre el 9 de l'escala Richter, el qual provocà molts i greus danys, amb el consegüent enderrocament de moltes cases.
    1119 Guido di Borgogna elected Pope Callistus II
    1032 Koenraad II succeeds Rudolf III as king of Bourgundy
    ^ Pope John XII crowns German King Otto I the Great Emperor
    0962 Le Saxon Otton, le saxon, est couronné empereur d'Occident par le pape Jean XII, à Rome.
          Il fonde ainsi le 1er Reich allemand, selon la terminologie des historiens postérieurs. Otton (ou Othon) a d'abord été sacré roi de Germanie à Aix-la-Chapelle, vingt-cinq ans plus tôt, à la suite de son père Henri 1er l'Oiseleur (ainsi surnommé parce qu'il aimait la chasse au faucon). Après avoir brisé les révoltes des ducs et des grands féodaux allemands, il a ceint à Pavie, près de Milan, la couronne des rois lombards. Sa victoire sur les Hongrois au Lechfeld, près de Vienne, en 955, met un terme à la dernière invasion barbare en Europe. Elle lui vaut un immense prestige auprès de ses guerriers et des clercs d'Occident, qui songent à ressusciter pour lui le titre impérial. L'infatigable Otton 1er redescend en Italie et sauve le pape d'une attaque par un seigneur italien, Bérenger II de Frioul. Il peut enfin se faire couronner «Empereur et Auguste» à Rome. Il a 49 ans. Otton le Grand marche ainsi sur les traces de Charlemagne, qui s'était aussi fait couronner roi des Lombards et empereur d'Occident... près de deux siècles plus tôt. Sans infrastructures ni administration autre que l'Eglise, le nouvel empire est une très pâle copie de l'empire romain, disparu depuis près de 500 ans. Il couvre le royaume de Germanie, ou d'Allemagne, et le royaume d'Italie, limité à la Lombardie. Quelques décennies plus tard, en 1032, il s'adjoint le royaume de Bourgogne. Ce dernier est issu des partages de la Lotharingie carolingienne. Il s'étend de la Méditerranée à la Lorraine actuelle en passant par Lyon et la Suisse actuelle. Après la rupture entre le pape et l'empereur qui règne à Byzance (l'actuelle Istanbul), en 1054, l'empire d'Occident se fait appeler «Saint Empire romain» (sacrum imperium) pour se distinguer de l'empire orthodoxe d'Orient. Au XVe siècle, le titre impérial tombe définitivement dans la famille des Habsbourg et l'on en vient à parler du Saint Empire romain germanique. Tout un programme... Charles Quint, élu en 1519, est le dernier empereur à recevoir la consécration pontificale. Après lui, l'empire se cantonne à l'Allemagne et l'empereur n'a véritablement d'autorité que sur les Etats héréditaires des Habsbourg, essentiellement l'archiduché d'Autriche et les royaumes de Bohême et de Hongrie. Le titre impérial devient exclusivement honorifique à partir des traités de Westphalie (1648). Il sera aboli le 12 juillet 1806 par la volonté de Napoléon 1er.
    L'élection et la Diète d'Empire
          Otton le Grand et ses successeurs n'arriveront jamais à affermir leur autorité. En l'absence de succession héréditaire, à chaque vacance du trône, le choix du titulaire restera soumis au vote des principaux barons d'Allemagne, réunis en Assemblée. On prendra l'habitude de désigner la journée de l'élection impériale d'après le mot latin dies qui désigne tout simplement le jour. Le mot, transformé en Diète, finira par désigner l'assemblée électorale elle-même. Comme le mot latin dies se traduit en allemand par Tag, on en arrivera aussi à désigner l'Assemblée d'Empire du nom de Reichstag. Les seigneurs de l'Empire profiteront régulièrement des élections pour marchander un renforcement de leurs privilèges et de leur autonomie. Les empereurs eux-mêmes se montreront plus soucieux de se pavaner dans leur belle possession italienne que de renforcer leur autorité sur l'Allemagne. Le comble sera atteint par l'empereur Frédéric II de Hohenstaufen, contemporain de Saint Louis. Vivant en Sicile au milieu d'une somptueuse cour arabo-normande, il ne s'intéressera à l'Allemagne que pour y puiser des ressources. L'Allemagne attendra 9 siècles avant de devenir un Etat national.
    La France et le Saint-Empire romain germanique
         Le Saint Empire est mort il y a deux siècles (en 1806) et pendant les 5 derniers siècles de son existence, il n'a été qu'un hochet entre les mains des Habsbourg qui régnaient à Vienne, aux marches de l'Allemagne. Aussi longtemps que dura le Saint Empire, jamais les Allemands n'agressèrent la France, sauf à Bouvines en 1214. Ils étaient trop divisés et leur empereur manquait d'autorité pour les engager dans une guerre d'agression... De toute façon, l'empereur ne s'intéressait pas à ses sujets allemands. Il n'avait d'yeux que pour les Italiens. A deux reprises seulement, sous François 1et et sous Richelieu (il y a 450 ans et 365 ans!), la France se sentit menacée par l'empereur, mais c'était en tant que souverain de l'Espagne et des Pays-Bas. L'Allemagne en tant que telle, et la Prusse qui la précéda, ne menacèrent la France qu'entre 1866 (bataille de Sadowa entre la Prusse et l'Autriche) et 1945, soit pendant moins de 80 ans. A comparer avec les 10 siècles d'existence de la France. Si les Français veulent à tout prix se trouver un «ennemi séculaire» ou «héréditaire», ils doivent regarder non vers le Rhin mais vers l'Angleterre. Depuis le couronnement du roi Henri II Plantagenêt et d'Aliénor d'Aquitaine, en 1154, jusqu'à l'affaire de Fachoda, en 1898, soit pendant plus de 700 ans, les deux pays ne cessèrent presque jamais de se combattre! La seule période de véritable entente remonte aux règnes de Louis-Philippe 1er et Napoléon III. En 1898, les républicains nationalistes rêvaient encore de faire la guerre à la «perfide Albion», de préférence à l'Allemagne. En 1919, au traité de Versailles, le républicain Georges Clemenceau, dont se réclame le ministre de l'Intérieur, prit le risque d'ouvrir un boulevard à Hitler en faisant passer sa haine des Habsbourg et du Saint-Empire romain germanique avant toute autre considération. Au vu de ces rappels historiques, il est regrettable que les séquelles douloureuses d'un passé proche n'en finissent pas d'obscurcir la conscience de nos meilleurs citoyens, y compris au gouvernement.
    Othon Ier le Grand (912-973), roi de Germanie dès 936 est couronné Empereur. C’est le fils d'Henri Ier l'Oiseleur, fondateur du Saint Empire romain germanique. Après avoir maté une révolte des nobles fomentée par son frère, Othon consolida son royaume en dépossédant les grands féodaux de leurs duchés, qu'il redistribua à ses proches. En 951, il vainquit Berenger II, qui avait usurpé le royaume d'Italie, et se fit proclamer roi à Pavie. Lorsqu'il revint en Allemagne, il soumit les nobles, qui, menés par son fils Liudolf, s'étaient soulevés, puis stoppa l'invasion hongroise (955). En 962, il fut couronné empereur à Rome par le pape Jean XII. Entendant subordonner l'Église à l'autorité de l'Empire — tout en contribuant à la propagation du christianisme —, Othon déposa le pape Jean XII en 963. S'il échoua dans ses négociations d'alliance territoriale avec l'empereur byzantin Nicéphore II Phocas, il obtint la reconnaissance de sa dignité par Constantinople en mariant son fils, le futur Otton II, à Théophano, fille de Nicéphore. Notez que l’on trouve dans les encyclopédies, Otton et Othon.
    0506 King Alarik II of Visigoten delegates Lex Romania Visigothorum out — A Aire-sur-Adour, le roi wisigoth qui règne sur la région de Toulouse publie un recueil de lois connu sous le nom de Bréviaire d'Alaric. Ce document établit un nouveau droit à l'usage des Barbares et des Gallo-Romains et il confirme la prépondérance des premiers sur les seconds. La même année, faute de soutien populaire, les Wisigoths seront battus par Clovis et ses Francs à Vouillé, dans le Poitou. Ils abandonneront l'Aquitaine pour se replier au-delà des Pyrénées.
    TO THE TOP
    < 01 Feb 03 Feb >
    ^Deaths which occurred on a 02 February:

    ^ 2008 Joshua Lederberg, [23 May 1925–], who shared the 1958 Physiology Nobel Prize with with Edward L. Tatum [14 Dec 1909 – 05 Nov 1975] and George Wells Beadle [22 Oct 1903 – 09 Jun 1989].
          After graduating from Stuyvesant High School in Manhattan in 1941, Lederberg went to Columbia and studied zoology, receiving a bachelor’s with honors in 1944. He then went to medical school at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia. In 1943, he participated in a Navy medical training program, examining servicemen returning from war in the Pacific for malaria parasites.
          After two years in medical school, in the summer of 1944, Lederberg transferred to Yale and helped pioneer the field of bacterial genetics. He received his doctorate at Yale in 1947. At the time, scientists believed that bacteria reproduced asexually by dividing into genetically identical halves. But Lederberg found that bacteria possessed a genetic mechanism, called recombination, similar to that of higher organisms, including humans. It begins with the transmission of genes from one bacterium to another.
          Lederberg left Yale in 1947 for the University of Wisconsin, where he continued to study bacterial genetics. He founded the department of medical genetics. At Wisconsin, he also helped prove that genetic mutations occurred spontaneously. In 1959, he joined the Stanford School of Medicine, where he was chairman of the department of genetics and was a professor of biology and computer science, working on research in artificial intelligence, biochemistry and medicine. In 1978, he moved to Rockefeller as its fifth president, serving until June 1990. Lederberg advised a total nine US administrations.
          From 1966 to 1971, Lederberg wrote a weekly column for The Washington Post.
         With Carl Sagan [09 Nov 1934 – 20 Dec 1996] Lederberg founded exobiology (word invented by Lederberg for the science of the possibility of alien life).
         His first marriage, to Esther Lederberg, ended in divorce in 1966; a microbiologist, she was a member of her husband’s research team in the early 1950s, and was credited with discovering a virus that invades bacteria and hides within its DNA, often emerging later to destroy its host. His second wife was Dr. Marguerite S. Lederberg.
    —  The Joshua Lederberg Papers
    —(080205)
    2005 Mahir Aswad, an Israeli government driver, killed in the crossfire between US troops and insurgents in Baghdad, Iraq.
    2004 Some 90 persons, including a 2-year-old girl, in Selcuklu, Konya province, Turkey, after the 20:15 collapse of an 11-story building down to a 5-meter level. It had some 140 residents in 37 apartments. Some of the deaths occur in the following days among those trapped under the debris, while some persons are rescued, including on 08 February 2004 the boy Muhammet Kalem, 16, whose father had escaped just before the collapse, but whose mother and brother are among the dead; and on 09 February 2004 the woman Yasemin Yaprakci, 24.
    2004 Seven hadjis, from injuries suffered the previous day at the stoning of the devil ritual near Mecca, Saudi Arabia, in stampede in which 244 died before them.
    2004 A Hamas gunman; and Mujdi al-Khatib; and Yasser Abu al-Aesh, and his brother; in Israeli pre-dawn attack, with tanks and helicopters, on the Rafah refugee camp in the Gaza Strip. Al-Khatib, al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades' top field commander in the camp, and the Hamas gunman are killed by the Israeli heavy machinegun fire at the start of the attack. Then Israeli troops go to the home of al-Aesh, a senior local leader of the Islamic Jihad group who lost his legs and an arm and four comrades a year earlier when a tank shell hit his rocket-firing squad in Rafah; he belonged to another group, the Popular Resistance Committees, at the time. If the Israeli army is to be believed, they killed al-Aesh when he used his remaining arm to throw a grenade at the soldiers who wanted merely to arrest him; and they killed his brother when he interfered. The only Israeli casualty in the whole attack on the refugee camp is one soldier lightly wounded.
    2004 Israeli Givati Brigade soldiers Staff Sgt. Elon Yaakov Horowitz, from the enclave Moshav Nov in the Golan, and Staff Sgt. Shay Indeshoh Abebeh, from Kiryat Motzkin, during pre-dawn military exercises in the occupied Syrian Golan Heights. They are sitting in the front seat of a jeep stuck on a dirt road, when an armored personnel carrier crashes into it. Abebeh had immigrated from Ethiopia as part of Operation Solomon in 1991.
    Danielle van Dam2003 Some 50 persons by explosion at 12:30 in Lagos Island district of Lagos, Nigeria, which collapses the building in which three floors of apartments were above the ground floor Prudent Bank. Some 40 are injured.
    2003 Harold Ginsberg, 85, of pneumonia (not specified whether viral or bacterial), US microbiologist, pioneer in the study of viruses.
    2002 Danielle van Dam [22 Sep 1994–], [photo >] murdered after being kidnapped from her San Diego home the previous night [during which her father, Damon van Dam, 36, had smoked marijuana with his wife and two of her women friends, then had sexual fun with them including adultery with one of the women]. After weeks of searching and wide publicity, Danielle' body would be found on 27 February 2002. David Westerfield [25 Feb 1952~], who lives two doors down from the van Dams [and who was at a bar with the same three women earlier in the evening], would be arrested on 22 February 2002 on suspicion of being the kidnapper-murderer. He would go on trial on 05 June 2002, be convicted on 21 August 2002 and, on 03 January 2003, sentenced to death.
    2002 Talab Mansur (aka Abu Barera), Rashid Aziz, Abu Isha, and Abu Salama, all 4 Lashker- e-Toiba militants infiltrators from Pakistan, in a gunbattle with Indian security forces at Surankote in Poonch district, Jammu-Kashmir. The four were reportedly involved in the recent massacre of 11 people in in Mendhar village of Jammu region..
    2002 An Indian security jawan and Haq Nawa, recruiter for the Pakistan-based Lashker- e-Toiba terrorrists, during Indian army search operations at Chimar village in Anantnag district, Jammu-Kashmir.
    2002 Five Nepalese killed by Indian soldiers at Salpara village in western Assam's Kokrajhar district. The army says that those killed were "hardcore militants" of the outlawed separatist outfit National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB). The Army's version is rejected by local Nepalese and doubted by magistrates. A number of Nepalese, most of them dairy farmers, have been settled in the area, which borders Nepal, for several decades. India has open borders with Nepal and citizens of both countries are free to travel without passports. The mostly Christian NDFB is fighting for an independent tribal homeland and for writing the Bodo language in Roman characters (instead of Devnagri script) and currently operates out of fortified bases inside Bhutan to carry out their hit-and-run guerrilla strikes on Indian federal soldiers in Assam. More than 10'000 persons have lost their lives to insurgency in Assam since 1980.
    1996 Teacher and two students shot by a 14-year-old boy with a hunting rifle, at Frontier Junior High School in Moses Lake, Washington.The boy was inspired by the plot of a Stephen King novel and by the movie Natural Born Killers. A third student was injured.
    1994 Al menos 200 personas al descarrilar un tren en Kasai, Zaire.
    1987 Samuel “Jacques” Azar and Dr. Moshe Marzouk, executed in Cairo, Egypt, as Jewish spies.
    1987: 79 alumnas en dos escuelas de Mianeh (Irán), en un ataque aéreo iraquí.
    1979 Sid Vicious, of a heroin overdose, in New York, bassist for the punk group the Sex Pistols. The previous day, he had been released from prison on bail after his arrest on in October 1978 for stabbing to death his girlfriend, go-go dancer Nancy Spungeon, 20.
    1974 Imre Lakatos, Jewish Hungarian English mathematician born Imre Lipschitz on 09 November 1922.
    1971 Yuriy Dmitrievich Sokolov, Ukrainian mathematician born on 26 May 1896.
    1970 Bertrand Arthur William Russell 3rd earl of Kingston Russell, viscount Amberley, British mathematician and philosopher, born on 18 May 1872. He is best known for his work on mathematical logic, and for his social and political campaigns, including for pacificism and nuclear disarmament. He received the 1950 Nobel Literature Prize.
    1967 Robert Julius Oppenheimer, físico estadounidense.
    1965 George Neville Watson, English mathematician born on 31 January 1886.
    1955 José Antonio Remón Cantera, presidente de Panamá.
    1950 Constantin Carathéodory, German mathematician born on 13 September 1873. Carathéodory made significant contributions to the calculus of variations, the theory of point set measure, and the theory of functions of a real variable.
    ^ 1940 Day 65 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
    More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

    Brazil sends Finland 10'000 sacks of coffee

          Karelian Isthmus: Soviet forces continue their assault on the 3rd Division's main defensive position.
          The Soviet Air Force continues its bombing raids as part of the general offensive on the Isthmus.
          Eastern Isthmus: a patrol of seven enemy paratroopers lands on the frozen Lake Pyhäjärvi and is wiped out.
          Northern Finland: the Soviet 54th Division, surrounded in Kuhmo, is attempting to break out by attacking in a number of areas.
          Another enemy division is brought in to support the attacks.
          Ladoga Karelia: 92 enemy aircraft attack Sortavala in five waves, killing 15 persons and injuring 44 others; the Lutheran church is among the buildings destroyed in the attack.
          Pori: enemy bombers hit a bomb splinter shelter, killing 11 women and 3 men. Altogether 21 people are killed in the raid.
          Lake Saimaa: Lieutenant Fritz Rasmussen, a Danish volunteer pilot, is killed when enemy aircraft shoot down his Fokker FR-81 while he is on a defensive flight near Rauha on the shores of Lake Saimaa.
          Abroad: the Holmenkollen skiing stadium in Oslo puts on a benefit event in aid of Finland. The main attractions are the oft-crowned Olympic speed-skating champion and World Champion Clas Thunberg and the ski-jumpers Lauri Valonen and Niilo Toppila.
          Brazilian President Getulio Vargas announces that Brazil is to send Finland a gift of 10'000 sacks of coffee.
          The Finnish Government presents its opening position for peace talks in response to the terms of negotiation presented by the Soviet Union. The response is communicated to the Soviet Union via the Swedish Foreign Ministry.
          The Soviet Ambassador in Stockholm, Madame Alexandra Kollontai, indicates that the Soviet Union cannot give up its demand for bases in Finland.
          The British War Cabinet rejects a plan for a naval blockade of the Soviet Union.
    ^ Brasilia lahjoittaa Suomelle 10'000 säkkiä kahvia Talvisodan 65. päivä, 02.helmikuuta.1940
           Kannaksella neuvostojoukkojen hyökkäykset 3. Divisioonan puolustusasemia vastaan jatkuvat.
          Vihollisen Kannaksen yleishyökkäykseen liityvät ilmapommitukset jatkuvat.
           Itä-Kannakselle Pyhäjärven jäälle pudotettu vihollisen seitsemän laskuvarjomiehen partio tuhotaan.
           Kuhmossa saarrettu 54. neuvosto-divisioona hyökkää usealla kaistalla.
          Vihollinen keskittää hyökkäävän divisioonansa avuksi toisen divisioonan.
           92 viholliskonetta hyökkää viitenä eri aaltona Sortavalaan surmaten 15 ihmistä ja haavoittaen 44:ää, mm. Sortavalan luterilainen kirkko tuhoutuu.
           Porissa vihollinen pommittaa sirpalesuojaa, 11 naista ja 3 miestä saavat surmansa. Kaikkiaan Porissa kuolee tässä pommituksessa 21 ihmistä.
           Tanskalainen vapaaehtoinen lentäjä, luutnantti Fritz Rasmussen saa surmansa, kun viholliskoneet ampuvat hänen ohjaamansa Fokker FR-81-koneen alas torjuntalennolla Saimaalla Rauhan lähistöllä.
          Holmenkollenin hiihtostadionilla järjestetään juhla Suomen hyväksi. Tilaisuuden pääesiintyjät ovat moninkertainen pikaluistelun olympiavoittaja ja maailmanmestari Clas Thunberg sekä mäkihyppääjät Lauri Valonen ja Niilo Toppila.
          Brasilian presidentti Getulio Vargas ilmoittaa, että Brasilia lahjoittaa Suomelle 10'000 säkkiä kahvia.
          Suomen hallitus esittää ensimmäiset rauhan-neuvotteluperusteet vastauksessaan Neuvostoliiton neuvotteluehtoihin. Vastaus toimitetaan Ruotsin ulkoministeriön kautta Neuvostoliitolle.
          Neuvostoliiton suurlähettiläs Tukholmassa, rouva Aleksandra Kollontai ilmoittaa, että Neuvostoliitto ei voi luopua vaatimuksestaan saada tukikohtia Suomesta.
          Englannin sotakabinetti hylkää Neuvostoliiton merisaarto-suunnitelman.
    ^Brasilien donerar 10'000 säckar kaffe till Finland Vinterkrigets 65 dag, den 02 februari 1940
           Sovjettruppernas attacker mot den 3. Divisionens försvarsställningar fortsätter på Näset.
          Flygbombningarna i anslutning till den allmänna offensiven på Näset fortsätter.
          En rysk patrull bestående av sju fallskärmssoldater landar på Pyhäjärviisen på Östra Näset. Patrullen likvideras.
          Den i Kuhmo omringade ryska 54. Divisionen anfaller på flera sektorer.
          Fienden förflyttar en annan division för att stöda den anfallande divisionen.
          92 ryska plan anfaller Sordavala i fem separata omgångar. 15 personer dödas och 44 skadas. Bland annat Sordavala lutherska kyrka förstörs.
          I Björneborg bombar fienden ett splitterskydd, 11 kvinnor och 3 män omkommer. I Björneborg dödas inalles 21 personer vid den här räden.
          Den danske frivillige piloten, löjtnant Fritz Rasmussen omkommer då ryska plan skjuter ner hans Fokker FR-81-plan under ett avvärjningsflyg vid Saimen nära Rauha.
          På skidstadion vid Holmenkollen arrangeras en fest för Finlands väl. På festen uppträder den mångfaldiga olympiasegraren och världsmästaren Clas Thunberg och backhopparna Lauri Valonen och Niilo Toppila.
          Brasiliens president Getulio Vargas meddelar att Brasilien donerar 10'000 säckar kaffe åt Finland.
          Finlands regering framför de första fredsförhandlingsgrunderna i sitt svar på Sovjetunionens förhandlingsvillkor. Svaret sänds till Sovjetunionen via Sveriges utrikesministerium.
          Sovjetunionens ambassadör i Stockholm, fru Alexandra Kollontaj meddelar att Sovjetunionen inte kan ge efter i sitt krav på baser i Finland.
          Det engelska krigskabinettet avvisar Sovjetunionens plan på sjöblockad .
    1934 Augusto César Sandino, asesinado en Managua cuando se dirigía a firmar la paz.
    1923 Manuel Antonio Martévez Murguía, historiador, presidente de la Academia Gallega.
    1922 William Desmond Taylor, 58, film director, in Los Angeles, from a bullet in the back. bungalow, probably by Charlotte Selby, who disapproved of the love affair between her teenaged daughter Mary Miles Minter, with Taylor. However some speculate that drug dealers hired a hit man to kill Taylor for sending another girlfriend, Mabel Normand, to a cocaine addiction treatment center.
    1920 Pal Szinyei-Merse, Hungarian artist born on 04 July 1845. MORE ON SZINYEI~MERSE AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1911 Hugues Charles Robert Méray, French mathematician born on 12 November 1835.
    1907 Dmitri Ivanovich Mendelejev, 72, Russian chemist (Periodic Table)
    1895 Willem Johannes Martens, Dutch artist born on 14 August 1838. — Relative? of Willem Martens [1856-1927] ?
    1874 Julius Adam I, German artist born on 26 January 1826.
    1789 Armand-Louis Couperin, 63, French composer/organist (Notre Dame)
    1776 Francis Hayman, English painter and illustrator born in 1708. MORE ON HAYMAN AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1769 Clement XIII [Carlo Rezzonico], 75, Pope (1758-1769)
    1704 Guillaume François Antoine marquis de l'Hôpital, Parisian mathematician born in 1661. L'Hôpital's fame is based on his book Analyse des infiniment petits pour l'intelligence des lignes courbes (1696) which was the first text-book to be written on the differential calculus. In this book is found the rule, now known as L'Hôpital's rule, for finding the limit of a rational function whose numerator and denominator tend to zero at a point: the limit is the same as the limit of the ratio of the derivatives of the numerator and of the denominator..
    1685 Charles II King of England/Scotland/Ireland, 54, (1660-1685)
    1640 (burial) Hendrick Corneliszoon Vroom, Haarlem Dutch painter and draftsman, born in 1563. MORE ON VROOM AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1612 Clavius, mathematician.
    1597 Lucas van Valkenborch, Flemish artist born sometime from 1530 to 1535.
    1594 Giovanni Perluigi da Palestrina, 68, Italian composer.
    1590 Santa Catalina de Ricci.
    1491 Martin Schongauer, German painter born between 1435 and 1450. MORE ON SCHONGAUER AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1435 Johanna II Lawless, 61, Queen of Naples (1414-1435)
    1032 Rudolf III last independent king of Burgundy.
    0619 Saint Lawrence, 2nd archbishop of Canterbury (604-619)
     
    < 01 Feb 03 Feb >
    Births which occurred on a February 02

    ^1932 The US Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) opens.
          Initially equipped with $500 million, as well as license to borrow up to $2 billion in tax exempt bonds, the RFC was charged with doling out loans to banks, insurance companies, and other institutions that stood to spark the nation's ravaged economy. Under the charge of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the RFC became a bulwark of the New Deal. And, when America made its entrance into World War II, the agency helped fund the country's blossoming military industry. However, a government probe in 1951 revealed that the agency was awash in corruption. The revelation signaled the downfall of the RFC: the government quickly set to redistributing the agency’s powers and, by 1957 the RFC was forced into shut its doors.
    1931 Mijail Sergueevich Gorbachov, político soviético.
    1928 Luigi Ciriaco de Mita, político italiano.
    1926 Valéry Giscard d'Estaing President of France (1974-81) — Né à Coblence, le 3ème président de la Ve République quittera le pouvoir à 55 ans.
    1925 David Abell Wood, priest [what is his claim to fame???]
    1923 Belisario Betancur, político colombiano.
    1923 James (Lafayette) Dickey (1923-1997) US poet, novelist, critic, athlete, and hunter with bow and arrow, best-known from his novel DELIVERANCE (1970), an adventure story of four businessmen canoeing down a dangerous river in rural Georgia. The trip becomes a nightmare of survival and the men find that the real danger to their lives comes from themselves and other humans. However, Dickey's dominant medium was poetry, not bestselling fiction. Dickey died on 19 January 1997.
    ^1923 Leaded gasoline goes on sale
          Gasoline mixed with Tetraethyl lead was first sold to the public at a roadside gas station in Dayton, Ohio, owned by Willard Talbott. Coined "ethyl gasoline" by Charles Kettering of General Motors, the blend was discovered by GM laboratory technician Thomas Midgley to beneficially alter the combustion rate of gasoline. Reportedly, in seven years of research and development General Motors labs tested at least 33,000 compounds for their propensity to reduce knocks. Leaded gasoline would fill the world’s gas tanks until emissions concerns lead to the invention of unleaded gasoline. 1880 Let There Be Lights The first electric streetlight was installed in Wabash, Indiana. The city paid the Brush Electric Light Company of Cleveland, Ohio, $100 to install a light on the top of the courthouse. A month later the city commissioned four more lights to be installed. Residents of Wabash became the first Americans to wear their sunglasses at night.
    1922 Juan Marichal, historiador y escritor español.
    1922 Ulysses by James Joyce, published in Paris (1000 copies)[on his 40th birthday]
    1913 Grand Central Terminal opens in New York City. — Se inaugura en Nueva York la Grand Central Terminal, la estación ferroviaria mayor del mundo.
    1906 Harold Rosenberg, US writer, educator, philosopher, who died in 1978. He was particularly known for his insightful contributions to the understanding of 20th-century visual art. A poem of his in the magazine Possibilities inspired the series of paintings Elegies for the Spanish Republic by abstract expressionist Motherwell.
    1905 Ayn Rand (1905-1982) - original name Alice (or Alissa) Rosenbaum Russian-born US writer, whose works combined science fiction with philosophy of laissez-faire capitalism, social Darwinism, and individualism. Rand became a highly visible advocate for the inviolate supremacy of individual rights with her novels THE FOUNTAINHEAD (1943) and ATLAS SHRUGGED (1957). Rand died on 06 March 1981.
    1903 Bartel Leendert van der Waerden, Dutch mathematician who died on 12 January 1996. Van der Waerden's most famous work is Algebra (two volumes, 1930).
    1896 Kuratowski, mathematician
    1893 Lanczos, mathematician
    1889 Jean-Marie-Gabriel de Lattre de Tassigny, Mouilleron-en-Pareds, France, general who became one of the leading military figures in the French forces under General Charles de Gaulle during World War II. He was also the most successful French commander of the First Indochina War (1946-54). He died on 11 January 1952.
    ^1882 James Augustine Aloysius Joyce, novelist, near Dublin, Ireland.
         Joyce would be noted for his experimental use of language. Joyce's technical innovations in the art of the novel include an extensive use of interior monologue; he used a complex network of symbolic parallels drawn from the mythology, history, and literature, and created a unique language of invented words, puns, and allusions.
          James Joyce was the eldest of 10 children of a cheerful ne'er-do-well, would eventually go bankrupt. James attended Catholic school and University College in Dublin, where he learned Dano-Norwegian so he could read the plays of Henrik Ibsen in the original. In college, he began a lifetime of literary rebellion, self-publishing an essay rejected by the school's literary magazine adviser.
          After graduation, Joyce moved to Paris. He resolved to study medicine to support himself while writing but soon gave it up. He returned to Dublin to visit his mother's deathbed and remained to teach school and work odd jobs. On June 16, 1904, he met Nora Barnacle, a lively uneducated woman with whom he fell in love. He convinced Nora to return to Europe with him. The couple settled in Trieste, where they had two children, and then in Zurich. Joyce struggled with serious eye problems, undergoing 25 operations for various troubles between 1917 and 1930.
          In 1914, he published The Dubliners , and his 1915 novel, Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, brought him fame and the patronage of several wealthy people, including Edith Rockefeller.
          In 1918, his revolutionary stream of consciousness novel Ulysses began to be serialized in the American journal Little Review. However, the US Post Office stopped the publication's distribution in December of that year on the grounds that the novel was obscene. Sylvia Beach, owner of bookstore Shakespeare and Co. in Paris, where Joyce moved in 1920, published the novel herself in 1922, but it was banned in the United Kingdom, and, until a 6 December 1933 court ruling, in the United States. Joyce's final novel, Finnegans Wake, was published in 1939, and Joyce died on 13 January 1941.
    more JOYCE ONLINE: Dubliners at another site, Chamber Music, Chamber Music. — Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, —
    1882 Joseph Wedderburn, mathematician
    1873 Freiherr Konstantin von Neurath German Secretary of State (1932-38)
    1861 Mehmed VI Vahideddin last sultan of Ottoman Empire (1918-22)
    1861 Solomon R Guggenheim philanthropist (would die aboard the Titanic)
    1859 Havelock Ellis, English essayist and physician who died on 08 July 1939. — ELLIS ONLINE: Little Essays of Love and Virtue — translator of Zola's Germinal.
    1854 Paul Wilhelm Keller-Reutlingen, German artist who died on 10 January 1920.
    1849 Gegenbauer, mathematician.
    1848 Raymond Dabb “Yelland”, English-born US painter who died on 27 July 1900. MORE ON “YELLAND” AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1842 Sokhotsky, mathematician.
    1827 Oswald Achenbach, German artist who died on 01 February 1905. MORE ON ACHENBACH AT ART “4” FEB 01 with links to images.
    1819 Friedrich Otto Georgi, German artist who died on 07 December 1874.
    ^1812 Fort Ross, in California, is founded by Russians.
          Russians establish Fort Ross on the coast north of San Francisco. As a growing empire with a long Pacific coastline, Russia was in many ways well positioned to play a leading role in the settlement and development of the West. The Russians had begun their expansion into the North American continent in 1741 with a massive scientific expedition to Alaska. Returning with news of abundant sea otters, the explorers inspired Russian investment in the Alaskan fur trade and some permanent settlement. By the early 19th century, the semi-governmental Russian-American Company was actively competing with British and American fur-trading interests as far south as the shores of Spanish-controlled California. Russia's Alaskan colonists found it difficult to produce their own food because of the short growing season of the far north. Officials of the Russian-American Company reasoned that a permanent settlement along the more temperate shores of California could serve both as a source of food and a base for exploiting the abundant sea otters in the region. To that end, a large party of Russians and Aleuts sailed for California where they established Fort Ross (short for Russia) on the coast north of San Francisco. Fort Ross, though, proved unable to fulfill either of its expected functions for very long. By the 1820s, the once plentiful sea otters in the region had been hunted almost to extinction. Likewise, the colonists' attempts at farming proved disappointing, because the cool foggy summers along the coast made it difficult to grow the desired fruits and grains. Potatoes thrived, but they could be grown just as easily in Alaska. At the same time, the Russians were increasingly coming into conflict with the Mexicans and the growing numbers of Americans settling in the region. Disappointed with the commercial potential of the Fort Ross settlement and realizing they had no realistic chance of making a political claim for the region, the Russians decided to sell out. After making unsuccessful attempts to interest both the British and Mexicans in the fort, the Russians finally found a buyer in John Sutter. A US emigrant to California, Sutter bought Fort Ross in 1841 with an unsecured note for $30'000 that he never paid. He cannibalized the fort to provide supplies for his colony in the Sacramento Valley where, seven years later, a chance discovery ignited the California Gold Rush.
    ^1803 Albert Sidney Johnston, future Confederate General.
         He is born in Washington, Kentucky. Johnston was considered one of the best Confederate commanders until he was killed at Shiloh, the first major engagement in the west. Johnston grew up in Kentucky and received an appointment to the US Military Academy in 1822. While there, he became acquainted with Robert E. Lee and future Confederate President Jefferson Davis, two men who shaped Johnston's career. After graduation, Johnston served in the Black Hawk War of 1832 and resigned from the service in 1834 to care for his invalid wife. After her death, he moved to the new Republic of Texas and enlisted in the army as a private. Within three years he rose to general of the army, then Secretary of War for his adopted country. After Texas was annexed by the United States, Johnston served in the Mexican War and was commended for bravery at the Battle of Monterrey.
          Johnston retired to his Texas plantation after the war, but he struggled financially. He returned to the service as paymaster for the forts in Texas, and in 1857 was appointed to lead an expedition against members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (otherwise known as the Mormons) in Utah Territory. The Mormons disagreed with the government on issues of the territory's governance, and some officials thought a rebellion was in the making. Johnston arrived and found no opposition, and he spent the next three years occupying the territory.
          When the Civil War started, Davis appointed Johnston commander of the Confederate department that stretched from the Appalachians to Texas. On 06 April 1862, Johnston attacked General Ulysses S. Grant's army at Pittsburgh Landing, Tennessee (Shiloh). The Confederates enjoyed great success initially. Grant's army was surprised and nearly destroyed until the afternoon, when Johnston rode forward to supervise the battle. He was mortally wounded and died that same day, and the tide turned against the Confederates. The armies struggled into the next day but the Union held the field.
          Johnston and Union General James McPherson were the only two army commanders killed in action during the Civil War. Johnston's death left a void in the leadership of the western armies that was never effectively filled.
    1793 Hopkins, mathematician
    1786 Jacques Binet, mathematician
    1765 Osipovsky, mathematician
    1754 Charles-Maurice duke of Talleyrand-Périgord French bishop, diplomat, premier (1815) He died on 17 May 1838.
    1725 Jacques Casanova, à Venise, aventurier. Il a inspiré le Don Juan de Mozart.
    1649 Benedict XIII [Pierfrancesco Orsini], Italy, 245th pope (1724-30)
    1627 Willem Schellinks, Dutch artist who died on 12 October 1678.
    New Amsterdam - now New York City - is incorporated.
    ^1625 New Amsterdam
          Les Hollandais établissent un fort sur l'île de Manhattan, à l'embouchure de la rivière Hudson qu'avait explorée le navigateur Verrazano. L'établissement est baptisé New Amsterdam. Son occupation est légalisé par un achat aux Indiens locaux, contre une poignée de perles. En 1664, le gouverneur hollandais Peter Stuyvesant cèdera l'île aux Anglais. Elle prendra le nom de New York et donnera naissance au XXe siècle à la plus grande métropole de la planète.
    1616 Sébastien Bourdon, French painter who died on 08 May 1671. MORE ON BOURDON AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1602 Michelangelo Cerquozzi delle Battaglie, Italian painter who died on 06 April 1660 (or in 1679). MORE ON CERQUOZZI AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1536 Buenos Aires is founded by Pedro de Mendoza of Spain.
    1522 Lodovico Ferrari, Italian mathematician who died on 05 October 1565.
    1208 Jaime I, "El Conquistador", the most renowned of the medieval kings of Aragon, who added the Balearic Islands and Valencia to his realm and thus initiated the Catalan-Aragonese expansion in the Mediterranean that was to reach its zenith in the last decades of the 14th century. James was the son of Peter II [1174 – 12 Sep 1213] of Aragon and Mary of Montpellier. When Peter II, allied with the Albigensian heretics, died fighting against the crusaders sent against them at the Battle of Muret, Jaime became king, but he was being held hostage by the crusaders' leader, Simon de Montfort [1165 – 25 Jun 1218]. Jaime I was released in April 1214. He died on 27 July 1276.
     
    Holidays US : Groundhog Day.
    Religious Observances: Candlemas (Presentation or Purification) / La Presentación del Señor. Nuestra Señora Candelaria y Purificación. Santos Cornelio, Lorenzo, Cándido./
    La fête de la Chandeleur: La Chandeleur commémore la présentation de Jésus au Temple, à Jérusalem, 40 jours après sa naissance. Ce faisant, ses parents se conformaient à une coutume hébraïque qui voulait que les premiers-nés fussent consacrés au Seigneur. L'évangéliste Luc raconte qu'à cette occasion, un vieil homme, Syméon, et une prophétesse, Anne, reconnurent dans l'enfant l'"Oint du Seigneur" (le Christ). La Chandeleur était autrefois appelée "Purification de la Vierge Marie" car elle rappelait le rituel des relevailles consécutive à tout accouchement. La fête de la Chandeleur, ou fête des chandelles, a pris la place des lupercales romaines (en l'honneur de Lupercus ou Pan), et des fêtes de Proserpine (ou Perséphone), divinité de la germination, des moissons, et de la fécondité, qui donnaient lieu à des festivités autour d'une galette de céréales et à la lumière de torches. Aujourd'hui encore, le 2 février, il est de tradition de faire des crêpes

    DICTIONNAIRE TICRANIEN: mégarde: les costauds chargés de me protéger contre un attentat.
    click click

    Thoughts for the day:
    “Whoever undertakes to create soon finds himself engaged in creating himself.” — Harold Rosenberg. {Perhaps not “whoever”, but at least Salvador Dalí}
    “Whoever is an undertaker cannot soon find himself engaged in cremating himself.”
    “What better way to prove that you understand a subject than to make money out of it?”
    — Harold Rosenberg.— {Not so! It only proves that you understand the psychology of the potential buyer.}
    “What better way to prove that you understand a subject than to make it understandable to others?”
    TO THE TOP
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE to HISTORY “4” 2DAY
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4feb/h4feb02.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4feb/h4feb02.html
    http://www.ifrance.com/7aujourdhui/history/h4feb/h4feb02.html
    updated Wednesday 27-Aug-2008 22:27 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.8.10 UT
    v.8.10 Monday 18-Feb-2008 17:05 UT
    v.7.00 Friday 02-Feb-2007 2:41 UT
    v.6.11 Sunday 05-Feb-2006 16:39 UT
    Wednesday 09-Feb-2005 2:04 UT
    Monday 09-Feb-2004 15:16 UT

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