a 30 December:
2001 (Sunday) For the second time in 10 days, an Argentine president has abruptly resigned, falling victim to rising social tensions and plunging the country further into political and economic turmoil. Adolfo Rodríguez Saa quit after complaining that his Peronist party had abandoned him, leaving him unable to confront the mounting crises plaguing Argentina saddled with a $132 billion public debt. He said: "They've asked me to do in seven days what hasn't been done in the last 30 years."
Rodríguez Saa became interim president on 23 December 2001, two days after President Fernando De la Rua was forced out amid protests and looting over the government's inability to contain an economic crisis and unemployment now topping 18%. The violence left 28 people dead. Argentina's third president in less than two weeks, his swift departure left the presidency in the hands of House majority leader Eduardo Camano. Ramon Puerta, the Senate leader who served briefly as president following de la Rua's resignation, quit his post today to avoid inheriting the presidency again. Camano said he would call a special legislative assembly to appoint a new president.
Rodríguez Saa was chosen by Congress to lead Argentina until a new presidential election slated for 03 March 2002. His resignation left Argentina without a clear consensus on how to resolve a devastating economic crisis that has prompted rising social tensions and street protests.
Rodríguez Saa's presidency began to unravel late in the night of 28 December 2001 as thousands of people flooded downtown Buenos Aires to demand that he lift a month-old banking freeze limiting cash withdrawals to $250 a week and remove politicians accused of corruption from his Cabinet. The protests left 12 police officers injured.
De la Rua imposed the capital controls on 01 December 2001 to stem a run on the country's banks that threatened the currency, the peso, now tied one-to-one with the dollar. Seeking to shore up political support, Rodríguez Saa called Peronist party provincial governors to a meeting today on key issues including the March election to complete the two years of De la Rua's term. But it broke down as only a handful of the governors offered their support. Some Peronist leaders were reportedly worried Rodríguez Saa was moving to extend his time in office, set at 60 days by a congressional body that appointed him a week ago. Rodríguez Saa said he had little choice but to step down after failing to cobble together support for his caretaker administration, and blamed several members of his party for putting their presidential ambitions ahead of solving the country's pressing problems. Announcing his resignation, he said several powerful Peronist provincial governments had withdrawn support for his presidency, singling out José Manuel de la Sota, who has made it known his ambitions to run for the presidency. But de la Sota complained some in the Peronist party were not consulted by Rodríguez Saa during his brief time in office on his plans to print a parralel new currency (the argentino) and launch an ambitious jobs program to inject needed money into the nation's bruised economy.
Argentines have taken to the streets twice in the last two weeks, banging pots and pans in spontaneous protests and unleashing their anger at what they view as a political leadership incapable of leading the country out of crisis. Camano, the temporary leader, urged people not to mount large-scale protests. "I am begging people not to demonstrate so we can have a chance to solve this crisis," he said. "If they want to bang pots, I ask that they do it at home."
The political bickering in Argentina's largest party had left little room for any successor to build consensus on how to pull the country out of the political and economic crisis.
1990 Iraq's information minister, Latif Nussayif Jassim, says that US President Bush "must have been drunk" when he suggested that Iraq might withdraw from Kuwait, and Jassim adds: "We will show the world that America is a paper tiger.
1988 Pope John Paul II [18 May 1920 – 02 Apr 2005], gives the Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici on the vocation and the mission of the lay faithful in the Church and in the world. — text in English, Español, Français, Italiano, Português, Deutsch, Latin, Polish, —(081125)
1988 Canadian Senate OK's free trade pact; with US
1988 Yuri Churbanov, 49, since 1981 3rd of the 4 husbands of Galina Leonidovna Brezhneva [1929 – 30 Jun 1998], daughter of former Soviet President Leonid Brezhnev [19 Dec 1906 – 10 Nov 1982] (who had made him a general and First Deputy Minister of the Interior) is sentenced to 12 years in a labor camp for bribery and and corruption (he would be released by Yeltsin in 1993). —(081125)
1988 Mercedes-Benz pays $20.2-M fine failed to meet '86 government fuel standard.
1988 Yugoslav government resigns
1988 North subpoenas Reagan & Bush as defense witnesses for upcoming trial.
| 1986 US begins Military exercises in Honduras.
1985 President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq [12 Aug 1924 – 17 Aug 1988] of Pakistan ends martial law.
1977 Carter holds 1st news conference by US President in Eastern Europe (Warsaw).
1976 Governor Carey of New York pardons seven inmates, closing the book on the Attica uprising.
1975 Constitution of Democratic Republic of Madagascar comes into force
| 1969 US President Richard Nixon signs a tax bill which
exempts nine million low-income citizens and reduces tax rates for individuals
1952 Tuskegee Institute reports 1952 as 1st yr in 71 with no lynchings in US
1944 King George II of Greece, renounces his throne
1932 The Soviet Union bars food handouts for housewives under 36 years of age. They must now work to eat.
1927 Japan dedicates 1st subway in the Orient (route under 2 miles long)
1924 Edwin Hubble announces existence of other galactic systems.
1922 Vladimir Lenin proclaimed the establishment of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
1911 Sun Yat-sen is elected the first President of the Republic of China.
| 1907 Abraham Mills' commission declares Abner Doubleday
1906 Iran becomes a constitutional monarchy
1905 French driver Victor Hemery, driving a gasoline-powered Darracq automobile, set a new land-speed record in Arles-Salon, France. He reached a speed of 109.589 miles per hour. Hemery's record stood until 1906, when American Fred Marriot set a record of 121.573 in a steam-powered Stanley.
1903 American Political Science Association founded at New Orleans
1897 Province of Zululand annexed to Natal colony.
1887 A petition to Queen Victoria with over one million names of women appealing for British public houses to be closed on Sundays is handed to the Home Secretary.
1875 Andrassy Note calls for Christian-Muslim religious freedoms
1862 The draft of the Emancipation Proclamation is finished and circulated among President Abraham Lincoln's cabinet for comment.
1861 US government suspends the use of gold and silver for redeeming paper money. However the practice would be resumed after the Civil War and continue until 1879.
1854 Pennsylvania Rock Oil Co, 1st in US, incorporated in NYC
1817 1st coffee planted in Hawaii
1805 La victoire d'Austerlitz détermine le Tribunat à proposer à l'empereur que son nom soit désormais Napoléon le Grand. Celui-ci accepte.
1803 The United States takes possession of the Louisiana area from France at New Orleans with a simple ceremony, the simultaneous lowering and raising of the national flags.
2006 Saddam Hussein [28 Apr 1937~], hanged for one of the lesser crimes against humanity which he committed while dictator of Iraq (16 Jul 1979 - 09 Apr 2003): ordering a cruel revenge including the killing of 148 Shi'ite villagers in Dujail after the 08 July 1982 assassination attempt which he suffered there. —(061230)
2006 All but 248 of the 542 passengers, 57 crew members, and 29 bus and truck drivers and conductors aboard the KM Senopati Nusantara, ferry which sinks in bad weather in Suar Mandalika waters in the early hours shortly after midnight, on its way from Kumai, Central Kalimantan province (in Borneo), to Semarang, Central Java province. The ferry was made in Japan in 1990 and it underwent repairs in 2006. It had 2178 gross dead weight tons and a capacity to carry 800 passengers and was equipped with sufficient safety gear.. —(070115)
2004:: 177 persons, including the following:
2004 Three Palestinian fighters and two bystanders, by Israeli missiles from a drone plane fired at Khan Younis, Gaza Strip. Two of the dead fighters belong to Hamas militant group and one to the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades. The dead bystanders are both 17 years old.
2002 William E. Koehn, 60, of Arlington, Texas, purchasing agent Kathleen A. Gariety, 53, of Wauwatosa, Wisconsin; and Dr. Martha C. Myers, 57, of Montgomery, Alaxama; respectively director, purchasing agent, and a physician of Baptist Hospital in Jibla, Yemen, shot in the head, while holding a meeting, by intruder Abed Abdul Razak Kamel, 30, who then goes to the pharmacy and critically wounds, by shots to the abdomen, pharmacist Donald W. Caswell, 49, of Levelland, Texas. Myers had worked at the hospital for 25 years and Koehn for 28 years. Kamel would say that he did it to get closer to Allah and to take revenge on Christians and Americans. On 10 May 2003 a Yemeni court in Ebb province would sentence him to death.
2002 “Mary Wesley” (Mary Aline Siepmann), British author of sensual and often bitingly witty novels. She was born Mary Aline Mynors Farmar, in 1912. Her first two books were fiction for children, Speaking Terms (1968) and The Sixth Seal (1968), her first novel for adults was Jumping the Queue (1983, about a middle-aged widow contemplating suicide and reflecting on her life, following the example of a fugitive). Her last book was Part of the Scenery (2002).
2000 Hilal Ahmed Haj, 21, Lebanese, hit in the head by two bullets fired from a passing Israeli patrol at the Fatima Gate border fence. He was throwing stones at an Israeli outpost 10 m from the border fence.
2000:: 22 persons in a series of bombings in Manila. More than 100 are injured. — On 18 April 2002, in General Santos, Philippines, an Indonesian man believed to be a key leader of the Jemaah Islamiyah (a Southeast Asian-based terrorist group), Fathur Rohman Al-Ghozi would be sentenced to 12 years in prison for explosives possession. He told police he had planned the 30 Dec 2000 series of bombings in Manila, and in January 2002 he led police to a buried cache of more than a ton of TNT, detonating cords and M-16 rifles in General Santos, a largely Christian city of 800'000 in the predominantly Muslim south of the Philippines. On 21 April 2002 three terrorist bombs would explode in General Santos, one of them killing at least 14 persons.
2000 Yu Lianchun's death is notified to her family in Jinan (Shandong province, China) by the staff of the labor camp to which she had been sentenced for being a Falun Gong member. Yu, 45, was a worker at a factory in Shandong. Bruises on her body showed that she had been beaten to death.
1999 Sarah "Sadie" Clark Knauss, 119, at 15:00, sleeping in her chair in an Allentown, Pa., nursing home. She was born on 24 September 1880. The Guinness Book of Records: 1999 declared Knauss the oldest person in the world, on the 16 April 1998 death of 117-year-old Marie-Louise Febronie Chassé-Meilleur of Québec, born 29 August 1880. Mrs. Knauss ate chocolate every day and rarely got angry.(the longevity record-holder is still Jeanne Louise Calment of Arles, France, born 21 February 1875, who died on 04 August 1997, who also was partial to chocolate, and drank wine).
1997: 412 men, women and children massacred by armed gangs, in four mountain villages in Algeria.
1982 Philip Hall, English mathematician born on 11 April 1904.
1978 Mark Aronovich Naimark, Ukrainian mathematician born on 05 December 1909..
1947 Alfred North Whitehead, English mathematician and philosopher born on 15 February 1861. He collaborated with Bertrand Russell [18 May 1872 – 02 Feb 1970] on Principia Mathematica (1910-1913). In Process and Reality (1929) his metaphysics postulated that there is a succession of universes, each one consisting entirely of a process acting on the infinite reality of the preceding unniverse within the possibilities provided by God. — WHITEHEAD ONLINE: The Concept of Nature — Religion in the Making — A Treatise on Universal Algebra, With Applications (page images)
1941 Lazar Markovich Lisitskii “El Lissitzky”, Russian painter born on 23 November 1890. MORE ON LISSITZKY AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1940 Walter Kurt Wiemken, Swiss painter born on 14 September 1907. — more with links to images.
1917 Federigo Zandomeneghi, Italian artist born on 02 June 1841. MORE ON ZANDOMENEGHI AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1896 Jose Mercado Rizal, anti-Spanish rule of Philippines proponent.
1894 Amelia Jenks Bloomer suffragist dies (Bloomers named for her).
1886 William Wing Loring, born on 04 Dec 1818, attorney, legislator, financier, traveler, writer, and veteran of the US (colonel), Confederate (general) and Egyptian (ferik pasha) armies. Author of A Confederate Soldier in Egypt (1884).
1885 Martha Darley (or Durley) Mutrie, British artist born on 26 August 1824.
1870 El general Juan Prim y Prats, presidente del Gobierno español, a causa de las heridas de bala recibidas al sufrir un atentado en Madrid tres días antes.
1788 Francesco Zuccarelli, Florentine landscape painter born on 15 August 1702. MORE ON ZUCCARELLI AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1691 Robert Boyle, Anglo-Irish mathematician, chemist, and natural philosopher, born on 25 January 1627. He made pioneering experiments on the properties of gases and adhered to a corpuscular theory of matter that was a precursor of the modern theory of chemical elements. Author of Occasional Reflections Upon Several Subjects (1655, moral essays), New Experiments Physio-Mechanical, Touching the Spring of the Air and its Effets (1660), The Skeptical Chymist (1661). In 1662 he stated that the pressure of a given quantity of gas varies inversely with its volume at constant temperature (pv = k, Boyle's Law).
1672 Hendrick Bloemaert, Dutch painter and poet born in 1601. — more with links to images.
1460 Richard, 3rd duke of York , born on 21 September 1411. is defeated and killed by Lancastrians at the Battle of Wakefield. His claim to the English throne helped precipitate the Wars of the Roses (1455–1485) between the houses of Lancaster and York; he controlled the government for brief periods during the first five years of this struggle. He was the father of two English kings, Edward IV [28 Apr 1442 – 09 Apr 1483], who after seizing power was crowned on 28 June 1461, and Richard III [02 Oct 1452 – 22 Aug 1485] who on 26 June 1483 usurped the power of his brother's heir, Edward V [04 Nov 1470 – Aug 1483], whom he had imprisoned in the Tower of London together with Edward's V's brother Richard duke of York [17 Aug 1473 – Aug 1483]; both boys were presumably murdered in August 1483, probably on orders from their uncle. — Painting The Princes in the Tower (1830), by Delaroche
0274 St Felix I, Pope.
1985 IBM-PC DOS Version 3.2 released.
1947 John Frederick Laub, US painter, who died on 03 March 2005. — more with links to images. —(061229)
1938 Electronic television system patented, VK Zworykin.
1904 Dmitri Kabalevsky St Petersburg Russia, composer (In the Fire)
1903 Cândido Portinari, Brazilian painter who died on 06 February 1962. — more with links to images.—(061229)
1897 Stanislaw Saks, Polish mathematician who died on 23 November 1942, murdered in Warsaw by the invading Nazis, because he was a Jew. —(061229)
In British South Africa, the Transvaal province is declared an independent Boer republic, setting off an armed conflict with Britain that serves as a precursor for the South African Boer War two decades later. Boers, also known as Afrikaners, were the descendants of the original Dutch settlers of southern Africa. At the end of the Napoleonic wars, Britain took possession of the Dutch Cape colony, sparking resistance from the independence-minded Boers, who resented the Anglicization of South Africa and Britain's anti-slavery policies. In 1833, the Boers began an exodus into African tribal territory, where they founded the republics of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State.
The two new republics lived peaceably with their British neighbors until 1867, when the discovery of diamonds and gold in the region made conflict between the Boer states and Britain inevitable. Following declarations of independence from the Boer states during the 1880s, minor fighting with Britain ensued before the outbreak of full-scale war in 1899. In 1902, after three years of fighting, Britain is victorious in the South African Boer War, and in 1910, the Union of South Africa is created within the British Empire, comprising the two Boer republics and the old Cape and Natal colonies.
1880 Alfred Einstein, German-born US musicologist and critic who died on 13 February 1952. (not to be confused with THE Albert Einstein).
1879 Ramana Maharshi, Hindu philosopher and yogi, who died on 14 April 1950.
1879 The Pirates of Penzance, by Gilbert and Sullivan, is first performed, at Paignton, Devon, England.
1873 Alfred Al Smith [photo >], Catholic, 4 times governor of New York, 1928 Democratic Party presidential nominee (he lost all but 8 of the 48 state to Republican Herbert Hoover). He died on 04 October 1944.
1870 Pollux, killed for his meat, elephant of the zoo in famished Paris besieged by the Prussians since 19 September 1870. The other elephant, Castor, was killed the previous day. The elephant of the Jardin des Plantes would be killed on 02 January 1871.
1869 Stephen Leacock Canada, economist/humorist/professor
1867 Simon Guggenheim, [< portrait] 5th of the 7 sons of mining tycoon Meyer Guggenheim (01 Feb 1828 15 Mar 1905), brother of Daniel Guggenheim (09 July 1856 28 Sep 1930) and of Solomon Guggenheim (1861-1949), US senator for Colorado (1907-1913), president of the American Smelting and Refining Company (1919-1941). He died on 02 November 1941. Philanthropist founder in 1925 (in memory of his son John Simon, who died on 26 April 1922) of the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation to award fellowships to aid artists and scholars studying abroad (not to be confused with the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Foundation, the Daniel Guggenheim Foundation for the Promotion of Aeronautics, the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation, or the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation for the advancement of art). [The 6th son of Meyer, Ben Guggenheim died in the sinking of the Titanic, on 15 April 1912]
1850 John Milne, English seismologist and geologist; inventor of the seismograph. He died on 30 July 1913. — Not to be confused with A. A. Milne [18 Jan 1882 – 31 Jan 1956], the father of Christopher Robin Milne [21 Aug 1920 – 20 Apr 1996] and the author of Pooh.
1746 François André Vincent, French Neoclassical painter, specialized in historical subjects, who died on 03 August 1816. MORE ON VINCENT AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1677 Felice Rubbiani, Italian painter who died on 18 October 1752. — more with links to images.—(061229)
0039 Titus Flavius Vespasianus, would become Titus Vespasianus Augustus, 10th Roman emperor (79-81), conqueror of Jerusalem in 70. He would die on 13 September 81, Domitian his successor having something to do with it.