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Events, deaths, births, of 10 DEC
[For Dec 10 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1582~1699: Dec 201700s: Dec 211800s: Dec 221900~2099: Dec 23]
^  On a 10 December:
2006 The Nobel Prizes of 2006 are awarded
     Muhammad Yunus [28 Jun 1940~] and his Grameen Bank “for advancing economic and social opportunities for the poor, especially women, through their pioneering microcredit work.” — Nobel LectureInterview
      Orhan Pamuk [07 Jun 1952~ in Istanbul] who, “ in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city, has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures.” — Nobel LectureInterview
      Edmund Phelps [26 Jul 1933~] “for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy.” — Nobel LectureInterview
      Andrew Z. Fire [27 Apr 1959~] and Craig C. Mello [19 Oct 1960~] who “ have discovered a fundamental mechanism for controlling the flow of genetic information”, RNA interference. — Nobel Lectures: Fire, Mello — Interviews: Fire, Mello
      Roger D. Kornberg, [24 Apr 1947~] “for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription.” — Nobel LectureInterview
      John C. Mather, [1946~] and George F. Smoot [20 Feb 1945~] “for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.” — Nobel Lectures: Mather, Smoot — Interviews: Mather, Smoot
2005 The Nobel Prizes of 2005 are awarded
     International Atomic Energy Agency and Mohamed ElBaradei [17 Jun 1942~] — Nobel LectureInterview
      Harold Pinter [10 Oct 1940~]
      Robert J. Aumann [08 Jun 1930~] and Thomas Schelling [14 Apr 1921~] — [Nobel Lectures: Aumann's; Schelling's]
      Robin Warren [11 Jun 1937~] and Barry Marshall. — [Interviews: with Warren; with Marshall]
      Robert Grubbs, Richard Schrock, and Yves Chauvin “for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis.” — [Nobel Lectures: Grubb's, Shrock's, Chauvin's]
      Roy J. Glauber, John L. Hall, and Theodor W. Hänsch “for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique.” — [Nobel Lectures: Glauber's; Hall's; Hänsch's]
2004 The Nobel Prizes of 2004 are awarded
Peace (announced 08 Oct 2004)
     Wangari Maathai, of Kenya [01 Apr 1940~], “for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace.” — Interview
Literature (announced 07 Oct 2004)
     Elfriede Jelinek [20 Oct 1946~], of Austria, "for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power".
Economics (announced 11 Oct 2004)
      Finn E. Kydland [Dec 1943~], of the US; Edward C. Prescott [1940~], of the US; "for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles". [Nobel Lectures: Kydland's; Prescott's]
Medicine (announced 04 Oct 2004)
      Richard Axel [02 Jul 1946~]; Linda B. Buck [02 Jul 1946~]; “for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system” . [Interviews: with Axel; with Buck]
Chemistry (announced 06 Oct 2004)
      Aaron Ciechanover [Oct 1947~], of Israel; Avram Hershko [1937~], of Israel; Irwin Rose [1926~], of the US; "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation" [Nobel Lectures: Ciechanover's, Hershko's, Rose's]
Physics (announced 05 Oct 2004)
      David J. Gross [19 Feb 1941~], of the US; H. David Politzer [1949~], of the US; Frank Wilczek [15 May 1951~], of the US; "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". [Nobel Lectures: Gross's; Politzer's; Wilczek's]
2003 The Nobel Prizes of 2003 are awarded
     Shirin Ebadi, 56, of Iran, for her efforts for democracy and human rights. — Ebadi's Nobel Lecture.
      John Maxwell Coetzee [09 Feb 1940~], of South Africa, "who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider". [Coetzee's Nobel Lecture: “He and his man”]
      Robert F. Engle [Nov 1942~], of the US; and Clive W.J. Granger [04 Sep 1934~], of the UK, "for methods of analyzing economic time series, Engle with time-varying volatility (ARCH), and Granger with common trends (cointegration)". [Nobel Lectures: Engle's and Granger's]
      Paul C. Lauterbur [06 May 1929~], of the US; and Peter Mansfield [09 Oct 1933~], of the UK; “for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging”. [Nobel Lectures: Lauterbur's and Mansfield's]
     Peter Agre, 54, of the US; and Roderick MacKinnon, 47, of the US; "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes (Agre: "water channels"; MacKinnon: "structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels") [Nobel Lectures: Agre's and MacKinnon's]
      Alexei A. Abrikosov, 75, of the US and Russia; Vitaly L. Ginzburg, 87, of Russia; and Anthony J. Leggett, 65, of the UK and US; "for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids". [Nobel Lectures: Abrikosov's; Ginzburg's; Leggett's]
2002 The Nobel Prizes of 2002 are awarded: PeaceLiteratureEconomicsMedicineChemistryPhysics — (051216)
2001 Parliamentary elections in Trinidad and Tobago.
Kofi Annan2001 The Nobel Prizes of 2001 are awarded
     The United Nations, 56, and its Secretary General Kofi Annan, 63 [photo >]. — Presentation SpeechAnnan's Nobel Lecture.
      Sir V.S. Naipaul , 69, "for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories" [Napaul's Nobel Lecture: “Two Worlds” delivered on 07 December 2001] — Presentation Speech
      George A. Akerlof, 61, A. Michael Spence, 58, and Joseph E. Stiglitz, 58, "for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information" — Presentation Speech
      Leland H. Hartwell, 62, R. Timothy (Tim) Hunt, 58, Sir Paul M. Nurse, 52, "for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"Presentation Speech
     William S. Knowles, 84, and Ryoji Noyori , 63, "for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions", and K. Barry Sharpless, 60, "for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions".[Illustrated Presentation] — Presentation Speech
      Wolfgang Ketterle, 44, Carl E. Wieman, 50, and Eric A. Cornell, 40, "for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"Presentation Speech

     In the afternoon on a stage in Stockholm's landmark Konserthuset concert hall, the laureates in literature, physics, chemistry, medicine and economics receive their prizes from Swedish King Carl XVI Gustaf. As stipulated in the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, the Peace Prize, is conferred separately today in Oslo, Norway. Winners receive a diploma, a medal and a cash award of 10 million kronor ($950'000). The Nobel Prizes are awarded every year on 10 December, the anniversary of the 1896 death of Nobel, the inventor of dynamite. The first awards ceremony took place in 1901.
Kim with Nobel medal2000 The Nobel Prizes of 2000 are awarded
     Kim Dae-jung, 76, [photo >] President of South Korea, for his efforts at reconciliation with North Korea. He accepts the award on behalf of his people and pledges to continue his lifelong campaign for democracy, human rights and reconciliation with North Korea.
      Gao Xingjian, 60, novelist and playwright, for his "bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity" in his writings about the "struggle for individuality in mass culture.”. He is the first Chinese writer to win the Nobel Prize in literature. He fled China in 1987 after one of his plays was banned and is now a French citizen. China has denounced the Swedish Academy's choice, calling it a political move and saying other Chinese writers were more deserving. Gao, in turn, has criticized the communist country for its repression of authors that has forced so many into exile. — Presentation Speech
      James J. Heckman and Daniel L. McFadden, both from the US, for research about people's lifestyle habits that has contributed greatly to employment training, public transportation and communication. This is the only Nobel Prize that was not stipulated in Nobel's will, but later established as a memorial to him. — Presentation Speech
      Arvid Carlsson, a Swede, and Paul Greengard and Eric Kandel, both from the US, for pioneering work that could lead to new treatments for schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, addiction and other mental disorders. — Presentation SpeechIllustrated Presentation
     Hideki Shirakawa, of Japan, and Alan J. Heeger and Alan G. MacDiarmid, both from the US, for discovering that plastic can be made electrically conductive — an advance that has led to improvements in film, TV screens and windows. — Presentation SpeechIllustrated Presentation
     Jack Kilby, from the US, half the prize for inventing the fingernail-sized integrated circuit, a forerunner of the microchip.
      Zhores Alferov, Russian, and Herbert Kroemer, German-born US citizen, share the other half for work contributing to satellite and cellular phone technology. — Presentation SpeechIllustrated Presentation

     The laureates receive a cash award which this year amounts to 9 million kronor ($940'000) each.
2000 Ion Iliescu, 70, wins a runoff election for president of Romania, to succeed Emil Constantinescu, against ultranationalist racist Corneliu Vadim Tudor, 51. Iliescu, is a Soviet-educated engineer who was president from 1990 to 1996. He had been close to Ceausescu until the early 1970s, but later led the revolt to topple the Communist dictator.
2000 In Washington, lawyers for Al Gore and George W. Bush filed briefs outlining their cases to be argued the next day before the US Supreme Court.
2000 Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak submitted his resignation, starting the countdown toward a special election.
1999 Se celebra la cumbre europea de Helsinki, en la que se abre camino para una unión europea con 28 países.
1999 Fernando de la Rua tomó posesión como presidente de Argentina.
1998 Se entrega el Premio Nobel de Literatura a José Saramago.
^ 1998 Microsoft announces Mungo Park closure
      Microsoft announced it would shut down its adventure travel Web site Mungo Park. The company said it would shift more resources to Expedia, the company's online travel agency: The move indicated Microsoft's shift from online entertainment to online services. Microsoft's Internet strategy increasingly emphasized pragmatic, useful applications over the splashy, high-profile "Web shows" the company had favored several years earlier. While sites like Mungo Park were losing money, Expedia was generating about $2 million in weekly airline ticket sales and hotel room bookings.
1997 In the latest blow in its battle with Microsoft, Sun announced a product called Activator, designed to make Microsoft's Web browser work smoothly with programs written in "official" Java. Microsoft had developed a version of Java that worked better with its browser than the standard Java released by Sun.
1997 Entrega del Premio Nobel de la paz a Jody Williams; el de Literatura recayó en el dramaturgo italiano Dario Fo.
1997 The Swiss high court rules that $100 million of the money that has been hidden in banks by former dictator Ferdinand Marcos will be returned to the Philippine government.
1996 Roman Catholic Bishop Filipe Ximenes Belo [03 Feb 1948~] and exiled activist Jose Ramos Horta [26 Dec 1949~], opponents of Indonesia's occupation of East Timor, receive the 1996 Nobel Peace Prize
1994 El presidente Sam Daniel Nujoma y su partido, el SWAPO, ganan las elecciones generales de Namibia.
1993 Nelson Rolihalahla Dalibhunga Mandela y Frederick Willem de Klerk reciben el Premio Nobel de la Paz.
1991 Firma del Tratado de Maastricht o Tratado de la Unión Europea por los jefes de Estado o de Gobierno europeos.
1991 Los alemanes Bert Sakmann y Erwin Neher son galardonados con el Premio Nobel de Medicina.
1991 The US Supreme Court rules unconstitutional a New York state law that allowed a criminal's profits for selling his story to be seized and given to his victims.
1991 TV commentator Patrick Buchanan announced a bid to challenge US President Bush for the Republican presidential nomination.
1990 The Communists won a major victory in the first postwar multi-party elections in the Yugoslavian republics of Serbia and Montenegro.
1989 El español Camilo José Cela Trulock recibe el Premio Nobel de Literatura.
1988 El secretario general de la ONU, Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, recibe el Premio Nobel de la Paz.
1987 El alemán Johannes Georg Bednorz y el suizo Karl Alexander Müller reciben el Premio Nobel de física por el descubrimiento de un nuevo tipo de superconductor.
1986 Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel, 58, chairman of "The US President's Commission on the Holocaust," accepts 1986 Nobel Peace Prize
1985 La asociación internacional de Médicos del Mundo para la Prevención de la Guerra Nuclear (IPPNW) recibe el Premio Nobel de la Paz.
1984 South African Bishop Desmond Mpilo Tutu, former Secretary General South African Council of Churches, received his 1984 Nobel Peace Prize.
1984 The US National Science Foundation reported the discovery of the first planet outside our solar system, orbiting a star 21 million light years from Earth.
1983 Raul Alfonsin inaugurated as Argentina's 1st civilian president.
1983 Danuta Walesa, wife of Lech Walesa, leader of the Polish trade union Solidarnosc, accepts his 1983 Nobel Peace Prize. — El polaco Lech Walesa recibe el Premio Nobel de la Paz.
1979 The dollar drops 3.7% in Tokyo, closing at ¥231.25.
1978 In Oslo, Menachem Begin, 65, and Mohamed Anwar al-Sadat (25 Dec 1918 – 1981), accept 1978 Nobel Peace Prize.
1977 Vicente Aleixandre y Merlo recibe el Premio Nobel de Literatura.
1976 Huari Bumedián es elegido presidente de Argelia con el 99% de los votos emitidos.
1975 Yelena Bonner, wife of the Soviet dissident and physicist Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov, 54, accepts his 1975 Nobel Peace Prize. — US economist Milton Friedman [31 Jul 1912 – 16 Nov 2006], receives the Nobel Prize for Economics for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy. —(061117)
^ 1974 Consorting with stripper not good politics
     Representative Wilbur D. Mills, a Democrat from Arkansas, resigns as chairman of the Ways and Means Committee in the aftermath of the first truly public sex scandal in American politics. On 07 October at 02:00, Mills, an influential congressman and married man, was stopped by Washington park police while driving at night with his lights off. The sixty-five-year-old representative was visibly intoxicated, his face was scratched, and his companion, thirty-eight-year-old Annabell Battistella, had bruised eyes. Battistella, who later turned out to be a popular burlesque performer known as "Fanne Foxe," or the "Argentine Firecracker," then proceeded to jump into the Tidal Basin near the Jefferson Memorial and had to be pulled out by the police. Congressmen had been involved in these types of improprieties before, but the details were generally kept quiet, and the politicians were saved from public disgrace. However, on this occasion, the story of Representative Mills's sordid affair with the stripper was heavily publicized. At first Mills denied all of the allegations, but later admitted he had joined a party Battistella was present at after "a few refreshments.” Mills was subsequently reelected to Congress but because of the escalating scandal was later forced to retire his chairmanship and announce that he would not run for reelection again.
1973 El etólogo austríaco Konrad Lorenz, junto con su compatriota Karl von Frisch y el neerlandés Nikolas Tinbergen, recibe el Premio Nobel de medicina.
1971 William H Rehnquist confirmed as Supreme Court justice
1971 Entrega a Willy Brandt del Premio Nobel de la paz.
1970 Se aprueba por la ONU la resolución sobre el Sáhara español; se pide al gobierno español que acelere la descolonización del territorio.
^ 1970 Lee Iacocca president of Ford
      Lee Iacocca becomes president of Ford Motor Company. Iacocca joined Ford as an engineer in the 1940s, but quickly moved into marketing, where he gained influence quickly as a supporter of the Ford Mustang. Iacocca was eventually ousted from Ford on October 15, 1978. He went on to become president of the struggling Chrysler Corporation, which was saddled with an inventory of gas-guzzling road-yachts, just as the fuel shortage began. Iacocca made history by talking the government into offering Chrysler $1.5 billion in loans. The bailout worked, with the help of Iacocca's streamlining measures. Chrysler recorded record profits in 1984.
1969 La comisión de la ONU aprueba un proyecto de resolución en el que se insta a España para que celebre el referéndum en el Sáhara español.
1966 Israeli Shmuel Yosef Agnon receives Nobel Prize for literature
1964 Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., 35, becomes the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. [MLK's Nobel Lecture]
1963 Zanzibar becomes independent within British Commonwealth
1963 President Johnson calls on Congress to pass Civil Rights legislation without delay, saying, "the issue cannot be ignored for another 100 years or even another 100 days".
1961 Juan XXIII lanza una llamada a la unidad de los cristianos en la encíclica Aeterna Dei Sapientia.
1959 El español Severo Ochoa recibe el Premio Nobel de Medicina, ex-aequo con Arthur Kornberg.
1959 Francisco Brines Baño es galardonado con el premio Adonais de poesía por su obra Las brasas.
1958 The first domestic passenger jet flight in the US as a National Airlines Boeing 707 flies 111 passengers from New York to Miami in about two and one-half hours.
1957 La ONU reconoce implícitamente la representatividad del FLN.
1957 Albert Camus recibe el Premio Nobel de Literatura.
1956 Entrega a Juan Ramón Jiménez Mantecón del Premio Nobel de Literatura.
1953 Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill recibe el Premio Nobel de Literatura y el general George Catlett Marshall el de la Paz.
1952 Yitchak Ben-Zvi elected 2nd president of Israel
^ 1950 Bunche awarded Nobel Peace Prize
      For his peace mediation during the first Arab-Israeli war, US diplomat Dr. Ralph Joseph Bunche, 46, receives the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, Norway. He was undersecretary of the U.N. at the time. Bunche is the first African-American to win the prestigious award. Born in Detroit, Michigan, in 1904, he entered the field of US diplomacy while serving in the Office of Strategic Services and the State Department during the 1940s. In 1947, he was appointed to the United Nations and served as an aide on the UN Palestine Commission, a special committee formed to seek an end to the crisis over Israel's movement toward independence. When the chief UN mediator between Israel and its Arab opponents died in the early 1949, Bunche was thrust into a leading role in the process, and proved instrumental in the successful negotiation of a cease-fire between the warring parties. After receiving the Nobel Peace Prize, Bunche continued his important role at the UN, and became noted for his expertise on colonial affairs and race relations.
1950 Bertrand Arthur William earl Russell recibe el Premio Nobel de Literatura.
UN General Assembly adopts Universal Declaration of Human Rights [in English]     [other language versions]
1948 La Déclaration Universelle des Droits de l’Homme.
      La Déclaration universelle des Droits de l'Homme est née au lendemain des horreurs de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale. Son adoption par l'Assemblée Générale des Nations Unies est le symbole d'une volonté internationale de faire triompher les valeurs de liberté, d'égalité, de fraternité et de justice, valeurs défendues par plusieurs constitutions étatiques depuis plusieurs siècles déjà (Constitution française de 1789, Constitution américaine de 1776 notamment), mais pour la première fois énoncées pour être applicables à l'humanité toute entière.
      Cependant, et ce malgré la déclaration, c'est une lutte de tous les instants que mènent depuis lors les institutions internationales, et surtout les organisations non gouvernementales, pour faire respecter les droits de chacun, qu'ils soient civils, culturels, économiques, sociaux, civiques ou encore politiques. Des droits encore trop souvent déniés aux femmes, aux minorités, aux enfants mais aussi et de plus en plus aux chômeurs et aux sans-travail.
      Le texte voté proclame inaliénables, pour la première fois sur le plan international, les droits de l'Homme et les libertés fondamentales. Votés par l'ensemble des pays représentés aux Nations unies, à l'exception de l'URSS, de cinq démocraties populaires, de l'Arabie Saoudite et de la République sud-africaine, qui s'étaient abstenus, les 30 articles de la déclaration affirment les droits civils, politiques et sociaux dont doivent bénéficier tous les êtres humains, sans distinction de race, de sexe, de religion ou de nationalité. La Déclaration universelle des droits de l'Homme constitue une protestation contre les atrocités commises par les nazis durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale et limitait de manière novatrice le pouvoir discrétionnaire des États.
     Elle sera complétée par des conventions régionales — Convention européenne des droits de l'Homme en 1953, Convention américaine en 1969 — et par deux pactes des Nations unies, entrés en vigueur depuis 1976, qui précisent la déclaration de 1948 et instaurent des organes de protection des droits de l'Homme. Le pacte international sur les droits civils et politiques, ratifiés par 98 États, reprend les notions fondamentales : droit à la vie, interdiction de la torture, droit à un procès équitable, libre circulation des citoyens, liberté de pensée, de conscience, d'opinion et de participation à la vie politique. Il instaure un Comité des droits de l'Homme des Nations unies.
      Le pacte relatif aux droits économiques, sociaux et culturels, ratifié par 102 États, complète la déclaration, reflétant des préoccupations de la seconde moitié du XXe siècle. Il affirme le droit au travail et à l'égalité de traitement dans le travail, la liberté syndicale et le droit de grève, le droit à la santé et à la sécurité ; le droit à l'éducation et à la gratuité de l'enseignement primaire. Le Conseil économique et social est chargé de contrôler le respect de ce pacte. En adoptant la déclaration universelle, la communauté internationale édicte des normes auxquelles les États devaient obligatoirement se conformer.
      Mais si les Nations unies, à travers les pactes, et certaines organisations régionales, se sont dotées d'organes de protection, ceux-ci ne sont pas nécessairement contraignants pour les États qui ne respectent pas leurs obligations. Dès 1946 avait été créée la Commission des droits de l'Homme des Nations unies, qui constitua des groupes d'enquêtes concernant notamment la politique d'apartheid en Afrique du Sud, la situation dans les territoires occupés du Moyen-Orient ou au Chili. Les conclusions de ces groupes ont pu servir de base à des résolutions de l'Assemblée générale, voire à des sanctions décidées par le Conseil de sécurité contre l'Afrique du Sud.
      Le Comité des droits de l'Homme, comme le Conseil économique et social exigent des États parties la présentation de rapports périodiques relatifs aux progrès réalisés par chacun d'entre eux, mais ces organes n'ont qu'un pouvoir d'examen et de recommandations. Un État peut, de manière facultative, reconnaître comme autorité compétente le Comité pour l'examen de plaintes émanant de ses citoyens. Les conclusions du Comité ne sont cependant pas des décisions judiciaires qui s'imposeraient à l'État. Seules deux institutions ont, en matière de droits de l'Homme, compétence pour trancher des litiges opposant un citoyen à un État : la Cour internationale de La Haye et la Cour interaméricaine des droits de l'Homme.
Déclaration universelle des droits de l'homme
  • Considérant que la reconnaissance de la dignité inhérente à tous les membres de la famille humaine et de leurs droits égaux et inaliénables constitue le fondement de la liberté, de la justice et de la paix dans le monde,
  • Considérant que la méconnaissance et le mépris des droits de l'homme ont conduit à des actes de barbarie qui révoltent la conscience de l'humanité et que l'avènement d'un monde où les êtres humains seront libres de parler et de croire, libérés de la terreur et de la misère, a été proclamé comme la plus haute aspiration de l'homme,
  • Considérant qu'il est essentiel que les droits de l'homme soient protégés par un régime de droit pour que l'homme ne soit pas contraint, en suprême recours, à la révolte contre la tyrannie et l'oppression,
  • Considérant qu'il est essentiel d'encourager le développement de relations amicales entre nations,
  • Considérant que dans la Charte les peuples des Nations Unies ont proclamé à nouveau leur foi dans les droits fondamentaux de l'homme, dans la dignité et la valeur de la personne humaine, dans l'égalité des droits des hommes et des femmes, et qu'ils se sont déclarés résolus à favoriser le progrès social et à instaurer de meilleures conditions de vie dans une liberté plus grande,
  • Considérant que les Etats Membres se sont engagés à assurer, en coopération avec l'Organisation des Nations Unies, le respect universel et effectif des droits de l'homme et des libertés fondamentales,
  • Considérant qu'une conception commune de ces droits et libertés est de la plus haute importance pour remplir pleinement cet engagement,
  • L'Assemblée générale
  • Proclame la présente Déclaration universelle des droits de l'homme comme l'idéal commun à atteindre par tous les peuples et toutes les nations afin que tous les individus et tous les organes de la société, ayant cette Déclaration constamment à l'esprit, s'efforcent, par l'enseignement et l'éducation, de développer le respect de ces droits et libertés et d'en assurer, par des mesures progressives d'ordre national et international, la reconnaissance et l'application universelles et effectives, tant parmi les populations des Etats Membres eux-mêmes que parmi celles des territoires placés sous leur juridiction.
  • Article premier
    Tous les êtres humains naissent libres et égaux en dignité et en droits. Ils sont doués de raison et de conscience et doivent agir les uns envers les autres dans un esprit de fraternité.
    Article 2
    Chacun peut se prévaloir de tous les droits et de toutes les libertés proclamés dans la présente Déclaration, sans distinction aucune, notamment de race, de couleur, de sexe, de langue, de religion, d'opinion politique ou de toute autre opinion, d'origine nationale ou sociale, de fortune, de naissance ou de toute autre situation.
         De plus, il ne sera fait aucune distinction fondée sur le statut politique, juridique ou international du pays ou du territoire dont une personne est ressortissante, que ce pays ou territoire soit indépendant, sous tutelle, non autonome ou soumis à une limitation quelconque de souveraineté.
    Article 3
    Tout individu a droit à la vie, à la liberté et à la sûreté de sa personne. br
    Article 4
    Nul ne sera tenu en esclavage ni en servitude; l'esclavage et la traite des esclaves sont interdits sous toutes leurs formes.
    Article 5
    Nul ne sera soumis à la torture, ni à des peines ou traitements cruels, inhumains ou dégradants.
    Article 6
    Chacun a le droit à la reconnaissance en tous lieux de sa personnalité juridique.
    Article 7
    Tous sont égaux devant la loi et ont droit sans distinction à une égale protection de la loi. Tous ont droit à une protection égale contre toute discrimination qui violerait la présente Déclaration et contre toute provocation à une telle discrimination.
    Article 8
    Toute personne a droit à un recours effectif devant les juridictions nationales compétentes contre les actes violant les droits fondamentaux qui lui sont reconnus par la constitution ou par la loi.
    Article 9
    Nul ne peut être arbitrairement arrêté, détenu ni exilé.
    Article 10
    Toute personne a droit, en pleine égalité, à ce que sa cause soit entendue équitablement et publiquement par un tribunal indépendant et impartial, qui décidera, soit de ses droits et obligations, soit du bien-fondé de toute accusation en matière pénale dirigée contre elle.
    Article 11
  • Toute personne accusée d'un acte délictueux est présumée innocente jusqu'àce que sa culpabilité ait été légalement établie au cours d'un procès public où toutes les garanties nécessaires à sa défense lui auront été assurées.
  • Nul ne sera condamné pour des actions ou omissions qui, au moment où elles ont été commises, ne constituaient pas un acte délictueux d'après le droit national ou international. De même, il ne sera infligé aucune peine plus forte que celle qui était applicable au moment où l'acte délictueux a été commis.
    Article 12
    Nul ne sera l'objet d'immixtions arbitraires dans sa vie privée, sa famille, son domicile ou sa correspondance, ni d'atteintes à son honneur et à sa réputation. Toute personne a droit à la protection de la loi contre de telles immixtions ou de telles atteintes.
    Article 13
  • Toute personne a le droit de circuler librement et de choisir sa résidence à l'intérieur d'un Etat.
  • Toute personne a le droit de quitter tout pays, y compris le sien, et de revenir dans son pays.
    Article 14
  • Devant la persécution, toute personne a le droit de chercher asile et de bénéficier de l'asile en d'autres pays.
  • Ce droit ne peut être invoqué dans le cas de poursuites réellement fondées sur un crime de droit commun ou sur des agissements contraires aux buts et aux principes des Nations Unies.
    Article 15
  • Tout individu a droit à une nationalité.
  • Nul ne peut être arbitrairement privé de sa nationalité, ni du droit de changer de nationalité.
    Article 16
  • A partir de l'âge nubile, l'homme et la femme, sans aucune restriction quant à la race, la nationalité ou la religion, ont le droit de se marier et de fonder une famille. Ils ont des droits égaux au regard du mariage, durant le mariage et lors de sa dissolution.
  • Le mariage ne peut être conclu qu'avec le libre et plein consentement des futurs époux.
  • La famille est l'élément naturel et fondamental de la société et a droit à la protection de la société et de l'Etat.
    Article 17
  • Toute personne, aussi bien seule qu'en collectivité, a droit à la propriété.
  • Nul ne peut être arbitrairement privé de sa propriété
  • Article 18
    Toute personne a droit à la liberté de pensée, de conscience et de religion; ce droit implique la liberté de changer de religion ou de conviction ainsi que la liberté de manifester sa religion ou sa conviction, seule ou en commun, tant en public qu'en privé, par l'enseignement, les pratiques, le culte et l'accomplissement des rites.
    Article 19
    Tout individu a droit à la liberté d'opinion et d'expression, ce qui implique le droit de ne pas être inquiété pour ses opinions et celui de chercher, de recevoir et de répandre, sans considérations de frontières, les informations et les idées par quelque moyen d'expression que ce soit.
    Article 20
  • Toute personne a droit à la liberté de réunion et d'association pacifiques.
  • Nul ne peut être obligé de faire partie d'une association.
    Article 21
  • Toute personne a le droit de prendre part à la direction des affaires publiques de son pays, soit directement, soit par l'intermédiaire de représentants librement choisis.
  • Toute personne a droit à accéder, dans des conditions d'égalité, aux fonctions publiques de son pays.
  • La volonté du peuple est le fondement de l'autorité des pouvoirs publics; cette volonté doit s'exprimer par des élections honnêtes qui doivent avoir lieu périodiquement, au suffrage universel égal et au vote secret ou suivant une procédure équivalente assurant la liberté du vote.
    Article 22
    Toute personne, en tant que membre de la société, a droit à la sécurité sociale; elle est fondée à obtenir la satisfaction des droits économiques, sociaux et culturels indispensables à sa dignité et au libre développement de sa personnalité, grâce à l'effort national et à la coopération internationale, compte tenu de l'organisation et des ressources de chaque pays.
    Article 23
  • Toute personne a droit au travail, au libre choix de son travail, à des conditions équitables et satisfaisantes de travail et à la protection contre le chômage.
  • Tous ont droit, sans aucune discrimination, à un salaire égal pour un travail égal
  • Quiconque travaille a droit à une rémunération équitable et satisfaisante lui assurant ainsi qu'à sa famille une existence conforme à la dignité humaine et complétée, s'il y a lieu, par tous autres moyens de protection sociale.
  • Toute personne a le droit de fonder avec d'autres des syndicats et de s'affilier à des syndicats pour la défense de ses intérêts.
    Article 24
    Toute personne a droit au repos et aux loisirs et notamment à une limitation raisonnable de la durée du travail et à des congés payés périodiques.
    Article 25
  • Toute personne a droit à un niveau de vie suffisant pour assurer sa santé, son bien-être et ceux de sa famille, notamment pour l'alimentation, l'habillement, le logement, les soins médicaux ainsi que pour les services sociaux nécessaires; elle a droit à la sécurité en cas de chômage, de maladie, d'invalidité, de veuvage, de vieillesse ou dans les autres cas de perte de ses moyens de subsistance par suite de circonstances indépendantes de sa volonté.
  • La maternité et l'enfance ont droit à une aide et à une assistance spéciales. Tous les enfants, qu'ils soient nés dans le mariage ou hors mariage, jouissent de la même protection sociale.
    Article 26
  • Toute personne a droit à l'éducation. L'éducation doit être gratuite, au moins en ce qui concerne l'enseignement élémentaire et fondamental. L'enseignement élémentaire est obligatoire. L'enseignement technique et professionnel doit être généralisé; l'accès aux études supérieures doit être ouvert en pleine égalité à tous en fonction de leur mérite.
  • L'éducation doit viser au plein épanouissement de la personnalité humaine et au renforcement du respect des droits de l'homme et des libertés fondamentales. Elle doit favoriser la compréhension, la tolérance et l'amitié entre toutes les nations et tous les groupes raciaux ou religieux, ainsi que le développement des activités des Nations Unies pour le maintien de la paix.
  • Les parents ont, par priorité, le droit de choisir le genre d'éducation à donner à leurs enfants.
    Article 27
  • Toute personne a le droit de prendre part librement à la vie culturelle de la communauté, de jouir des arts et de participer au progrès scientifique et aux bienfaits qui en résultent
  • Chacun a droit à la protection des intérêts moraux et matériels découlant de toute production scientifique, littéraire ou artistique dont il est l'auteur.
    Article 28
    Toute personne a droit à ce que règne, sur le plan social et sur le plan international, un ordre tel que les droits et libertés énoncés dans la présente Déclaration puissent y trouver plein effet.
    Article 29
  • L'individu a des devoirs envers la communauté dans laquelle seul le libre et plein développement de sa personnalité est possible.
  • Dans l'exercice de ses droits et dans la jouissance de ses libertés, chacun n'est soumis qu'aux limitations établies par la loi exclusivement en vue d'assurer la reconnaissance et le respect des droits et libertés d'autrui et afin de satisfaire aux justes exigences de la morale, de l'ordre public et du bien-être général dans une société démocratique.
  • Ces droits et libertés ne pourront, en aucun cas, s'exercer contrairement aux buts et aux principes des Nations Unies.
    Article 30
    Aucune disposition de la présente Déclaration ne peut être interprétée comme impliquant, pour un Etat, un groupement ou un individu, un droit quelconque de se livrer à une activité ou d'accomplir un acte visant à la destruction des droits et libertés qui y sont énoncés.
  • 1947 Declaración de independencia de Birmania.
    1941 Japanese troops land on northern Luzon in the Philippines, three days after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
    1940 Hitler firma la directiva Atila, plan de invasión del sur de Francia.
    1936 Britain's King Edward VIII abdicated to marry American divorcee Wallis Warfield Simpson. His brother succeeded to the throne as King George VI. . — Abdicación de Eduardo VIII, quien anuncia su intención de casarse con Wallis Simpson.
    1932 Thailand receives its 1st constitution
    1932 Los neurofisiólogos británicos Charles Scott Sherrington y Edgar Douglas Adrian reciben el Premio Nobel de medicina por sus descubrimientos sobre la función de las neuronas.
    1931 Jane Addams, sociologist and International President of the League for Peace and Freedom, becomes the first American woman to be a co-recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize 1931. (jointly with Nicholas Murray Butler, President of Columbia University and promoter of the Briand-Kellogg Pact) [Jane Addams, one of the Heroines of Peace]
    1922 Entrega del Premio Nobel de Literatura al español Jacinto Benavente y Martívez y el de Física al alemán Albert Einstein.
    1920 US President Thomas Woodrow Wilson, 64, founder of the League of Nations, receives the 1919 Nobel Peace Prize
    1919 El escritor francés Marcel Proust gana el Premio Goncourt por su novela A l'ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs.
    1915 The 1'000'000th Model T automobile rolls off the assembly line by Ford Motor Co.
    1913 Former US Secretary of State Elihu Root (born 15 Feb 1845), originator of various treaties of arbritation, is awarded the 1912 Nobel Peace Prize. (which had been postponed one year) [Root's Nobel Lecture]
    1911 Marie Curie recibe el Premio Nobel de Química.
    1911 Calbraith Rogers completes the first crossing of US by airplane (84 days).
    1906 US President Theodore Roosevelt , collaborator in various peace treaties, becomes the first US national to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, for helping mediate an end to the Russo-Japanese War. [TR's Nobel Lecture] — El español Santiago Ramón y Cajal y el italiano Camillo Golgi reciben el Premio Nobel de Medicina, y el italiano Giossue Carducci el de Literatura.
    1904 El español José Echegaray Eizaguirre y el francés Fréderic Mistral reciben el Premio Nobel de Literatura.
    1903 Pierre y Marie Curie y Antoine Henri Becquerel reciben el Premio Nobel de Física por sus estudios sobre la radiactividad.
    ^ 1901 First Nobel Prizes.
          The first Nobel Prizes are awarded in Stockholm, Sweden, in the fields of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace. The ceremony came on the fifth anniversary of the death of Alfred Nobel, the Swedish inventor of dynamite and other high explosives. In his will, Nobel directed that the bulk of his vast fortune be placed in a fund in which the interest would be "annually distributed in the form of prizes to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind." Although Nobel offered no public reason for his creation of the prizes, it is widely believed that he did so out of moral regret over the increasingly lethal uses of his inventions in war.
         The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901 is awarded to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, 56, "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"
         The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901 is awarded to Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, 49, "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"
         The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901 is awarded to Emil Adolf von Behring, 47, "for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths" [Behring's Nobel Lecture] [Emil von Behring: The Founder of Serum Therapy]
         The Nobel Prize in Literature 1901 is awarded to Sully Prudhomme, 62, “in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualitites of both heart and intellect.”
         The Nobel Peace Prize 1901 is awarded to Jean Henri Dunant, 73, and Frédéric Passy, 79, respectively Founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross, and Founder and President of the first French peace society.
          Alfred Bernhard Nobel was born in Stockholm on 21 October 1833, and four years later his family moved to Russia. His father ran a successful St. Petersburg factory that built explosive mines and other military equipment. Educated in Russia, Paris, and the United States, Alfred Nobel proved a brilliant chemist. When his father's business faltered after the end of the Crimean War, Nobel returned to Sweden and set up a laboratory to experiment with explosives. In 1863, he invented a way to control the detonation of nitroglycerin, a highly volatile liquid that had been recently discovered but was previously regarded as too dangerous for use. Two years later, Nobel invented the blasting cap, an improved detonator that inaugurated the modern use of high explosives. Previously, the most dependable explosive was black powder, a form of gunpowder.
          Nitroglycerin remained dangerous, however, and in 1864 Nobel's nitroglycerin factory blew up, killing his younger brother and several other people. Searching for a safer explosive, Nobel discovered in 1867 that the combination of nitroglycerin and a porous substance called kieselguhr produced a highly explosive mixture that was much safer to handle and use. Nobel christened his invention "dynamite," for the Greek word dynamis, meaning "power." Securing patents on dynamite, Nobel acquired a fortune as humanity put his invention to use in construction and warfare.
          In 1875, Nobel created a more powerful form of dynamite, blasting gelatin, and in 1887 introduced ballistite, a smokeless nitroglycerin powder. Around that time, one of Nobel's brothers died in France, and French newspapers printed obituaries in which they mistook him for Alfred. One headline read, "The merchant of death is dead." Alfred Nobel in fact had pacifist tendencies and in his later years apparently developed strong misgivings about the impact of his inventions on the world.
          After he died in San Remo, Italy, on 10 December 1896, the majority of his estate went toward the creation of prizes to be given annually in the fields of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace. The portion of his will establishing the Nobel Peace Prize read, "[one award shall be given] to the person who has done the most or best work for fraternity among nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies, and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses." Exactly five years after his death, the first Nobel awards were presented.
          Today, the Nobel Prizes are regarded as the most prestigious awards in the world in their various fields. Notable winners have included Marie Curie, Theodore Roosevelt, Albert Einstein, George Bernard Shaw, Winston Churchill, Ernest Hemingway, Martin Luther King, Jr., the Dalai Lama, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Nelson Mandela. Multiple leaders and organizations sometimes receive the Nobel Peace Prize, and multiple researchers often share the scientific awards for their joint discoveries. In 1968, a Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science was established by the Swedish national bank, Sveriges Riksbank, and first awarded in 1969.
          The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences decides the prizes in physics, chemistry, and economic science; the Swedish Royal Caroline Medico-Surgical Institute determines the physiology or medicine award; the Swedish Academy chooses literature; and a committee elected by the Norwegian parliament awards the peace prize. The Nobel Prizes are still presented annually on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death.
         In 1901, the amount of each prize was 150'782 Swedish Crowns, and then it fell below that, reaching a low of 114'935 SC in 1923, until recovering to 156'939 SC in 1928. It fell again, to a low of 121'333 SC in 1945. In 1953 the Foundation's investment rules were changed with a resulting appreciation of the prize, which reached one million Swedish Crowns in 1981. In 2001, each Nobel Prize carried a cash prize of 10 million Swedish Crowns ($950'000). The laureates also receive a gold medal and an individually designed artistic diploma.
    LIST OF THE NOBEL LAUREATES 1901-2001 (with links to their biographies and achievements — Economics: 1969-2001)
    ^ 1898 The Spanish-American War ends
          In France, the Treaty of Paris is signed, ending the Spanish-American war and granting the United States its first overseas empire. The Spanish-American War erupted in April of 1898, after the US demanded the withdrawal of Spain from Cuba. Spain's brutal response to Cuban rebellion against Spanish rule, the mysterious explosion of the US battleship Maine in Havana harbor, and the heavy losses to US investment caused by the conflict, are factors that all intensified US feeling against Spain.
          The Spanish responded to the US demand for withdrawal with a declaration of war on 24 April. On week later, the US Navy under Admiral George Dewey won a decisive victory over the Spanish fleet at Manila Bay in the Philippines, and on 11 June, six hundred US marines landed at Guantanamo, Cuba. In Cuba, US forces, featuring the Theodore Roosevelt-led cavalry regiment known as the "Rough Riders," triumphed at the battles of El Caney and San Juan Heights, and on 03 July, the remaining Spanish fleet was destroyed near Santiago de Cuba. On 17 July, Santiago de Cuba and nearly 25'000 Spanish soldiers surrendered, and the war had effectively ended.
          An armistice was signed on 12 August, and representatives were sent to Paris, France, to arrange peace. The Spanish Empire was virtually dissolved by the Treaty of Paris and an American empire established. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded to the United States, and Cuba became a US protectorate. Hawaii, an independent republic run by American expatriates since 1894, was also formally annexed during the Spanish-American War.
         The Spanish-American War had its origins in the rebellion against Spanish rule that began in Cuba in 1895. The repressive measures that Spain took to suppress the guerrilla war, such as herding Cuba's rural population into disease-ridden garrison towns, were graphically portrayed in US newspapers and enflamed public opinion. In January 1898, violence in Havana led US authorities to order the battleship USS Maine to the city's port to protect American citizens. On 15 February, a massive explosion of unknown origin sank the Maine in Havana harbor, killing 260 of the 400 American crewmembers aboard. An official US Naval Court of Inquiry ruled in March, without much evidence, that the ship was blown up by a mine, but it did not directly place the blame on Spain. Much of Congress and a majority of the American public expressed little doubt that Spain was responsible, however, and called for a declaration of war. In April, the US Congress prepared for war, adopting joint congressional resolutions demanding a Spanish withdrawal from Cuba and authorizing President William McKinley to use force. On 23 April, President McKinley asked for 125'000 volunteers to fight against Spain. The next day, Spain issued a declaration of war. The United States declared war on 25 April. On 01 May, the US Asiatic Squadron under Commodore George Dewey destroyed the Spanish Pacific fleet at Manila Bay in the first battle of the Spanish-American War. Dewey's decisive victory cleared the way for the US occupation of Manila in August and the eventual transfer of the Philippines from Spanish to American control. On the other side of the world, a Spanish fleet docked in Cuba's Santiago harbor in May after racing across the Atlantic from Spain. A superior US naval force arrived soon after and blockaded the harbor entrance. In June, the US Army Fifth Corps landed in Cuba with the aim of marching to Santiago and launching a coordinated land and sea assault on the Spanish stronghold. Included among the US ground troops were the Theodore Roosevelt-led "Rough Riders," a collection of western cowboys and eastern blue bloods officially known as the First US Voluntary Cavalry. On 01 July, the Americans won the Battle of San Juan Hill, and the next day they began a siege of Santiago. On 03 July, the Spanish fleet was destroyed off Santiago by US warships under Admiral William Sampson, and on 17 July the Spanish surrendered the city — and thus Cuba — to the Americans. In Puerto Rico, Spanish forces likewise crumbled in the face of superior US forces, and on 12 August an armistice was signed between Spain and the United States, ending the brief and one-sided conflict. On 10 December, the Treaty of Paris officially ended the Spanish-American War. The once-proud Spanish empire was virtually dissolved as the United States took over much of Spain's overseas holdings. Puerto Rico and Guam were ceded to the United States, the Philippines were bought for $20 million, and Cuba became a US protectorate. Philippine insurgents who fought against Spanish rule during the war immediately turned their guns against the new occupiers, and 10 times more US troops died suppressing the Philippines than in defeating Spain.
    ^ 1873 Le maréchal Bazaine condamné à mort
          Le duc d'Aumale préside le tribunal militaire rend en ce jour, à 20 h 55 précisément, son verdict : la mort. Il ne saurait être pardonné au maréchal Bazaine la honte d'avoir capitulé sans conditions à Metz le 20 octobre 1870, livrant ainsi aux Prussiens: 180'000 hommes et 1400 canons. A Bazaine, qui plaidait en déclarant "Que pouvais-je faire ? Les devoirs militaires ne sont stricts que quand il y a un gouvernement légal, mais non pas quand on est en face d'un gouvernement insurrectionnel. Il ne restait plus rien", le duc d'Aumale a rétorqué : " Il restait la France, monsieur le maréchal.”
    ^ 1869 Women's suffrage granted in Wyoming Territory
          Governor John Campbell of the Wyoming Territory signs into the law the first legislation in American history explicitly granting women the right to vote. After Wyoming was formally organized as a US territory in early 1869, Esther Hobart Morris, a native of New York, emigrated to South Pass, Wyoming, with her family. Morris, who had suffered under discriminatory property laws after her first husband died, became an advocate of women's suffrage. Before the first territorial elections were held, she met with local leader William Bright, who was running for a seat in the legislature, and persuaded him to introduce a women's suffrage bill if he prevailed. Bright was elected as a Democrat from South Pass, and true to his promise, he introduced the bill. Many of Wyoming's new legislators treated the measure lightheartedly, joking that if it were approved, perhaps more women would move to the territory. The bill was passed by a two-to-one margin, and on December 10, to the horror of several of these lawmakers, Governor John Campbell signed it into law. Three months later, Esther Hobart Morris is appointed America's first female justice of the peace in South Pass City, and in Laramie, the first women jurors are summoned to duty. In 1889, Wyoming voters approve the first constitution in the world granting full voting rights to women, and in 1890, Wyoming is admitted into the Union as the first suffrage state.
    ^ 1864 “March to the Sea” reaches goal.
          Union General William T. Sherman completes his “March to the Sea” when he arrives in front of Savannah, Georgia. Since mid-November, Sherman's army had been sweeping from Atlanta across the state to the south and east towards Savannah, one of the last Confederate seaports still unoccupied by Union forces. Along the way, Sherman destroyed farms and railroads, burned storehouses, and fed his army off the land. In his own words, Sherman intended to "make Georgia howl," a plan that was approved by President Lincoln and Ulysses S. Grant, general-in-chief of the Union armies.
          The city of Savannah was fortified and defended by 10'000 Confederates under the command of General William Hardee. The Rebels flooded the rice fields around Savannah, so only a few narrow causeways provided access to the city. Sherman's army was running low on supplies and he had not made contact with supply ships off the coast. Sherman's army had been completely cut off from the North, and only the reports of destruction provided any evidence of its whereabouts. Sherman directed General Oliver O. Howard to the coast to locate friendly ships. Howard dispatched Captain William Duncan and two comrades to contact the Union fleet, but nothing was heard of the trio for several days. Duncan located a Union gunboat that carried him to Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. Supply ships were sent to Savannah, and Duncan continued on to Washington to deliver news of the successful “March to the Sea” to Secretary of War Edwin Stanton. For ten day, Hardee held out as Sherman prepared for an attack. Realizing the futility of losing in force entirely, Hardee fled the city on 20 December and slipped northward to fight another day.

    1848 Bonaparte élu président de la République française
          Après le dépouillement des votes quelques jours plus tard, le président de l'Assemblée constituante proclamera à la tribune : "Le citoyen Bonaparte élu président de la République.” Le citoyen Charles-Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte vient d'obtenir 5'434'226 voix, soit près de 75 % des suffrages. Lamartine (élu à l'Assemblée constituante par dix départements et par plus de dix millions de voix), n'en a obtenu que 17'914 ; le général Cavaignac, 1'448'107 ; Raspail, 36'920 ; Ledru-Rollin, 370'119; et le général Changarnier, 4'790.
         Elections are held in France for the presidency (for a 4-year term, under the constitution of 04 Nov 1848). The results became known on 13 December and were formally proclaimed on 20 December 20, the date on which the winner by a landslide, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was sworn in as president.
         In his campaign, Louis-Napoléon, 40, nephew of Napoléon I, was supported by the newly founded Party of Order, which consisted of adherents of the Bourbons, Louis-Philippe, and Catholics. Lacking a suitable candidate, they regarded Louis-Napoléon — not a skilled parliamentarian but a popular figure — as a useful tool. Because of his name and his descent, the Emperor's nephew captivated the voters. Evoking the Napoleonic legend with its memories of national glory, Louis-Napoléon promised to bring back those days in time of peace. He succeeded also in recommending himself to every group of the population by promising to safeguard their particular interests. He promised "order" and "prosperity" to the middle class and the farmers and assistance to the poor. He was the only candidate to obtain votes from among all classes of the population.
          He took office determined to free himself from dependence on the Party of Order. The government sent a military expedition to help the Pope reconquer Rome. At home it deprived active Republicans of their government positions and restricted their liberties, but the President could rely on only about a dozen members of the National Assembly who were Bonapartists. Prudently expanding his power by using every right the constitution granted him, Louis-Napoléon soon obtained key positions in the administration and in the army for his adherents. On 31 October, he succeeded for the first time in appointing a Cabinet consisting of men depending more on him than on the National Assembly. By travelling through the country he gained wide popularity. Moreover, he used the disfranchisement of 3'000'000 electors of the poorer classes by the National Assembly in 1850 and an economic recession in 1851 as a pretext for agitating against the parties and for advertising himself as the "strong man" against the danger of a nonexistent revolution.
          The constitution forbade the reelection of the president after expiration of his four-year term, and when Louis-Napoléon realized that he could not obtain the three-fourths majority necessary for a revision of the constitution he carried out a coup d'état on December 2. Only the Republicans dared to resist him. On December 4 they were defeated in street fighting in Paris, just as they were in other towns and in some regions. Arrests and deportations numbered in the thousands. Louis-Napoléon dissolved the Legislative Assembly and decreed a new constitution, which among other provisions restored universal suffrage. A plebiscite approved the new constitution. Encouraged by his success, he held another plebiscite in November 1852 and was confirmed as emperor after the resolution of the Senate concerning the restitution of the empire.

    1845 US President James Polk gives Congressman John Slidell the go-ahead to settle a border dispute concerning Texas, as well as to purchase New Mexico and California, from Mexico. As per Polk's demand, Slidell offers $5 million for New Mexico and $25 million for California; however, Mexico refuses the offer, prompting the president to marshal a war effort in the name of "reannexing" the territory.
    1817 Mississippi admitted as 20th US state
    1778 New York attorney John Jay is chosen as president of the Continental Congress.
    ^ 1710 Bataille de Villaciosa.
          Le Roi Philippe V d’Espagne est en guerre contre les Autrichiens, les Hollandais et les Anglais. Il est Duc d’Anjou, roi d’Espagne par la volonté de Charles II (dernier Habsbourg) mort sans héritier. Les Autrichiens veulent imposer l’Archiduc Charles d’Autriche. Les Anglais ne veulent pas d’une union Hispano-Française. Philippe V, soutenu par les Français, remporte à Villaciosa une victoire significative contre les troupes ennemies. Mais au soir de cette victoire de Villaciosa, il se retrouve dans son campement de fortune sans lit pour dormir. Son Chef de camp, illustre général aux moeurs particulières, Louis-Joseph, comte de Penthièvre et duc de Vendôme, a une idée de génie : il rassemble les dizaines de drapeaux et d’étendards pris à l’ennemi et les arrange pour faire une couche confortable au roi qui dort alors d’un très bon sommeil avec, non seulement la satisfaction du devoir accompli, mais aussi l’odeur de la poudre et la saveur de la victoire. Pour remercier le duc, Philippe V le nomma, dès le lendemain « Prince de sang » ! Malgré ses moeurs « honteuses », le nouveau prince fut couvert durant toute sa carrière d’honneurs et de titres.
    — Las tropas de Felipe V derrotan en las batallas de Brihuega y Villaviciosa a los aliados durante la Guerra de Sucesión Española.
    1690 Massachusetts Bay becomes first American colonial government to borrow money.
    1672 New York Governor Lovelace announces monthly mail service between NY and Boston.
    1593 Italian archaeologist Antonio Bosio first descended into the subterranean Christian burial chambers, located under the streets of Rome. Bosio was dubbed the "Columbus of the Catacombs,"and his books long remained the standard work on the underground tombs of the early Roman Church.
    1520 German reformer Martin Luther publicly burned Pope Leo X's bull, Exsurge Domine, which had demanded that Luther recant his "protestant" heresies, including that of justification by faith alone rather than through purchased indulgences or other papal favors.— Martin Lutero quema, en Wittenberg, la bula de excomunión Exsurge Domine, decretada contra él por el papa León X.
    ^ 1508 Ligue contre Venise.
          A Cambrai se constitue une ligue qui réunit Louis XII, le pape, Maximilien d'Autriche, Ferdinand d'Aragon et Henri VII d'Angleterre contre la sérénissime république de Venise. Marguerite d'Autriche, gouvernante des Pays-Bas, signe pour son père Maximilien. Un contemporain décrit la ligue par ces mots : "Les grands veneurs lâchés contre le lion de saint Marc.”C'est au printemps suivant que la guerre éclate, et seule la France aura alors a en supporter le poids.
    1348 Pedro IV, rey de Aragón, vence por las armas a la Unión valenciana.
    0435 First day of the 9th baktun. Yash-Kuk-Mo founds his dynasty in Copán, which will last during the full 394 years of the 9th baktun (the last day of which is 16 March 830).
    09 baktun /  0 katun  /  0 tun  /  0 winal  /  0 k'in  //  08  -  ahaw  // 13 -  keh  / g9
    12baktun 0katun 0tun 0winal 0k'in   08 ahaw   13 keh   G9
    < 09 Dec 11 Dec >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 10 December:

    2006 Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte, born on 25 November 1915, general and dictator of Chile, perpetrator of cnimes against humanity. He turned traitor against President Salvador Allende [26 July 1908 – 11 Sep 1973] who, on 23 August 1973, had appointed him Commander-in-Chief of the Army, by leading the 11 September 1973 coup that resulted in the death of Allende and in the dictatorship of Pinochet, who was responsible for thousands of murders before he was forced to to transfer power to democratically elected president.Patricio Aylwin.[26 Nov 1918~] on 11 March 1990. —(061210)
    2005 Eugene Joseph "Gene" McCarthy, US politician, author, and poet, from Minnesota, born on 29 March 1916. He served in the US House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and the US Senate from 1959 to 1971. In the 1968 presidential election, McCarthy unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination for US president, on an anti-Vietnam War platform, against incumbent Lyndon B. Johnson [27 Aug 1908 – 22 Jan 1973], which led to Johnson withdrawing his candidacy on 31 March 1968; the Democrats nominated Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey [27 May 1911 – 13 Jan 1978], who lost the general election against Richard Nixon [09 Jan 1913 – 22 Apr 1994]; McCarthy unsuccessfully sought the Democratic presidential again in 1972 and 1992. He was a token candidate for President in 1976 an an Independent, and in 1988 backed by a few left-wing state parties. — (051211)

    2005 Professor Thompson Okujagu (or Okwujagu), Rivers State Commissioner for Education;
    Roland (or Rowland) Cookey-Gam, who was the architect of the new Rivers State Government House Complex and the husband of the former Secretary to the Rivers State Government;
    Comrade Uche Okoro,
    National President of Petroleum and Natural Gas Senior Staff of Nigeria (PENGASSAN);
    Chris Olakpe,
    former police Public Relations Officer, and his second son C. Olakpe;
    Peter Utuk;
    Loyola kidsclick for Loyosa site Dr. Kufre,
    the University of Abuja Registrar;
    Mr. and Mrs Mba;
    Mr. and Mrs Whyte;
    and 91 others of the 109 aboard
    a Sosoliso Airlines Flight 1145, the DC-9-30 “Rose of Enugu” (registry 5N-BFD, cn 47562/685) [22 Nov 2004 photo below], which left Abuja, Nigeria, at 12:25 (11:25 UT) and which, during a storm, is struck by lightning 50 m from touchdown at Port Harcourt, bursts into flames, and overshoots the runway, at 14:08 (13:08 UT). Those aboard included a crew of 7 and 76 secondary school students [< such as these] (including two brothers, Awayi C. and Awayi U, and two daughters and one son of Andy Ihabor), from the coeducational Loyola Jesuit college in Abuja, going home on vacation. The 7 survivors are severely injured and 4 of them die the next morning, including television evangelist Mrs. Bimbo Odukoya, 45, of the Fountain of Life Church. Two more die later: Priscilla Aligba M.D. and Loyola student Nkechi Okwuchi. The only long-term survivor is Bunmi Amusan (or Amuso), the only one who did not suffer burns, as she was the only person who jumped out of the plane immediately when it split into two, she suffered ankle injuries and shoulder fractures. — (051213)
    -+ ZOOM IN +-
    2004 Emilio Cruz, US painter, writer, and performance artist, born on 15 March 1938. — more with links to images.
    2004 Rana Siyam, 7, Palestinian, by Israeli troops shooting at the Khan Younis refugee camp, Gaza Strip, from where three mortar rounds had apparently been fired at the adjacent Jewish Neve Dekalim enclave settlement, seriously wounding an Israeli man, 18, and boy, 8.
    2004 Ziyad Tareq, off-duty Iraqi National Guardsman, shot dead by men armed with automatic rifles who burst into a billiard hall in Baiji, Iraq.
    2004 Police Captain Bassam Ali Ahmed, of wounds suffered the previous day when shot by insurgents as he manned a checkpoint in Samarra, Iraq.
    2004 Eleven persons by terrorist bomb next to an army truck parked at a market in Quetta, Baluchistan province, Pakistan. Two of the dead are soldiers, who were claimed by Baluchistan autonomists to be the target. 26 persons are wounded.
    2002 Fourteen persons as passenger train derails in Coliseo, Cuba. Some 70 are injured. It is the worst train crash in Cuba since November 1997, when 56 died as a train collided with a bus in Holguin province.
    2001 Shadi Arafi, 13, and Burhan al-Himuni, 3, by Israeli missiles fired at cars stopped at a traffic light in Hebron. In another car was the apparent target, Mohammed Ayoub Sidr, 26, Islamic Jihad activist, who suffered burns over large parts of his body. A pair of Israeli helicopter gunships fired two missiles that damaged at least three cars waiting at a traffic light in a busy part of Hebron. A car carrying Islamic Jihad activist Mohammed Ayoub Sidr, 26, took a direct hit, wounding him and turning the vehicle into a charred, smoking ruin. Another passenger in the car, Burhan Himouni, was dismembered, while his father lost both legs. The two men in the car were related by marriage, and they had been headed to a bakery to buy traditional sweets for the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. In a second car, a taxi stopped behind the first vehicle, shrapnel killed 13-year-old Shadi Arafi. Seven people were injured in the attack.
    2001 Dave Graue, in car accident, cartoonist born in 1926, creator of Alley Oop strip, continued after his death by others.
    Tudjman1999 Franjo Tudjman, 77, [990927 photo] Croatian President since 1990, probably from stomach cancer, at 23:15 (22:15 UT) after a six-week hospitalization.
    —      Tudjman had led Croatia into independence from Yugoslavia and was responsible for war crimes and other human rights violations. From being a Communist, he moved to the fascism and anti-semitism of the Ustachi. His government was still a dictatorship.
         Tudjman was born in Veliko Trgovisce in the Zagorje region of Croatia. In 1941 he joined the Communist-led Partisans, a group of resistance fighters opposed to Axis occupation of Yugoslavia during part of World War II (1939-1945). After the war, Tudjman studied at the Higher Military Academy in Belgrade, Serbia. He held staff positions in the Yugoslav People's Army and in 1960 attained the rank of general. The following year Tudjman left active service to pursue his interest in military and political history. In 1963 he became a professor of history at the University of Zagreb, where he received his doctorate two years later.
          Tudjman was expelled from the ruling Communist Party in 1967 because of his controversial writings, which were condemned as being anti-Marxist and supportive of Croatian nationalism. In 1972 Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito suppressed the Croatian national movement, and Tudjman was among those arrested. Tudjman served nine months of a two-year sentence. He was tried again in 1981 for nationalist activities and given a three-year sentence.
          In 1989 Communist control began to disintegrate in Eastern Europe and Yugoslavia moved toward multiparty elections. The following year Tudjman founded and became president of the Croatian Democratic Union (CDU). The party won a plurality of votes and a solid parliamentary majority in Croatia's first multiparty elections in the spring of 1990, and the new parliament elected Tudjman president. Under his leadership, Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia in June 1991. Serbs in both Croatia and neighboring Serbia objected to Croatia's secession, and war broke out. Croatia lost more than one-fourth of its territory to the Serbs. In January 1992 Croatia won international recognition of its independence. In elections held in August 1992 under Croatia's new constitution, Tudjman was reelected president.
          As the conflict continued between Croats and ethnic Serbs in Croatia, Tudjman also became involved in backing ethnic Croats fighting for territory in the neighboring republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. He came under increasing criticism by his opponents and members of the international community, who accused him of imposing an authoritarian regime by placing restrictions on the mass media and giving his party, the CDU, a dominant position in all major political, economic, social, and cultural institutions. Tudjman and other Croatian leaders argued that such measures were necessary under wartime conditions in order to protect the state.
          In August and September of 1995, lightning offensives by the Croatian army restored Croatian control to all of the territories that had been under Croatian Serb military control since 1991, except for eastern Slavonia and Baranja (which reverted to Croatia in January 1998). In December Tudjman, along with Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic and Bosnian president Alija Izetbegovic, signed a comprehensive peace accord to end the war in Bosnia (Dayton Peace Accord). In June 1997 Tudjman won election to another five-year term as president with more than 61 percent of the vote. Monitors from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) criticized the elections and the campaign leading up to them, citing strong favoritism toward Tudjman within the state-run media and the denial of voting rights to minority Serbs in Croatia. Tudjman had been ill with cancer for quite some time, and in November 1999 he was hospitalized. Late in November, Croatia's Constitutional Court declared him temporarily incapacitated and transferred his powers to the speaker of parliament.
          He is the author of Horrors of War: Historical Reality and Philosophy. This book (foreign editions of which have existed since 1989) purports to analyze the history and politics of ethnic violence in European history from Rome to the present. That material is mostly boiler plate and window dressing. The book's real focus is on what Tudjman describes as the scapegoating, by the former Yugoslav government, of Croatia as an artificial nationality irreversibly tainted by its collaboration with Nazi Germany and the accompanying massacres of Jews and Serbs. Tudjman insists that Croatian anti-fascism was as intense as any in Europea debatable point. He marshals data to show that while the crimes of the wartime Ustasha government cannot be denied, they must be contextualized. But in fact few Balkan hands were clean between 1941 and 1945. Tudjman's conclusion that insistence on remembering past grievances can only sustain a cycle of revenge has merit. His argument, however, would be more convincing had Croatia not sought to balance its perceived accounts with Serbs and Muslims with such unrestrained enthusiasmand had Tudjman not led the pack. Morally and intellectually, this book ranks somewhere between O.J. Simpson's I Want to Tell You and Sammy Gravano's Underboss, and seems to draw inspiration from Alice in Wonderland's queen, who asserted that when she used a fact it meant only what she wanted it to mean.
    1995 Concha Castroviejo, escritora y periodista española.
    1993 Juan Antonio Cabezas, escritor y periodista español.
    1990 Armand Hammer, 92, CEO (Occidental Petroleum)
    1988 Some 100'000 in massive earthquake in cities of Leninakan and Spitak, Armenia.
    1979 Fulton J. Sheen, 84, bishop (Life is Worth Living)
    1979 Julio Barrenechea, escritor y político chileno.
    1971 Gonzalo Escudero Moscoso, poeta y diplomático ecuatoriano.
    ^ 1939 Day 11 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland. [Talvisodan 11. päivä]
    More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.
    Finns repulse outflanking Russians at Tolvajärvi.
  • Prime Minister Ryti visits General Headquarters in Mikkeli.Commander-in-Chief Mannerheim says the late morning situation on the front is critical.General Headquarters issues the order to establish the first guerrilla battalions.
  • Ladoga Karelia: Finnish troops overcome a Russian battalion which had outflanked the defensive position at Tolvajärvi.
  • Soviet troops launch a series of offensives on the River Kollaanjoki. The Finnish artillery carries out counter-preparation fire against enemy artillery and infantry positions at Koukkuniemi. A half-hour artillery bombardment scatters the enemy's offensive formations.
  • 1936 Luigi Pirandello, dramaturgo italiano, Premio Nobel de Literatura de 1934.
    1928 Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Scottish Art Nouveau designer born on 07 June 1868. MORE ON MACKINTOSH AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    1925 Georges Jeaunin, French artist born in 1841.
    1910 Seymour Joseph Guy, British artist born on 16 January 1824. — a bit more with links to images.
    1897 Benito Mercadé y Fábregas, pintor español.
    1896 Alfred Nobel, inventor of dynamite and founder of the Nobel Prize, the prestigious international award given yearly since 1901 for achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and peace, and, since 1968, in economics. (Swedish Nobel Prize ceremony on this date) — La mort de Nobel, inventeur de la dynamite, ouvre une lutte féroce autour de l’exécution de son testament. D’ailleurs les premiers prix Nobel, voulus par le richissime inventeur, ne seront remis que 5 ans plus tard.
    1883 Richard “Dicky” Doyle, London illustrator, printmaker, and painter, born in September 1824. — more with links to images.
    1880 Theodor Leopold Weller, German artist born on 28 May 1802.
    1859 (or 11 Dec) Alexandre Louise Marie Richard, French artist born on 24 or 25 November 1782.
    1823 Jacques François José Schwebach Desfontaines, French artist born on 19 March 1769.
    1763 George van der Mijn, Dutch artist born in 1726, buried on 15 December 1763. — more
    1761 Johann Georg Platzer (or Plazer), Austrian artist born on 27 June 1704. MORE ON PLATZER AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    1630 or 1631 Orazio Riminaldi, Italian artist born in 1586.
    1609 San Juan Roberts, monje benedictino y mártir inglés.
    1475 Paolo “Uccello” di Dono, Italian artist born in 1397. MORE ON UCCELLO AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    1198 Abu al-Walid Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Rushd “Averroes”, influential Islamic religious philosopher born in 1126. He integrated Islamic traditions with ancient Greek thought. At the request of the Almohad caliph Abu Ya'qub Yusuf, he produced a series of summaries and commentaries on most of Aristotle's works (1169–1195) and on Plato's Republic, which exerted considerable influence in both the Islamic world and Europe for centuries. He wrote the Decisive Treatise on the Agreement Between Religious Law and Philosophy (Fasl al-Makal), Examination of the Methods of Proof Concerning the Doctrines of Religion (Kashf al-Manahij), and The Incoherence of the Incoherence (Tahafut al-Tahafut), all in defense of the philosophical study of religion against the theologians (1179–1180).
    < 09 Dec 11 Dec >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 10 December:

    1948 Los burladores, zarzuela basada en el libro póstumo de los hermanos Serafín y Joaquín Álvarez Quintero, se estrena en Madrid, en el teatro Calderón,
    1934 Howard Martin Temin, US biologist, cancer and AIDS researcher, who, on his 41st birthday would receive the Nobel Medicine prize, shared with David Baltimore [07 Mar 1938~] and Renato Dulbecco, “for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell.” After winning the Nobel Prize, Temin counducted for years a campaign for state laws to bar or limit smoking in public places. In 1992 he revealed that, though he was never a cigarette smoker, he was suffering from lung cancer. He died of it on 09 February 1994.
    1931 Gonzalo Anes y Alvarez de Castrillón, economista, profesor y académico español.
    1923 Jorge Semprún Maura, político y escritor español
    1923 Michael Norman Manley, político, economista y periodista jamaicano.
    1913 Morton Gould New York, unbelievably prolific composer (Verdun)
    1910 Seymour Joseph Guy, English US painter and printmaker born on 16 January 1824. — links to images.
    ^ 1908 Olivier Messiaen, à Avignon
          «Transfiguration de Jésus-Christ» ou «Quatuor pour la fin des temps», ces 2 chefs d’œuvres illustrent bien ses recherches rythmiques, le lyrisme intensif de ses compositions, et son inspiration nettement chrétienne et mystique. Olivier Messiaen entra à onze ans au Conservatoire de Paris, où il eut entre autres pour maîtres Paul Dukas en composition. Après avoir obtenu le premier prix dans trois disciplines (orgue, composition et improvisation), il fut nommé en 1931 organiste à l'église de la Trinité à Paris, où bientôt on se presserait pour entendre ses improvisations inédites. Prisonnier pendant la guerre au camp de concentration de Görlitz, il y composa un de ses chefs-d'œuvre, le « Quatuor pour la fin du temps » (1941). Olivier Messiaen commença sa carrière de professeur en 1936 à l'École normale de musique et à la Schola cantorum. À partir de 1942, il dispensa son enseignement au Conservatoire de Paris où l'on créa pour lui, en 1947, une classe d'analyse et d'esthétique musicales qui se transforma assez vite en classe de composition. Son enseignement joua un rôle prépondérant dans l'histoire de la musique européenne d'après-guerre. En effet, il compta parmi ses élèves, de jeunes compositeurs tels que Pierre Boulez, Karlheinz Stockhausen et Yannis Xenakis. Il épousa, en 1961, la pianiste Yvonne Loriod qui devint l'interprète de ses œuvres. Il mourut à Clichy en 1992.
    1907 Rumer Godden England, author (Thursday's Children)
    1906 Harold Adamson (lyricist: Time on My Hands, Daybreak)
    1905 The Gift of the Magi a short story by William Sydney Porter, 43, is first published. It is about about a poor but devoted couple who each sacrifice their most valuable possession to buy a gift for the other.
          O. Henry was the pen name adopted by William Sydney Porter, born on 11 September 1862. Porter began writing in the late 1880s but applied himself to it seriously in 1898, when he was jailed for embezzling from a bank in Austin, Texas. Porter, who came from a poor family in Texas, was married and had a daughter. He fled to Honduras to avoid imprisonment but returned to the US when his wife was diagnosed with a terminal illness. He spent three years in jail and wrote tales of adventure, some set in Honduras, to support his daughter, Margaret.
          After his release, he moved to New York and was hired by New York World to write one story a week. He kept the job from 1903 to 1906. In 1904, his first story collection, Cabbages and Kings, was published. The second collection, The Four Million, was published on 10 April 1906 and included The Gift of the Magi. Additional collections appeared in 1906 and 1907, and two collections a year were published from 1908 until his death, in 1910. He specialized in closely observed tales of everyday people, often ending with an unexpected twist. Despite the enormous popularity of the nearly 300 stories he published, he led a difficult life, struggling with financial problems and alcoholism until his death.
  • Cabbages and Kings
  • The Four Million
  • The Gentle Grafter
  • The Gift of the Magi
  • The Heart of the West
  • Options
  • Roads of Destiny
  • Rolling Stones
  • Sixes and Sevens
  • Strictly Business
  • The Trimmed Lamp
  • The Voice of the City
  • Waifs and Strays: Twelve Stories
  • Whirligigs
  • 1904 Antonin Novotny Czechoslovakia, President of Czechoslovakia (1957-1968)
    1903 William Plomer Transvaal, author (Paper Houses, I Speak of Africa)
    1902 Le barrage d'Assouan est inauguré en Égypte. Il s'agit de l'un des tous premiers ouvrages de ce genre édifiés sur le cours du Nil. construit à hauteur de la première cataracte du Nil, il mesure plus de 1600 mètres de long. Il rend à l'Égypte d'immenses services en matière d'irrigation
    1902 Dulce María Loynaz, escritora cubana.
    1891 Nelly Leonie Sachs, German poet, who, on her 75th birthday, would receive the Nobel Literature Prize “for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength.”, sharing the prize with Samuel Agnon [1888-1970]. She died in 1970.
    1879 Carmen de Burgos Segui, Colombine, periodista y escritora española.
    1870 Pierre Louis France, novelist/poet (Aphrodite, Woman and Puppet).
    1867 Ker-Xavier Roussel, French Nabi painter who died on 06 June 1944 (D-Day). MORE ON ROUSSEL AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    1859 Peder Mark Monsted, Danish painter who died in 1941. — links to images.
    1851 Melvil Dewey, librarian, inventor of the Dewey decimal book classification system.
    1847 Andrea Landini, Italian artist who died in 1912.
    1845 The pneumatic tire. English inventor R.W. Thompson received a British patent for his new carriage wheels, which had inflated tubes of heavy rubber stretched around their rims, the world's first pneumatic tires. They became popular on horse-drawn carriages, and later prevented the first motorcar passengers from being shaken to pieces.
    ^ 1830 Emily Elizabeth Dickinson, Amherst, Massachusetts, lyric poet who died on 15 May 1886 (of Bright's Disease, a kidney disease), “the New England mystic” who experimented with poetic rhythms and rhymes. Almost all her poetry was published posthumously.
          Dickinson was the second of three children. The three remained close throughout their adult lives: her younger sister, Lavinia, stayed in the family home and did not marry, and her older brother, Austin, lived in the house next door after his marriage to a friend of Emily's. Her grandfather, Samuel Fowler Dickinson [09 Oct 1775 – 22 Apr 1838], had been one of the founders of Amherst College, and her father, Edward Dickinson [01 Jan 1803 – 16 Jun 1874], served as treasurer of the college from 1835 to 1872. A lawyer who served one term (Whig, 04 Mar 1853 - 03 Mar 1855) in Congress, Edward Dickinson was an austere and somewhat remote father, but not an unkind one. Emily Norcross Dickinson [03 Jul 1804 – 14 Nov 1882], Emily's mother, too, was not close to her children, the other two of which were Austin [1828-1895] and Lavinia [1833-1899].
          Emily Dickinson was educated at Amherst Academy and Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. Mount Holyoke, which she attended from 1847 to 1848, insisted on religious as well as intellectual growth, and Emily was under considerable pressure to become a professing Christian. She resisted, however, and although many of her poems deal with God, she remained all her life a skeptic. Despite her doubts, she was subject to strong religious feelings, a conflict that lent tension to her writings.
          Dickinson began to write verse about 1850, apparently while under the spell of the poems of Ralph Waldo Emerson [25 May 1803 – 27 Apr 1882] and Emily Brontë and under the tutelage of Benjamin F. Newton, a young man studying law in her father's office. Only a handful of her poems can be dated before 1858, when she began to collect them into small, handsewn booklets. Her letters of the1850s reveal a vivacious, humorous, somewhat shy young woman. In 1855 Dickinson went to Washington DC, with her sister to visit their father, who was serving in Congress. During the trip they stopped off at Philadelphia, where she heard the preaching of the noted clergyman, the Reverend Charles Wadsworth, who was to become her “dearest earthly friend.” He was something of a romantic figure: a man said to have known great sorrow, whose eloquence in the pulpit contrasted with his solitary broodings. He and Dickinson exchanged letters on spiritual matters, his Calvinist orthodoxy perhaps serving as a useful foil for her own speculative reasoning. She may also have found in his stern, rigorous beliefs awelcome corrective to the easy assumption of a benign universe made by Emerson and the other transcendentalists.
          In the 1850s Dickinson began two of her significant correspondences: with Dr. and Mrs. Josiah G. Holland and with Samuel Bowles. The two men were editors of the Springfield Republican, a Massachusetts paper that took an interest in literary matters and even published verse. The correspondence continued over the years, although in the case of the Hollands most of the letters after the 1850s went to Mrs. Holland, an intelligent woman who comprehended Dickinson's subtleties and witticisms. Dickinson tried to interest Bowles in her poetry, and it was a crushing blow to her that he, a man of quick mind but conventional literary tastes, failed to appreciate it.
          By the late 1850s, when she was writing poems at a steadily increasing pace, Dickinson loved a man whom she called “Master” in three drafts of letters. “Master” does not exactly resemble any of her known friends but may have been Bowles or Wadsworth. This love shinesforth in several lines from her poems: “I'm ceded—I've stopped being Theirs,” “'Tis so much joy! 'Tis so much joy,” and “Dare you see a Soul at the White Heat?” to name only a few. Otherpoems reveal the frustration of this love and its gradual sublimation into a love for Christ and a celestial marriage to him.
          The poems of the 1850s are fairly conventional in sentiment and form, but beginning about 1860 they become experimental both in language and prosody, though they owe much to the metres of the English hymn writer Isaac Watts and to Shakespeare and the King James Version of the Bible. Dickinson's prevailing poetic form was the quatrain of three iambic feet, a type described in one of the books by Watts in the family library. She used many other forms as well, and to even the simpler hymnbook measures she gave complexity by constantly altering the metrical beat to fit her thought: now slow, now fast, now hesitant. She broke new ground in her wide use of off-rhymes, varying from the true in a variety of ways that also helped to convey her thought and its tensions. In striving for an epigrammatic conciseness, she stripped her language of superfluous words and saw to it that those that remained were vivid and exact. She tampered freely with syntax and liked to place a familiar word in an extraordinary context, shocking the reader to attention and discovery.
          On 15 April 1862, Dickinson wrote a letter, enclosing four poems, to a literary man, Thomas Wentworth Higginson, asking whether her poems were “alive.” Higginson, although he advised her not to publish, recognized the originality of her poems and remained her “preceptor” for the rest of her life. After 1862 she resisted all efforts by her friends to put her poems before the public. As a result, only seven poems were published during her lifetime, five of them in The Springfield Republican.
          The years of Dickinson's greatest poetic output, about 800 poems, coincide with the Civil War. Although she looked inward and not to the war for the substance of her poetry, the tense atmosphere of the war years may have contributed to the urgency of her writing. The year of greatest stress was 1862, when distance and danger threatened Dickinson's friends: Samuel Bowles, in Europe for his health; Charles Wadsworth, who had moved to a new pastorate at the Calvary Church in San Francisco; and T.W. Higginson, serving as an officer in the Union Army. She also had persistent eye trouble, which led her, in 1864 and 1865, to spend several months in Cambridge, Massachusetts, for treatment. Once back in Amherst she never traveled again and after the late 1860s never left the boundaries of the family's property.
          After the Civil War, Dickinson's poetic tide ebbed, but she sought increasingly to regulate her life by the rules of art. Her letters, some of them equal in artistry to her poems, classicize daily experience in an epigrammatic style. For example, when a friend affronted Dickinson by sending a letter jointly to her and her sister, she replied: “A Mutual plum is not a plum. I was too respectful to take the pulp and do not like a stone.” By 1870 Dickinson dressed only in white and saw few of the callers who came to the homestead; her seclusion was fiercely guarded by her devoted sister. In August 1870 Higginson visited Amherst and described Dickinson as “a little plain woman” with reddish hair, dressed in white, bringing him flowers as her “introduction” and speaking in a “soft frightened breathless childlike voice.”
          Her later years were marked with sorrow at the deaths of many people she loved. The most prostrating of these were the deaths of her father in 1874 and her eight-year-old nephew Gilbert in 1883, which occasioned some of her finest letters. She also mourned the loss of Bowles in 1878, Holland in 1881, Charles Wadsworth and her mother in 1882, Otis P. Lord in 1884, and Helen Hunt Jackson in 1885. Lord, a judge from Salem, Massachusetts, with whom Dickinson fell in love about 1878, had been the closest friend of her father. Dickinson's drafts of letters to Lord reveal a tender, mature love, which Lord returned. Jackson, a poet and popular novelist, discerned the greatness of Dickinson's poetry and tried unsuccessfully to get her to publish it.
          Soon after her death her sister Lavinia determined to have Emily's poems published. In 1890 Poems by Emily Dickinson, edited by T.W. Higginson and Mabel Loomis Todd, appeared. Other volumes of Dickinson poems, edited chiefly by Mabel Loomis Todd, Martha Dickinson Bianchi (Emily's niece), and Millicent Todd Bingham, were published between 1891 and 1957, and in 1955 Thomas H. Johnson edited all the surviving poems and their variant versions.
          The subjects of Dickinson's poems, expressed in intimate, domestic figures of speech, include love, death, and nature. The contrast between her quiet, secluded life in the house in which she was born and died and the depth and intensity of her terse poems has provoked much speculation about her personality and personal relationships. Her 1775 poems and her letters, which survive in almost as great a number, reveal a passionate, witty woman and a scrupulous craftsman who made an art not only of her poetry but also of her correspondence and her life.

    The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson Poems by Emily Dickinson (Third Series, 1914 edition) Poems by Emily Dickinson (Second Series, 1910 edition) Poems by Emily Dickinson (First Series, 1891 Edition) Selected Poems (from multiple series) The Single Hound: Poems of a Lifetime
    Because I could not stop for death
    He kindly stopped for me;
    The carriage help but just ourselves
    And Immortality

    We slowly drove, he knew no haste,
    And I had put away
    My labor, and my leisure too,
    For his civility.

    We passed the school where children played,
    Their lessons scarcely done;
    We passed the fields of gazing grain,
    We pass the setting sun.

    We paused before a house that seemed
    A swelling of the ground;
    The roof was scarcely visible,
    The cornice but a mound.

    Since then 't is centuries; but each
    Feels shorter than the day
    I first surmised the horses' heads
    Were toward eternity.

    — — — — — — — — — — -

    ^ 1824 George MacDonald, Scottish writer, who died on 18 September 1905.
          He was a novelist of Scottish life, poet, and writer of Christian allegories of man's pilgrimage back to God, who is remembered chiefly, however, for his allegorical fairy stories, which have continued to delight children and their elders. He became a Congregational minister, then a free-lance preacher and lecturer. In 1855 he published a poetic tragedy, Within and Without, and after that he made literature his profession. Of his literature for adults, Phantastes: A Faerie Romance for Men and Women (1858) and Lilith (1895) are good examples. Although his best known book for children is At the Back of the North Wind (1871), his best and most enduring works are The Princess and the Goblin (1872) and its sequel, The Princess and Curdie (1873).
    ^ 1822 César Auguste Franck, à Liège.
          Ce compositeur et organiste belge fut marqué par Berlioz et le romantisme. Son style et ses méthodes de composition influencèrent l'évolution de la musique française («Symphonie en ré mineur» ou encore «Béatitudes»). Pianiste précoce, il effectua dès l'âge de onze ans une tournée de récitals. Après avoir étudié à Liège, il entra au Conservatoire de Paris où, de 1837 à 1842, il développa de grands dons d'organiste et de compositeur. Avant d'être nommé professeur au Conservatoire en 1872, il donna des leçons privées. De 1858 à 1890, il fut aussi titulaire de l'orgue de l'église Sainte-Clothilde où tout Paris vint l'entendre. Franck adopta la nationalité française en 1873. Certains de ses élèves au Conservatoire, comme Vincent D'Indy ou Ernest Chausson, devinrent des musiciens importants. César Franck mourut à Paris en 1890, des suites d'un accident de rue.
    ^ 1815 Augusta Ada (Byron) King, Countess of Lovelace, born Augusta Ada Byron, later the Countess of Lovelace, was born on this day in 1815. Lovelace, daughter of the poet Lord Byron, was an important influence on Charles Babbage, who developed one of the first mechanical computers. She is sometimes credited with the invention of computer programming. In June 1833, Lovelace first met Babbage at one of the mathematician's celebrated parties. A well-known figure whose frequent salons drew luminaries like Darwin, Longfellow, and Dickens, Babbage was hard at work on a calculating machine he called the "Difference Engine.” Lovelace, a mathematical prodigy, became fascinated by the machine and quickly befriended Babbage. They kept up a lively correspondence about the machine for many years, and Lovelace helped spread the ideas behind the Difference Engine by publishing scientific papers describing the machine. These papers were published anonymously — women in nineteenth-century England rarely published under their own names. She died at age thirty-six, on 29 November 1852.
    1815 Francesco Bergamini, Italian artist who died on 30 November 1883.
    1813 Zachariah Chandler US, merchant/politician (founder of Republican Party)
    1807 Niels Simonsen, Danish artist who died on 11 December 1885.
    1805 Karl Ferdinand Sohn, German painter who died on 25 November 1867. — more with links to images.
    1805 William Lloyd Garrison abolitionist (Liberator) — filántropo estadounidense que luchó por la abolición de la esclavitud y la pena de muerte, los derechos de la mujer y la paz.
    1787 Thomas H Gallaudet, Philadelphia PA, founder of the first free school for the deaf.
    1748 Michel Joseph Speckaert, Belgian artist who died on 17 September 1838.
    ^ 1649 La praline
          La ville de Bordeaux, habituée à l’autonomie régionale durant de longs siècles de présence anglaise discrète, se révolta à plusieurs reprises contre le centralisme français, et ce entre 1548 et 1675. En 1649, en lutte contre le pouvoir centralisateur de Louis XIV, la ville accepte d’envoyer des plénipotentiaires à Blaye, en vue de discuter, avec les représentants du Roi-Soleil, des accords de paix. L’envoyé du Roi, le maréchal de Plessis-Praslin, avait demandé à son cuisinier de se surpasser en vue d’acquérir la faveur des adversaires. Celui-ci servit pour la première fois une friandise qu’il venait d’inventer et que l’on surnomma en l’honneur du Maréchal, la «praline». Il s’agit d’amandes rissolées dans du sucre. Il en avait eu l’idée en surprenant un marmiton en train de grignoter une amande qui venait de tomber dans du caramel.
    1613 Isaack van Oosten, Flemish artist who died in 1661.
    1610 (baptism) Adriaen van Ostade, Dutch painter and engraver who died in 1685. MORE ON VAN OSTADE AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    Holidays Khmer Republic : Rights of Man Day / Mississippi : Admission Day (1817) / Stockholm, Sweden : Nobel Prize presentation Day (1896) / Thailand : Constitution Day (1932) / UN, Equatorial Guinea : Human Rights Day (1948) / World : World Freedom Day / Wyoming : Wyoming Day (women's suffrage) (1869)

    Religious Observances / RC : St Melchiades, pope (311-14) and martyr / Nuestra Señora de Loreto; santas Eulalia de Mérida y Julia; santos Abundio, Diosdado, Gregorio, Hermógenes y Melquíades.
    DICTIONNAIRE TICRANIEN: raconté: rongeur recensé
    click click

    Thoughts for the day:
    “If atfirst you dont suxeed. your doing adout av... bah! never mind... stupid computer!”
    “If at first you don't succeed, you're doing about average.”
    “If at first you don't succeed, you're going to have a rage.”
    “If at first you don't succeed, skydiving is not the sport for you.”
    “If at first you don't succeed, cry, try, cry again.”
    “If fat, first: you don't suck seeds, second: you exercise.”
    “If at first you don't succeed, you've got a good chance of getting out of doing that chore.”
    “If at first you don't succeed, try again, but not the same way.”
    “If at first you don't succeed, don't let anyone know you tried.”
    “If at first you don't succeed, find someone else to blame.”
    “If at first you don't succeed, demand a recount.”
    “If at first you don't succeed, use the 'sour grapes' ploy.”
    “If at first you don't succeed, ask someone who did.”
    updated Monday 10-Dec-2007 2:28 UT
    principal updates:
    v.6.b0 Monday 11-Dec-2006 0:28 UT
    v.5.b4 Friday 16-Dec-2005 19:34 UT
    Tuesday 21-Dec-2004 0:32 UT
    Wednesday 10-Dec-2003 15:10 UT

    safe site site safe for children safe site