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Basescu^  On a 12 December:

2008 The Vatican's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith publishes the instruction Dignitas Personae on certain bioethical questions. —(081212)

2004 Presidential runoff election in Romania. Reformist opposition candidate Traian Basescu [< 13 Dec 2004 photo] wins with 51% of the vote to 49% for Prime Minister Adrian Nastase.

2002 Elections to the Gujarat state assembly, in India. The Hindu fundamentalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) retains power, with 100 of the 189 seats, defeating again the Congress Party, which is in power in most other states of India. Some Muslims flee in fear to Muslim majority areas. At least 1000 persons, mainly Muslims, died in a wave of revenge attacks after a Muslim mob set fire to a trainload of Hindu activists in Gujarat on 27 February 2002, killing 59.

2000 Japan announces that Alberto Fujimori's name appears in Japanese birth records. Therefore the ex-president of Peru, who had to resign in disgrace, is a Japanese citizen and can hope to escape Peruvian justice by remaining in Japan, where he has taken refuge.
2000 Francisco Umbral es galardonado con el Premio Cervantes.
2000 En España el Partido Popular y el Partido

Elian and Marisleysis on carousel1999 Cuban shipwreck survivor Elián González [06 Dec 1993~], visits Walt Disney World Resort in Orlando, with his cousin Marisleysis Gonzalez, who has been mothering him in Miami since the boy was rescued on Thanksgiving Day, after his mother and 10 other would-be refugees drowned.. [photo: the two riding a carousel >]
^ 1997: 14-year-old gamer indicted for school murder
      Fourteen-year-old Michael Carneal is indicted as an adult on three counts of murder and five counts of attempted murder for the shooting of his classmates at Heath High School in West Paducah, Kentucky. On December 1, Carneal pulled out a pistol and fired 11 shots into a group of students in the school's lobby.
      By all accounts, Michael Carneal was a normal teenager from a solid family. He was neither exceptionally popular nor a social outcast. On December 1, when his older sister, Kelly, drove him to school, he reportedly claimed that the blanketed bundle on his lap was a science project; in fact, it contained two rifles and two shotguns. In addition, Carneal was carrying a .22-caliber pistol. The guns had all been stolen from a neighbor's garage several weeks earlier.
      When he arrived at school, Carneal walked toward a before-school prayer meeting that was just breaking up, inserted earplugs into his ears, loaded the .22, and then methodically shot eight students from a distance of 10 feet. Amid the barrage, fellow student Ben Strong convinced Carneal to drop his weapon and held him down until the school's principal took the gunman away.
      When asked what motivated his killing rampage, Carneal only cried and asked authorities to kill him. Later, he claimed that he was inspired by the movie The Basketball Diaries, starring Leonardo DiCaprio. Families of the victims filed a $130 million lawsuit against 21 entertainment companies for their alleged role in the tragedy. Among those sued were the makers of the video games Quake and Doom. According to the litigants, Carneal had learned how to shoot accurately from playing these games. Although charged as an adult, Carneal's young age made him ineligible for the death penalty. He pleaded guilty but mentally ill, and he was sentenced to life in prison with a possibility of parole in 25 years.
      The Paducah community was remarkably kind to Carneal's family in the wake of the tragedy, offering them condolences and welcoming Kelly back to school after the incident.
^ 1994 IBM halts shipments of flawed Pentium computer chip
      IBM said it would halt shipments of Pentium computers because of a flaw in the Pentium chip. The November 7 issue of Electrical Engineering Times announced the “floating point” bug in the Pentium chip, which could produce mathematical errors. Intel officials admitted they had known about the flaw for some time but thought it so unlikely to cause problems that they did not disclose the problem, creating an uproar among computer users. Intel said it would replace flawed chips only if users showed they engaged in computer work that might be affected by the error. Consumers attacked Intel for its position, and later, the company agreed to replace any chips that were returned. Ironically, six months later, only about three percent of customers had requested a replacement chip.
1994 Sudáfrica se reincorpora a la UNESCO tras 38 años de ausencia. Socialista firman un pacto de estrategia antiterrorista.
1993 Ultra-Nationalists make strong gains in Russian elections.
^ 1993 Eduardo Frei elected President of Chile
      In the first presidential election since Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet stepped down from power in 1990, Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, the candidate of a new center-left coalition, sweeps to power. Frei's father, Eduardo Montalva-Frei, had served as Chilean president from 1964 to 1970. Frei, replaces Patricio Aylwin Azocar, who was elected Pinochet's civilian successor in 1989, although the former dictator remained chief of the army. In the first years of his rule, Frei launches an ambitious program of social reform, and Chile enjoys rapid economic growth of more than 7-percent a year. In 1998, the eighty-two-year-old Pinochet finally steps down as head of the army, and in the same year suddenly finds himself vulnerable to charges of human rights violations by Chilean authorities and the international community. Pinochet is charged with killing over 3000 suspected political opponents during his seventeen-year rule.
1991 Corea del Norte y Corea del Sur firman un histórico acuerdo de reconciliación, cooperación y no agresión, después de 46 años de estado de "guerra técnica".
1991 El que fuera jefe de estado de la RDA, Erich Honecker, se refugia en la embajada de Chile en Moscú para evitar ser expulsado de Rusia.
1988 Ghulam Ishaq Khan es elegido presidente de Pakistán.
^ 1987 US calls on European allies to increase defense spending
      During an official visit to Denmark, US Secretary of State George Shultz issues a statement calling on America's NATO allies in western Europe to sharply increase their defense spending. Shultz bluntly informed his Danish hosts that it was “important for all of us to increase our contributions to NATO… to insure that we do everything we can to preserve our values.” The call for funds was in direct response to the INF Treaty that had recently been signed by the US and the Soviet Union.
      Shultz's visit was the first of many stops in Europe. Just days before, the Soviet Union and the United States signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty that promised to eliminate much of the two nations' nuclear arsenals in Europe. Critics of the treaty in the United States and in Western Europe argued that this would leave America's NATO allies nearly defenseless against the massive conventional forces of the Soviet Union. Shultz himself had not been a supporter of the treaty. With the treaty in force, however, the secretary now issued a call for increased spending by NATO members on their conventional armed forces. As Shultz concluded, “It's not a viewpoint. It's a description of reality.” Denmark strongly supported the INF Treaty. However, the United States had criticized Denmark for years because of its small defense budget. According to one US diplomat, the Danes' philosophy was that “the Soviets are not a major threat and that in any case, their British and American friends would always come to their aid.”
      Talks between Shultz and Danish officials were cordial, but reflected the growing tension between the United States and some of its NATO allies concerning defense issues in Europe. Instead of agreeing with the secretary's suggestion for increased defense spending, the Danish representative pushed even more to render Europe a “nuclear-free” zone. The inconclusive talks, and the Danish refusal to consider increased defense spending, were evidence of the increasing power of the “no-nuke” movement in Western Europe.
1986 Microlite aircraft circles world non-stop.
1984 Golpe de estado incruento en Mauritania; el presidente Mohamed Uld Haidalla es derrocado por el ex-primer ministro Hauya Sid Ahmed Taya.
1983 Se concede a Liber Seregni Mosquera, político y militar uruguayo, el Premio Español de Derechos Humanos, que recoge su mujer por encontrarse encarcelado
1981 Golpe militar en Polonia, dirigido por el general Jaruzelski.
1980 US's copyright law amended to include computer programs
1979 Gold hits record $462.50 an ounce
1979 Rhodesia becomes the independent nation of Zimbabwe
1975 Gas stove explodes and starts fire killing 138 (Mecca Saudi Arabia)
1975 Carlos Arias Navarro es nombrado presidente del Gobierno español.
1975 Sara Jane Moore pled guilty to trying to kill President Gerald Ford
1974 Pope Paul VI announced his intention of canonizing Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton (1774_1821), who had founded the first free Catholic school in the US as well as the religious order known as the Sisters of Charity of St. Joseph.
^ 1969 Philippine soldiers leave South Vietnam
      The Philippine Civic Action Group, a 1350-man contingent from the Army of the Philippines, departs South Vietnam. The contingent was part of the Free World Military Forces, an effort by President Lyndon B. Johnson to enlist allies for the United States and South Vietnam. By securing support from other nations, Johnson hoped to build an international consensus behind his policies in Vietnam. The effort was also known as the “many flags” program.
      The Philippine Civic Action Group entered Vietnam in September 1966, setting up operations in a base camp in Tay Ninh Province northwest of Saigon. The force included an engineer construction battalion, medical and rural community development teams, a security battalion, a field artillery battery, and a logistics and headquarters element.
      In agreeing to commit troops, Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos was partially motivated by the desire for financial aid. In return for the military assistance, the United States not only agreed to pay for the deployment and maintenance of the Philippine force, but also granted Marcos several types of military aid, much of it for use in the Philippines rather than in South Vietnam.
      Ultimately, Johnson's Free World Military Forces program failed. The Philippines was one of only five nations that responded to Johnson's repeated plea for military support and troops in South Vietnam.
1969 Grecia se retira del consejo de Europa.
^ 1968 Shape of table debated at Vietnam peace talks
      The Paris Peace talks, which opened on May 10, continue to be plagued by procedural questions that impeded any meaningful progress. South Vietnamese Premier Nguyen Cao Ky refused to consent to any permanent seating plan that would place the National Liberation Front (NLF) on an equal footing with Saigon. North Vietnam and the NLF likewise balked at any arrangement that would effectively recognize the Saigon as the legitimate government of South Vietnam. Prolonged discussions over the shape of the negotiating table was finally resolved by the placement of two square tables separated by a round table. Chief US negotiator Averell Harriman proposed this arrangement so that NLF representatives could join the North Vietnamese team without having to be acknowledged by Saigon's delegates; similarly, South Vietnamese negotiators could sit with their American allies without having to be acknowledged by the North Vietnamese and the NLF representatives. Such seemingly insignificant matters became fodder for many arguments between the delegations at the negotiations.
1967 The United States ends the airlift of 6500 men in Vietnam.
1964 Kenya becomes a republic con Jomo Kenyatta como presidente.
1964 Three Buddhist leaders begin a hunger strike to protest the government in Saigon.
Kenya gains independence from Britain (National Day)
1963 Kénia indépendant
      Officiellement république du Kenya, ce pays d'Afrique de l'Est est baigné par l'océan Indien, bordé au nord par le Soudan et l'Éthiopie, à l'est par la Somalie et au sud par la Tanzanie. Le Kenya, dont la capitale est Nairobi, couvre une superficie de 582646 km² (20 fois la Belgique ; France = 26 fois la Belgique).
      Le Kenya possède plus de 400 km de côtes bordées d'îles (Lamu) et séparées de l'océan Indien par des récifs de corail. Dans la vaste plaine côtière coulent les deux principaux fleuves, Tana et Galana (appelé Athi dans son cours supérieur). Le terrain s'élève progressivement en un large plateau aride qui couvre une grande partie du nord et de l'est. Dans la zone centrale, de grandes chaînes de montagnes volcaniques culminent à 5 199 m au mont Kenya. Plus à l'ouest, l'immense dépression de la Rift Valley est marquée par une succession de falaises abruptes. Le Kenya englobe la presque totalité du lac Turkana (ou lac Rodolphe) et une petite partie du lac Victoria.
      Le Kenya est traversé dans sa partie centrale par l'équateur. Les régions situées au nord de celui-ci (soit les deux tiers du pays) sont soumises à un climat désertique ou semi-désertique. Sur la côte, chaude et humide, la température moyenne varie de 24,4°C en juin-juillet à 27,8°C de février à avril. Les Hautes Terres sont plus tempérées (de 11°C à 21°C à Nairobi en juillet; de 13°C à 26°C en février). La région du lac Victoria est tropicale, avec deux saisons des pluies d'octobre à décembre et d'avril à juin.
      Une mangrove de palétuviers couvre partiellement la côte, où poussent également les palmiers. Teck et santal comptent parmi les espèces précieuses de la forêt côtière. Baobabs, euphorbiacées et acacias couvrent les steppes jusqu'à une altitude de 900 m.
      Les vastes étendues de savane sont parsemées de bouquets d'acacias et de papyrus — de 900 m et 2 700 m environ. Le camphrier et le bambou poussent dans les denses forêts équatoriales qui couvrent les pentes montagneuses de l'Est et du Sud-Est. Au-dessus de 3 500 m, poussent encore d'immenses plantes de type alpin (sénés, lobélies).
      Le Kenya est également réputé pour sa faune riche en animaux sauvages : éléphants, rhinocéros, zèbres, girafes, lions et autres grands félins. Parcs nationaux et réserves de chasse les protègent en principe. Mais le braconnage, qui concerne principalement les porteurs d'ivoire, éléphants et rhinocéros, semble irréductible. Le Kenya abonde en oiseaux et en reptiles (pythons et cobras).
      La population du Kenya était estimée à 28'260'000 en 1995 (densité absolue : 50 habitants/km2). Son taux d'accroissement annuel demeurait très important sur la période 1990-1995 (3,6 %). Sur la même période, l'indice de fécondité était de 6,3 enfants par femme et la mortalité infantile s'élevait à 69 o/ooo
      Près de la moitié des Kenyans sont d'origine bantoue (Kikouyous, Kambas et Luyhas). Les Masaïs et les Luos appartiennent au groupe nilotique auquel se rattachent également les Kalenjins. Le pays abrite aussi des minorités asiatiques, européennes et arabes.
      En 1952, les Mau-Mau, membres d'une société secrète kikouyou, se révoltèrent contre les autorités et les colons britanniques. La révolte des Mau-Mau, qui devait durer quatre ans, fut violemment réprimée. La répression frappa l'ensemble des Kikouyous sans distinction : 13000 d'entre eux furent tués. Kenyatta fut emprisonné pour complicité présumée avec les Mau-Mau.
      Le changement, pourtant, était inéluctable : les autorités coloniales favorisèrent la constitution d'une classe moyenne africaine, en encourageant les autochtones à s'engager dans les cultures d'exportation. En 1957, les petits planteurs africains furent autorisés à élire huit représentants au Conseil législatif de la colonie.
      Le mouvement indépendantiste, dans le même temps, se structurait. En 1960, fut fondée l'Union nationale africaine du Kenya (Kenya African National Union, KANU), dont Kenyatta prit la direction après sa libération, l'année suivante. Mais intervint rapidement une scission, entraînant les ethnies minoritaires opposées à la domination des Kikouyous. Ils fondèrent l'Union démocratique africaine du Kenya.
      Une conférence constitutionnelle prépara l'accession à l'indépendance, effective le 12 décembre 1963. Jomo Kenyatta, dont le parti avait remporté les élections, devint président de la nouvelle République.
      Contrairement aux craintes des colons, le pouvoir africain se montra modéré, pro-occidental et progressiste. La structure foncière ne fut pas radicalement modifiée. Les terres rachetées aux Européens furent redistribuées selon des critères ethniques et tribaux et une élite kenyane, en majorité formée par les Kikouyous, se constitua. La stabilité politique, due à l'hégémonie de la KANU, parti unique de facto à partir de 1969, attira d'importants investissements étrangers.
      L'industrie du tourisme, reposant sur les grandes réserves nationales d'animaux sauvages, se développa rapidement et devint une ressource importante. Le prestige de Jomo Kenyatta, nommé le Mzee (l'ancien avisé), demeurait grand lorsqu'il mourut, en 1978.
      Depuis cette date, les affrontements intercommunautaires se sont poursuivis. Des dizaines de milliers de Kikouyous ont été chassés de la Rift Valley par les Kalenjins et les Masaïs. Des centaines de fermiers luos ont également dû quitter leurs terres. En juillet 1995, la Grande-Bretagne suspendait à nouveau son aide au Kenya, en raison des violations des droits de l'Homme.
1962 Marcos Pérez Jiménez, el que fuera presidente de Venezuela, ingresa en la prisión de Miami.
1962 El presidente Kennedy propone la instalación de una línea de comunicaciones directa entre la Casa Blanca y el Kremlin.
1961 Martin Luther King Jr & 700 demonstrators arrested in Albany GA
1959 UN Committee on Peaceful Use of Outer Space is established
1957 US announces manufacture of Borazon (harder than diamond)
1956 The United Nations calls for immediate Soviet withdrawal from Hungary.
1955 The Ford Foundation makes the biggest donation to charity the world had ever seen: five-hundred million dollars to hospitals, medical schools, and colleges.
1947 United Mine Workers union withdrew from AFL
1946 El socialista León Blum es elegido jefe del gobierno por la Asamblea Nacional de Francia..
1943 The exiled Czech government signs a treaty with the Soviet Union for postwar cooperation.
1943 The German Army launches Operation Winter Tempest, the relief of the Sixth Army trapped in Stalingrad.
1941 German occupying army do a house search in Paris looking for Jews

1941 United States seizes French liner Normandie
      The US Navy takes control of the largest and most luxurious ocean liner on the seas at that time, France's Normandie, while it is docked at New York City. Shortly thereafter, the conversion for US wartime use began. The Normandie was unique in many ways. It was the first ship built, in 1931, in accordance with the guidelines laid down in the 1929 Convention for Safety of Life at Sea. It was also huge, measuring 1,029 feet long and 119 feet wide. It displaced 85'000 tons of water. It offered passengers seven accommodation classes (including the new “tourist” class, as opposed to the old “third” class, commonly known as “steerage”) and 1975 berths. It took a crew of more than 1,300 to work her. But despite its size, it was also fast: capable of 32.1 knots. The liner was launched in 1932 and made its first transatlantic crossing in 1935. In 1937, it was reconfigured with four-bladed propellers, which meant it could now cross the Atlantic in less than four days.
      When France surrendered to the Germans in June 1940, and the puppet Vichy regime was installed, the Normandie was in dock at New York City. Immediately placed in “protective custody” by the Navy, it was clear that the US government was not about to let a ship of such size and speed fall into the hands of the Germans, which it certainly would upon returning to France. In November 1941, Time magazine ran an article stating that in the event of the United States' involvement in the war, the Navy would seize the liner altogether and turn it into an aircraft carrier. It also elaborated on how the design of the ship made such a conversion relatively simple.
      When the Navy did take control of the ship, shortly after Pearl Harbor, it began the conversion of the liner--but to a troop ship, renamed the USS Lafayette (after the French general who aided the American Colonies in their original quest for independence). The Lafayette never served its new purpose. On February 9, 1942, the ship caught fire and capsized. Sabotage was originally suspected, but the likely cause was sparks from a welder's torch. Although the ship was finally righted, the massive salvage operation cost $3'750'000--and the fire damage made any hope of employing the vessel impossible. It was scrapped--literally chopped up for scrap metal--in 1946.

1937 Japanese aircraft shell & sink US gunboat Panay on Yangtze River in China. (Japan apologized & eventually paid US $2.2 M in reparations)
1931 Under pressure from the Communists in Canton, Chiang Kai-shek resigns as president of the Nanking Government but remains the head of the Nationalist government that holds nominal rule over most of China.
1930 The last Allied troops withdraw from the Saar region in Germany.
1930 Spanish rebels take a border town. — Sublevación de Jaca contra la monarquía española.
1927 Communists forces seize Canton, China.
1925 last Qajar Shah of Iran deposed; Rexa Shah Pahlavi takes over.
1924 El autogiro Juan de la Cierva recibe su consagración como máquina voladora al realizar el viaje de Cuatro Vientos a Getafe, en Madrid.
1916 The Studebaker Corporation, a leading auto maker that began as the world's biggest manufacturer of horseless carriages, begins construction of a new factory in South Bend, Indiana.
1915 1st all-metal aircraft (Junkers J.1) test flown at Dessau Germany
^ 1913 Mona Lisa recovered in Florence
      Two years after it was stolen from the Louvre Museum in Paris, Leonardo da Vinci's masterpiece, The Mona Lisa, is recovered inside a hotel in Florence, Italy. The thief was most likely Italian waiter Vicenzo Perruggia. Leonardo da Vinci, one of the great Italian Renaissance painters, completed The Mona Lisa, a portrait of the wife of wealthy Florentine citizen Francesco del Gioconda, in 1504. The painting, also known as La Gioconda, depicts the figure of a woman with an enigmatic facial expression that is both aloof and alluring, seated before a visionary landscape. After its recovery The Mona Lisa, arguably the most famous painting in the world, is returned to the Louvre Museum in Paris, where it remains today, exhibited behind bulletproof glass.
1910 El presidente del consejo de Grecia, Eleuterios Venizelos, triunfa holgadamente en las elecciones legislativas.
^ 1901 Marconi sends first transatlantic radio signal
      Guglielmo Marconi attempts to send the first radio signals across the Atlantic Ocean. “Experts” had predicted such a transmission would be impossible over such a long distance. Marconi erected a wireless receiver in St. John's Newfoundland, Canada, using a balloon to lift the antenna high into the air. He sent Morse code signals to Cornwall, England, and received an answer about thirty minutes later. After his successful experiment, he wrote, “I now felt for the first time absolutely certain that the day would come when mankind would be able to send messages without wires not only across the Atlantic but between the farthest ends of the earth.”
     Un jeune italien Guglieimo Marconi (1874-1937) réussit une expérience qui aura d'extraordinaires répercutions. Depuis Poldhu, dans les Cornouailles, il réussit à expédier un signal radio-électrique (morse) capté au phare de South Coast, à Terre Neuve. Il prouve ainsi que la radiotélégraphie est en mesure de franchir l'Atlantique.
1900 Max Planck expone su Teoría de los cuantos, base de la Física moderna.
1871 Jules Janssen discovers dark lines in solar corona spectrum
^ 1870 First Black US Congressman
      Joseph Hayne Rainey, a Republican from South Carolina, is sworn in to the House of Representatives to fill the seat made vacant by the expulsion of Representative Benjamin F. Whittemore. Rainey, who serves as a South Carolina representative for ten years, is the first African-American to sit in the House. In the aftermath of the American Civil War, the Civil Rights Act of 1866, granting US citizenship and equal rights to all persons except Indians born in the United States, was passed over President Andrew Johnson's veto. One year later, the Reconstruction Acts of 1867 was passed, dividing the South into five military districts and granting suffrage to all male citizens, regardless of race. A politically mobilized African-American community joined with white allies in the Southern states to elect the Republican party to power, which in turn brought about radical changes across the South. By 1870, all the former Confederate states had been readmitted to the Union, and most were controlled by the Republican party, thanks to the support of African-American voters. Although African-Americans Republicans never obtained political office in proportion to their overwhelming electoral majority, Joseph Rainey and some fifteen other African-American men served in Congress during Reconstruction, over six hundred served in state legislatures, and hundreds of African-Americans held local offices.
1863 Orders are given in Richmond, Virginia, that no more supplies from the Union should be received by Federal prisoners.
1840 La reina María Cristina de Borbón renuncia a la regencia en la ciudad de Valencia.
1834 Tiene lugar la batalla de Mendaza, dentro de las Guerras Carlistas, en la que el general isabelino Fernández de Córdoba vence a Tomás Zumalacárregui.
1806 Le serbe Karageorges s’empare de Belgrade. 24 ans plus tard (28 août 1830), l’empire ottoman reconnaîtra l’autonomie de la Serbie. The uprising had started in the Sumadija region, south of Belgrade; it was led by Djordje Petrovic, 44, called Karadjordje (“Black George”), a successful pig trader who had served with the Austrians in the war against Turkey in 1787-88.
1800 Washington DC established as capitol of US
1799 Suite à son coup d'Etat de Brumaire, Napoléon Bonaparte donne son aval à une nouvelle Constitution. C'est le début du Consulat.
^ 1793 La bataille du Mans
      La Révolution Française n’a pas triomphé d’un seul coup. L’Ouest de la France, plus rural et Catholique, spécialement la Bretagne et la Vendée résistèrent pendant de nombreuses années. Le mouvement de la “ Chouannerie ” (les Chouans) pratiqua avec alternance, la guérilla et les batailles rangées. Mais la bataille du Mans qui oppose les forces royalistes aux révolutionnaires consacre la défaite de l’opposition catholique et royaliste à la Révolution.
Henri du Vergier de La Rochejacquelein
      Il est né en 1772 en Vendée. À sa sortie du collège militaire de Sorèze, où il a été élevé, Henri de La Rochejaquelein entre au régiment de Royal-Pologne cavalerie, dont son père, le marquis de La Rochejaquelein, est colonel propriétaire, puis il passe aux chasseurs de Flandre qu’il abandonne pour faire partie de la garde constitutionnelle du roi. C’est à ce titre qu’il reçoit le baptême du feu en participant, le 10 août 1792, à la défense des Tuileries.
      Rentré dans ses terres, en Vendée, il refuse de se soumettre à la conscription décrétée par la République et, au printemps de 1793, il rallie quelques dizaines de paysans auxquels il aurait dit alors, dans la cour de son château de La Durbellière, les paroles fameuses : “Si j’avance, suivez-moi ; si je recule, tuez-moi ; si je meurs, vengez-moi !”.
      Il commence par avancer, s’empare de Bressuire le 2 mai, puis de Fontenay, et le 8 juin fait son entrée dans Saumur, ayant donné, en montant le premier à l’assaut, l’exemple d’une fougue et d’une valeur auxquelles Kléber sera le premier à rendre hommage. Ses succès ne le grisent pas et, toujours maître de lui, il modère l’ardeur vengeresse de ses hommes qui veulent faire subir aux républicains la loi du talion : “Si vous agissez comme ceux qui font le mal, leur dit-il, où est la bonne cause.”
      Partisan d’une marche rapide sur Paris, pour s’emparer de la capitale et délivrer Louis XVII, il y serait peut-être parvenu si les avis des autres chefs royalistes, entre autres ceux de Donnissan et du prince de Talmont, n’avaient prévalu. On décide de se porter en Bretagne pour y rejoindre un corps expéditionnaire anglais attendu à Saint-Malo.
      La “grande armée catholique et royale”, à la tête de laquelle il a succédé à d’Elbée comme généralissime, s’égare en Bretagne, suivie d’une masse de femmes, d’enfants et de bétail qui gênent ses opérations. La Rochejaquelein s’empare de Laval, de Fougères, d’Avranches, mais il échoue devant Granville et doit rebrousser chemin, harcelé par Marceau, Kléber et Westermann. Battu au Mans le 12 décembre 1793, il éprouve un nouveau désastre au passage de la Loire où ce qui reste de son armée est taillé en pièces.
      Vaincu, calomnié par ses rivaux, abandonné par beaucoup, Henri de La Rochejaquelein s’enfonce dans le bocage vendéen pour y continuer, avec quelques fidèles, une lutte sans espoir. Il est tué dans un engagement, le 28 janvier 1794. Il n’avait pas 22 ans.
Jean Cottereau, surnommé Jean Chouan.
      Héros de la chouannerie, Jean Cottereau avait hérité son surnom de son père Pierre, sabotier et probablement faux saunier, se servant du cri de la chouette pour se faire reconnaître de ses complices. Il pratiquait le faux saunage avec ses frères François et René. En 1780, âgé de 23 ans, il fut poursuivi pour avoir d’abord rossé un nommé Marchois qu’il soupçonnait de l’avoir vendu aux gabelous, puis pour avoir tué à force de coups un agent de la gabelle. Il disparut à cette époque, peut-être engagé au régiment de Turenne sous un faux nom. Arrêté en 1785, il passe plusieurs années en prison.
      En 1792, à Saint-Ouen-des-Prés, non loin de Laval, il ameute les paysans lors d’une tentative d’enrôlement de volontaires, bouscule les gendarmes et constitue une bande qui va s’installer dans les bois de Misedon, pour combattre les ennemis de Dieu et du roi.
      Il joue un rôle actif dans la contre-révolution, favorise l’émigration. Sa tête étant mise à prix, il tente en vain, en mars 1793, de gagner l’Angleterre. En octobre 1793, il rejoint l’armée des Vendéens à Laval et participe aux combats jusqu’à la sanglante défaite du Mans, le 12 décembre 1793.
      Il se replie alors dans sa forêt de Misedon, où il continue la lutte sur un terrain qui lui est plus favorable que celui d’une bataille rangée. Mais le ravitaillement est difficile dans un pays sillonné par les troupes républicaines. En juillet 1794, il est reconnu dans une ferme; poursuivi, il attire sur lui le feu des républicains pour permettre à sa belle-sœur, enceinte, de s’échapper. Grièvement blessé, il parvient à regagner la forêt mais meurt de ses blessures; sa tombe n’a pas été retrouvée.
      La famille de Jean Chouan connut un sort aussi tragique, au service de Dieu et du roi : un de ses frères mourut à la guerre, un autre fut guillotiné, ainsi que ses deux sœurs. Seul survécut René, qui reçut des Bourbons une pension de 400 francs et mourut en 1846.
1792 In Vienna, Ludwig van Beethoven, 22, receives first lesson in music composition from Franz Joseph Haydn
1787 Pennsylvania becomes 2nd state to ratify US constitution
1770 The British soldiers responsible for the “Boston Massacre” are acquitted of murder charges
1769 Pope Clement XIV proclaims a universal jubilee
1753 George Washington, the adjutant of Virginia, delivers an ultimatum to the French forces at Fort Le Boeuf, south of Lake Erie, reiterating Britain's claim to the entire Ohio River valley.
1712 The South Carolina colony passed a “Sunday Law ‘requiring’ all...persons whatsoever” to attend church each Sunday, to refrain from skilled labor, and to do no traveling by horse or wagon beyond the necessary. Infractions of this law were met with a 10-shilling fine and/or a two-hour lockup in the village stocks.
^ 1666 Russian Orthodox Patriach Nikon deposed.
     The Moscow Council deposes Russian Orthodox Nikita Minin Patriarch Nikon, 61. The church synod had sought to bring an end to the struggle between Czar Alexis and Patriarch Nikon, but the antagonism, begun as a call for liturgical reform, ultimately grew into a struggle over the relationship between church and state.
     In 1652 Nikon had accepted to be patriarch of Moscow and all Russia on condition that he be given full authority in matters of dogma and ritual. He ordered what he considered rectifications of traditional Russian ritual, alienating many in the faithful and the clergy. He exiled or excommunicated those who resisted his reforms. He claimed supremacy of the Church over the State, which turned against him the tsar's family and the boyars. On 20 July 1658 he theatrically announced his resignation and left Moscow, hoping thus to force tsar Alexis to recognize his authority. Instead the tsar ignored him and finally convenes a council to defrock Nikon and exiles him as a monk to Beloozero, some 560 km north of Moscow. The council would retained Nikon's reforms, which provokes a schism (raskol) with those who hold to the previous practice, the Old Believers.
     The next tsar, Fyodor III, would recall Nikon from exile. That is when he died on his way back to Moscow on 27 August 1681..
1604 Henri IV promulgue l’édit de la Paulette, d'après le nom de son inventeur. Par cet édit lourd de conséquences, les charges publiques deviennent héréditaires sous réserve d’un versement au Trésor.
1543 Estalla la revuelta de los encomenderos mexicanos.
^ 1531 The Virgin of Guadalupe appears again to Juan Diego (traduction of the Nahuatl narrative Nican Mopohua continued from 09 December)
+ ZOOM IN +     On this Tuesday the poor but respected Indian called Juan Diego [ 12 Jul 1474 – 30 May 1548] sees the Queen of Heaven coming down from where he had seen her three days earlier. She comes to meet him next to the hill, stops him, and says: “Listen, my beloved son, have no fear or anxiety in your heart. Do not try to do anything about your uncle’s grave illness or about any other trouble of yours. For am I not here with you, your mother? Are you not safe in the shadow of my protection? Am I not the source of your life and your happiness? Am I not holding you in my lap, wrapped in my arms? What else can you possibly need? Do not be upset or distressed. Climb again, my beloved son, to the summit of this hill, to the place where you saw me and heard me speak. You will find flowers growing there. Pick them and gather them and bring them down to me.”
     Juan Diego comes back down with the flowers he has picked. She looks at them, takes them with her blessed hands and put them in his tilma, or cape. She tells him: “Most beloved son, these flowers are the sign that you are to carry to the prelate. You yourself are my messenger and I entrust myself to your faithfulness. I strictly command you not to unfold your tilma in front of anyone except the prelate; but to him you should show what it is you are carrying. As you do so, tell him the story of how I asked you to climb to the top of the hill and pick the flowers there. Tell him everything you saw and marvelled at, so that he will believe you and undertake to build the church I wish for.”
     Obedient to the command of the Queen of Heaven, Juan Diego takes the road to Mexico City. He goes happily, confident that all will turn out well. Coming into the palace he prostrates himself before the prelate, recounts all that he has seen, and tells him the errand on which he has been sent. “My Lord,” he says, “I have done as you asked. I went to my Lady, the Queen of Heaven, holy Mary, the Mother of God, and told her that you had asked for a sign so that you might believe me and build the church that the Virgin herself desires. I told her that I had given my word to bring you back some sign of her wishes. She heard what you had asked and accepted with good grace your request for some sign so that you could fulfil her will. Today, very early, she sent me back to see you.”
     The whole city comes running to see the holy image. They wonder at it, accept it as the work of God and pray to Him. And that day Juan Diego’s uncle, whom the Virgin has cured, tells them in what way she should be revered and says that her image should be known as the Ever-Virgin Saint Mary of Guadalupe.
+ ZOOM IN +^ Our Lady of Guadalupe produces European roses in winter in America.
      The Blessed Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus, appears again to Indian convert Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin [1474 30 May 1548], whom three days earlier she had instructed to tell his bishop to build a chapel on a site, which, until the Spanish conquest, had supported a pagan temple to the goddess of the earth and growing corn, Tonantzin. The bishop did not believe Juan. The Virgin reappeared and poured Castillian roses (not found in the new world) into his homespun cloak. When the roses were poured out before the bishop, he still did not believe; but on the cloak a portrait of Mary miraculously appeared, which convinced him. The church arose, and the Fiesta of Our Lady of Guadalupe became Mexico's greatest religious festival. The painting hangs exposed day and night to the view of all and has not deteriorated over four centuries despite lack of preservatives in a climate where other artworks quickly decay.
     To a neophyte, fifty five years old, named Juan Diego, who was hurrying down Tepeyac hill to hear Mass in Mexico City, on Saturday, 09 December, 1531, the Blessed Virgin appeared and sent him to Juan de Zumárraga [1468 – 03 Jun 1548] OFM, the bishop-designate of Mexico City (the first; he would be consecrated a bishop on 27 April 1533, in Spain), to have a temple built where she stood. She was at the same place that evening and Sunday evening to get the bishop's answer. He had not immediately believed the messenger; having cross-questioned him and had him watched, he finally bade him ask a sign of the lady who said she was the mother of the true God. The neophyte agreed so readily to ask any sign desired, that the bishop was impressed and left the sign to the apparition.
      Juan was occupied all Monday with Bernardino, an uncle, who seemed dying of fever. Indian specifics failed; so at daybreak on Tuesday, 12 December, the grieved nephew was running to the St. James's convent for a priest. To avoid the apparition and untimely message to the bishop, he slipped round where the well chapel now stands. But the Blessed Virgin crossed down to meet him and said: “What road is this thou takest son?” A tender dialogue ensued. Reassuring Juan about his uncle whom at that instant she cured, appearing to him also and calling herself Holy Mary of Guadalupe she bade him go again to the bishop. Without hesitating he joyously asked the sign. She told him to go up to the rocks and gather roses. He knew it was neither the time nor the place for roses, but he went and found them. Gathering many into the lap of his tilma a long cloak or wrapper used by Mexican Indians he came back. The Holy Mother, rearranging the roses, bade him keep them untouched and unseen till he reached the bishop.
      Having got to the presence of Zumárraga, Juan offered the sign. As he unfolded his cloak the roses fell out, and he was startled to see the bishop and his attendants kneeling before him: the life size figure of the Virgin Mother, just as he had described her, was glowing on the poor tilma. A great mural decoration in the basilica commemorates the scene. The picture was venerated, guarded in the bishop's chapel, and soon after carried processionally to the preliminary shrine. —(081212)
1479 Jews are expelled from Schlettstadt Alsace by Emperor Frederick III
1474 Isabel la Católica es proclamada reina en Segovia.
1408 El concilio de Perpiñán declara la legitimidad del papa Benedicto XIII..
1189 King Richard I “the Lion Hearted” leaves England on the Third Crusade to retake Jerusalem, which has fallen to Muslim general Saladin. He negotiates a treaty allowing Christians access to the holy places.
0627 L'empereur byzantin, le basileus Héraclius, remporte une victoire décisive sur les Perses sassanides de l'empereur Chosroès II, sous les murs de Ninive, en Mésopotamie.
TO THE TOP
< 11 Dec 13 Dec >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 12 December:
Tuéni
2005 Gebran Ghassan Tuéni [photo >], born on 15 September 1957, prominent anti-Syrian Lebanese politician and newspaper-owner, killed by a car bomb. — (051212)

2004 Five Israeli soldiers when Palestinians detonate 1.5 ton of explosives in a tunnel under an Israeli base at the crossing between the Gaza Strip and Egypt. 10 Israeli soldiers are wounded.
2004 An Iraqi boy, 9, by a misaimed rocket-propelled grenade during attack by insurgents on a US patrol in Samarra, Iraq. One child is injured.
2004 Fifteen persons after the explosion of a terrorist improvised bomb in a market in General Santos city, Philippines. 3 of the victims die instantly, the other 12 die later in the day in the hospitals to which they were taken. Some 60 other persons are injured.
2004 Thirty-six miners of the 80 working in the Xujiaba coal mine in the Sinan district of Guizhou province, China, after it suddenly becomes flooded.
2003 Gangodawila Soma, born on 24 April 1948, a popular Sri Lanka Buddhist television and radio preacher thera (= elder) bhikkhu (= monk) who campaigned against conversions of Buddhists by Christians. He dies, after an operation on his heart, in Russia, where he was to receive a doctorate in Buddhist Philosophy from the International University of Fundamental Studies, for his book Buddhastupa (on how to start meditation).
Keiko^ 2003 Keiko Orca, 27 [photo >], of sudden pneumonia, in the Taknes fjord of Norway.
      He was old for an orca in captivity, though wild orcas live an average of 35 years. Keiko had been in good health but started showed signs of lethargy and loss of appetite on 11 December. Veterinarians gave Keiko antibiotics, but it wasn’t apparent how sick he was.
      Keiko — which means “Lucky” in Japanese — was captured in Iceland in 1979 and sold to a marine park. Starting in 1993, the six-ton, 10-meter-long mammal starred in three Free Willy movies, in which sympathetic humans help set a long-captive killer whale free.
      The drive for the real-life reintroduction of Keiko to the open ocean started after he was found ailing in a Mexico City aquarium. The project — to reintegrate Keiko with a pod of wild killer whales — cost more than $20 million and stirred interest and ire worldwide. Keiko was rehabilitated at the Oregon Coast Aquarium, then airlifted to Iceland in 1998. His handlers there prepared him for the wild, teaching him to catch live fish in an operation that cost about $500'000 a month. That amount recently paid for a year of care. Keiko was released from Iceland in July 2002, but he swam 1400 km to Norway, probably in search of human companionship.
      He first turned up near the village of Halsa in late August or early September of 2002. There, he allowed fans to pet and play with him, even crawl on his back, becoming such an attraction that animal protection authorities imposed a ban on approaching him. Keiko lived in Taknes Bay, a clear, calm pocket of coastal water deep enough that it doesn’t freeze in winter. Keepers fed him there, but he was free to roam and did, often at night. He was equipped with a VHF tracking device that let his four handlers pinpoint his location provided he stayed within a range of about 8 km. Keiko seemed to begin to adapt to living in the wild despite so many years in captivity, learning to slap his tail and do jumps called side breaches that are typically done to stun fish. To keep Keiko in shape, his caretakers took him on swims, leading him around the fjords from a small boat at least three times a week.
2002 Sergeant Maor Kalfon and Corporal Keren Yaakobi, male and female soldiers from the Sahlav (“Orchid”) unit of the Israeli Military Police, shot by a sniper at 20:00 as they were guarding a roadblock near the Tomb of the Patriarch in the center of Hebron, West Bank. Female soldiers have been posted in the Sahlav unit since its establishment in 1995. They account for about one-third of the personnel, get the same training as the men soldiers and perform the same duties. Originally, this unit was designed for riot control, mainly of Jews in Hebron, but in the last few years it has also been playing an active role in the conflict with the Palestinians. Yaakobi is the first Israeli woman soldier killed since women were reintroduced to front-line units.
2002 Ahmad Fares Muhammad Al-Astal, 19, Ahmad Muhammad Aish Al-Astal, 32, Assaf Adel Ismail Al-Astal, 25, Muhammad Adel Ismail Al-Astal, 28, and Muhammad Fahmi Haasan Al-Astal, 22, unarmed Palestinians, by an Israeli tank shell shortly after midnight in the Gaza Strip, as they crawled, dragging ladders, toward Israel's fence in an interdiction area near the Karni border crossing. They were workers from Khan Younis desperate to get work in Israel, from which most Palestinians have been barred during the al-Aqsa intifada, whose body count, according to Reuters, thus reaches “at least” 1717 Palestinians and 668 Israelis.In September 2000, 600'000, of the about 3 million Palestinians lived in poverty ($2 per day). By May 2002, 84.6 % of households in Gaza and 57.8% of households in the West Bank lived below the poverty line. 30% of children under five suffer from chronic malnutrition, 21% from acute malnutrition and 45% of children under five years old, and 48% of women of childbearing age suffer from moderate to mild anemia.
2002 Eli Ginzberg, US economist born on 30 April 1911, adviser to US presidents. Author of The Illusion of Economic Stability (1939, recommending reforms of the regulatory and monetary systems); and memoirs My Brother's Keeper (1989, mostly about his family and his Jewish heritage) and The Eye of Illusion (1993, mostly about his professional career).
^ 2001 Yisrael Sternberg, 46, Yair Amar, 13, Yirmiyahu Salam, 48, Esther Avraham, 42, Avraham Nahman Nitzani, 18, David Tzarfati, 32, Hanan Tzarfati, 37, Ya'acov Tzarfati, 64, passengers on Israeli bus, one attacker, and one more person. 
      Gunmen first detonated a roadside bomb, then fired automatic weapons and threw hand-grenades at the at a Dan company bus line 189, as it neared the ultra-Orthodox West Bank enclave settlement Emmanuel. The Al-Aqsa Martyr's Brigade took responsiblity for the attack. IDF reservists and members of the Border Patrol shot and killed one of the terrorists shortly after he sprayed the bus and nearby cars with automatic fire. 30 persons were injured, six of them critically, ten seriously, and the rest lightly.The attack on took place at about 18:00. (16:00 UT) as the bus was on a winding uphill road approaching the settlement. As security forces and rescue workers approached the scene, they came under fire from the gunmen. There were at least two terrorists responsible for the attack. One of the vehicles in front of the bus came under fire first, after which the militants began firing on the bus. The occupants of the vehicle, some of whom were injured, were trapped inside it until resuce workers managed to resuce them. There was a huge explosion in the back of the bus, all the windows of the back of the bus were destroyed, the bus continued slowly about 100 meters and people lied on the floor.
    On 16 July 2002, seven persons would die in an attack on another line #189 bus, near the same place.
     The first four victims listed were from Emmanuel. Esther Avraham, her husband, and five children had moved from Rehovot to Emmanuel two weeks earlier.
     Avraham Nahman Nitzani, of Betar Illit, was studying in the Braslav Yeshiva in Jerusalem and in another yeshiva in Bnei Brak. He was on his way to visit his family in Emmanuel when he was killed. Nitzani's father, Rabbi Oded Nitzani, heads the Sde Tzofim Yeshiva, and has been living in Betar Illit for 10 years. He and his wife, Tzila, have 10 other children.
      Ya'acov Tzarfati and his son Hanan lived in Kfar Saba, his other son, David, lived in Ginot Shomron.
2001 Dov Moshe Guttman, 40, an Emmanuel resident, had been driving behind the above mentioned bus on his way to buy donuts for his nine children when he was hurt in the explosion and later died during the ensuing gun battle. He had been seriously wounded about a year earlier by a thrown rock in an attack that also occurred near Emmanuel, but then had what doctors termed a miraculous recovery. He was still undergoing therapy when he was killed.
2001 Yoel Bienenfeld, 35, was killed in an exchange of fire with the attackers of the above mentioned bus. Border Police Chief Warrant Officer Bienenfeld, of Tel Shahar, had been accompanying a security prisoner in a Border Police vehicle with three of his comrades when they were told by a passerby about the terrorist attack. They immediately drove to the scene, with three of them jumping from their jeep to help the wounded. While tending to the victims, they came under fire, and Bienenfeld was killed in the ensuing exchange. Bienenfeld was recently divorced, and the father of a six-year-old boy. He is also survived by his parents and six siblings.
2001 Two suicide bombers who blow themselves up near two Israeli vehicles on the road between the Gaza Strip settlement of Gannei Tal and Neve Dekalim. The four occupants of the vehicles were lightly wounded..
2001 Fadel Muhammad Abu Ubaida, 25, Yasser Hassan Abu Namous, 21, Saed Abu Sitta, 31, and Ibrahim Al-Assar 18, by missiles from Israeli helicopters, in a cemetery near the Khan Younis refugee camp, Gaza strip, from where the Israelis say that mortar shells have been fired at the Jewish enclave settlement of Neve Dekalim, which it overlooks. Some 15 bystanders are injured. The al-Aqsa intifada body count stands at 815 Palestinians and 232 Israelis.
1998 Lawton Chiles, 68, Florida Governor, while exercising in the governor's mansion's gymnasium.
1996 Ángel Crespo, escritor, traductor y profesor español.
1993 Jozsef Antall, historiador, primer ministro de Hungría.
1989 Carlos Barral, poeta, editor y político español.
1985: 248 US soldiers and 8 crew members die in Arrow Air charter crash
1977 Arthur Erdélyi, mathematician.
^ 1971 David Sarnoff, radio and television pioneer.
      David Sarnoff rose from his roots as a Russian immigrant messenger boy to become the founder of the first US television service. Along the way, he established the NBC radio network and became general manager of RCA. Sarnoff immigrated to New York at age nine and took a job at age seventeen as a telegraph messenger boy. He used his first paycheck to buy a telegraph and taught himself Morse code. Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company later hired Sarnoff as a telegraph operator. In 1912, Sarnoff was the first telegraph operator to pick up the Titanic's distress call: He remained at his post for seventy-two hours, monitoring the call and passing on information. Sarnoff rose rapidly through the ranks of the company: He proposed that Marconi market a “radio music box” and in 1921 became general manager of RCA, where he set up the NBC radio network and established the first US television service in 1939.
1971 Jack Barnhill a Northern Ireland senator is assassinated.
1965 Radó, mathematician.
^ 1939 Day 13 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland. [Talvisodan 13. päivä]
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.
Finland to buy 43 fighter planes from US.
  • Central Isthmus: Soviet troops launch reconnaissance probes at Summa in the central section of the Isthmus.
  • Ladoga Karelia: Group Talvela's Detachment Pajari begins its successful offensive at Tolvajärvi.
  • Ladoga Karelia: troops of IV Army Corps launch an offensive on the Lemetti road.
  • Ilomantsi: Detachment A's advance from Oinaansalmi to take Möhkö 4 km to the east grinds to a halt due to command problems.
  • Suursaari: the Finnish motor torpedo boats Raju and Isku lay the first offensive mine fields in front of Suursaari harbour.
  • The League of Nations calls on the warring parties to cease hostilities and open peace negotiations.
  • Finland wins authorization to buy 43 Brewster fighter aircraft from the USA.
  • ^ 1937: 2 US sailors and one civilian on USS Panay sunk by Japanese
          During the battle for Nanking in the Sino-Japanese War, the US gunboat Panay is attacked and sunk by Japanese warplanes in Chinese waters. The American vessel, neutral in the Chinese-Japanese conflict, was escorting US evacuees and three Standard Oil barges away from Nanking, the war-torn Chinese capital on the Yangtze River. After the Panay is sunk, the Japanese fighters machine-gunned lifeboats and survivors huddling on the shore of the Yangtze. Two US sailors and a civilian passenger are killed and eleven personnel are seriously wounded, setting off a major crisis in US-Japanese relations. Although the Panay's position had been reported to the Japanese as required, the neutral vessels were clearly marked, and the day was sunny and clear, the Japanese maintain that the attack was a tragic mistake, and they agree to pay two million dollars in reparations. Two neutral British vessels were also attacked by the Japanese in the final days of the battle for Nanking.
    ^ 1929 Charles Goodnight, 93, cattle-trail pioneer
          Born in Illinois in 1836, Goodnight came to Texas with his family when he was nine years old, and he thrived in the rugged frontier environment. His skill as a frontiersman and scout won him a position as a regimental guide during the Civil War, and Goodnight became confident that he could blaze a trail across any landscape, no matter how rugged or desolate. By the time the war ended, Goodnight had also built up a herd of cattle on his ranch in Palo Pinto County, Texas, and he decided to combine his interest in ranching with his ability as a trailblazer. At the time, most Texas ranchers drove their herds north to the railheads in the cattle-towns of Kansas for shipment to the East, but Goodnight was convinced that he could make a better profit if he could find a path to drive his cattle to the growing beef markets in New Mexico and Colorado.
          While buying provisions for his proposed drive, Goodnight met Oliver Loving, a cattleman who was already renowned for his frontier and livestock skills. Loving agreed that Goodnight's idea was solid and the two men became partners. In 1866, they blazed a 500-mile route from Fort Belknap, Texas, to Fort Sumner, New Mexico, which became known as the Goodnight-Loving Trail. Later extended north into Colorado, the Goodnight-Loving Trail became one of the most heavily used cattle trails in the Southwest. Though well utilized, it was a risky ride, since it passed through lands still dominated by small bands of hostile Indians. Loving was killed by Indians while planning a third trip on the trail, but Goodnight continued to use the route for three more years and in 1871 cleared a profit of $17,000.
          In 1875, Goodnight blazed another cattle trail, this time from New Mexico to Colorado. But he had grown tired of the long and dangerous trail drives and increasingly focused his efforts on his new Colorado ranch. When the Colorado ranch failed, Goodnight transferred the remnants of his herd to the Palo Duro Canyon in the Texas Panhandle to make a fresh start. After convincing a wealthy Irishman to invest large amounts of capital into his new operation, Goodnight succeeded in building his new JA Ranch into one of the major Texas ranches of the day, eventually running more than 100,000 cattle and returning excellent profits. By the time he died, Goodnight had transformed himself from an intrepid trailblazer and cattle driver into one of the great cattle barons of the American West.
    1919 Stäckel, mathematician.
    1917:: 543 persons in troop train, worst train derailment in history, near Modane, France.
    1914 Watkins Lewis, Black man lynched in Shreveport LA.
    1889 Robert Browning English poet
    1889 Bunyakovsky, mathematician.
    1885 Justo Pastor Lozada, litógrafo colombiano.
    1862 USS Cairo sunk on the Yazoo River, Mississippi
    1860 Hendrik Bakhuyzen (or Backhuyzen) van de Sande, Dutch artist born on 02 January 1795.
    1862 USS Cairo torpedoed in the Yazoo River.
    1793 Michel-Bruno Bellengé (or Bellangé), French artist born in 1726.
    1787 Jean Valade, French artist born in 1709.
    1777 Albrecht von Haller, fisiólogo suizo.
    1777 Rev Benjamin Russen executed at Tyburn, England for rape
    ^ 1756 Théodore de Neuhoff, roi de Corse (uniquement d'après lui)
          Théodore de Neuhoff, aventurier audacieux, de sa propre initiative, sans en avoir été prié, se déclara, un beau jour, roi de Corse. Le plus inattendu de l’affaire est qu’il n’était même pas originaire de l’île. Il appartenait, en effet, à une famille de Westphalie qui, à la suite d’une mésalliance, avait dû se réfugier en France et c’est à Metz que naquit, en 1690, celui qui devait ceindre une couronne. Le baron Neuhoff parvient a son but après bien des aventures en 1736. Son règne fut aussi court que rocambolesque. Il meurt en Angleterre, seul et ruiné, en répétant fièrement : «Je n’ai rien, rien que mon royaume corse».
    1694 Filippo Lauri, Roman painter and draftsman born on 25 August 1623. — more
    1685 Pell, mathematician.
    1603 Alejandro de Aguiar, músico, poeta y cantante de cámara en la corte de Felipe II.
    ^ 1602 Les victimes de l'Escalade de Genève.
         Au terme d'une bataille épique, la ville de Genève s'émancipe de son suzerain féodal, le duc de Savoie, et devient indépendante. Au siècle précédent, Genève s'était transformée en république et ralliée au protestantisme, accueillant avec ferveur le réformateur Calvin. Le duc de Savoie décide d'en finir avec la rébellion de la ville. C'est ainsi que le 12 décembre 1602, son armée de mercenaires s'approche de la ville. Le seigneur d’Albigny veut profiter de la plus longue nuit de l'année pour s'en emparer. Des soldats d'élite avec des échelles enveloppées de chiffons se hissent le long de la muraille. Mais de sa fenêtre, la mère Royaume les voit se faufiler dans sa ruelle. Elle saisit sa marmite et déverse la soupe brûlante sur les assaillants... L'alerte est donnée. Les intrus se ruent vers la poterne pour faire entrer l'armée savoyarde. Mais un garde se jette sur le taquet qui retient la herse et la fait tomber sur les assaillants. La ville est sauvée.
           Les survivants de l'assaut seront pendus le lendemain avec force démonstrations de joie dans la plaine de Plainpalais. Le roi de France Henri IV, en apprenant la nouvelle quelques jours plus tard, enverra ses chaleureuses félicitations aux Genevois. La bataille continue d'être commémorée sous le nom de «Journée de l'Escalade». Les habitants s'habillent en costumes d'époque, avec fifres, tambourins et feu de joie devant la cathédrale. On mange des marmites en chocolat, fracassées sur la table familiale au cri de «Ainsi périssent les ennemis de la République!»
    1600 Luis de Molina, teólogo jesuita.
    1582 Duke of Alva, Spanish general who butchered 18'000 or more in the Netherlands.
    1562 Peter Martyr, a theologian with reform tendencies. He fled Italy to England, but with the rise of Catholicism under Mary Tudor, fled to Switzerland.
     
    < 11 Dec 13 Dec >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 12 December:

    2000 The Sail compact car by Shanghai GM is introduced. It is expected to go on sale in April 2001 for about 120'000 yuan ($14'000).
    1954 Poemas y antipoemas, de Nicanor Parra, se publica.
    1948 Primera historia d'Esther, de Salvador Espriu i Castello, se publica.
    1934 Miguel García de Lamadrid, presidente de México.
    1929 John Osborne England, playwright and film producer (Look Back in Anger, Luther-TONY 1964)
    1928 Helen Frankenthaler New York, abstract expressionist artist (Arden)
    1927 Robert Norton Noyce, co-inventor of the integrated circuit.
    1925 Motel Inn, San Luis Obispo, opens, for which Arthur Heinman coined term “motel”.
    1924 Edward I. Koch New York NY, (Mayor-D-NYC, 1977-89)
    ^ 1917 Boys Town is founded by Father Flanagan
          In Omaha, Nebraska, Father Edward J. Flanagan, a thirty-one-year-old Irish priest, opens the doors to a home for troubled and neglected children, and a half-dozen boys enter to seek a better life. Flanagan, who previously ran the Workingmen's Hotel, a haven for down-and-out workers in Omaha, understood that mistreated or orphaned children are at high risk of turning to delinquency and crime in later years. Within weeks, the first location of what would become known as “Boys Town” rapidly fills up with the arrival of additional children. Many are sent by local courts, others are referred to the home by citizens, and some wander through the home's unlocked doors on their own accord.
          In the spring of 1918, no space is left in the drafty Victorian mansion at 106 North 25th Street, so Father Flanagan, assisted by sympathetic citizens, moves Boys Town to a building ten times the size on the other side of town. The vacant building is the German-American Home, which, with the US declaration of war against Germany in 1917, had become the most despised building in the city. Within months, enrollment at Boys Town has soared to over one hundred boys, and a school is established that later grows into an institution with a grade school, a high school, and a career vocational center. Before the new building is four years old, more than 1,300 neglected boys from seventeen states have passed through Boys Town. In 1921, with the financial assistance of the people of Omaha, Boys Town expands again, this time to a farm ten miles west of Omaha, where it remains today.
    1915 El primer avión totalmente metálico, inventado por el aviador e industrial alemán Hugo Junkers, se presenta en Berlin..
    1911 La ciudad de Nueva Delhi, que será la sede del Gobierno colonial británico en la India, es fundada por el rey George V de Inglaterra.
    1905 Pierre Louis Corentin Jacob “Tal-Coat”, French painter, printmaker, and sculptor, who died on 11 June 1985. — more
    1901 Ramón Serrano Súñer, político español.
    ^ 1900 US Steel formed
          Early in December of 1900, Charles Schwab and fellow financier cum entrepreneur, J. Pierpont Morgan, sat down for dinner and hatched the idea of forming a giant steel conglomeration. Schwab whirled into action, looking for suitable companies to merge into a mighty combine. He quickly hit his target: Andrew Carnegie. After assuaging Carnegie and Morgan’s egos, and brokering a delicate financial agreement, Schwab announced the formation of US Steel on December 12.
    1897 Lillian Smith, Southern writer and civil rights activist.
    ^ 1896 The Katzenjammer Kids, the US's most enduring comic strip
          The Katzenjammer Kids, a comic strip created by Rudolph Dirks, debuts in the American Humorist, the Sunday supplement of the New York Journal. Inspired in part by a series of German children's stories from the 1860s, The Katzenjammer Kids relate the adventures of “Hans and Fritz,” twins and fellow combatants against the authority of “Mama,” their mother, “der Captain,” a shipwrecked sailor who serves as their surrogate father, and “der Inspector,” the dreaded school official. The Katzenjammer Kids remains in continuous publication through the next century, and is now drawn by Hy Eisman.
         La première bande dessinée américaine, The Katzenjammer Kids, de Rudolf Dirks. C’est l’histoire de deux garnements de Brooklyn à qui il arrive toutes sortes d’aventures et de mésaventures. Dirks n’a cessé de dessiner jusqu’à sa mort. Elle sera portée à l’écran, en cinéma d’animation en 1917.
    1874 Leonard Campbell Taylor, British artist who died in 1969.
    1872 Heinrich Johann Vogeler, German artist who died in 1942. — more with links to two images.
    1866 Alfred Werner, who shared the 1913 Nobel Chemistry Prize.
    1863 Edvard Munch, Norwegian painter and printmaker who died on 23 January 1944. MORE ON MUNCH AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    1859 Maurice Donnay French playwright (Lovers)
    1859 Sinesio Delgado, escritor español.
    1856 Henri Moret, French artist who died on 05 May 1913. MORE MORET AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1832 Ludwig Sylow, mathematician.
    1823 Carolina Coronado, poetisa española.
    1821 Gustave Flaubert, French novelist, in Rouen.
          Flaubert, the son of the chief surgeon of the hospital in Rouen, France, began writing stories in his teens. At the age of 16, he completed the manuscript of Mémoires d'un fou, which recounted his devastating passion for Elisa Schlésinger, 11 years his senior and the wife of a music publisher, whom he had met in 1836.   Elisa provided the model for the character Marie Arnoux in the novel L'Education Sentimentale. Before receiving its definitive form this work was to be rewritten in two distinct intermediate versions: Novembre (1842) and L'Éducation sentimentale (1843-45). It was expanded into a vast panorama of France under the July Monarchy, the period that preceded the coup d'état of 1851. In its final form, L'Éducation sentimentale appeared a few months before the outbreak of the Franco-German War of 1870
         In 1839 Flaubert was writing Smarh, the first product of his bold ambition to give French literature its Faust. He resumed the task in 1846-49 (La tentation de Saint-Antoine), in 1856 (La tentation de Saint-Antoine), and in 1870, and finally published the book as La tentation de Saint-Antoine in 1874. The four versions show how the author's ideas changed in the course of time. The version of 1849, influenced by Spinoza's philosophy, is nihilistic in its conclusion. In the second version the writing is less diffuse, but the substance remains the same. The third version shows a respect for religious feeling that was not present in the earlier ones, since in the interval Flaubert had read Herbert Spencer and reconciled the Spencerian notion of the Unknown with his Spinozism. He had come to believe that science and religion, instead of conflicting, are rather the two poles of thought. The published version incorporated a catalog of errors in the field of the Unknown (just as Bouvard et Pécuchet was to contain a list of errors in the field of science).
          In 1840, Flaubert went to Paris to study law but failed his exams. Three years later, he had a nervous breakdown. He retired to a small town outside Rouen to write. In 1846, he began a long, tempestuous affair with poet Louise Colet, 36, which ended bitterly in1855. Meanwhile, he traveled extensively with French writer Maxime du Camp, taking extended walking tours with him and journeying to Greece, Syria, and Egypt from 1849 to 1851 (Flaubert's journal entries of this were published posthumously as Par les champs et par les grèves).
          When Flaubert returned from the journey, he began work on Madame Bovary, which took five years to write. The book was serialized in La Revue de Paris beginning on 1 October 1856 and published in installments until 15 December 1856. The novel, about the romantic illusions of a country doctor's wife and her adulterous liaisons, scandalized French traditionalists. Flaubert was brought to trial for obscenity in January-February 1857. He was acquitted (the same tribunal found the poet Charles Baudelaire guilty on the same charge six months later). Madame Bovary became a popular success. The book's realistic, serious portrayal of humble characters and situations was a milestone of French realism.
         Eugéne Delamare was a country doctor in Normandy who died of grief after being deceived and ruined by his wife, Delphine (née Couturier). The story, in fact that of Madame Bovary, is not the only source of that novel. Another was the manuscript Mémoires de Mme Ludovica, an account of the adventures and misfortunes of Louise Pradier (née d'Arcet), the wife of the sculptor James Pradier, as dictated by herself. Apart from the suicide, it bears a strong resemblance to the story of Emma Bovary. Flaubert had continued to see Louise Pradier when the “bourgeois” were ostracizing her as a fallen woman, and she must have given him her strange document. But when asked him who served as model for his heroine, Flaubert replied, “Madame Bovary is myself.” As early as 1837 he had written Passion et vertu, a short and pointed story with a heroine, Mazza, resembling Emma Bovary. For Madame Bovary he took a commonplace story of adultery and made of it a book of profound humanity. Madame Bovary, with its unrelenting objectivity--the dispassionate recording of every trait or incident that could illuminate the psychology of the characters--marks the beginning of a new age in literature.
          After Madame Bovary, Flaubert immediately began work on Salammbô, a novel about ancient Carthage, based on the author's trip to Tunisia in 1860. In it he set his somber story of Hamilcar's daughter Salammbô, an entirely fictitious character, against the authentic historical background of the revolt of the mercenaries against Carthage in 240-237 BC. He transforms the dry record of Polybius into richly poetic prose.
          A play, Le Château des cœurs, written in 1863, was not printed until 1880. Two plays, Le Sexe faible and Le Candidat (1904) had no success, though the latter was staged for four performances in March 1874.
          Trois contes (published in 1877) contains the three short stories Un cœur simple, a tale about the drab and simple life of a faithful servant; La Légende de Saint Julien l'Hospitalier; and Hérodias. This book, through the diversity of the stories' themes, shows Flaubert's talent in all its aspects and has often been held to be his masterpiece.
          The heroes of Bouvard et Pécuchet are two clerks who receive a legacy and retire to the country together. Not knowing how to use their leisure, they busy themselves with one abortive experiment after another and plunge successively into scientific farming, archaeology, chemistry, and historiography, as well as taking an abandoned child into their care. Everything goes wrong because their futile book learning cannot compensate for their lack of judgment.
          The profound meaning of Bouvard et Pécuchet is not a denial of the value of science, but of “scientism”--i.e., the practice of taking science out of its own domain, of confusing efficient and final causes, and of convincing oneself that one understands fundamentals when one has not even grasped the superficial phenomena.
          Flaubert died suddenly of an apoplectic stroke. He left unfinished the second volume of Bouvard and Pécuchet. Tired of experimenting, they were to go back to the work of transcribing and copying that they had done as clerks: a selection of quotations, a sottisier, Flaubert's notes for which have been published.
         In the last years of his life, Flaubert enjoyed the friendship of George Sand, Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev, and younger novelists--Émile Zola, Alphonse Daudet, and, especially, Guy de Maupassant, who regarded himself as Flaubert's disciple. Flaubert died in 1880.
              Fils d'un chirurgien, Gustave Flaubert connut dès l'enfance la monotonie de la vie en province (à Rouen) et s'en souviendra lorsqu'il écrira Madame Bovary (1857) et Le Dictionnaire des idées reçues (1911). Il tenta de tromper son ennui en s'adonnant très tôt à la littérature. Lecteur assidu, il composa dès le lycée ses premiers textes, la plupart à dominante sombre et mélancolique. Mémoires d'un fou, écrit en 1838 et publié en 1900, à titre posthume, fut sa première tentative autobiographique.
          Il commença sans enthousiasme ni assiduité de classiques études de droit à Paris mais, atteint d'une maladie nerveuse aux environs de l'année 1844, il dut les interrompre prématurément. Cette maladie, dont il devait souffrir jusqu'à la fin de son existence, lui permit de se consacrer exclusivement à la littérature.
          Devenu un rentier précoce, il vécut dès lors retiré à Croisset, petite localité proche de Rouen où sa famille acheta une propriété. Il profita de son désœuvrement pour finir une première version de l'Éducation sentimentale. À partir de cette retraite littéraire, la légende a fait de Flaubert une sorte d'ermite ou de bénédictin de la littérature, connu pour sa grande culture, son incroyable capacité de travail et ses exigences esthétiques rigoureuses.
          Il est vrai qu'il ne quitta plus Croisset et sa table d'écrivain que pour quelques voyages, en Orient d'abord avec son ami Maxime du Camp (1849-1851), puis en Algérie et en Tunisie (1858), mais il fit aussi de longs séjours à Paris où il fréquentait les milieux littéraires. Cet isolement relatif ne l'empêchait d'ailleurs pas d'être un ami fidèle, comme l'atteste la correspondance monumentale, émouvante et spirituelle, qu'il échangea avec ses amis et ses proches, notamment avec Louise Colet — qu'il rencontra en 1846 et qui fut sa maîtresse jusqu'en 1854 —, mais aussi avec George Sand, Théophile Gautier ou Maupassant. Cette correspondance est en outre riche de nombreuses informations biographiques qui permettent d'éclairer les œuvres.
          Dans la carrière de Flaubert, les échecs de librairie n'ont pas manqué, puisque ni L'Education Sentimentale, ni La tentation de Saint-Antoine, ni Le Candidat ne trouvèrent leur public. Flaubert eut cependant un succès de scandale avec Madame Bovary; Salammbô, son récit carthaginois, reçut également un bon accueil de la part du public mais fut systématiquement dénigré par la majorité des critiques, Sainte-Beuve en tête. Gustave Flaubert s'éteignit à Croisset le 8 mai 1880.
    FLAUBERT ONLINE:
  • Trois contes 
  • Un cœur simple
  • Smarh
  • Salammbô
  • Bouvard et Pécuchet
  • L'Education Sentimentale
  • Madame Bovary : moeurs de province
  • Madame Bovary
  • La tentation de Saint-Antoine [version de 1849]
  • La tentation de Saint-Antoine [version de 1856]
  • La tentation de Saint-Antoine [version de 1874]
  • Le Dictionnaire des idées reçues
  • 1805 William Lloyd Garrison abolitionist publisher (The Liberator)
    ^ 1805 Henry Wells, founder of Wells Fargo and American Express
          Born in Thetford, Vermont, Wells cut his teeth working as an agent for Harden’s Express in upstate New York. Clearly taken with the express transport business, Wells set up his own shop, Livingston Wells and Pomeroy’s Express, which ferried “goods, valuables, and specie” between Buffalo and Albany. By 1844, Wells sensed that it was time to push his business west of Buffalo, and he joined forces with William Fargo and Daniel Dunning to start Wells and Company, which would service terrain beyond the upper reaches of New York. While this was all fairly ambitious manuevering, the 1850s saw Wells make an even stronger move to conquer the express market. First, in 1850, ever ambitious, he merged his two concerns into the American Express Company, which initally covered California and the Eastern seaboard (it later stretched to serve Latin America). Then, in 1852, he linked up with Fargo again to form Wells, Fargo and Company, a joint-stock venture which served as a holding company for the Wells Fargo Bank. Along with bankrolling business ventures, Wells used his ever-swelling fortune to aid the plight of chronic stutteres, as well as to establish Wells Seminary (now Wells College) for women.
    1805 William Lloyd Garrison, American abolitionist who published The Liberator.
    ^ 1799 Le Consulat en France
          Bonaparte reçoit les deux commissions constitutionnelles que supervise Sieyès. Il leur fait adopter le projet de Constitution que Daunou a mis au point. C'est au premier des trois consuls prévus par la Constitution que revient l'essentiel des pouvoirs exécutifs. Le texte que Bonaparte fait accepter aux uns et autres a, à ses yeux, une vertu essentiellecar il écrit : “ Il faut qu'une Constitution soit courte et obscure.” Le lendemain commence le Consulat. Cambacérès, conventionnel régicide, et Lebrun, constituant royaliste, sont consuls avec Bonaparte, premier d'entre eux.
    1791 Bank of the US opens.
    1773 Robert Surcouf, corsaire, à Saint-Malo
    1753 Sir William Beechey, British painter who died on 28 January 1839. MORE ON BEECHEY AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1753 Jean-Claude Naigeon, French artist who died on 11 January 1832.
    ^ 1745 John Jay, first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, diplomat who negotiated treaties for the United States.
          John Jay's mother was of Dutch ancestry, a member of the wealthy land-owning Van Cortlands, but his paternal grandfather was a Huguenot refugee from the persecution in France. Jay, therefore, was one of the few founding fathers of this country who were not of English descent. Jay graduated from Kings College -- now Columbia University -- in 1764, and began the practice of law. He put aside his career to become deeply involved as a patriot with the American Revolution. His responsibilities grew with the country. He wrote most of the 1777 Constitution of New York, and was both chief justice for his state and a delegate to the Continental Congress. The Congress elected Jay as its president in 1778, granting to him perhaps the highest power in the Revolutionary government.
          The Continental Congress sent John Jay to Spain in 1778 -- a delicate mission to Madrid -- to be conducted by a man who knew no Spanish and who has been described as a militant Protestant. With him was his wife, the beautiful Sally Livingstone, daughter of the governor of New Jersey. The journey was difficult and the trip to Madrid itself required traveling through Andalusia, LaMancha, and Castile. Romantic sounding names covered the rigors of travel in primitive vehicles with no amenities or comforts. The entire stay in Spain, wrapped in intrigues, was an education for a man steeped in democratic principles and Protestant values. Spain never made the proposed alliance, and only recognized the thirteen colonies after England had done so. But Jay managed to get Spain to advance $150'000 over three years. Later, without telling Spain, Jay borrowed money from the Dutch to pay off the Spanish debt, thereby establishing credit for the US. In April of 1782, Benjamin Franklin wrote from France to advise Jay that his residence in Madrid was no longer necessary and that he was “greatly wanted” in Paris.

     
    Holidays El Salvador : Day of the Indians / Kenya : Independence Day/Jamhuri Day (1963) / Pennsylvania : Ratification Day (1787) / World : National Ding-a-ling Day

    Religious Observances RC-US : Our Lady of Guadalupe, patron of the Americas and of Mexico / santas Juana Francisca de Chantal y Dionisia; santos Alejandro, Arsenio, Constancio, Crescencio, Donato, Eulogio, Florencio, Justino y Marcial./ RC : Jane Frances de Chantal, religious (opt) / Sainte Jeanne-Françoise, fille d'un notable de Dijon, épouse le baron de Chantal. Devenue veuve, elle développe à Annecy, avec François de Sales, la congrégation de la Visitation Sainte-Marie, au service des pauvres et des malades. Elle meurt en 1641, non sans avoir rencontré Vincent de Paul, un autre saint de ce siècle mystique. Son corps repose à Annecy à côté de celui de François de Sales.

    DICTIONNAIRE TICRANIEN: rapporteur: rongeur chargé des transports.
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    Thoughts for the day:
    "Education ... has little to do with school or college." — Lillian Smith, US writer and social critic [12 Dec 1897 – 28 Sep 1966].
    “When you stop learning, stop listening, stop looking and asking questions, always new questions, then it is time to die.” — Lillian Smith
    “A Smith and Wesson beats four aces.”
    “An ace beats four novice flyers.”
    “A TV commercial beats four thousand flyers.“
    “A baseball game beats four races.”
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