a 27 December:
2002 Elections in Kenya for president, 210 members of parliament and 2104 local councilors at 18'366 polling stations around the country. There are 10.5 million registered voters. To succeed Daniel Arap Moi, the dictatorial then merely authoritarian president since 1978, constitutionally barred from remaining in office, 63% of the voters reject Uhuru Kenyatta, 41, son of Kenya's first president, Jomo Kenyatta. Uhuru Kenyatta was selected by Moi as the candidate of his ruling party KANU (Kenya African National Unity Party). He is defeated by Mwai Kibaki, 71, candidate of the NARC (narcotics? No: NAtional Rainbow Coalition) who has been a finance minister and then Vice-President from 1978-1988 and became an opposition leader when multiparty politics were reintroduced in 1991. The NARC wins 122 seats in parliament. [< at the 30 Dec 2002 inauguration, Arap Moi at left, and Kibaki at right]
2000 Leanne, 7, and her elderly and sickly mother, Pat, 15, are kidnapped from the koala quarters of the San Francisco Zoo. They are in danger of starving, because it is unlikely that the kidnappers will be able to find the 1 kg of tender young eucalyptus leaves that each koala requires daily. Fortunately, in the early hours of the next day, the police receives an anonymous tip that enables them to rescue the two koalas, unhurt, but ravenous.
1996 FCC approves digital TV compromise
The US Federal Communications Commission approves an agreement setting standards for advanced digital television on this day in 1996. The television and computer industries had battled for nine years to agree on standards for digital TV picture display. The final accord supported a standard that did not specify the display format, but rather left it up to broadcasters to choose from a variety of formats, including extremely high-definition pictures or broadcasting several simultaneous shows in the old, lower-definition mode. Broadcasters in the nation's ten largest markets officially began broadcasting digital signals in November 1998. However, few people had yet purchased a high-definition television set capable of receiving the digital signal.
1995 El biólogo Antonio García-Bellido de Diego , el filólogo Emilio Alarcos Llorach y el químico Avelino Corma Canos son galardonados con los Premios Nacionales españoles de Investigación en las categorías Científica, Humanística y Técnica, respectivamente.
1990 Workplace video display regulation
San Francisco becomes the first city to adopt regulations regarding video display terminals in the workplace. A new law required workers to perform fifteen minutes of alternate work for every two hours spent at a video terminal. The measure was adopted in response to the vision problems and repetitive motion injuries sustained by thousands of workers in the 1980s. The measure gave companies with fifteen or more employees two years to provide antiglare screens and ergonomically correct furniture, or face a $500 per day fine.
| 1988 Bulgaria stops jamming Radio Free Europe after
more than 3 decades
1984 Four Polish officers are tried for the murder of Father Jerzy Popieluszko.
| 1972 New North Korean constitution comes into effect.
1972 Se organiza en Argentina el FREJULI (Frente Justicialista de Liberación) formado por el peronismo y otros partidos menores.
1951 The US Postal Service in Cincinnati, Ohio, puts into service a Crosley right-hand-drive car designed specifically for mail delivery. The driver is on the mailbox-side of the car,
1950 The United States and Spain resume full diplomatic relations for the first time since the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s.
1949 Queen Juliana (Netherlands) grants sovereignty to United States of Indonesia. en el marco de una unión económica entre el archipiélago y la antigua metrópoli.
1947 The new Italian constitution is promulgated.
| 1945 Entran en vigor los Acuerdos de Bretton Woods sobre
la creación de un mecanismo de crédito internacional regulado
por el Fondo Monetario Internacional.
1943 France transfers most of her powers in Lebanon to Lebanese government
| 1941 Japan bombs Manila even though it was declared
an "open city"
1941 Tire and rubber rationing starts in the US, due to shortages caused by World War II.
1939 1st American skimobiles (North Conway, NH)
1935 A causa de la crisis ministerial en Ecuador, Federico Páez proclama la dictadura militar tras la dimisión de Antonio Pons Campuzano.
1933 Josef Stalin calls tensions with Japan a grave danger.
1927 Stalin's faction wins All-Union Congress in USSR, Trotsky expelled.
1923 La Cruz Roja Internacional organiza una colecta para Alemania.
1923 Fracasa en Tokio un atentado contra el príncipe Hirohito.
1874 Alfonso XII, rey de España, accede al trono español gracias al golpe de Estado que protagoniza el general Martínez Campos.
1870 El general Juan Prim y Prats, presidente del Gobierno español, sufre un atentado en Madrid y fallece tres días después a causa de las heridas de bala recibidas.
1867 Ontario and Québec legislatures hold 1st meeting.
| 1845 Ether 1st used in childbirth in US, Jefferson
1788 Necker finit par convaincre le roi de France Louis XVI. Celui-ci décrète que le tiers état sera doublé lors des prochains Etats généraux. Les représentants de la noblesse sont inquiets : "Votre Majesté pourrait-elle sacrifier, humilier, sa brave, antique et respectable noblesse?"
1763 Los británicos devuelven Manila a los españoles con la firma del Tratado de paz de Fontainebleau.
1741 Prussian forces took Olmutz, Czechoslovakia
1726 St. John of the Cross, Spanish mystic and poet, is canonized.
1703 The Methuen Treaty was signed between Portugal and England, giving preference to the import of Portuguese wines into England.
1512 The laws of Burgos give New World natives legal protection against abuse and authorize Negro slavery.
1065 Sancho II es rey de Castilla tras la muerte de su padre Fernando I.
0418 [Etalius] begins his reign as Pope.
2007 Benazir Bhutto [21 Jun 1953–] [05 Oct 2006 photo >] and 23 others including a suicide bomber, who first shot Bhutto, in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Bhutto was a Pakistani woman, head of the center-left Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) affiliated to the Socialist International. Bhutto was the first woman elected to lead a Muslim state, having been twice elected Prime Minister of Pakistan. She was sworn in on 02 December 1988, but was removed from office on 06 August on grounds of alleged corruption, by order of then-president Ghulam Ishaq Khan [20 Jan 1915 – 27 Oct 2006]. After being re-elected Bhutto took offuce on 19 October 1993 but was again removed on similar charges, on 05 November 1996, this time by President Farooq Leghari [29 May 1940~]. Bhutto went into self-imposed exile in Dubai in 1998, where she remained until she returned to Pakistan on 18 October 2007, after reaching an understanding with President Pervez Musharraf [11 August 1943~] by which she was granted amnesty and all corruption charges were withdrawn. She was the eldest child of former prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto [05 Jan 1928 – 04 Apr 1979]. —(071227)
2005 Stuart Alexander, 44, in a maximum surveillance (non-stop video, a guard every 15 minutes) hospital cell (bare of anything suitable for suicide) at San Quentin State Prison. Alexander, mentally deranged, was awaiting automatic appeal of his 15 February 2005 death sentence for murdering, on 21 June 2000, in his Santos Linguisa sausage factory in San Leandro, California. federal meat inspectors Thomas Quadros, 52, and Jean Hillery, 56, and state inspector William Shaline, 57 (the was one more: state inspector Earl Willis, who escaped). — (051228)
2004 Fourteen persons by a gas leak explosion at 17:00 (:00 UT) which collapses a 4-story HLM building of ten 4-room apartments (built in 1964), rue de la Martre, in the Wagner neighborhood of Mulhouse (Haut-Rhin), France. 15 persons are injured.
2004 Grygoriy Kirpa, suicide (or disguised murder?), Ukrainian transportation minister.
2004 Sixteen persons including a suicide car bomber, in the Jadariyah neigborhood of Baghdad, at the gate of the home and offices of Abdul Aziz al-Hakim (who is unhurt), head of Iraq's biggest political party, the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI), that had been started by Shi'ite Muslims in exile in Iran to oppose Saddam Hussein. Some 50 persons are injured. The elder brother of Abdul Aziz, ayatollah Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim, had been head of SCIRI, and was killed in August 2003 by a suicide bomber.
2003 Rachel Perry, 18, of bacterial meningitis, in Bennington NH.
2003 Four Bulgarian soldiers, 2 Thai soldiers, 6 Iraqi policemen, 1 Iraqi woman, 4 suicide truck bombers , one of whom reaches the building of the Bulgarians, while the other 3 are shot short of their intended targets but still cause casualties, in coordinated attacks, which also use mortars and machine guns, throughout Karbala, Iraq, where Filipinos, 422 Thais (mostly medics and engineers), 2400 Poles, and 485 Bulgarians form, under the command of Polish Maj. Gen. Andrzej Tyszkiewicz, a token “multinational” force of 9500, which is participating in the US occupation of Iraq. Some 180 persons are wounded, including some 40 “coalition” soldiers; among them 5 Iraqis and one Bulgarian soldier die the next day.
2003 Adil Hadidi, shot as he walked out of his house in Mosul, Iraq. He was an Iraqi lawyer working on a project funded by the US occupiers.
2002 More than 70 persons by two suicide bomber vehicles at the Chechen puppet government headquarters in Grozny [photo >], at 14:30. After breaking through three defensive lines of guardposts, a Kamaz delivery truck rams right into the main building entrance [< photo] where it explodes, while a UAZ (military type SUV) gets as far as an adjacent parking lot, where it explodes. Some 70 persons are injured. The head puppet, Akhmad Kadyrov is in Moscow, reporting to his masters. His deputy, Mikhail Babich is not at headquarters either.
2002 (Friday) Noam After, from Shilo, Gavriel Hoter, from Alonei Habashan, Tvi Zeiman, from Reut and Yehuda Bamberger, from Karnei Shomron; , and two Islamic Jihad militants, Ahmed al-Fakiyah and Mohammed Shahin, who at 19:45 enters the kitchen where the four students were working, adjacent to the dining hall of the yeshiva of the enclave settlement Otniel, just south of Hebron, West Bank, and shoot them, then shoot through a locked door at the students having Sabbath dinner, wounding 5. Israeli soldiers arrive within 2 minutes, kill one of the attackers during a 30 minute gunfight, pursue the other and kill him some 2 hours later, after he wound three of them. Islamic Jihad announces that the attack was in revenge for the Israelis killing nine Palestinians the previous day, including Jihad activist Hamza abu Roub.
2000 Antonio Rodríguez Valdivieso, pintor español. nacido en Granada en 1918.
1999: At least 79 killed by Eurostorm of the century, plus
enormous material damage.
La tempête du siècle (?)
Another powerful storm hits France as Western Europe struggles to recover from freak weekend gales that ripped trees from the ground, toppled walls and killed people. France bears the brunt of the devastation, and Paris officials call for the battered city to be declared a natural disaster area.
Across France, 1.5 million homes remain without electricity. This is an ecological disaster for Paris. Really, we'll need three years to reconstruct, says Françoise de Panafieu, Paris' deputy mayor. Although weather conditions in Paris and much of the country were calm on Monday, another storm hit southwest France late in the evening with 130 km/h winds. All flights to Bordeaux, Toulouse and Biarritz were canceled and train traffic was suspended throughout the region.
In Paris, tens of thousands of people returning to work today Monday after the Christmas holiday had to trample through streets strewn with debris, broken glass and uprooted trees. Traffic lights were bent, newspaper kiosks blown over and cultural monuments damaged. The storm toppled or damaged 60'000 trees in two forests on the city's outskirts and 2000 more along the city's streets. Slabs of roofing of the Notre Dame cathedral were blown off and a stained glass window at the Sainte-Chapelle was shattered by flying stonework.
Worst hit among France's cultural monuments was the royal palace and park at Versailles, where the roof was damaged, windows were broken and 10'000 trees were ripped from the ground, including 200-year-old cedars planted around the time of the French Revolution. The National Fund for Historic Sites and Monuments estimated that it will take $62 million to $77 million to repair damaged cultural monuments.
Paris Mayor Jean Tiberi said urgent repair work would be completed quickly, and predicted that millennium parties in the city, expected to draw millions of revelers, would not be disrupted. The information we have right now shows everything will be normal," he said. But of course we'll be attentive. He said security checks had been carried out on a line of Ferris wheels temporarily erected along the Champs-Elysees and that there had been no storm damage. Gusts of about 170 km/h tore roofs off buildings and knocked over huge cranes. It was Paris' worst storm in 50 years, officials said.
The storms, which began before dawn Sunday 991226, wreaked havoc across Europe, disrupting travel by road, rail and air and stranding tens of thousands of holiday travelers. In Germany, 17 people died, most of them in Baden-Württemberg state across the Rhine from France. Fallen trees blocked roads and 1000 homes in Bavaria were without power.
In neighboring Switzerland, at least 13 people were killed and several were injured, mostly by falling trees. Two of the victims were killed at a southern ski resort when a tree crashed into a lift cable and sent their gondola crashing to the ground. Thousands of homes, mostly in the mountainous Bernese Öberland region, remained without electricity Monday due to fallen trees.
In northern Spain, a gust of wind knocked down a wall under construction at a truck stop, killing two workers. Three other people will killed in other accidents at two other construction sites. In Italy, several highways were closed and 7000 passengers were stranded at Milan's Malpensa airport.
In Belgium, several rivers overflowed their banks. In Paris, light airplanes were flung around like cardboard on Sunday 991226. Chimney stacks were sent tumbling and even the awning of the famed Lido topless cabaret was torn from its support and propelled down the Champs-Elysées by the winds.
| 1997 Billy Wright, protestante y lealista paramilitar,
objetivo pirncipal del IRA, es encontrado muerto en la cárcel norirlandesa
de Maze, víctima de cinco disparos. In Northern Ireland, Billy
Wright was assassinated. He was imprisoned as a Protestant paramilitary
1996 Mary Celine Fasenmyer, Pennsylvanian Sister of Mercy, mathematician born on 04 October 1906.
1995 Boris Vladimirovich Gnedenko, mathematician.
1995 James Meade, científico británico.
1987 Rewi Alley, 90, NZ author, pro Chinese Communist, in Beijing
1985 Twenty persons killed by terrorists, 110 wounded, in attack on El Al at Rome and Vienna airports. US President Reagan blames Libyan leader Momar Qadhafi
1985 Dian Fossey, is found hacked to death at a research station in Rwanda. She was a US naturalist famous for studying gorillas in the wild
1979 President Hafizullah Amin of Afghanistan, Soviet puppet in office for 3 months (since the 14 September 1979 coup in which he murdered his predecessor puppet Noor Mohammad Taraki), is ousted and murdered in a coup backed by the Soviet Union, and replaced by Babrak Karmal, considered to be a more subservient puppet. Amin is the 3rd Afghan President in 20 months to be overthrown and murdered in a coup (the first one was killed in April 1978 in the Saur Revolution that brought the Marxists to power. He was Sardar Mohammad Daoud Khan, a non-Communist who had taken power in 1973 by overthrowing his cousin King Mohammad Zahir, abolishing the monarchy, and proclaiming himself the president of the Republic of Afghanistan in July 1973). The USSR moves massive troops into Afghanistan, intervening in what was until then a civil war between the Soviet puppet government and anti-Communist guerillas. The USSR will be stuck in Afghanistan for more than 10 years and ultimately defeated.
1959 Alfonso Reyes, escritor mexicano.
1958 Fray Gregorio Arcila Robledo, historiador y lingüista colombiano.
1950 Max Beckmann, German Expressionist painter born on 12 February 1884, one of the founders of what we now call modern art. MORE ON BECKMANN AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1946 Pedro Mata Domínguez, novelista español.
1943 Curtis Veeder, engineer, inventor of the modern automotive tachometer and odometer,
1940 Louis Hayet, French artist born on 29 August 1864.
1939 Some 20'000, in magnitude 8 quake (Erzincam Turkey)
1936 Leon Wyczolkowski, Polish artist born on 11 April 1852.
1915 Juan Menéndez Pidal, poeta y folclorista español.
1899 Henri Jacques Edouard Evenepoel, Belgian artist born on 04 October 1872.
1879 Jacob Thompson, British artist born on 28 August 1806.
1849 Jacques-Laurent Agasse, Swiss painter specialized in animals born on 24 March 1767. MORE ON AGASSE AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1832 Karl Christian Friedrich Krause, filósofo alemán. [too much fried rich food?]
1805 Jean-Baptiste-Charles Claudot, French artist born in 1733.
1802 Jens Juel, Danish artist born on 12 May 1745. MORE ON JUEL AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1795 Francisco Javier Eugenio de Santa Cruz y Espejo, líder independentista ecuatoriano.
1745 Johan Anton Richter, Swedish artist born in 1675, give or take 10 years. Capriccio With Palazzo Vendramin Calergi, Venice
1703 Isaak van Nikkelen, Dutch artist born in 1635, give or take 5 years.
1641 Gotthardt Wedig, German artist born in 1583.
1631 Jan Symonszoon Pynas, Dutch artist born in 1583 or 1584. — more with links to images.
1585 Pierre de Ronsard, poeta francés. RONSARD ONLINE: Oeuvres Complètes (Tome I) Les Amours Poésies Choisies.
1065 Fernando I, rey de Castilla y de León.
0418 Pope St. Zosimus, Pope. His 14-month pontificate served chiefly to reaffirm decrees against the Pelagians and other heresies and to allow churches below the rank of basilica to bless candles.
1945 The International Monetary Fund.
1945 The World Bank for Reconstruction and Development, created by an ageement signed by 28 nations.
1936 Lee Salk doctor (CBS TV)
1930 Wilfrid Sheed England, writer (Boys of Winter, The Hack)
1929 Lucio Muñoz, Madrid Spanish pseudo-painter and printmaker, who died on 24 May 1998. — more with link to an image.
1926 Rodrigo Carazo Odio, político y economista costarricense.
1922 Juan José Gerardi Conedera, in Guatemala City. He would be ordained a priest on 21 December 1946. He was appointed on 05 May 1967 and ordained on 30 July 1967, and installed on 11 August 1967 a bishop for the diocese of Cobán, Verapaz. He was appointed on 22 August 1974 bishop of Santa Cruz del Quiché, from which he resigned and was appointed auxiliary bishop of Guatemala on 14 August 1984. He became head of the Guatemala Catholic human rights office. As such, on 24 April 1984, he presented a report blaming the military for most of the 200'000 deaths in Guatemala's 1960-1996 civil war. On 26 April 1984 he was killed in the garage of his residence, bludgeoned with a concrete block. For this crime, on 08 July 2001 a Guatemalan tribunal would sentence to 30 years in prison captain Byron Miguel Lima Oliva, his father colonel Byron Disrael Lima Estrada, and the former presidential bodyguard José Obdulio Villanueva, and to 20 years in prison, as an accomplice, Father Mario Orantes Nájera, who shared the residence of bishop Gerardi
1915 Cooper, mathematician.
1896 Louis Bromfield Mansfield OH, novelist and essayist (Early Autumn, Pulitzer-1926). He died on 18 March 1956.
1883 Cyrus Eaton, Canadian-born US industrialist and philanthropist, who died on 09 May 1979.
1859 Vicente March y Marco, Spanish painter who died on 31 March 1927. MORE ON MARCH AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1829 Hinton Helper, southern abolitionist who wrote The Impending Crisis.
1823 Sir Mackenzie Boswell, Canadian prime minister, who died on 19 December 1917.
1822 Louis Pasteur, Dole, France, bacteriologist (pasteurization, rabies vaccine). He died on 28 September 1895. -- Ce biologiste français a effectué de nombreuses recherches et on lui doit le vaccin contre la rage, la découverte de l'aseptie et de l'antiseptie et celle du rôle des bactéries dans la fermentation.
1806 Ramón Cabrera y Griño, militar carlista español.
1799 Serafín Estébanez Calderón, escritor español.
1747 Esteban de Arteaga, jesuita español.
1654 (Julian date = 06 Jan 1655 Gregorian) Jakob Bernoulli.
1586 Francisco de Moncada, político y escritor español.
1571 Johannes Kepler, mathematician, Worttemberg Germany, astronomer (elliptical orbits). He died on 15 November 1630.
1773 George Cayley England, founded science of aerodynamics.